Institutional Reforms and Mechanisms for Public Financial Accountability in Nigeria: Finding a Recourse to Horizontal Arrangement

Olubunmi D. APELOKO, Celestine O. JOMBO – March 2019 Page No.: 01-10

This paper examines the various institutional reforms and mechanisms put in place to engender public financial accountability in Southwestern Nigeria. The paper utilised both primary and secondary sources of data collection to interrogate the roles of some public institutions and mechanisms for engendering probity in the management of public funds. The primary data were sourced through questionnaire administration and conduct of in-depth interviews (IDIs). A total of 512 copies of questionnaire, constituting 40% of the whole population, were administered to different officers in the selected MDAs. Also, a total number of 49 respondents were selected for interview. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data collected. The results showed that various institutional reforms as well as other mechanisms put in place to engender public financial accountability comprises the inclusion of grass-root people into budget preparation (47.3%), strengthening of legislative oversight (57.6%), adoption of ICT and modernization of both internal and external auditing (62.4%). The paper concludes that there were reforms in financial accountability institutions and mechanisms in all the sampled states through which democratic consolidation was ensured at different degrees. .

Page(s): 01-10                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 March 2019

 Olubunmi D. APELOKO
PhD, Department of Public Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria.

 Celestine O. JOMBO
Department of Political Science & Public Administration, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Nigeria, and Doctoral Candidate in Political Science at the University of Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa

[1]. Adegite, E. O. (2010). “Accounting, Accountability and National Development”. Nigerian Accountants’ Publications, 43(1), pp 56-64.
[2]. Adegoroye, J. (2006). “Public Service Reform for Sustainable Development: The Nigerian Experience”. Keynote Address at the Commonwealth Advanced Seminar, held in Wellington, New Zealand between 20th February and 3rd March.
[3]. Agaptus, N. (2011). Bureaucratic and Systemic Impediments to Public Accountability in Nigeria.International Journal of Politics and Good Governance.Volume 2, No. 2(Quarter IV).
[4]. Aiyede, E. R. (2011). “Institutional Reform Policies and Processes and Good Governance in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic”. A paper presented at NCCD, held in University of Ibadan between February 16 and 17.
[5]. Akinsuyi, Y. (2013). “Police, EFCC, Immigration Service, ICPC Top Corruption Ranking”.Retrieved from on 22/11/2013.
[6]. Ayeni, J. (2008). Reforming Public Service in Nigeria: a Collective Responsibility. Wuse-Abuja: SSC Publisher.
[7]. Bundi, P. (2018). Varieties of Accountability: How Attributes of Policy Fields shape Parliamentary Oversight. Governance, 31, pp. 163-183. 11/gove
[8]. Bureau of Public Procurement (BPP) (2007).Retrieved from on 07/01/2014.
[9]. Davies, A. E. (2004). The Role of the Legislature in Fostering an Efficient System of Public Finance. In: I.O. Taiwo and A.A. Fejengbesi, eds. Fiscal Federalism and Democratic Governance in Nigeria. Ibadan: NCEMA/ACBF, pp.198-212.
[10]. Dowdle, M. W. (2017). Public Accountability: Conceptual, Historical and Epistemic Mappings. In Peter Drahos (ed.) Regulatory Theory Foundations and Applications, Action ACT 2601, Australia: The Australia National University Press, pp. 197-215.
[11]. Federal Republic of Nigeria.(1999).Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Lagos: Federal Government Press.
[12]. FRA (2007).“The Fiscal Responsibility Act”. Retrieved from on 13/10/2013.
[13]. Gboyega, A. (1996). “Corruption and Democratisation in Nigeria, 1983-1993: An Overview. In Gboyega, A (ed) Corruption and Democratisation in Nigeria. Ibadan: AgboAreo publisher.
[14]. Inokuba,P.K and Ibegu, O. ( 2011). Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) and Political Corruption; Implication for the Consolidation of Democracy in Nigeria. India: KamlaRaj, Anthropologist, 13(4), pp. 283-291.
[15]. Mulgan, R. (2017). Accountability in Multi-Level Governance: The Example of Australian Federalism. In Katherine A. Danielli and Adrian Kay (eds.) Multi-Level Governance Conceptual Challenges and Case Studies from Australia Action ACT 2601, Australia: The Australia National University Press, pp. 81-100.
[16]. Nwankwo, O. B. C. (2010). The Dialectics of Reform: The Theory and Methodological Praxis of Reform. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 4(5), pp.181-187.
[17]. Obi, C. I. (1999).“Political and Social Change” In Anifowoshe, R. and Enemuo, F. (eds.) Elements of Politics: Lagos: Sam Iroanusi Publisher pp. 126-140.
[18]. Obianyo, N. N. (2003). “Public Accountability In Nigeria Under Obasanjo’s Regime: An Appraisal”. In E. O Ezeani (ed.) Public Accountability in Nigeria: Perspectives and Issues. Enugu: Academic Publishing Company.
[19]. Odunsi, W. (2017). How Obasanjo caused War between Executive, Legislature – Na’ Abba. Daily Post, April 15. Retrieved on February 18, 2018, from
[20]. Olsen, J. P. (2015). Democratic Order, Autonomy, and Accountability. Governance, 28(4), pp. 425-440.
[21]. Point blanknews.Com (2013). “Merged EFCC, ICPC to become Corrupt Practice and Financial Crime Commission CPFCC”.Downloaded from on 25/11/2013.
[22]. Raimi, L.;Suara, I. B and Fadipe, A.O. (2013). Role of Economic and Financial Crimes, Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) at ensuring Accountability and Corporate Governance in Nigeria. Journal of Business Administration and Education,3(2), pp.105-122.
[23]. Utomi, P.; Duncan, A. and Williams, G. (2007).Nigeria and the Political Economy of Reform: Strengthening the Incentives for Economic Growth.The Policy Practice Limited, 33 Southdown Avenue, Brighton BN1 6EH, UK .

Olubunmi D. APELOKO, Celestine O. JOMBO “Institutional Reforms and Mechanisms for Public Financial Accountability in Nigeria: Finding a Recourse to Horizontal Arrangement” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.01-10 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


A Study on Self Esteem among HIV/AIDS Affected People

Dr. Winnie Joyce. A – March 2019 Page No.: 11-13

The government of India estimated in the year 2009, there were about 2.40 million people are living with HIV. In this estimation, about 83 % of the people are in the age group of 15-49 years. This is partly because a large part of the world population is young. One fifth of the world population is between 10 and 19 years of age. Since the HIV/AIDS syndrome is essential sexually transmitted disease.
Self-esteem is an essential ingredient in creating and maintaining hope, health and a quality life with HIV/AIDS. Many people living with HIV/AIDS have problems with self-esteem. An attempt has been made in this research to analyse the present status of persons living with HIV / AIDS problem and possible strategies to sort out the issues, social relationship, support measures, self-esteem and quality of life. The researcher made an attempt to describe the characteristics of the HIV/ AIDS person and tested few variable. This study was descriptive in nature. The findings were majority of the respondents 45% belonged to age group of 31-40 years, majority of the respondents 63% of males affected and majority of the respondents were 62% in rural area. Medical social workers assess the psychosocial functioning of patients and families and intervene as necessary. Interventions may include connecting patients and families to necessary resources and supports in the community; providing psychotherapy, supportive counseling, or grief counseling; or helping a patient to expand and strengthen their network of social supports.

Page(s): 11-13                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 March 2019

 Dr. Winnie Joyce. A
Assistant Professor, Kristu Jayanti College, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

[1]. Bajpai, T.K (1998) “Social Work Perspective on Health” Patwat publication, New Delhi.
[2]. Gracious Thomas (1997) “AIDS social work and law” Rawat publications
[3]. Fitzherbert, Kay. (Winter 1997). Promoting Inclusion: The Work Of The Pyramid Trust Emotional And Behavioural Difficulties, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 30-5.
[4]. Moni Nag (1996) “sexual behaviour and AIDS in India” Vikas publishing house Pvt.Ltd
[5]. Robinson, Lena. (2000). Racial Identity Attitudes and Self-Esteem of Black Adolescents in Residential Care: An Exploratory Study. British Journal of Social Work. 30/1, 3-24.

Dr. Winnie Joyce. A ” A Study on Self Esteem among HIV/AIDS Affected People ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.11-13 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


The Influence of Transformational Leadership towards Employee Feedback Seeking Behaviour
Yang Ching Hian, Ying-Leh Ling – March 2019 – Page No.: 14-22

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between transformational leadership and employee feedback seeking behaviour in construction industry. The study also identified the influence of transformational leadership towards employee feedback seeking in construction industry. The study targeted on 50 employees who were involved in the Sarawak Highway project Kuching, and stratified random sampling technique was used for the sampling. Data was collected using Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Avolio & Bass, 2004) and Cavanaugh Feedback Seeking Questionnaires (Cavanaugh, 2016). Pilot study was conducted, in which Alpha Cronbach coefficient of 0.949 was obtained that deemed the survey approach reliable. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression analysis techniques were used to analyse the data. The results showed that there were strong positive and significant correlation between both inspirational motivation (r = .405, p <.01) and intellectual stimulation (r = .306, p <.05) with employee feedback seeking behaviour. The study further depicted that employee feedback seeking behaviour was significant influenced by intellectual stimulation and inspirational motivation. The study has shown that there is a positive relationship between transformational leadership and employee feedback seeking behaviour. The study further indicated that transformational leadership significantly influences employee feedback seeking behaviour in construction industry, thus encouraging frequency of feedback seeking among employees.

Page(s): 14-22                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 March 2019

 Yang Ching Hian
Wawasan Open University, Malaysia

 Ying-Leh Ling
Politeknik Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia

[1]. Avolio, B. J.& Bass, B. M. (2004). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Manual and Sampler Set (3rd ed.). Redwood City, CA: Mindgarden. Retrieved from
[2]. Abu Hassan Abu Bakar, Amin AkhavanTabassi, MohamadNizamYusof, &NordinAbdRazak. (2015).Knowledge management and growth performance in construction industry.American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information Journal, 9(4), 189–192. doi: 10.1108/MD-01-2015-0006
[3]. Abdul GhaniKanesan& Ling, Y. L. (2015). Feedback environment and job motivation among the middle leaders of educational organizations.Journal of Education and Training, 3(1), 90–105. doi: 10.5296/jet.v3i1.8415
[4]. AniSaifuzaAbdShukor., Faridah Muhammad Halil., Mohammad Fadhil Mohammad., &RohanaMahbub. (2007). Challenges in the integration of supply chain in IBS project environment in Malaysia. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153 (2014), 44–54.
[5]. Anseel, F.&Lievens, F. (2006). A within-person perspective on feedback seeking about task performance. PsychologicaBelgica, 46(4), 269–286. doi: 10.5334/pb-46-4-283
[6]. Bakar, A. H. A., Ramli, M., Roufechaei, K. M., &Tabassi, A. A. (2012). Sustainable housing development and leadership: a review. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6(12), 385–395.
[7]. Brutus, C.& Cabrera, E. (2004). The influence of personal values on feedback-seeking behaviours. Management Research, 2(3), 235–250. doi: 10.1108/15365430480000512
[8]. Buda, A.& Ling, Y. L. (2017). The relationship between transformational leadership and organisational commitment in Polytechnic Kuching Sarawak. International Journal of Educational Management. doi: 10.22452/mojem.vol5no4.3.
[9]. Cavanaugh, C. M. (2016). Beyond cheerleaders and checklists: The effects of the feedback environment on employee self-development. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Graduate Faculty of the University of Akron.
[10]. Chambel, M. J., Lorente, L., Martinez, I. M., &Salanova, M. (2011). Linking transformational leadership to nurses’ extra-role performance: The mediating role of self-efficacy and work engagement. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(10), 2256-2266. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05652.x
[11]. Chen, Z. X., Lin, X. S., & Qian, J. (2012). Authentic leadership and feedback-seeking behaviour: An examination of the cultural context of mediating processes in China. Journal of Management and Organization, 18, 286–299. doi:10.5172/jmo.2012.18.3.286
[12]. Eichhorn, K. C. (2009). A model of feedback-seeking based on the leader–member exchange and communication antecedents. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 4(2), 184–201.
[13]. Fu, Y., Qian, J., &Zhuo, R. H. (2015). The influencing mechanisms of authentic leadership on feedback-seeking behaviour: a cognitive/ emotive model. Springer Science. doi: 10.1007/s12144-015-9316-z
[14]. HadijahIberahim., MegatTajuddin.,MegatZuhairy.& NorainiIsmail. (2015). Leadership styles and organizational performance in construction industry in Malaysia. Paper presented at Malaysia-Japan Joint International Conference 2015, Ube, Japan.
[15]. Halim, F. A., Libunao, W. H.,&Muda, W. H. N. W. (2017). Exploring leadership capability team leaders for construction industry in Malaysia: training and experience. International Research and Innovation Summit. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/226/1/012201.
[16]. Huang, C., Ou, R., Qian, J., Wang, B., Xia, Y., & Xu, B. (2016). Transformational leadership and employees’ feedback seeking: the mediating role of trust in leader. Social Behaviour and Personality, 44(7), 1201–1207. doi:10.2224/sbp.2016.44.7.1201.
[17]. Ismail Abdul Rahman&Nur Ain NgahNasaruddin (2016). Leadership quality for Malaysia construction leader to steer asuccess construction project. Paper presented at the MATEC Web of Conferences, Melaka, Malaysia.
[18]. Jin, Z., Qian, J., Wang, B., Wang, J., Wang, Y., & Zhang, X. (2017). Leaders’ behaviors matter: the role of delegation in promoting employees’ feedback-seeking behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1–10. doi: 10.3389/fpsyq.2017.00920
[19]. Jomon, M. G.&Srikanth, P. B. (2013). Role ambiguity and role performance effectiveness: moderating the effect of feedback seeking behaviour. Asian Academy of Management Journal,18(2), 105–127.
[20]. Lam, W., Huang, X., & Snape, E. (2007). Feedback-seeking behavior and leader-member exchange: Do supervisor-attributed motives matter? Academy of Management Journal, 50, 348–363. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2007.24634440
[21]. Levy, P. E. & Williams, J. R. 2004. The social context of performance appraisal: A review and framework for the future. Journal of Management,30, 881-905. doi:10.1016/
[22]. Ling, Y. L. (2017). Feedback seeking behavior as a mediator linking classroom learning environment and mathematics anxiety. The 2nd International Conference on Teacher Education.Retrieved from
[23]. Linge, T. K., Ogola, M. G. O., &Sikalieh, D. (2017). The influence of intellectual stimulation leadership behaviour on employee performance in smes in Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences, 8(3), 89–100.
[24]. Malaysian construction output. (2018). Trading Economics. Retrieved from
[25]. Ndirangu, J. W. (2018). Influence of transformational leadership on employee performance: a case study of local non-governmental organizations in Kenya. (Unpublished master’s thesis). United States International University, Nairobi, Kenya.
[26]. Qian, Y.& Xu, Y. (2016). The impact of transformational leadership on employe feedback seeking behaviour. Journal of Research in Business, Economics and Management, 5(4), 635–642.
[27]. Ran. S. (2017). Are transformational leaders sustainable? The role of organizational culture (Doctoral dissertation).
[28]. Wan HanimNadrahMuda. (2017). Leadership capability of team leaders in construction industry. (Unpublished master’s thesis). UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor.
[29]. Whitaker, B. G. (2007). Explicating the links between the feedback environment, feedback seeking, and job performance. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Akron.

Yang Ching Hian, Ying-Leh Ling “The Influence of Transformational Leadership towards Employee Feedback Seeking Behaviour” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.14-22 March 2019 URL:

Download PDF


The Effects of Integration of Entrepreneurship Education for Self-Reliance among Graduates of N.C.E in North Central Zone of Nigeria

Abubakar, M.B, Ajinuhi, S.A, Hassan, Y. Imufutau, S.A. – March 2019 Page No.: 23-30

The study examines the effects of integration of entrepreneurship education for self-reliance among graduates of NCE with emphasis on vocational education students of Federal and State colleges of education in North Central zone of Nigeria. Six (6) colleges of education in the North Central of Nigeria were used in the study with three (3) from federal and two (2) from state colleges of education. The instrument used was questionnaire and the population sample comprises of 196 respondents. Four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated which guided the study. The research questions and the hypotheses were answered using the IBM SPSS statistical package version22.The major findings include: there is no significant relationship between level of awareness and students interest in vocational entrepreneurship, but a significant relationship exists between teachers’ competency and the provision of employable skills for students. The findings also reveal that a negative and non-significant relationship exists between community available resources and the teaching and learning of vocational entrepreneurship education. Based on the findings from the study, the following recommendation were made: There is need for student’s awareness of existing employment opportunities in vocational entrepreneurship education right from secondary school which will serve as guide to prospective students that will venture into such discipline.

Page(s): 23-30                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 March 2019

 Abubakar, M.B
School of Secondary Education, Vocational Programmes, Federal Collage of Education Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

 Ajinuhi, S.A
School of Secondary Education, Vocational Programmes, Federal Collage of Education Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

 Hassan, Y.
School of Secondary Education, Vocational Programmes, Federal Collage of Education Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

 Imufutau, S.A.
School of Secondary Education, Vocational Programmes, Federal Collage of Education Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

[1]. Abonyi, O.S &Okoli, B. (2009) Entrepreneurial Skills through STM Education and the emerging challenges of NEEDS in Nsikak -Abosi U. (ed) Developing entrepreneurial Skills through STM Education, STAN.
[2]. Ade-ojo, M.I &Ojulomi, S.I (2007) The Relevance of Technical & Vocational Education to National Development
[3]. Ajewole, G.A &Agangan, A.B (2003) Curriculum Enrichment of STM Education as Basis for developing entrepreneurship skills, in Nsika – Abasi. U (ed) Developing Entrepreneurial Skills through STM education STAN.
[4]. Akinsola, A.T, Lawal, J. &Oyedokun, M.R (2000) Innovating Science, Technology & Mathematics (STM) Curriculum and Skills for developing entrepreneurship abilities in secondary schools students in Nsuka – Abosi, U. (ed) Developing Entrepreneurial skills through STM education, A entrepreneurship, STAN.
[5]. Anho, J.E. (2011) Impact of Entrepreneurship Education and Training an University Graduates for Sustainable Development in E.A Anubayi, M.E Akpotu and E.P. Oghuvbu (EDS) A book of Reading Education L.T Entrepreneurship.
[6]. Anho L.E (2014) Entrepreneurship Education: A Panacea for Unemployment Poverty Reducing and National Insecurity in Developing and Underdeveloped countries. American International Journal or Contemporary Research Volume 4 No 3.
[7]. Ayeduso, J.O., Abubakar, M.L, Awoniyi, R.B, Ajinuhi, S.A & Hassan, Y.I (2013) Issues in Entrepreneurship Kontagora, Harmony Print.
[8]. Clorrey, A.H and Libecap, G.D (2003). The Contribution of Entrepreneurship Education; an Analysis of the Berger Programme” International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education. Vol. 1 (3). Pp 385-407.
[9]. Cooper,S, Battomley, C and Gordon, J. (2004). A Stepping Out of the Classroom and up the Ladder of Learning: An Experimental Learning Approach to Entrepreneurship Education? Industry and Higher Education. Vol. 18(1). Pp.11-12.
[10]. F.G.N (2004) National Policy on Education 3rd Education Abuja Federal Government Press.
[11]. FRN (2006) Sensitization Workshop for Policy Makers on Entrepreneurial Education in Higher Education Institution in Nigeria, November 6-7.
[12]. FRN (2011) J.S.E Curriculum, Abuja, NERDC.
[13]. FRN, (2012) Minimum standards for NCE in VTE Abuja, NCCE.
[14]. FRN, (2016) Influence & Guidelines for SIWES, (Revised) JOS ITF
[15]. Gotteibi, E.& Ross, J.A (1997) a Made Not Born. HBS Courses and Entrepreneurial Management. Harvard Business Shop Ballitin. Vol. 13. Pp.41-45
[16]. Hisrich, R.D. and Brush, C.G. (1985) The Women Entrepreneur Standing, Financing and Managing a Successful New Business, Lexington M.A: Lexington Books
[17]. Saunsi, J.O (2003) Overview of governments efforts in the development of SME & the enrfence of Small & medium industries equity investment scheme (SMIEIS). A paper presented at the National Summit on SMIEIS organized by the Bankers committee and Lagos chamber of commerce and industry (LCCI) Lagos, June, 10 2003.
[18]. Silas, T.N (2017) An Assessment of Entrepreneurship Education in Nigeria Polytechnic. Wonder Hands Journal of the School of Vocational Education Federal College of Education Abeokuta.
[19]. Stokes, D., Willson, N. &Mador, M. (2010). Entrepreneurship. United Kingdom, Southwestern Language Learning.
[20]. Unachukwu, G.O. (2009b). Issues and Challenges in the Development of Entrepreneurships Education in Nigeria. An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol.3(5). Pp. 217-219.
[21]. Unachukwu, G.O. (2009a). Issues and Challenges in the Development of Entrepreneurships Education in Nigeria. An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol.3 (5). Pp. 221-223.
[22]. Stokes, D, Wilson, N and Mador, M, (2010), entrepreneurship, Unite Kingdom, South western Cengage Learning, EMEA
[23]. FRN (2012), NCCE minimum standards for vocational and technical education, Abuja, NCCE
[24]. Jim, B. (2008), Consumer Behaviour, London, Thompson Learning
[25]. Todaro, M.P and Smith S C (2011) Economic development 11e, England, Pearson education Limited.
[26]. Sambo, A.A (2008), research method in education, Lagos sterling- Hardson publishers, Nig. Ltd
[27]. Sunday-Nwosu, E.C. (2015), Pathways to effective entrepreneurship, a complete guide to successful business, Lagos, Guzman Nig. Ltd.
[28]. Nigerian institute for social and economic research, (NISER, (2013), Effectiveness of Vocational Training in Nigeria, Assessment of NOAS Programme of the NDE

Abubakar, M.B, Ajinuhi, S.A, Hassan, Y. Imufutau, S.A. “The Effects of Integration of Entrepreneurship Education for Self-Reliance among Graduates of N.C.E in North Central Zone of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.23-30 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Federal Character Principle and the elusive idea of Unity in Contemporary Nigeria: Aspects of Law, Politics and Policy

Adesanya Tolulope & Tenibiaje Mobobola – March 2019 Page No.: 31-35

Nigeria is made up of at least 250 ethnic groups, forcibly merged together by the British government. Shortly after amalgamation and boundary adjustments in 1914, three major ethnic groups emerged while several ethnic groups were classified as minor groups. This unprecedented event made for the domination of a group over others.
This political and administrative anomaly created room for minority oppression and inequality and it became so glaring with its resultant manifestation, leading to a civil war. The aftermaths of the war led to struggles of uniting the country and reconcile the historical differences; the Nigerian government introduced a number of programs or policies such as State Creation, National Youth Service Scheme, Unity Schools and the Federal Character Principle .

Page(s): 31-35                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 March 2019

 Adesanya Tolulope
Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

 Tenibiaje Mobobola
Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

[1]. Adeosun, A. B. (2011). Federal character principle and national integration: A critical appraisal. International journal of politics and good governance. 2(2.4).
[2]. Ammani, A. A. (2014). The Federal Character Principle as a Necessary Evil
[3]. Aondoakaa, T & Orluchukwu A.,(2015) Federal Character Principles in Nigerian Constitution and its Applicability: Issues and Challenges, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, volume 20 issues 12.
[4]. Ayandele EA (1974). The Educational Elite in the Nigerian Society. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.
[5]. Bamidele, S.,(2018). Simultaneous Geography, Divided Communities: Paving the Way to Silencing the Ethno-Religious Insurgencies in Nigeria. Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies, 40(1).
[6]. Bello, M. L. (2012). Federal character as a recipe for national Integration: The Nigerian paradox. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance. 3(3.3)
[7]. Dabalen, A., Oni, B., & Adekola, O. A. (2001). Labor market prospects for university graduates in Nigeria. Higher Education Policy, 14(2)
[8]. Edigin, L.U. (2010). Federal Character and National Stability in Nigeria 1979-2000. Journal of Research in Nation Development .8(2)
[9]. Ekanem H I.,(2018)The Emptiness of Human Rights Violation Argument, AFRICOM, and the United States’ Anti –Jonathan Administration Disposition on War against Boko-Haram Insurgency and the Outcome of the Presidential Election of 2015in Nigeria. IJASSH.
[10]. Ibeto C J, Agbodike F C & Anazodo R O.,(2015).The Application of Federal Character Principle and Its Implication on Service Delivery in Nigerian Federal Civil Service, International Journal of Human Resource Studies. Vol. 5, No. 3
[11]. ILO Convention No. 111 Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958
[12]. Kayode A., (2015) Federalism and Federal Character Principle in Nigeria: A Dilution, Review of Public Administration and Management. Vol 3 no 7,
[13]. Kirk-Greene, A. H. M. (1975). The genesis of the Nigerian civil war and the theory of fear. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
[14]. Ojo, E. (2009). Mechanisms of National integration in a Multi-Ethnic Federation State: The Nigerian Experience. Ibadan: John Archers Publishers, Ltd.
[15]. Okolo P.,(2014) Influence of the federal Character Principle on National Interpretation in Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research. Vol 4, no 6 p127.
[16]. Osaghae, E. E., & Suberu, R. T. (2005). A history of identities, violence and stability in Nigeria (p. 95). Oxford: Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity, University of Oxford.
[17]. Uchechukwu, D. V., & ATITI, T. (2011). The Educational Imperatives of National Unity and Nation Building. African Journal of Social Sciences. 1(3), 47-55.
[18]. Ugoh S C & Ukpere W I.,(2012). Policy of the federal character principle and conflict management in Nigerian federalism. African Journal of Business Management Vol. 6(23)
[19]. Watts, M. (2004). Resource curse? Governmentality, oil and power in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Geopolitics, 9(1)

Adesanya Tolulope & Tenibiaje Mobobola “Federal Character Principle and the elusive idea of Unity in Contemporary Nigeria: Aspects of Law, Politics and Policy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.31-35 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Government Agricultural Spending and Agricultural Output in Nigeria (1999-2012)

Dr. Ikwuba Agnes – March 2019 Page No.: 36-44

This paper examines the effect of government agricultural spending on agricultural output in Nigeria. The model built for the study proxy Agricultural Output as the endogenous variable, a function of rate of government expenditure on agriculture, management level (dummied), technological level (dummied), labour in use proxy as the exogenous variables. Annual time series data was gathered from central bank of Nigeria, statistical bulletin, national bureau of statistic (NBS) CBN economic and financial Review bulletin and CBN annuals reports spanning from 1999 to 2012. The study used descriptive test statistic and econometric techniques of Augmented Dickey- Fuller (ADF) unit root test, and Engle Granger single line co-integration test for empirical analysis. The results of unit root suggested that, all variables in the model are stationary at a level. The co-integration test shows that, long- run equilibrium relationship exist among the variables. The study recommends that measures should be undertaken to drive agricultural sector through consistent policies, robust funding, and infrastructural development, judicious use of allocated resources and above all, a genuine democracy and good governance in Nigeria in order to achieve a corresponding output/performance of the sector in Nigeria.

Page(s): 36-44                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 March 2019

 Dr. Ikwuba Agnes
Department of Sociology, Benue State University Makurdi, Benue State-Nigeria

[1]. Aboyade, O. and A. Ayida, (1971). “The War Economy in Perspective”, Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 13(1) March 13-17.
[2]. Anonymous (2008b)
[3]. Anyanwu, J.C (1997) “Nigeria Public Finance, Joann Educational Publishers Ltd, Onitsa.
[4]. Bello, A (2003) Ministerial Press Briefing, Abuja Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, December, 2005.
[5]. Bhatia, H.L (2006) History of Economic Thought. New Delhi:Vikas publishing House PVtlimted, Jangpera 4th edition.
[6]. Central Bank of Nigeria (2005).Statistical Bulletin, Lagos CBN.
[7]. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2000) Statistical Bulletin, Lagos CBN
[8]. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2006) Statistical Bulletin, Abuja
[9]. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2009) Statistical Bulletin, CBN, Abuja.
[10]. Derek H. et al (2009) Explaining Agricultural Productivity growth: An International Perspective’ A journal of “International Food Policy Research International (IFPRI), 2033 k street NW, Washington D.C, USA center for Efficiency and productivity analysis, school of economics, the University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.
[11]. Ekerete, P. (2000). “Assessment of Agricultural Contribution to Total Export Marketing in Nigeria”.International Journal of Economics and Development Issues Vo. 1 No.2.
[12]. Ekpebu, I. D (2006) “The Review of the Agricultural Sector in Nigeria (1960-1989)” Journal of Economics and Social Research Vol. 7 No. 1
[13]. Ekpo, A &Egwauchide, F. (1994) Exports and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Reconsideration of the Evidence: Journal of Economics Management, 1 (1):100-115
[14]. IFDC, (2005) Agricultural Input Markets in Nigeria: An Assessment and a Strategy for Development, USA: IFDC.
[15]. Iganiga, B. O and D. O Unemhilin (2011) The Impact of Federal Government Agricultural Expenditure on Agricultural Output in Nigeria. Department of Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.
[16]. Iheanacho, C. O (2006) “Impact of Financial Sector Reform on the Supply and Demand for Agricultural Credit in Nigeria” First Bank Plc, Bi-annual Review Vol 8. No. 16
[17]. Jhingan, M. I (2002) Macroeconomic Theory.MayurVihar, Delhi: Vrinda publications Ltd, 10th Edition
[18]. Kakwani, N. and Son, H. H. (2006) How Costly is to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals of Halving Poverty between 1990 and 2015? International Poverty Center Working Paper 19, UNDP.
[19]. Manyong, V. M et al (2005) Agriculture in Nigeria: Identifying opportunities for increased commercialization and investment, funded by USAID Nigeria, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA).
[20]. Mitchell, J.D. (2005). “The impact of Government Spending on Economic Growth.Background”
[21]. Ogbu, J. (2012). Impact of Public Agricultural Expenditure on Agricultural Output in Nigeria. (1988-2007). An Undergraduate Research Work, Department of Economic, Benue State University, Makurdi.
[22]. Salawu, R. O (2005) “Essential of public finance” Ile-Ife.Obafemi, Awolowo University Press.
[23]. Samuel, B. (2009) “Public Expenditure and Agriculture Productivity Growth in China” A journal of International Food Policy Research Institution IAAE, Beijing, China.
[24]. Samuelson, P. A and Nordlaus, W.D (2003) “Economics” Delhi’ TATA, Mcgraw-Hill.
[25]. Siyan, P (2002) Introduction to Economic Analysis. Abuja Nigeria: B. Anny publishers, 1st Edition.
[26]. Wagner, A (1893) Grundlegung der PolitischanOkonomie, 3rd Edition Leipzeg, C. F. Winter.
[27]. Wikipedia, (2010a) Economy of Nigeria, of Nigeria.
[28]. World Bank (1997) Rural Development; from vision to action: A sector strategy paper, Washington D.C USA

Dr. Ikwuba Agnes “Government Agricultural Spending and Agricultural Output in Nigeria (1999-2012)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.36-44 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


History and National Integration in Nigeria: An Empirical Overview

Mile Terwase Joshua- March 2019 Page No.: 45-49

In contemporary Nigeria, one would have thought that the rich Nigerian history, its immense human and natural resource endowment, with its democratic attempt so far, a credible effort towards national integration of its society would have been well fostered and achieved. But what one is witnessing so far today, seems to boil down to the fact that we have not yet started and national integration is even a non-issue in national discourse. But the crises that has been sky rocketing the country today so far which made many to call out for all forms of restructuring, have much of its roots traced to this crucial question of national integration. The trust of this paper therefore, is to examine the issue of national integration in Nigeria through an empirical historical perspective with the aim of finding the way forward to the present Nigerian quagmire.

Page(s): 45-49                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 March 2019

 Mile Terwase Joshua
Ph.D , Educational Foundations and General Studies, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

[1]. Usman Y.B. (1994) Nigeria History and Nigeria Unity: beyond fairly tales. History Dept, ABU, Zaria. See also Temu, A.J. and Swai, B. (1981) Historians & History, London.
[2]. O’Connell, J. and Beckett, P. (1977) Education and power in Nigeria. London. (1985) (ed) Education and Nation Building in Africa. London. Pall mall press. See also Gibbon, P. (1979) Imperialism and the National Question Some Errors and Some Theses’ Utafiti: Journal of FASS University of Dares Salaam.
[3]. Tahir, 1. (1990) “Constitutional and Political safeguard as for the enhancement of national unity.” In Tukur. M. (ed) Administration and Political development: prospects for Nigeria. Zaria. Institute of Administration, ABU.
[4]. Modibbo, M.A. and Abba, A. (1986) Education and National Integration in Nigeria: problems and prospects. National Seminar on the National Question. Abuja.
[5]. Mangvwat M.Y. (1990) History, class and the National Question. 10th Annual Congress of the HSN.
[6]. Tahir, I. (1990) “Constitutional and Political Safeguards for the Enhancement of National Unity”. In Tukur, M. (ed) Administrative and political Development: prospects for Nigeria. Zaria: Institute of Administration, A.B.U.
[7]. Usman, Y.B. (1999) History and the Challenges to the peoples and polities of Africa in the 21st Century. 44th Annual Congress of the Historical society to Nigeria, Abuja. See also Cottrell, R. (1982) “The White Man will just have to pick up his burden again”, The Daily Telegraph, London.
[8]. Mahmoud Hamman (1994) History and Development in Nigeria: Beyond the legacy of imperialism. 38th Annual Congress of the H.S.N. ABU Zaria.
[9]. Oyegun J.O (1994) “What Type of Conference.” Nigeria: the state of the Nation and the Way Forward. Mahdi et al (ed) Kaduna: Arewa House.
[10]. Tukur. M. (1994) in Adamu, S. “the Nigerian press and Nigerian Unity”. In mahdi et al (eds) Nigeria: the state of the Nation and the way forward. Kaduna: Arewa House. See also Owen. R. and Sutcliffe B. (eds) (1972) Studies in the Theory of Imperialism. London.
[11]. Mangvwat M.Y. (1992) The Settler factor As an Aspect of the National question: Evidence from History. Guest Speech on the Occasion of Pus Kaat (Mwaghavul Day). Mangu.
[12]. Barogo Yolamu, R. (1997) Ethnic Pluralism and Democratic Stability” -The. Basis of Conflict and Consensus in Iyovbaire (ed) Democratic Experience.
[13]. Haruna Dlakwa (1996) Ethnicity in Nigerian Polities: Formation of Political Organisations and Parties. In Okafor, F.U. (ed) New Strategies of curbing Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Nigeria. Enugu, Fourth Dimension Publishers.
[14]. Liddel Hart (1972) Why Don’t We Learn From History? London. See also Aghiri, A. (1980), The Recent Stage of Imperialism and Non-Alignment. Dares Salaam.
[15]. Mangvwat Monday Y (1996) “Bourgeois Crisis in Nigeria”. Newswatch Magaines Past and Present.
[16]. Akpan, N.U. (1986) Ethnicity and Nigeria’s Political Future” Part Two and Three, New Nigeria, Kaduna.

Mile Terwase Joshua, “History and National Integration in Nigeria: An Empirical Overview” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.45-49 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Ethical Leadership as a Panacea to Organization Conflict in Nigeria

Chibuzor Obi Jude, Keyna Marie Chizoma Eshika, Mallam Joel Tisan, Ndana Salihu Danlami – March 2019 Page No.: 50-56

Many questions on what is the most effective way to handle conflict in public organizations triggered the rationale behind this paper. This paper was an exploration of ethical leadership as a panacea to the organizational conflict in Nigeria. By determining the extent to which ethical leadership can eliminate organizational conflict in Nigeria public organizations. The research work primarily used secondary sources of data in order to unearth issues surrounding organizational conflict. Theory and investigator triangulation were applied in order to ensure the validity and reliability of our findings. The area of concern has attracted many conferences, workshops, and dialogues about the future of Nigerian public organizations as other efforts to eliminate organizational conflicts seemed abortive. The paper explored ethical leadership and found it to comprise essential elements such as humility, fairness, responsibility, respect for others, independence, accountability, and transparency among others. Using Principal-Agency theory, Utilitarian theory and theory of justice and fairness to analyze conflicting situations in an organization discovered that selfish interest, lack of honesty, political interference and lack of humility, injustice among others tend to spring organizational conflict which now leads to organizational-underdevelopment as team spirit is far in the workplace. There is the tendency that the organization will continue to wallow in the militating situation. We recommend that ethical leadership qualities as highlighted in the work should be imbibed in the Nigerian public organizations though, private organizations are not excluded.

Page(s): 50-56                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 March 2019

 Chibuzor Obi Jude
M.Sc., Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

 Keyna Marie Chizoma Eshika
MPhil/Ph.D., Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

 Mallam Joel Tisan
M.Sc., Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

 Ndana Salihu Danlami
MPhil/Ph.D., Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

[1]. Abubakar, H.I. (2010). “Transparency and accountability in local government administration in Nigeria” A paper presented at a National workshop Organized by Forum of Chairman of Local Government Service Commission of Nigeria 22nd -25th March
[2]. Achebe, C. (1983).The Trouble with Nigeria, Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co. Ltd.
[3]. Agalamanyi, C.U. (2009). Organisational Time Management: Managing Time for Result, International Journal of Studies in the Humanities, Vol.6. No. 1.
[4]. Agboola, T. O. (2016). Work Ethics and Service Delivery in Lagos State Civil Service (2007-2015), ABU Journal of Public Administration, Vol.5. No.2.
[5]. Amujiri, B.A. (2010). “Strategies for Effective Conflict Management and Resolution in Local Government. Nigerian Journal of Public Administration and Local Government, Vol. 15. No. 2.
[6]. Anyebe, A.A. (2015). Organisational Structure and Communication as Tools for Conflict Resolution in Nigeria. Being a Paper presented as a Special Guest Lecturer at the 2015 National Conference and General Assembly of the Nigerian University Professional Administrators at Professor Idris Abdulkadir Auditorial, National Universities Commission, Aja-Nwachuku House, Abuja.
[7]. Bellver, A. and Daniel, K. (2005). “Trans-parenting Transparency: Initial Empirics and Policy Applications,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper,(forthcoming) (Washington)
[8]. Blanchard, K. H., O’Connor, M., O’Connor, M. J., & Ballard, J. (1997). Managing by values: BerrettKoehler Pub.
[9]. Brown, M. E., and L. K. Treviño. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. Leadership Quarterly 17 (6):595-616.
[10]. Brown, M. E., L. K. Treviño, and D. A. Harrison. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 97 (2):117-134.
[11]. Chibuzor, O.J. Aniekwe, C.H. Keyna, M.C.E. Mohammad, M.A. and Joel, T.M. (2019). Nigerian Youths and Good Governance, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 24, Issue 2,
[12]. Covey, S. R. (2004). Seven habits of highly effective people: Free Press.
[13]. Credit News, Magazine, August-September, 1998
[14]. De Hoogh, A. H. B., and D. N. den Hartog. (2008). Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader’s social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates’ optimism: A multi-method study. Leadership Quarterly 19 (3):297-311.
[15]. Deming, T.G. (1986). Seven Deadly Diseases of Managements Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol.3. No.5, pp. 5669.
[16]. Gini, A. (1998). Moral leadership and business ethics. In J. B. Ciulla (Ed.), Ethics, the heart of leadership (pp. 27–45). Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
[17]. Guy, M. E. (1990). Ethical decision making in everyday work situations: Greenwood Publishing Group.
[18]. Izueke, E.M.C (2010). “Local Government Administration and Good Governance in Nigeria: Nigerian Journal of Public Administration and Local Government Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Vol. XV. 2. P.74-90.
[19]. Kanungo, R. N., &Mendonca, M. (1996). Ethical dimensions of leadership: Sage Publications, Inc.
[20]. Kaptein, M. 2003. The diamond of managerial integrity. European Management Review 21 (1):99-108.
[21]. Katarina, K.M. Bogdan, L.and Metka, T. (2010). “Ethical Leadership”. International Journal of Management & Information Systems, Volume 14, No. 5.
[22]. Kelly, D. J. (1990). Ethics: The Tone at the Top’. Management Accounting, 70(10), 18-19
[23]. Lasthuizen, K.M. 2008. Leading to Integrity. Empirical Research into the Effects of Leadership on Ethics and Integrity. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: VU University.
[24]. M.E. Brown, L.K. Trevino, and D.A. Harrison, “Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (2005), 97, 117-34.
[25]. Madonald, S.W. and Bendmane, D. B. (1987) Conflict Resolution: Track TwoDiplomacy: Washington, D.C. FS.
[26]. Minkes, A. L., Small, M. W., & Chatterjee, S. R. (1999). Leadership and business ethics: Does it matter? Implications for management. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(4), 327-335.
[27]. Onyishi, T. O. (2010).Nigeria: a handbook of good governance. Enugu: John Jacob’s Classic Publishers Ltd.
[28]. Pratt, J.W. (2003). Principal and Agents: An Overview. In J.W. and R. J. Zeckhauser (eds), Principal and Agents: The Structure of Business. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
[29]. Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[30]. Robbins, S. (2005). Organizational Behavior: New Jersey: Prentice Hall
[31]. Thomas, C. (2001). The Ethical Leader, Executive Excellence (Vol. 18, pp. 15): Executive Excellence Publishing.
[32]. Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63, 182–196.
[33]. Weaver, G. R., Trevin˜o, L. K., &Agle, B. (2005). Somebody I look up to: Ethical role models in organizations. Organizational Dynamics, 34, 313–330.

Chibuzor Obi Jude, Keyna Marie Chizoma Eshika, Mallam Joel Tisan, Ndana Salihu Danlami “Ethical Leadership as a Panacea to Organization Conflict in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.50-56 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Challenges of Privacy Protection in the New Media Era

Oriola, M.O, Akase, T.M, Akilla, M.O, Agbele, D.J- March 2019 Page No.: 57-61

This paper considers the challenge of privacy, in relation to the practice of journalism in the era of new media technologies. It draws attention to complications in the issue of privacy and the need for ethical obedience when new media journalists go about gathering and disseminating news stories. The paper also touches on what constitutes the invasion of privacy and how Nigerians have/can deliberately put their right to privacy in danger. Factors that makes privacy protection a challenge in the new media era were also critically examined.The paper equally analyses the ethical provisions of journalism that protects privacy of Nigerians as well as the provisions of the Nigerian constitution on the matter, both provisions were weighed against each other.

Page(s): 57-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 March 2019

 Oriola, M.O
Ph.D, Department of Creative Arts, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria

 Akase, T.M
Ph.D, Department of Mass Communication, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

 Akilla, M.O
Ph.D, Department of English Studies, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria

 Agbele, D.J
Department of Mass Communication, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

[1]. Australian Law Reform Commission (2014). Invasion of Privacy in the Digital Era. (Final Report). Sydney: Lugare PTY Ltd
[2]. Bennett, L. W. (2003). “New Media Power: The Internet and Global Activism”. In N. Couldry& J. Curran (Eds.), Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World (pp. 17- 37). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
[3]. Businesstopia (2017). Social Responsibility Theory (Online Article) retrieved at
[4]. Cohen-Almagor, R. (2003). Conceptualizing the Right to Privacy. University Press of Florida: Gainesville Florida Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999
[5]. Findlaw (2016). Invasion of Privacy. Retrieved at -injuries/invasion-of-privacy.html
[6]. Gangopadhay, S. and Dhar, D. (2014). Social Networking Sites and Privacy Issues Concerning Youths. Global Media Journal – India Ediation. Vol. 5 (1) pp1-5
[7]. Kaul, V. (2016). New Media, Part 1: Redefining Journalism. (online Article) retrieved at
[8]. Limo, A. (2010). Information Ethics and the New Media: Challenges and Opportunities for the Kenyan Education Sector. A presentation at the African Information Ethics Conference, University of Botswana
[9]. (2016). ‘Some Nigerians Celebrities Who Posed Nude’. Retrieved at
[10]. Nigeria Code: Code of Ethics for Nigerian Journalists (1998). The Nigeria Press Council
[11]. Nwache, E.S (2007). The Right to Privacy in Nigeria: Centre for Legal Studies Review. Review of Nigerian Law and Practice. Vol 1 (1)
[12]. Nwanne, B. U (2014). The Right to Privacy, the New Media and Human Development in Nigeria. Journal of Mass Communication and Journalism. Vol 4 (9) pp 1-6
[13]. Olise, F. P (2010) News Writing for the New Media: An Insight for Nigerian Journalist. Nigeria Stirling-Horden Encyclopedia of Mass Media and Communication Technological Imperatives. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden
[14]. Parson , C. (2011). ‘Security, surveillance and sovereignty: The internet tree: The state of telecom policy in Canada,’ Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Vol. 3, pp 83.
[15]. Peoria Magazine (September 2011) Privacy in the Age of New Media. Available online at
[16]. Silverstone, R. (1999), What’s new about new media? New Media & Society, 1(1), pp. 10-11.
[17]. The Punch Newspaper (November 23, 2016) ‘Crazy Things Nigerians do on the Social Media’ Retrieved at
[18]. Van Dijk, J. (2006), The network society: social aspects of new media (2nd edition). Sage: London.
[19]. Wardrip-Fruin, N. & Montfort, N. (2003). The New Media Reader. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Oriola, M.O, Akase, T.M, Akilla, M.O, Agbele, D.J” Challenges of Privacy Protection in the New Media Era” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.57-61 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Impact of Insurance Deepening on Economic Growth in Nigeria

Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor – March 2019 Page No.: 62-67

This paper examined the impact of insurance deepening on economic growth in Nigeria. Data spanning from 1990 to 2016 was obtained from CBN Statistical Bulletin, 2016 and NAICOM database. Data was imported into SPSS and analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Finding revealed that insurance deepening has significant impact on economic growth of Nigeria, this impact was further qualified by the slope which had negative sign, emphasizing that the relationship between insurance deepening and economic growth is inverse.

Page(s): 62-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 March 2019

 Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor
Department of Accounting and Finance, Godfrey Okoye University Enugu, Nigeria

[1]. Agwuegbo, S. O., P, A. A., & Maduegbuna, A. N. (2010). Predicting insurance investment: A factor analytic approach.6(3),. Journal of Mathematics, Statistics and Science, 6(3), 321 – 324.
[2]. Akinlo, T. (2013). The causal relationship between insurance and economic growth in Nigeria (1986-2010). Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 2(12), 49-57.
[3]. Akinlo, T., & Apanisile, O. (2014). Relationship between insurance and economic growth in Sub-Saharan African: A panel data analysis. . Modern Economy, 120 – 127. .
[4]. Andreu, M. C., Whinston, M. D., & Green, J. R. (1995). Microeconomic Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
[5]. Arena, M. (2006). Does insurance market promote economic growth? A cross– country study for industrialized and developing countries. . Journal of Risk and Insurance, 921 – 946.
[6]. Fadun, O. S. (2013). Insurance, a risk transfer mechanism: An examination of the Nigerian banking industry. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 7(4), 93 – 101.
[7]. Haiss, P., & Sumegi, K. (2008). The relationship of insurance and economic growth in Europe: A theoretical and empirical analysis. International Journal of Development and Management Review , 35(4), 405 – 431.
[8]. Hardwick, P., & Adams, M. (2002 ). Firm Size and Growth in the United Kingdom Life Insurance Industry. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 69(4), 577-593.
[9]. Igbodika, M. A., Ibenta, S. N., & John, E. I. (2016). The contribution of insurance investment to economic growth in Nigeria; 1980-2014. International Journal of Advanced Studies in Business Strategies and Management, 4(1), 110 – 123.
[10]. Igbodika, M. A., Ibenta, S. N., & John, E. I. (2016). The contribution of insurance investment to economic growth in Nigeria; 1980-2014. International Journal of Advanced Studies in Business Strategies and Management,. 4(1), 110 – 123.
[11]. Kugler, M., & Ofoghi, R. (2005). Does insurance promote economic growth? Evidence from the UK. . Southampton,: University of Southampton. .
[12]. Madukwe, O. D., & Obi-Nweke, N. S. (2014). The empirical evidence of Nigeria insurance business, capital market and economic growth. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research0., 4(2), 110 – 12.
[13]. Mahul, O., & Stutley, C. J. (2010). Government Support to Agricultural Insurance: Challenges. : World Bank Publications, 3.
[14]. Mckinnon, R. (. (1973). Money and Capital in Economic Development. Washington D.C: Brooking Institute .
[15]. Nwinee, B. F., &&Torbira, L. L. (2012). Empirical evidence of insurance investment and economic growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Social and Economic Research,, 4(5), 2- 10.
[16]. Olayungbo, D. O. (2015). Effects of life and non-life insurance on economic growth in Nigeria: An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. Global Journal of Management and Business Research,( 15), , 32 – 40.
[17]. Olayungbo, D. O., & Akinlo, A. E. (2016). Insurance penetration and economic growth in Africa: Dynamic effects analysis using Bayesian TVP- VAR. Retrieved from
[18]. Ozuomba, C. V., & in. (2013). Impact of insurance on economic growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2((10)), 19 -31.
[19]. Saunders, A., & Cornett, M. M. (2008). Financial Institutions Management: A risk Management Approach. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Series in Finance, Insurance and Real Estate. McGraw-Hill Education; 8 edition.
[20]. Soo, H. (1996). Life Insurance and Economic Growth: Theoretical and Empirical investigation,’. University of Nebraska, Department of Economics .
[21]. Ward, D., & Zurbruegg, R. (2000). Does insurance promote economic growth? Evidence from OECD Countries. Journal of Risk and Insurance, 67(4), 489 – 506.

Michael Chukwunaekwu Nwafor “Impact of Insurance Deepening on Economic Growth in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.62-67 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Retirement Preparation of Ordained Ministers of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana

Esther Agbodeka – March 2019 Page No.: 68-74

The objective of the study was on retirement preparation among Ordained Ministers of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana.
Primary data in the form of questionnaires and interviews were used in the data collection and the study employed the qualitative approach in research, relying on the grounded theory in its theoretical framework. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit twenty-eight (28) ordained Ministers of the Presbyterian Church who were still in active service, eight (8) retirees and five (5) top management members for an in-depth interview. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were imported into NVivo (11) for analysis of the data collected.
The researcher found out that the practice of planning was greatly contingent on the type of Ordained Ministers and the monthly allowance they received. Tent Ordained Ministers who worked as professionals and performed additional Ministerial duties in the church were entitled to national pension schemes. However, Non-Tent Ministers relied on their personal savings for financial planning. Psychologically, Ministers made little preparation because of the absence of a retirement planning policy in the Church. This had therefore created anxiety and a state of uncertainty about retirement. Socially, Ministers acquired their own accommodation and invested in their children education as a form of social security. The study further found that retired Ministers had to rely on their social relations to meet their financial and social needs. The absence of such social support resulted in psychosocial and financial challenges during retirement.
The study further discovered that Retired Ministers who had planned their retirement were believed to be happier and had less financial challenges.
It was therefore recommended that Housing scheme should be instituted by the Church to assist Ministers to acquire their own houses before retirement. The Church must develop a policy for retirement for various workers of the Church. This is required to guide Ministers and other workers to plan and prepare for retirement. The existing Provident Fund, insurance scheme for full-time Ministers should be extended to the tent Ministers too. The Church should take the SSNIT contributions of its Ministers seriously as a way of planning for the Ministers who sacrifice their all for God’s flock. Additionally, it was recommended that there should be a scholarship package for children of Ministers who accept postings to deprive areas.

Page(s): 68-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 March 2019

 Esther Agbodeka
Ph.D (Cand.), (10214850), University of Ghana-Legon, Accra, Ghana

Reference are not available.

Esther Agbodeka “Retirement Preparation of Ordained Ministers of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.68-74 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Dual Mode University in Southern Africa Development Community (SADC): Successes, Challenges and Solutions

Leonorah Tendayi Nyaruwata – March 2019 Page No.: 75-82

Dual mode offering of university education is a fast growing phenomenon around the world. While an increasing number of higher education conventional institutions is transforming into dual mode, their reasons for transforming, successes achieved and challenges faced have not been well documented. The factors influencing transformation of conventional universities to dual mode have also not been well documented. It is of significance to interrogate why single mode open and distance learning (ODL) universities are not transforming to dual mode, that is, incorporating the conventional mode yet they seem to be increasing enrolment numbers in leaps and bounds. While there is a lot of information concerning successes and challenges experienced in both conventional and open and distance higher education institutions, there is a paucity of information on these experiences about dual mode higher education institutions. The study examined how dual mode is enhancing internationalisation of university culture in the global village. It is, therefore, the aim for this paper to interrogate and document the SADC dual mode higher education institutions’ successes and challenges in order to improve the academic performance of the students. The study used qualitative approach, interpretive philosophy and case study design. Data were generated through interviews and document analysis. The data were analysed through constant comparison analysis technique. The population of the study comprised distance education institutes directors and lecturers. One of the key findings was dual mode university increase access, enrollment and revenue and this led to the conclusion that conventional and DE learning environments are complementary and advance internationalisation of higher education. The main recommendation was that DE centers and institutes become autonomous in order to run the units effectively and efficiently to produce quality products.

Page(s): 75-82                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 March 2019

 Leonorah Tendayi Nyaruwata
Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe

[1]. Abaidoo, Nelly & Arkorful, Valentina (2014) The role of e-learning, the advantages and disadvantages of its adoption in Higher Education International Journal of Education and Research Vol. 2 No. 12 December 2014
[2]. Abbad, M.M. , Morris, D. and De Nahlik, C. (2009) Looking under the bonnet: factors affecting student adoption of e-learning systems in Jordan. International Review of Research into Open and Distance Learning, volume 10 (2): 1-25.
[3]. Aderinoye, Rashid & Ojokheta, Kester (2004) Open-Distance Education as a Mechanism for Sustainable Development: Reflections on the Nigerian Experience International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning Volume 5, Number 1.
[4]. Alonso, F., López, G., Manrique, D., & Viñes, J. M. (2005). An instructional model for web-based e-learning education with a blended learning process approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 217-235
[5]. Altbach, G. Phillip, Leisberg, Liz and Rumbley, E. Laura (2009) Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking An Academic Revolution Executive Summary A Report prepared for the UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation
[6]. Andersson, S. (2000). The internationalization of the firm from an entrepreneurial perspective. International Studies of Management & Organization, 30, 63-92.
[7]. Bache, Ian, Kane, Mary & Meth, Deanna (2015) Internationalisation of Learning & Teaching across the student journey University of Sheffield
[8]. Bailey, D. (1999). Mainstreaming equal opportunities policies in the Open University: Questions of discourse. Open Learning, 14(1), 9-16.
[9]. Benito, G. R. G. and Gripsrud, G. (1992). The expansion of foreign direct investments: Discrete rational location choices or a cultural learning process? Journal of International Business Studies, 23, 461-476.
[10]. Bates, A.W. (2001). National Strategies for E-learning in Post-secondary Education and Training. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO
[11]. Croft, Marian. 1992. “Single or Dual Mode: Challenges and Choices for the Future of Education.” In Ian Mugridge, ed. Distance Education in Single and Dual Mode Universities (perspectives on distance education). Vancouver: The Commonwealth of Learning, pp. 49–58.
[12]. Enuku, E. U., & Ojogwu, C. N. (2006). Information and communication technology (ICT) in the service of the national open university in Nigeria. Education, 127(2), 187-195
[13]. Ferriman, J. (2013). The History of Distance Learning (Infographic). Learn Dash,
[14]. Traditional Versus Online Learning in… (PDF Download Available). Available from: [accessed Mar 30 2018].
[16]. Freeman, R. (2004) Planning and Implementing Open and Distance Learning Systems: a Handbook for Decision Makers, Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning.
[17]. Garrison, D.R., & Anderson (2003) E-learning in the 21st Century. A Framework for Research and Practice. London. RoutledgeFalmer
[18]. Hermannsdottir, Audur (2008) Theoretical Underpinnings of the Internationalization Process INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS RESEARCH WORKING PAPER SERIES
[19]. Henard, F., Diamond, L., & Roseveare, D. (2012). Approaches to internationalisation and their implications for strategic management and institutional practice: A guide for higher education institutions. Paris, France: OECD Higher Education Programme.
[20]. Holland, B.A (2005) Scholarship and Mission in the 21st Century University: The Role of Engagement Keynote Address to the Australian Universities Quality Agency Forum, 5 July 2005, Sydney Australia, and has been published in the Forum Proceedings
[21]. Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S.E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288.
[22]. King, Fredireck B., Young, Michael F., Drivere-Richmond, Kelly & Schrader, P.G. (2001) Defining Distance Learning and Distance Education Educational Technology Review
[23]. King, Bruce ( 2012) Distance education and dual mode universities: an Australian perspective Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, 2012 – Issue 1: Dual mode universities: distance learning in campus universities
[24]. Kiran, Lalima and Dangwal, Blended Learning: An Innovative Approach Universal Journal of Educational Research 5(1): 129-136, 2017 DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2017.050116
[25]. Knight, J. (2003), “Updated internationalisation definition”, International Higher Education, Vol. 33, pp. 2-3
[26]. Knight, G. H. and T. S. Cavusgil. 1996. The born global firm: A challenge to traditional internationalization theory. Advances in International Marketing 8: 11-26.
[27]. Madsen, T. K. and P. Servais. 1997. The internationalization of born globals: An evolutionary process? International Business Review 6 (6): 561-583.
[28]. Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative content analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(2).
[29]. Modesto, S.T. Edited. (2011) Open and Distance Practices in Southern Africa: Collaborative Initiatives Virtual University for the Small States of the Commonwealth
[30]. (VUSSC) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Centre for
[31]. Distance Education (CDE) – (SADC‐CDE)‐sa/3.0
[32]. Moran, L. and Myringer, B. (1999) “Flexible Learning and University Change” in Perraton, H. and Creed, C. (1999) Distance Education Practice: Training and Rewarding Authors, London: Department for International Development.
[33]. Morgan, P. (2000), “Strengthening the Stakes: Combining Distance and Face to Face Teaching Strategies – Preliminary Discussion issues”, in conference proceedings of Distance Education in Small States, July 27-28 2000 in Ocho Rios, Jamaica. University of the West Indies/Commonwealth of Learning, 2001.
[34]. Mort, G. S. and Weerawardena, J. (2006). Networking capability and international entrepreneurship. How networks function in Australian born global firms. International Marketing Review, 23, 549-572.
[35]. Niper, S. (1989). ‘Third generation distance learning and computer conferencing’, in Mason, R. and Kaye, A. (eds.), Mindweave: Communication, Computers and Distance Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 63–73.
[36]. OECD (2004) Internationalisation and Trade in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges
[37]. Olcott, D. and Wright, S.J. (1995) An institutional support framework for increasing faculty participation in postsecondary distance education in The American Journal of Distance Education; 9 (3).
[38]. Owen, P.S., & Demb, A. (2004). Change dynamics and leadership in technology implementation. Journal of Higher Education, 75(6), 636-666
[39]. Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[40]. Peters, O. (2001). Learning and Teaching in Distance Education: Analysis and Interpretations from an International Perspective. London: Kogan Page.
[41]. Sangrà, Albert, Vlachopoulos, Dimirios and Cabrera, Nati (2012) Building an Inclusive Definition of E-Learning: An Approach to the Conceptual Framework The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning vol 13 No 2
[42]. Strafford, Paul & Shirota , Yukari (2011) An Introduction to Virtual Learning Environments 『学習院大学 経済論集』第48巻 第3号(2011年10月
[43]. Sneha, J.M. and Nagaraja,G.S. (2013) Virtual Learning Environments – A Survey International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) – volume 4 Issue 6–June 2013
[44]. Suja, Stanley George (2014) STUDY HABITS AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERSTICS OF WOMEN DISTANCE LEARNERS: A Comparative Study International Women Online Journal of Distance Education October, 2014 Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Article: 01
[45]. Rennie, F., & Mason R. (2007). The development of distributed learning techniques in Bhutan and Nepal. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(1), 1-10.
[46]. UNESCO (2002) Open and Distance Learning Trends, Policy and Strategy Considerations, Paris UNESCO
[47]. Wächter, B. (2003), “An introduction: internationalisation at home in context”, Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 5-11
[48]. Yoon, S. W. (2003). In search of meaningful online learning experiences. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 100, 19-30

Leonorah Tendayi Nyaruwata “Dual Mode University in Southern Africa Development Community (SADC): Successes, Challenges and Solutions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.75-82 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Roles of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Curbing Electoral Violence in Rivers State, Nigeria

Maduabuchukwu Prince Ajie, Chivuikem Isaac Dokubo, Chima Christian Ibekwe – March 2019 Page No.: 83-87

This study focused on the roles of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in curbing electoral violence in Rivers State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey design guided the study. The population comprised 42 Technical and Vocational Education and Training lecturers in Rivers State University and Ignatius Ajuru University of Education. No sampling was done as the population was manageable. Three research questions and one hypothesis was formulated for the study. A questionnaire titled “Role of TVET in Curbing Electoral Violence” (RTVETCEV) was developed to elicit responses from the respondents. The instrument was validated by three experts in the fields of Vocational and Technology Education and Training and Political Science. The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha Reliability coefficient. Statistical Mean was used to answer the research questions while standard deviation was used to determine the homogeneity in the responses of the respondent and z-test was used to test the hypothesis. The reliability coefficient achieved was 0.84. The study found that youth unemployment, quest by politicians to acquire power at all cost are some of the causes of electoral violence in Rivers State. The study showed that Technical and Vocational Education and Training plays the vital role of helping to groom youths to be self-reliant and meaningfully engaged by equipping them with the required technical and vocational skills. Among the recommendations in the study is the establishment of well-equipped vocational and technical education training centres in each of the 23 Local Government Areas of Rivers State for the training of youths.

Page(s): 83-87                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 March 2019

 Maduabuchukwu Prince Ajie
Department of Metalwork Technology, Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 Chivuikem Isaac Dokubo
Department of Vocational/Technology Education, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 Chima Christian Ibekwe
Department of Vocational/Technology Education, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

[1]. Akerele, W. O. (2007) Management of Technical and Vocational Education in Nigeria: Challenges of the Country. Journal of Education Administration & Planning, 3(1), 42-58.
[2]. Alemika, E. (2015) Post Election Violence in Nigeria. Electoral Reform Committee Report 2008, 1:19. Retrieved 3rd July, 2015 from
[3]. Dokubo, I.N. (2010). Vocational educational programmes and empowerment of rural adultsin Rivers EastSenatorial District, Rivers State. An unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Calabar, Cross Rivers State.
[4]. Dokubo, I.N (2015). The effects of learning environments on vocational and technical education programmes in Rivers State, Ngeria. International journal of humanities, social sciences and education, 2, (9) 182 -186
[5]. Dokubo, I.N. & Dokubo, C.I. (2016). Hassles and Panacea to Educational Researches in South-South Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 12, (25) 250-259
[6]. Egbobueze, A-. (2013). The Role of the Rivers State House of Assembly in Conflict Management, 1999-2011. An Unpublished thesis submitted to the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[7]. Ezinim, G. & Mbah, P. (2014). Electoral Process and Political Violence in Africa: A Preview of the 2015 Elections in Nigeria. Society of Research Academy: 2014. Retrieved on 6th June 2017 from
[8]. Gani, J. Y. (2016). Electoral Violence, Arms, Proliferations and Electoral Security in Nigeria: Lessons From the Twenty-Fifteen Elections.
[9]. Igbuzor, O. (2010). Electoral Violence in Nigeria. Asaba, Action Aid Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research & Report, 13(2), 1-11.
[10]. Maclean, R. & Wilon, D. (2009). International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work, Bridging Academic and Vocational Learning. Dorducht: Springer Science & Business Media.
[11]. Mbaveren, D. G. (2003). Political Violence and Socio Economic Development in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, (4), 40-53.
[12]. Mbaya P. Y. (2013). The Implication of Political Thuggery on Socio-Economic and Political Development of Maduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. International Journal of Asian Social Science, (3), 2090-2103.
[13]. Nuru, A. Y. (2006). New Approaches to Technical and Vocational Education. A Paper Presented at the Education Trust Fund Zonal Sensitization Workshop in the Importance of Technical and Vocational Education.
[14]. Ochoche, S.A. (2007). Electoral Violence and National Security. Africa Peace Review 1(1).
[15]. Ochogba, C.O. & Amaechi. O.J. (2018). The influence of technical skills acquisition in curbing insecurity challenges in Rivers State. International Journal of Education and Evaluation, 4(2), 19-26.
[16]. Okafor, E. E. (2011). Youth Unemployment and Implication for Stable of Democracies in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, (13), 358-372.
[17]. Okwelle, P. C. (2013) Appraisal of the Theoretical Models of Psychomotor Skills and Applications to Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) System in Nigeria. Journal of Research and Development, 1(6), 25-35.
[18]. Okwelle, P. C., Beako, Y. T. & Ajie M. P. (2017) Technical Skills Needed by Motor Vehicle Mechanic Apprentice to Establish Standard Motor Mechanic Enterprise in Port-Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State. International Journal of Innovative Scientific 7 Engineering Technologies Research, 3(4), 27-34.
[19]. Okwelle, P.C. & Dokubo, C.I. (2018). Constraints on the Utilization of Field Trips in Technology Education Instruction Delivery in Universities in South -South Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Social Sciences & Humanities Research, 6(1):80-89.
[20]. Olajide, S. E. (2014) Repositioning Technical and Vocational Education Towards Eradicating Unemployment in Nigeria. International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education Full Length Research Paper, 2(3), 1-8.
[21]. The Sun. Political Killings in Rivers State, 5th January, 2018.
[22]. Scott, S. (2012). Wars do End: Challenging Pattern of Political Violence in Sub-Southern Africa, African Affairs.
[23]. Ugagbe, T. B. (2010). Electoral Violence in Nigeria: Implications for Security, Peace and Development. Retrieved on 8th August 2017 from
[24]. Umunadi, E. K. (2014). Entrepreneurial, Technical and Vocational Skills Required for Self-Reliance and Job Creation in Nigeria. British Journal of Education, 2(5), 48-56.
[25]. Usman, S. M. (2009). Causes and Consequences of Youth Involvement in Electoral Violence: Paper Presented at the Day Workshop in “Youth Against Electoral Violence” Organized by Arewa Patriotic Vanguard on 12th November 2009.
[26]. Wikipedia: Conflict Theory: 1990. Retrieved on 23 June 2015 from theories.

Maduabuchukwu Prince Ajie, Chivuikem Isaac Dokubo, Chima Christian Ibekwe “Roles of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Curbing Electoral Violence in Rivers State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.83-87 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Occupational Health Hazards of Women Farmers in Ankpa Local Government Area of Kogi State- Nigeria

Venatus V. Kakwagh – March 2019 Page No.: 88-93

This study was carried out to determine the occupational health hazards that women farmers face in Nigeria with a particular focus on Ankap Local government area of kogi State –Nigeria. The study has shown that women are very important and active participants in the agricultural sector in Nigeria. The study has however, opined that in spite of the crucial role women play in agricultural production, policies in Nigeria have not been formulated to address the hazards they face in performing their agricultural activities. Due to this neglect, women have continued to face different levels of hazards with significant effect on their lives and consequently on agricultural productivity. Since women are very important actors in agricultural production in Nigeria, and their poor health impacts negatively on agricultural productivity, there should be improvement in rural social services. This is to reduce the negative effect of poor health on rural productivity. The health of rural women should be integrated into a rural development policy especially the primary health care structure. Emphasis should be particularly placed on environmental protective measures, health promotion and wellbeing measures and agricultural safety. To this regard, there should be collaboration between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Federal Ministry of Health and other relevant agencies of government. Also, researches should be conducted so as to design simple and affordable hand tools such as planters, threshers, for farmers so as to reduce the drudgery of farm work. Farmers should be educated through enlightenment campaigns with active participation by agricultural extension workers on how to avoid the dangers of the chemicals especially herbicides and pesticides they apply to their crops. Women (and farmers generally) on their part should always endeavour to wear protective clothing.

Page(s): 88-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 March 2019

 Venatus V. Kakwagh
Department of Sociology, Kogi State University, Anyigba-Nigeria

[1]. Adedeji,I.A., Olapade-Ogunwole, F., Farayola, C.O. and Adejumo, I.O. (2011) Productivity effect of occupational hazards among poultry farmers and farm workers in Osogbo Local Government Area of Osun state. International Journal of Poultry science 10(11): pp 867-870
[2]. Agulanna, F.T (2006), “Health and labour productivity among female farmers in Imo state Nigeria”. A post mid-term paper submitted to Idachaba Foundation for Research Scholarship, Ibadan.
[3]. Amodu, M.O, Amodu, M.F, Bimba, J.S, and Bolori, M.T (2017) Assessment of occupational hazards and health problems among female farmers in North-Eastern Nigeria. Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, technology and Environment, 13(2):pp 209-218
[4]. Asuzu, M.C. (1994) Occupational health: A summary, Introduction, and Outline of principle. Afrika-Links Books: Ibadan
[5]. Bradley, K.R. (2002). “Health hazards in agriculture: an emerging issue”. A publication of NASD, Department of Agriculture, United States.
[6]. Chayal, K.; Dhaka, B. L.; and Suwalka, R. L. (2010). Analysis of Role Performed by Women in Agriculture. Human and Social Science Journal, 5 (1), p 68 – 72.
[7]. Coole, D. (2006) Understanding the links between agriculture and health: Occupational health hazards of agriculture, focus 13, Brief 8 of 16. International Food Policy Research Institue (IFPRI)
[8]. Dwivedi, P &Kiran, U.V (2013) Occupational health hazards among farm women. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention 2(7) pp8-10
[9]. Egbetokun, O.A.,Ajijola, S., Omonona, B.T. and Omidele, M.A. (2012) Framers’ health and technical efficiency in Osun State-Nigeria. International Journal of food and Nutrition science 1(1): pp 13-30
[10]. Egharebva, K, and Iweze, A.F. (2004) Sustainable agriculture and rural women: Crop production and accompanied health hazards on women farmers in six rural communities in Edo State- Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 24(1): pp 39-51
[11]. Egharevba, R.K. (1992). Reported Occupational Health Hazards of Women in Agricultural Crop production among Binis. Women’s health issues in Nigeria:Zaria; Kleskka.
[12]. FAO (2011). Women in Agriculture – Making a Strong Case for Investing in Women. Rome: FAO.
[13]. Hawkes, C. and Ruel, M.T. (2006) The links between agriculture and health: An inter-sectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(12): pp 985-991
[14]. Idio, A.D. and Adejare, G.T. (2013) Conceptual analysis of rural farmers’ health and its implication on agricultural productivity. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture. Food and Environment, 8(3): pp 32-38
[15]. ILO (2000) International Labour Officew: Safety and health in agriculture. Published by Safe Work.
[16]. Jeyenatnam, J. ed. (1992) Occuparional health in developing countries, 1st edition Oxford University Press. New York, USA
[17]. Kakwagh V.V (2017) An assessment of the health seeking behaviour of market women in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi state; International Journal of Healthcare Sciences 5(2)pp 517-521
[18]. National Institute for Occupational Health (2013), Agricultural Safety, official home page of Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
[19]. National Population Commission (2006). Population facts. NPC Abuja.
[20]. Odeleye, T.G. (2015) An overview of health and occupational hazards of rural women in Nigeria.Journal of rural social Sciences 30(1) pp 51-61

Venatus V. Kakwagh “Occupational Health Hazards of Women Farmers in Ankpa Local Government Area of Kogi State- Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.88-93 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Gendered Impact of Zimbabwe’s Transitional Justice: Too Little Too Late

Lilian Chaminuka – March 2019 Page No.: 94-100

The gendered impact of transitional justice after Zimbabwe’s liberation struggle is similar to early efforts in other countries to try and address massive and systematic human rights violations that are largely gender blind. The paper takes a historical analysis highlighting how government chose not to specifically address sexual violence, nor did they examine how women had been distinctly impacted by the war of liberation. There was a pervasive silence regarding violence against, harm to, and the degradation of women with female ex combatants becoming recipients of piecemeal policies and fragmented efforts to accommodate them. The process and what has been done for the Zimbabwean woman is either too little or has been done too late as the legacy of this violence endures long after independence was achieved in 1980. This is not to say government has done absolutely nothing as some gains have been made in building a gender balanced society that factors in contribution of women. The study which employed the qualitative approach, revealed that women are not particularly happy as they feel more can be done as the realities they face today under study show a continuum in the violence exercised against them, their subordinate role, their oppression, the threats and harassment they endured in the past and present lack of economic resources to live a dignified life. The paper is based from a broad study that was undertaken by the author in her studies at the Africa University in 2014.

Page(s): 94-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 March 2019

 Lilian Chaminuka
Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe

[1]. Bell C. (2009). The “New Law” of Transitional Justice. In: Ambos K., Large J., Wierda M. (eds) Building a Future on Peace and Justice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
[2]. Bell, J. (2015). ‘Understanding Transitional Justice and its Two Major Dilemmas’. Journal of Interdisciplinary Conflict Science, 1(2), 115-. (Accessed 10 February 2019)
[3]. Bell, C. (2006). Negotiating Justice? Human Rights and Peace Agreements. International Council on Human Right Policy, Geneva.
[4]. Bell, C. (2009). ‘Transitional Justice, Inter-disciplinarity and the State of the ‘Field’ or ‘Non-Field’. International Journal of Transitional Justice, Volume 3, Issue 1, 1 March 2009, Pages 5–27, (Accessed 1 March 2019)
[5]. Carys, R. (2017). Gender Balance of Power Women’s representation in regional and local government in the UK and Germany. (Accessed 1 March 2019).
[6]. Chogugudza, P. and Ngobe B. (2012). The Zimbabwe Liberation War Veteran’s 1997 vetting process and its implications on former ZPRA Combatants. 1 March 2019).
[7]. Ebert, T. (1991).‘The “Difference” of Postmodern Feminism’. College English. Vol. 53, No 8, pp886-904.
[8]. Fionnuala Ní Aoláin. (2009). ‘Women, Security, and the Patriarchy of Internationalized Transitional Justice’. Human Rights Quarterly Vol. 31, No. 4 (Nov, 2009), pp. 1055-1085.
[9]. Guthrey, H. (2010) ‘Women’s Participation in Transitional Justice Mechanisms: Comparing Transitional Processes in Timor Leste and Sierra Leone’. Electronic Theses and Dissertations.255. (Accessed 1 March 2019).
[10]. Muddell, K. (2007). ‘Capturing the Experiences of Conflict: Transitional Justice in Sierra Leone,’ MSU Journal of International Law, Vol. 15, No 1 pp85-100.
[11]. Njeri, G. and Njeri, C. (2016) Devolution and Womens’ Decision Making in Leadership in Kenya Wanjiru. (Accessed 2 March 2019)
[12]. Kelsall, M. S., & Stepakoff, S. (2007). ‘When we wanted to talk about rape’: Silencing sexual violence at the Special Court for Sierra Leone. International Journal of Transitional Justice, 1(3), 355-374.
[13]. Lancaster House Agreement, 21 December 1979. Southern Rhodesia Constitutional Conference Held at Lancaster House, London September – December 1979 Report. (Accessed 1 March 2019).
[14]. Mackay, F. (2019). The Impact of Devolution on Women’s Citizenship in Scotland.
[15]. McKay, S. (2000). ‘Gender justice and reconciliation’. Women’s Studies International Forum, 23(5), 561-570.
[16]. Mauclay, F. (1998). Localities of Power. Gender, Parties and Democracy. In Haleh Afshar (ed) Women and Empowerment. Illustrations from The Third World. Macmillan Press Ltd: London.
[17]. Murisa, T. (2018). ‘Land, Populism and Rural Politics in Zimbabwe’. (Accessed 1 March 2019)
[18]. Nyangairi, B. (2010). Migrant Women in Sex Work: Trajectories and Perceptions of Zimbabwean Sex Workers in Hillbrow, South Africa, Unpublished Masters Thesis University of Witwatersrand.
[19]. Nowrojee, B. (2005). ‘Making the invisible war crime visible: Post-conflict justice for Sierra Leon’s rape victims’. Harvard Human Rights Journal,Vol 18 pp85-100.
[20]. Roht, A. (2006) Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century Beyond Truth versus Justice.Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
[21]. Ross, J. (1980). Zimbabwe Gains Independence. Washington Post independence/185c3573-e9e4-4d3a-9dce-5fe89bf04605/?utm_term=.223a7f83d846.(Accessed 28 February 2019).
[22]. Sibanda, M. (2011). Married Too Soon: Child Marriage in Zimbabwe. http://researchand (Accessed on 8 March 2019).
[23]. United Nations Chronicle (2010). Increasing Women’s Access to Justice in Post-Conflict Societies. (Accessed 28 February 2019).
[24]. US Department of State Transitional Justice Overview. (Accessed 28 February 2019).
[25]. Waterville, M., & Olea, H. (2002). No justice, no peace: Discussion of a legal framework regarding the demobilization of non-state armed groups in Colombia. In N. Roht-Arriaza & J. Mariezcurrena (Eds.), Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice (pp. 120-142). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lilian Chaminuka “Gendered Impact of Zimbabwe’s Transitional Justice: Too Little Too Late” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.94-100 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Social Studies Student Teachers’ Views on the implementation of Learner-Centred Approach in Zambian Primary Schools

Robinson Mambwe- March 2019 Page No.: 101-109

The study explored social studies student teachers’ views on the implementation of learner-centred teaching and learning approach in Zambian primary schools. Triangulation research design which collected both quantitative and qualitative data was used. This involved survey questionnaires which were distributed to 600 third year student teachers who were randomly sampled from 6 primary colleges of education using class registers provided by respective college registrars. Out of 600 questionnaires, 561 were returned back representing a return rate of 93.5%. Face to face interviews were also conducted with student teachers who were conveniently sampled from three colleges. The total students who participated in the interviews were 21. The interviews collected detailed qualitative narratives regarding student teachers’ experience with implementation of learner-centred approach. The findings of this study pointed to the fact that the policy emphasis on using learner-centred approach in the teaching learning process has not really taken off in Zambian Primary Schools.Most student teachers reported that the traditional teacher led classrooms still dominate and characterise classroom in primary schools. A number of challenges ranging from low literacy levels, over enrolments (high number of pupils per class), inadequate time allocated per subject lesson per day, and lack of teaching and learning materials were cited for the non-implementation of leaner-centred approaches. The teachers however expressed positive attitude towards learner-centred approach citing among other benefits promotion of learner participation, improved retention of knowledge among learners, development of problem solving skills, motivation of learners and ownership of the learning process by learners. Since the fundamental goal of teaching social studies through learner-centred approach in schools is to help students become responsible, critical, reflective, and active citizens who can make informed and reasoned decisions about the societal issues confronting the local, state, and global community respectively (Yilmaz, 2008), the study concluded that the views of primary teachers did not inspire the realisation of this goal. The study recommends school based programmes aimed at capacity building on how apply learner-centred methods in classroom situations with high numbers of pupils and low literacy levels among other deterrent factors.

Page(s): 101-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 March 2019

  Robinson Mambwe
School of Education, University of Zambia

[1]. Akyeampong, K., Pryor, J.&Ampiah, J. (1999). ‘A vision of successful schooling: Ghanaian teachers’ understanding of learning, teaching and assessment’ Paper presented at BERA conference University of Sussex (September 1999).
[2]. Alexander, R., (2000). Culture and Pedagogy: International Comparisons in Primary Education. Blackwell, Oxford.
[3]. Amakali, A. (2017). Primary teacher’s perceptions and implementation of learner-centred education in the Namibian primary classroom: A case study. Global Education Research Journal: ISSN-2360-7963: 5(10). 679-689.
[4]. Anderson, S. (Ed.), (2002). School Improvement through Teacher Development: Case Studies of the Aga Khan Foundation Projects in East Africa. Swets&Zetlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands.
[5]. Andrews, P., and G. Hatch. (2000). A comparison of Hungarian and English teachers’ conceptions of mathematics and its teaching. Educational Studies in Mathematics 43: 31–64.
[6]. Banda, B., Mudenda. Tindi, E. & Nakai, K. (2014). Towards Learner Centred Science Lessons in Zambia: An Experience of Problem Solving Approach in Biology Lessons. Zambia journal of Teacher professional growth (ZJTPG). 2 (1). 86-96
[7]. Carron, G., Chau, T.N., (1996). The Quality of Primary Schools in Different Development Contexts. UNESCO, Paris.
[8]. Chisholm L, Leyendecker, R. (2008). Curriculum reform in post-1990s sub-Saharan Africa,
[9]. Chisholm L, Leyendecker R (2008) Curriculum reform in post-1990s sub-Saharan Africa,
[10]. Clark, C.M., and Peterson, P.L. (1986). Teachers’ thought processes. InHandbook of research on teaching, ed. M.C. Wittrock, 255–96, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan.
[11]. Craig, H.J., Kraft, R.J., du Plessels, J., (1998). Teacher Development: Making an Impact. World Bank, Washington, DC.
[12]. Crocco, M. S., & Marino, M. P. (2014). Investigating a neighborhood: An activity using the C3 framework. Social Studies and the Young Learner, 27 (1), 19–24.
[13]. Dembélé, M. &Lefoka, P. (2007). Pedagogical renewal for quality universal primary education:Overview of trends in sub-Saharan Africa, International Review of Education, 53: 531–553.
[14]. Fang, Z. (1996). A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices. Educational Research38, no. 1: 47–65.
[15]. Farrell, J.P. (2002). The Aga Khan Foundation experience compared with emerging alternatives to schooling. In: Anderson, S. (Ed.), School Improvement Through Teacher Development: Case Studies of The Aga Khan Foundation Projects in East Africa. Swets&Zetlinger, Netherlands
[16]. Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). Helping novices learn to teach: Lessons from exemplary support teacher. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(1), 17-30.
[17]. Felder, R.M., & Brent, R. (2003). Learning by doing. Education, 37 (41), 282-283.
[18]. Fraenkel, J.R. 1992. A portrait of four social studies classes. Paper presented at the annualmeeting of the American Educational Research Association, in San Francisco. ERICDocument Reproduction Service No. ED 350 209
[19]. Hancock, E.S., and A.J. Gallard. (2004). Preservice science teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning: The influence of K-12 field experiences. Journal of Science Teacher Education 15, no. 4: 281–91.
[20]. Hardman, F., Abd-Kadir, J. & Smith, F. (2008). Pedagogical renewal: Improving the quality of classroom interaction in Nigerian primary schools, International Journal of EducationalDevelopment, 28 (1): 55-69.
[21]. International Journal of Educational Development, 28 (2): 195-205.
[22]. International Journal of Educational Development, 28 (2): 195-205.
[23]. Jessop, T. & Penny, A. (1998) A study of teacher voice and vision in the narratives of rural South African and Gambian primary school teachers. International Journal of Educational Development, 18(5), 393-403.
[24]. Lewin K., & Stuart J. (2002) Final Evaluation of Teacher Education in Five Developing World Countries – MUSTER Report, Forthcoming DFID Report, UK.
[25]. Ministry of Education. (1996). Educating our future: National policy on education. Lusaka: Zambia Educational Publishing House.
[26]. Ministry of Education. (2013). Education Curriculum Framework 2013. Lusaka: Curriculum Development Centre.
[27]. Mpofu, K. (2002). An Investigation into the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Home Economics Teachers with Respect to Learner-centred Methods of Teaching in the Windhoek Educational Region. University of Namibia, M.Ed. Thesis.
[28]. Murphy, E. &Rodriguez-Manzanares, M.A. (2008). High School Teachers’ Beliefs about High School Learner-centred E-Learning. E-Learning 5(4) 384-395.
[29]. Mtika, P. and Gates, P. (2010). Developing learner-centred education among secondary trainee teachers in Malawi: The dilemma of appropriation and application, International Journalof Educational Development, 30 (4): 396-404.
[30]. National Council for the Social Studies. (1993). Position statement: A vision of powerfulteaching and learning in the social studies: Building social understanding and civicefficacy. Social Education 57, no. 5: 213–23.
[31]. NIED (2003). Learner-Centred Education in the Namibian Context: A Conceptual Framework. Windhoek: John Meinert
[32]. O’Sullivan, M. (2006). ‘Teaching Large Classes: The International Evidence and a Discussion of some Good Practices in Ugandan primary schools.’ In International Journal of Educational Development. 26. 24-37 (Retrieved 11/ 10/ 2016). 85
[33]. Scheerens, J.(2000). Improving School Effectiveness: Fundamentals of Education Planning No. 68. UNESCO/IIEP, Paris.
[34]. Schweinfurt, M. (2011). Learner-centred education in developing country contexts: from solution to problem. International Journal of Education Development. 31, 425-432
[35]. Slabbert, I. &Greenhalgh, S. (1999). Student-Centered Teacher Education for learner-centered teachers: A Namibian Perspective. Reform Journal. 7(7), 1-8.
[36]. Thompson, A.G. 1992. Teachers’ beliefs and conceptions: A synthesis of the research. In Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning, ed. D.A. Grouws, 127–46. New York: Macmillan.
[37]. UNESCO (2005). Education for All global monitoring report: The quality imperative. Paris: UNESCO.
[38]. Van Graan, M. (1998). Learners-centred education: equal to group work? Reform Forum, 8(2), 5.
[39]. Verspoor, A.M. (Ed.), (2003). The Challenge of Learning: Improving the Quality of Basic Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. ADEA, Paris.
[40]. Weimer, M. (2002) Learner-Centred Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[41]. Westbrook J., Durrani N., Brown, R.,Orr, D., Pryor, J., Buddy, J., Salvi, F. (2013).pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Final Report. Education Rigorous Literature Review. Department for International Development.
[42]. Westbrook J., Durrani N., Brown, R.,Orr, D., Pryor, J., Buddy, J., Salvi, F. (2013).pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Final Report. Education Rigorous Literature Review. Department for International Development
[43]. Woods, E. (2007). Tanzania country case study. (Country Profile commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report2008, Education for All by 2015: Will We Make It? Paris, UNESCO.
[44]. World Bank (2008). Curricula, examinations, and assessment in secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Robinson Mambwe, “Social Studies Student Teachers’ Views on the implementation of Learner-Centred Approach in Zambian Primary Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.101-109 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Factors Affecting Quality of Building Construction Projects in Informal Settlements within Nairobi City County, Kenya

Nyaga G. Juster, Samuel Thiong’o – March 2019 Page No.: 110-116

Construction industry plays a major role in the development and achievement of society’s goals, contributing to about 10% of the Gross National Product (GNP) in industrialized countries and, it constitute 60-70% of the national wealth and about 20% of the annual wealth creation in less developed countries. Despite of the weight given to the construction industry, quality of construction projects has been questioned as indicated by widespread collapse of building structures in Kenya. This study sought to find out factors contributing to the quality of construction projects with the focus on the effects of technical factors and economic factors. A descriptive research design was adopted. The target population of 412 completed and ongoing projects was used, which had a workforce of 1678, from which a sample of 30% (503) was selected. Primary data was collected using questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Statistics V 22.0 was used to analyses the data. Descriptive statistics indicated study variables were very important as shown by high values of mean and the opinions of respondents had low variations as shown by low values of standard deviation. The study findings indicate that technical factors and quality of the construction projects are positively and significantly relate (r=0.145, p=0.005) and economic factors and quality of construction projects are positively and significantly related (r=0.076, p=0.001). The study concludes that technical and economic factors contribute to the quality of construction projects in informal settlement and should be given weight they deserve. The study recommends that the government should ensure there is documentation and enforcement of the policies, systems, processes and procedures to help the construction practitioners manage construction work effectively.

Page(s): 110-116                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 March 2019

 Nyaga G. Juster
Tutorial Fellow, Management University of Africa, Kenya

 Samuel Thiong’o
Tutorial Fellow, Management University of Africa, Kenya

[1]. Cheung, O. and Suen, K. (2015).Impact of Environmental Factors on Building Project Performance in Delta State, Nigeria.
[2]. Cunningham, T. (2013).Factors Affecting the Cost of Building Work. Dublin Institute of Technology
[3]. Hargrove, J. (2004) positivism, critical inquiry and constructivism: Three theoretical Approaches and their use in studying interdisciplinary Design Education. Analytical Essay. DDN 702.
[4]. Jergeas, G.E., Williamson, E., Skulmoski, G.J., Thomas, J.L., 2000. Stakeholder management on construction projects. AACE International Transactions 12, 1–5.
[5]. Kothari C. (2004) the Research Target, 7th Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, New Delhi, India
[6]. Mugenda, O. M and Mugenda, A.G.(2003). Research Methods: Qualitative and QualitativeApproaches. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi, Kenya.
[7]. Müller, R. &Jugdev, K. (2012). Critical success factors in projects Pinto, Slevin, and Prescott – the elucidation of project success. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 5(4), 757-775
[8]. Mutisya, E and Yarime, M. (2011).Understanding the Grassroots Dynamics of Slums in Nairobi: The Dilemma of Kibera Informal Settlements. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management and Applied Science and Technologies
[9]. Nyandika, O. F. &Ngugi, K. (2014).Influence of Stakeholders’ Participation on Performance of Road Projects at Kenya National Highways Authority. European Journal of Business Management, 1 (11), 384-404.
[10]. Patton, M., (2008).Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Sage Publications, Newbury Park California
[11]. Raceca (2013).The Major Road Network: Eighth Report of Session 20012-13. Available at: Accessed on (Accessed on 7th July 2016).
[12]. Rogers, E. (1962). Diffusion of Innovations, 1st Edition.Simon and Schuster.ISBN 978-0- 7432-5823-4.
[13]. Saunders, M., Lewis, P and Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students (5th Ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
[14]. Tabish, S., &Jha, K. (2012).Success Traits for a Construction Project.Journal of Construction Engineering & Management, 138(10), 1131-1138.

Nyaga G. Juster, Samuel Thiong’o “Factors Affecting Quality of Building Construction Projects in Informal Settlements within Nairobi City County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.110-116 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


A Theoretical Analysis of the Legal Status of Transgender: Bangladesh Perspective

Sunjida Islam – March 2019 Page No.: 117-119

In Bangladesh, the number of transgendered peoples are increasing day by day. These transgendered peoples are commonly known as ‘Hijra’ in the society. They are normally looked down because they are not treated as normal human beings in the society. They are brutally neglected by the society and the government as they don’t have the approved gender identity. This hijra group of people are received recognition from the government of Bangladesh as ‘Third gender’. But the government has not yet enacted any laws for the benefits of hijras to ensure their legal rights, sociological rights and political rights also. Recently many countries of the world have enacted some specific laws regarding the status of transgender community to protect their legal, social and political rights. In some Asian, South Asian and European countries the transgendered group are also acknowledged as the third gender group. Now-a-days most of the transgendered people of the world including Bangladesh are living critically and miserably because of their unsettled rights. They are also living in fair and detachment due to different types of superstitions and frustrations. This article has an assertion and provided some recommendations which may help to enact a separate law for hijras to protect their different rights like social, legal, political and others. This paper may also assist to bring some changes of the status of hisra community.

Page(s): 117-119                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 March 2019

 Sunjida Islam
Lecturer, Department of Law, Rajshahi Science & Technology University, Natore, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

[1]. Chakrapani, V. (2010). Hijras/transgender women in India: HIV, human rights and social exclusion. Report of United Nations Development Program (UNDP), India.
[2]. Article 28 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
[3]. Stryker, S. and Whittle, S. (2006) Transgender Studies Reader. Routledge: New York, London).
[4]. Agrawal, A. (1997). Gendered bodies: The case of the “third gender” in India. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 31, 273–297.
[5]. Khan, S., Hussain, M., & Parveen, S. (2009). Living on The Extreme Margin: Social Exclusion of the Transgender Population in Bangladesh. Journal of health Population and Nutrition, 27 (4), 441-451.
[7]. Doussantousse, S., & Keovongchith, B. (2004). In Male Sexual Health: Kathoeys In The Lao PDR, South East Asia Exploring A Gender Minority. Sexuality, Genders and Rights In Asia , 7.
[8]. Jackson, P. A. (1997). Kathoey Gay Man: The Historical Emergence of Gay Male Identity In Thailand. (M. L. M., Ed.) Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.
[9]. Cabrera, J. (2009). Are You Man Enough To Be A Woman?
[10]. Ministry of Social Welfare. Living standard development Program for Hijra community.

Sunjida Islam “A Theoretical Analysis of the Legal Status of Transgender: Bangladesh Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.117-119 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Analysis of the Effect of the Working Environment to the Job Satisfaction of the Air Hostesses (With Special Reference to Sri Lankan Airlines)

H.M.W.M.Herath, W.G.N.S.C.D.Wijerathna- March 2019 Page No.: 120-123


Air hostess job position is not similar to any other career because they are the people who are met very firstly when anyone flies to some other country. Air Hostesses can be called as the unofficial country ambassadors because they spread out the culture of the country, warm welcome and the grand hospitality to the outer world. The first impression about the country where is yet to be visited is made with the cordial welcome and the courteous service of the flight attendant. Air hostess is not just a lady who serves food and beverages to the passengers while travelling on a flight. She needs to take care of the safety and security of all the passengers on board. That’s actually not a easy task to do as a lady. There were victorious air hostesses who are considered as heroines in the industry. Ms.Neerja Bhanot – a purser for Pan Am flight 73 and her lost her life while protecting the passengers when the flight was hijacked by terrorists on 5th of September 1986 in Karachchi, Pakisthan. Still her name is remembered just because of the bravery she had and the way she protected the passengers. Air hostess should be such a character to face for any type of difficulties by protecting all the people’s lives.

Page(s): 120-123                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 March 2019

Department of Management Sciences, Uva Wellassa University, Sri Lanka

Department of Management Sciences, Uva Wellassa University, Sri Lanka

[1]. Airport, 2015, Services, A., Lanka, S. and Limited (2009) Historyof aviation. Available at:
[2]. Avers, K.B., Nei, D., King, S.J., Thomas, S., Roberts, C., Banks, J.O. and Nesthus, T.E., 2011. Flight attendant fatigue: A quantitative review of flight attendant comments (No. DOT/FAA/AM-11/16). Federal aviation administration Oklahoma city ok civil aerospace medical inst.
[3]. Conducive work environment ensures the well-being of employees which invariably will enable them exert themselves to their roles with all vigour that may translate to higher productivity (Akinyele, 2007).”(Noah and Steve, 2012)
[4]. Ebrahim, A. (1991). Comparative Study of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction among Public and Private SectorsPublic Personnel Management – Ebrahim A. Maidani, 1991. [online] Available at:
[5]. Lee, C., An, M. and Noh, Y., 2012. The social dimension of service workers’ job satisfaction: The perspective of flight attendants. Journal of Service Science and Management, 5(02), p.160.
[6]. MacDonald, L.A., Deddens, J.A., Grajewski, B.A., Whelan, E.A. and Hurrell, J.J., 2003. Job stress among female flight attendants. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 45(7), pp.703-714.
[7]. Perls,F.(2011,March)Correlation Coefficient r and Beta (standardised regression coefficients).
[8]. Salunke, G., 2015. Work environment and its effect on job satisfaction in cooperative sugar factories in Maharashtra. India. Abhinav. International Monthly Refereed Journal of Research in Management & Technology, 4(5), pp.21-31.
[9]. Sarode, D.A.P. and Shirsath, M. (2012) The Factors Affecting Employee Work Environment & It’s Relation with Employee Productivity. Available at:
[10]. SRI LANKAN AIRLINES annual report 2015/2016. Annual report, Sri Lankan Airlines. [online] Sri Lankan AIrlines Annual Reports.
[11]. Report/SriLankan_Airlines_Annual_Report_2015-16_English.pdf
[12]. Raziqa, Abdul and Raheela Maulabakhsh. “Impact Of Working Environment On Job Satisfaction”. Procedia Economics and Finance. N.p., 2015.

H.M.W.M.Herath, W.G.N.S.C.D.Wijerathna, “Analysis of the Effect of the Working Environment to the Job Satisfaction of the Air Hostesses (With Special Reference to Sri Lankan Airlines)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.120-123 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


The Relevance and Applicability of the Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment Clause in International Trade Agreements

ROBINSON, Monday Olulu, OBAYORI, Joseph Bidemi – March 2019 Page No.: 124-128

The paper examines the relevance and applicability of the Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment Clause in International Trade Agreement. The paper articulates other World Trade Organization (WTO) standards, such as National Treatment and the International Minimum Standards. The MFN is an instrument adopted by WTO to reduce discrimination and enhance transparency in international exchange of goods, services, investments, and property rights. The paper revealed that the MFN standards are substantive acknowledgement of the classical liberal approach to international trade, as expounded by Smith, Harberler, etc. The paper noted that developing countries have not benefitted sufficiently from the various treatment standards. First, trade have not been so liberalized by the industrialized countries because of protectionist regimes, while low capital, manpower and technological exports of the LDCs have limited the chances of the poor countries to benefit from trade agreements. A liberal trade agreement anchored on MFN and other standards of the multilateral institutions will culminate in an agreement between unequals. The LDCs do not have the investment capacity. Thus the opportunities provided by the various treatment standards are reaped by the superior partners on the agreement between the LDCs and the industrialized countries. The paper suggests that LDCs should explore more of Bi-lateral agreements. In Bi-lateral agreement the developing countries, using experts can negotiate trade agreement that will accommodate the economic policy of government and development plans. It is also instructive that African countries improve in the production of capital goods and technology for export. Export of tertiary goods and technology will launch African countries into the competitive world trade.

Page(s): 124-128                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 March 2019

 ROBINSON, Monday Olulu
Department of Economics University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 OBAYORI, Joseph Bidemi
Department of Economics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Nigeria

[1]. Alwyn,F. (1938).The international responsibility for States for denial of justice. Belgium: Longmans, Green.
[2]. Anyanwu, J.C. (1997). The structure of the Nigerian economy. Onitsha: Joanee Educational Publishers.
[3]. Berkeley Law University of California (2017).The GATT and the
[4]. Davis, J. (2008). Intellectual property law, 3rd edition. London: Oxford.
[5]. Haberler, V.G. (1959). The theory of international trade, with its application to commercial policy.London, chapter XII.
[6]. Nyong, M.O. (2005). International economics: Theory, policy and applications. Calabar: Wusen Publishers.
[7]. Okogbule, N.S. (2012). Globalization and human rights in Africa: Nigeria: Sibon Books Ltd.
[8]. Part II Chapter I: Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment Principle. www.mef.go.JP/ english/report/downloadfiles/gcT0212e.pdf.
[9]. Ricardo, David (1817). On the principles of political economy and taxation, chapter VII, Sraffa edition, Cambridge 1951.
[10]. Shaffer, G. (2005). The challenges of WTO law, strategies for developing countries adoption, UK.
[11]. Smith, A. (1776). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations: Glasgow edition.
[12]. Soderstein, B.O. & Geoffrey, R. (1994).International economics. Macmillan.
[13]. UNCTAD (2010).Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment Agreement II. New York and Geneva: UN.

ROBINSON, Monday Olulu, OBAYORI, Joseph Bidemi “The Relevance and Applicability of the Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment Clause in International Trade Agreements” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.124-128 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Green HR Practices and Its Impact on Employee Work Satisfaction – A Case Study on IBBL, Bangladesh

Sabbir Hassan Chowdhury, Sanjoy Kumar Roy, Murshedul Arafin, Sifat Siddiquee – March 2019 Page No.: 129-138

Green HR is a buzzing issue in the current world. The green HR practices are very emerging concept for a green organization (e.g. green bank) and also for the environment and for the planet. But the matter is that the implementation of Green HR is solely dependent on the management as well as on the employees and in considering this policy, employee work satisfaction should also be considered. This paper is attempts to reveal the impact of Green HR practices in the banking sector in context of Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd (IBBL) on the employee work satisfaction. For this purpose the researchers take data of 100 samples from various branches of IBBL and run Spearman correlation and simple linear regression analysis. The study reveals that there is positive relationship among the green HR practices and employees work satisfaction. And green HR practice positively and significantly affect employee work satisfaction in the context of banking sector which is surely creating a new horizon in the field of banking practices. From the study organizations of Bangladesh can get a specific view about successful endeavor in enhancing the work satisfaction level of employees what is beneficial for the organization and also for the human and earth.

Page(s): 129-138                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 March 2019

 Sabbir Hassan Chowdhury
Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, City University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Sanjoy Kumar Roy
Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, City University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Murshedul Arafin
Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, City University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Sifat Siddiquee
Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, City University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

[1]. Ahmad, F., Zayed, N. M., & Harun, M. A. Factors behind the Adoption of Green Banking by Bangladeshi Commercial Banks.
[2]. Arnold, W.E. (March, 1989). An assessment of organizational listening. Paper presented at the International Listening Association Convention, Atlanta, GA.
[3]. Bahl, S. (2012). The role of green banking in sustainable growth. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services and Management Research, 1(2), 27-35.
[4]. Bangwal, D., & Tiwari, P. (2015). Green HRM–A way to greening the environment. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 17(12), 45-53.
[5]. Beard, C., & Rees, S. (2000). Green teams and the management of environmental change in a UK county council. Environmental Management and Health, 11(1), 27-38.
[6]. Beauregard, T. A., & Henry, L. C. (2009). Making the link between work-life balance practices and organizational performance. Human resource management review, 19(1), 9-22.
[7]. Bebbington, J. (2001). Sustainable development: A review of the international development, business and accounting literature. Accounting Forum, 25, 128–157.
[8]. Berrone, P., & Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (2009). Environmental performance and executive compensation: An integrated agency-institutional perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 52(1), 103-126.
[9]. Berry, M. A., & Rondinelli, D. A. (1998). Proactive corporate environmental management: A new industrial revolution. The Academy of Management Executive, 12(2), 38-50.
[10]. Bhardwaj, B. R., & Malhotra, A. (2013). Green banking strategies: sustainability through corporate entrepreneurship. Greener Journal of Business and Management Studies, 3(4), 180-193.
[11]. Birks, J., & Grimley Evans, J. (2007). Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2.
[12]. Bryman, A. & Bell, E. (2005), Business research methods,, Liber, Malmö
[13]. Çalişkan, K. (2010). Market threads: How cotton farmers and traders create a global commodity. Princeton University Press.
[14]. Callenbach, E. (1993). EcoManagement: The Elmwood guide to ecological auditing and sustainable business. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
[15]. Cherian, J. P., & Jacob, J. (2012). A study of green HR practices and its effective implementation in the organization: A review. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(21), 25.
[16]. Choudhury, T. T., Salim, M., Al Bashir, M., & Saha, P. (2013). Influence of stakeholders in developing green banking products in Bangladesh. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4(7), 67-77.
[17]. Christensen, L., Engdahl, N., Grääs, C., Haglund, L. (2010). ”Market research a hand book‖. Third Edition. Student litteratur AB, Lund, Sweden.
[18]. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological assessment, 7(3), 309.
[19]. Cohen, M. A. (1998). The monetary value of saving a high-risk youth. Journal of quantitative criminology, 14(1), 5-33.
[20]. Cohen, E., Taylor, S., & Muller-Camen, M. (2010). HR’s role in corporate social responsibility and sustainability. Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) Report, SHRM, Virginia, available at: www. shrm. org/about/foundation/products/Pages/Sustainability EPG. aspx (accessed 24 January 2014).
[21]. Collier, J., & Esteban, R. (2007). Corporate social responsibility and employee commitment. Business ethics: A European review, 16(1), 19-33.
[22]. Collins, C. J., & Clark, K. D. (2003). Strategic human resource practices, top management team social networks, and firm performance: The role of human resource practices in creating organizational competitive advantage. Academy of management Journal, 46(6), 740-751.
[23]. Daily, B. F., & Huang, S. C. (2001). Achieving sustainability through attention to human resource factors in environmental management. International Journal of operations & production management, 21(12), 1539-1552.
[24]. Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Steiner, R. (2007). The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance. Journal of applied business research, 23(1), 95.
[25]. Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Govindarajulu, N. (2009). A conceptual model for organizational citizenship behavior directed toward the environment. Business & Society, 48(2), 243-256.
[26]. Deka, G. (2015). Green Banking Practices: A Study on environmental strategies of banks with special reference to State bank of India. Indian Journal of Commerce and Management Studies, 6(3), 11.
[27]. Del Brìo, J. A., & Junquera, B. (2003). A review of the literature on environmental innovation management in SMEs: implications for public policies. Technovation, 23(12), 939-948.
[28]. Del Brío, J. Á., Fernandez, E., & Junquera, B. (2007). Management and employee involvement in achieving an environmental action-based competitive advantage: an empirical study. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(4), 491-522.
[29]. Dutta, S. (2014). Greening people: a strategic dimension.
[30]. D.F. Birks and N.K. Malhotra, Business research methods (Third European Edition, 2007)
[31]. Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of tourism studies, 2(2), 2-12.
[32]. Epstein, M. J., & Roy, M. J. (1997). Using ISO 14000 for improved organizational learning and environmental management. Environmental Quality Management, 7(1), 21-30.
[33]. Fayyazi, M., Shahbazmoradi, S., Afshar, Z., & Shahbazmoradi, M. (2015). Investigating the barriers of the green human resource management implementation in oil industry. Management Science Letters, 5(1), 101-108.
[34]. Fenwick, T., & Bierema, L. (2008). Corporate social responsibility: issues for human resource development professionals. International Journal of training and Development, 12(1), 24-35.
[35]. Fernández, E., Junquera, B., & Ordiz, M. (2003). Organizational culture and human resources in the environmental issue: a review of the literature. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(4), 634-656.
[36]. Ferris, G. R., Treadway, D. C., Perrewé, P. L., Brouer, R. L., Douglas, C., & Lux, S. (2007). Political skill in organizations. Journal of Management, 33(3), 290-320.
[37]. Florida, R., & Davison, D. (2001). Gaining from green management: environmental management systems inside and outside the factory. California Management Review, 43(3), 64-84.
[38]. Forman, M., & J⊘ rgensen, M. S. G. (2001). The social shaping of the participation of employees in environmental work within enterprises-experiences from a Danish context. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 13(1), 71-90.
[39]. Goldhaber, G.M., Porter, D.T., Yates, M.P., & Lesniak, R. (1978). Organizational communication. Human Communication Research, 5(1), 76-96
[40]. González‐Benito, J., & González‐Benito, Ó. (2006). A review of determinant factors of environmental proactivity. Business Strategy and the environment, 15(2), 87-102.
[41]. Govindarajulu, N., & Daily, B. F. (2004). Motivating employees for environmental improvement. Industrial management & data systems, 104(4), 364-372.
[42]. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 207-219). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall.
[43]. Harmon, J., Fairfield, K. D., & Wirtenberg, J. (2010). Missing an opportunity: HR leadership and sustainability. People and strategy, 33(1), 16.
[44]. Harvey, G., Williams, K., & Probert, J. (2013). Greening the airline pilot: HRM and the green performance of airlines in the UK. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(1), 152-166.
[45]. Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K., & Prennushi, G. (1997). The effects of human resource management practices on productivity: A study of steel finishing lines. The American Economic Review, 291-313.
[46]. Islam, M. S., & Das, P. C. (2013). Green banking practices in Bangladesh. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 8(3), 39-44.
[47]. Jabbour, C. J. C., & Santos, F. C. A. (2008). Relationships between human resource dimensions and environmental management in companies: proposal of a model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(1), 51-58.
[48]. Jabbour, C. J. C., Santos, F. C. A., & Nagano, M. S. (2010). Contributions of HRM throughout the stages of environmental management: methodological triangulation applied to companies in Brazil. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(7), 1049-1089.
[49]. Jabbour, C. J. C., de Sousa Jabbour, A. B. L., Govindan, K., Teixeira, A. A., & de Souza Freitas, W. R. (2013). Environmental management and operational performance in automotive companies in Brazil: the role of human resource management and lean manufacturing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 47, 129-140.
[50]. Jackson, S. E., Renwick, D. W., Jabbour, C. J., & Muller-Camen, M. (2011). State-of-the-art and future directions for green human resource management: Introduction to the special issue. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(2), 99-116.
[51]. Jose Chiappetta Jabbour, C. (2011). How green are HRM practices, organizational culture, learning and teamwork? A Brazilian study. Industrial and Commercial Training, 43(2), 98-105.
[52]. Khan, A. H. (2016). Employees Perception on Performance Appraisal System in a public limited company in Pakistan. International Journal of learning and development, 6(3), 168-200.
[53]. King, A. A., & Lenox, M. J. (2001). Lean and green? An empirical examination of the relationship between lean production and environmental performance. Production and operations management, 10(3), 244-256.
[54]. Kitazawa, S., & Sarkis, J. (2000). The relationship between ISO 14001 and continuous source reduction programs. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 20(2), 225-248.
[55]. Ko, M., Mancha, R., Beebe, N., & Yoon, H. S. (2012). Customers’ personality, their perceptions, and green concern on internet banking use. Journal of Information Technology Management, 23(4), 21.
[56]. Lai, K. H., Cheng, T. C. E., & Tang, A. K. (2010). Green retailing: factors for success. California Management Review, 52(2), 6-31.
[57]. Lalon, R. M. (2015). Green banking: Going green. International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 3(1), 34-42.
[58]. Laursen, K. & Foss, N. J. (2003). New human resource management practices, complementarities, and the impact on innovation performance. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 27, 243–63.
[59]. Lawler, E. E. (2005). From human resource management to organizational effectiveness. Human resource management, 44(2), 165-169.
[60]. Lee, K. H. (2009). Why and how to adopt green management into business organizations? The case study of Korean SMEs in manufacturing industry. Management Decision, 47(7), 1101-1121.
[61]. Machiba, T. (2010). Eco-innovation for enabling resource efficiency and green growth: development of an analytical framework and preliminary analysis of industry and policy practices. International Economics and Economic Policy, 7(2-3), 357-370.
[62]. Maddox, R. N. (1985). Measuring satisfiaction with tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 23(3), 2-5.
[63]. Madsen, H., & Ulhøi, J. P. (2001). Greening of human resources: environmental awareness and training interests within the workforce. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 101(2), 57-65.
[64]. Malhotra, Y. (2004). Why knowledge management systems fail: enablers and constraints of knowledge management in human enterprises. In Handbook on Knowledge Management 1 (pp. 577-599). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
[65]. Malholtra, N. (2010), “Marketing research: an applied orientation” Sixth edition, Pearson education, New Jersey
[66]. Mandip, G. (2012). Green HRM: People management commitment to environmental sustainability. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, ISSN, 2277, 2502.
[67]. Marhatta, S., & Adhikari, S. (2013). Green HRM and sustainability. International eJournal Of Ongoing Research in Management & IT.
[68]. Massoud, J. A., Daily, B. F., & Bishop, J. W. (2008). Reward for environmental performance: Using the Scanlon Plan as catalyst to green organisations. International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment, 4(1), 15-31.
[69]. May, D. R., & Flannery, B. L. (1995). Cutting waste with employee involvement teams. Business Horizons, 38(5), 28-39.
[70]. McClave, J. T., Benson, P. G., & Sincich, T. (2005). Statistics for business and economics-Student solutions manual. Pearson Prentice Hall.
[71]. McDonagh, P., & Prothero, A. (1997). Green management: A reader. London: Dryden Press.
Melnyk, S. A., Sroufe, R. P., & Calantone, R. (2003). Assessing the impact of environmental management systems on corporate and environmental performance. Journal of Operations Management, 21(3), 329-351.
[72]. Mendelson, H., & Pillai, R. R. (1999). Information age organizations, dynamics and performance. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 38(3), 253-281.
[73]. Milliman, J., & Clair, J. (1996). Best environmental HRM practices in the US. Greening people: Human resource and environmental management, 49-74.
[74]. Molina-Azorín, J. F., Claver-Cortés, E., Pereira-Moliner, J., & Tarí, J. J. (2009). Environmental practices and firm performance: an empirical analysis in the Spanish hotel industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17(5), 516-524.
[75]. Muster, V., & Schrader, U. (2011). Green work-life balance: A new perspective for green HRM. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(2), 140-156.
[76]. Nath, V., Nayak, N. &Goel , A. (2014). Green Banking Practices – A Review.International Journal of research In Business Management, Vol.2, No. 4, PP 45-72.
[77]. Nolan, S. A., & Heinzen, T. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral sciences. Macmillan.
[78]. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. 2nd ed. New York: McGrawHill.
[79]. Opatha, H. H. D. N. P., & Arulrajah, A. A. (2014). Green human resource management: Simplified general reflections. International Business Research, 7(8), 101.
[80]. Owen, D. (Ed.). (1992). Green reporting: Accountancy and the challenge of the nineties. Chapman & Hall.
[81]. Paillé, P., Chen, Y., Boiral, O., & Jin, J. (2014). The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study. Journal of Business Ethics, 121(3), 451-466.
[82]. Peattie, K. (1992). Green Marketing. London: Pitman.
[83]. Perron, G. M., Côté, R. P., & Duffy, J. F. (2006). Improving environmental awareness training in business. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(6-7), 551-562.
[84]. Phillips, L. (2007). Go green to gain the edge over rivals. People Management, 23(9).
[85]. Pintér, É., Deutsch, N., & Ottmár, Z. (2006). New direction line of Sustainable development and marketing in green banking.
[86]. Porter, L.W., Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T., & Boulian,P.V.(1974). Organizational commitment,job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians.Journal of Applied Psychology]59(5),603-609.
[87]. Rahman, F., & Perves, M. M. (2016).Green Banking Activities in Bangladesh: An Analysis and Summary of initiatives of bangladesh bank, 7(10), 21
[88]. Rahman, M., Ahsan, M. A., Hossain, M., & Hoq, M. R. (2013). Green banking prospects in Bangladesh.
[89]. Ramus, C. A. (2001). Organizational support for employees: Encouraging creative ideas for environmental sustainability. California management review, 43(3), 85-105.
[90]. Ramus, C. A. (2002). Encouraging innovative environmental actions: what companies and managers must do. Journal of world business, 37(2), 151-164.
[91]. Ramus, C. A., & Steger, U. (2000). The roles of supervisory support behaviors and environmental policy in employee “Ecoinitiatives” at leading-edge European companies. Academy of Management journal, 43(4), 605-626.
[92]. Rashid, N. R. N. A., Wahid, N. A., & Saad, N. M. (2006, November). Employees involvement in EMS, ISO 14001 and its spillover effects in consumer environmentally responsible behaviour. In International Conference on Environment Proceedings (ICENV 2006), 13th-15th November.
[93]. Renwick, D., Redman, T. & Maquire, S. (2008). Green HRM: A Review, Process Model, and Research Agenda, Discussion Paper Series, University of Sheffield Management School, The University of Sheffield.
[94]. Renwick, D. W., Redman, T., & Maguire, S. (2013). Green human resource management: A review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(1), 1-14.
[95]. Rothenberg, S. (2003). Knowledge content and worker participation in environmental management at NUMMI. Journal of management studies, 40(7), 1783-1802.
[96]. Roy, S.K., and Ahmed, J. (2016). A Relational Study on Communication, Reputation and Cooperation and Relationship satisfaction in the context Apparel Sector in Bangladesh. British Open Journal of Business Administration, 1, 1-10.
[97]. Russo, M. V., & Fouts, P. A. (1997). A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability. Academy of management Journal, 40(3), 534-559.
[98]. Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of personality, 63(3), 397-427.
[99]. Sahoo, B. P., Singh, A., & Jain, M. N. (2016). Green Banking In India: Problems and Prospects. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, 4(8), 92-99.
[100]. Sahoo, P. & Nayak, B. P. (2008), Green Banking in India. available at http// accessed on 10-03-11.
[101]. Saragih, S., & Margaretha, M. (2013, June). Anteseden dan Konsekuensi Employee Engagement: Studi pada Industri Perbankan. In Seminar Nasional dan Call for Paper, Universitas Kristen Maranatha (pp. 1-21).
[102]. Sarker, M. A. S (2015). The Influence of Human Resource Policies on Employee Performance in the Islamic Bank.
[103]. Sarkis, J., Gonzalez-Torre, P., & Adenso-Diaz, B. (2010). Stakeholder pressure and the adoption of environmental practices: The mediating effect of training. Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 163-176.
[104]. Sathyapriya, J., Kanimozhi, R., & Adhilakshmi, V. (2013). Green HRM-delivering high PERFORMANCE HR systems. International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management, 4(2), 19-25.
[105]. Schmidheiny, S., & Zorraquín, F. (1996). Financing Change: The Financial Community. Ecoefficiency, and Sustainable (Cambridge, Mass, London).
[106]. Sharfman, M. P., & Fernando, C. S. (2008). Environmental risk management and the cost of capital. Strategic management journal, 29(6), 569-592.
[107]. Singh, H., & Singh, B. P. (2012). An effective & resourceful contribution of green banking towards sustainability. International Journal of Advances in Engineering Science and Technology, 1(2), 41-45.
[108]. Stringer, L. (2010). The green workplace: Sustainable strategies that benefit employees, the environment, and the bottom line. St. Martin’s Press.
[109]. Sudhalakshmi, K., & Chinnadorai, K. M. (2014). Green banking practices in Indian banks. International Journal of Management and Commerce Innovations, 2(1), 232-235.
[110]. Szymanski, D. M., & Henard, D. H. (2001). Customer satisfaction: A meta-analysis of the empirical evidence. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 29(1), 16-35.
[111]. Ramayah, T., & Rahbar, E. (2013). Greening the environment through recycling: an empirical study. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 24(6), 782-801.
[112]. Verma, M. K. (2012). Green banking: a unique corporate social responsibility of India Banks. International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, 3(1), 110-114.
[113]. Wehrmeyer, W. (1996). Greening people: Human resources and environmental management. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing, 1-356.
[114]. Wehrmeyer, M. (1999). Reviewing corporate environmental strategy. Greener marketing: A global perspective on greening marketing practice, 41-56.
[115]. Westbrook, R. A. (1980). A rating scale for measuring product/service satisfaction. The Journal of Marketing, 68-72.
[116]. Westbrook, R. A., & Oliver, R. L. (1991). The dimensionality of consumption emotion patterns and consumer satisfaction. Journal of consumer research, 18(1), 84-91.
[117]. Williams, L.J., & Hazer, J.T. (1986). Antecedents and consequence of satisfaction and commitmentin turnover models.Journal ofApplied PSyChOlOgY, 71(2), 219-231.
[118]. Yusoff, Y. M., Ramayah, T., & Othman, N. Z. (2015). Why Examining Adoption Factors, HR Role and Attitude towards Using E-HRM is the Start-Off in Determining the Successfulness of Green HRM. J. Adv. Manag. Sci, 3.
[119]. Zoogah, D. B. (2011). The dynamics of Green HRM behaviors: A cognitive social information processing approach. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(2), 117-139.
[120]. Zikmund, V. (1994). G.(1994) Business Research Methods. Dryden. London CYNCOED.

Sabbir Hassan Chowdhury, Sanjoy Kumar Roy, Murshedul Arafin, Sifat Siddiquee “Green HR Practices and Its Impact on Employee Work Satisfaction – A Case Study on IBBL, Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.129-138 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


External Environmental Factors and Failure of Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

Dr Salihu Abubakar – March 2019 Page No.: 139-144

This study examines the relationship between external environmental factors and failure of SMEs in Lagos metropolis, using samples of failed SMEs in Lagos metropolis. Questionnaire was used to collect primary data from the sampled failed SMEs using snow ball method. The data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The outcome reveals that external environmental factors have significant impact on the failure of SMEs in Lagos metropolis, and financial inadequacy (FI) is the major contributing factor to the failure of SMEs in the Lagos metropolis; followed by market competition (MC), market demographics (MD), and inadequate infrastructure (II). In order to reduce SMEs failure and achieve significant positive contribution of SMEs sub-sector to the economic development of the state, the study recommends that government and relevant stakeholders should create an enabling business environment with financial support to SMEs, fair competition, sound market places and adequate infrastructures.

Page(s): 139-144                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2019

 Dr Salihu Abubakar
Department of Business Administration and Management, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

[1]. Ajayi, O. A. (2002). Development of Small Scale Industries in Nigeria. Being Paper Presented at Workshop on Grassroots Advocacy and Economic Development. September 11-13.
[2]. Akoja R., A & Hasret B. (2010). Financing Industrial Development in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Small and Medium Enterprises in Kwara State. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 10(3), 46-50
[3]. Akwani, O. (2007). Global Business Investing in Africa – The Case of Nigeria. Retrieved from:
[4]. Alarape, A. A. (2007). Entrepreneurship Programmes: Operational Efficiency and Growth of Small Businesses, Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 1(3), 222-239.
[5]. Anwatu, R., (2006). Micro Economic Environments”, NACCIMA News, May/June, No 70(3).
[6]. Arinaitwe, J.K. (2006). Factors Constraining the Growth and Survival of Small Scale Business. A Developing Country Analysis, Cambridge, Journal of American academy of Business, 2(4), 19-28.
[7]. Atsan, N. (2016). Failure Experiences of Entrepreneurs: Causes and Learning Outcomes. 12th International Strategic Management Conference, ISMC 2016, 28-30 October 2016, Antalya, Turkey. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 235 ( 2016 ) 435 – 442.
[8]. Barker III, V. L. (2005). Traps in Diagnosing Organization Failure. Journal of Business Strategy, 26(2), 44-50.
[9]. Basil, A. N. O. (2005). Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs): Problems and Prospect. Unpublished PhD Thesis, St. Clements University.
[10]. Bouazza, A. B., Ardjouman, D. & Abada, O. (2015). Establishing the Factors Affecting the Growth of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Algeria. American International Journal of Social Science Vol. 4, No. 2.
[11]. Charles, T.K. (2006). Causes of Small Business Failure in Uganda: A Case Study from Busheyi and Mbarara Towns. African Studies Quarterly Volume 8, Issue 4 Retrieved from
[12]. Egeln, J., Falk, U., Heger, D., Höwer, D., & Metzger, G. (2010). Ursachen für das Scheitern von Unternehmen in den ersten fünf Jahren ihres Bestehens. Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie. (Study of Young German Firms which Exited Between 2006 and 2008), Germany.
[13]. Fatoki, O. (2014). The Causes of the Failure of New Small and Medium Enterprises in South Africa. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy. Vol 5 No 20 September 2014, Pp: 922-927.
[14]. Fabayo, J.A. (2009). Small and Medium Enterprises Development Strategy: A Critical Option for Sustainable Long-term Economic Development in Nigeria. A Paper Presented at the first Annual International Conference on: Effective Management of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises for Sustainable Economic Development, Held at Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Ode held from 25-27 August.
[15]. Francis A. S. T. M, (2000). Profile of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in the SADC Economies, Center for Development Research, Bonn University, Bonn.
[16]. Hamid, W. (2017) Growth, Challenges and Issues related to Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Jammu and Kashmir. Business Economics Journal 8: 328. doi:10.4172/2151-6219.1000328
[17]. Hyder, S. & Lussier, R. N. (2016) “Why businesses succeed or fail: a study on small businesses in Pakistan”, Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, Vol. 8 Issue: 1, pp.82-100,
[18]. Iffat, N., Shahzad, C. M., Bilal, Ahmad, W., Rabail, A. (2015). An Empirical Study on Critical Failure Factors and Business Intelligent System Failure at Pre-implementation Phase in Small and Medium Enterprises in Pakistan. Business and Economics Journal 7:193. doi: 10.4172/2151-6219.1000193.
[19]. Ilegbinosa, I. A. & Jumbo, E. (2015). Small and Medium Scale Enterprises and Economic Growth in Nigeria: 1975-2012. International Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 10, No. 3; ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119. Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education.
[20]. Ivan, M., Nenad, N., Zhaklina, D., Peter, S. & Vasilika, K. (2015). The Reasons for SME’s Failure, Comparative Analysis and Research. Proceedings of FIKUSZ ’15 Symposium for Young Researchers, 2015, 7-22 pp. Obuda University Keleti Faculty of Business and Management 2015. Published by Óbuda University
[21]. Kambwale, J. N., Chisoro, C. & Karodia, A. M. (2015). Investigation into the Causes of Small and Medium Enterprises Failures in Windhoek, Namibia. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN Chapter) 4(7), 80-109.
[22]. LeBreton, J. M., Ployhart, R. E., & Ladd, R. T. (2004). A Monte Carlo Comparison of Relative Importance Methodologies. Organizational Research Methods, 7(3), 258-282. doi: 10.1177/1094428104266017
[23]. Lukason, O. & Hoffman, R. C. (2015). Firm failure causes: a population level study. Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 13, Issue 1, 2015.
[24]. Lussier, R. N. (1996). Reasons Why Small Businesses Fail, and How To Avoid Failure. The Entrepreneurial Executive, 1(2), 10-17.
[25]. Maas, G., & Herrington, M. (2006). Global entrepreneurship monitors South African report. [Online] Available: (September 6, 2013).
[26]. Mika, P. (2003). In Search of Factors Affecting SMEs Performance: The Case of Eastern Finland. Kuopio University Publications H. Business and Information Technology 1.2003. 338 p. ISBN 951-781-980-3. ISSN 1459-7586
[27]. NACCIMA News (2006, Jan/ Feb): Organize Private Sector Pre-Budget Memorandum Jan/Feb. 2006, No. 69, 12-13.
[28]. NBS/SMEDAN, (2012). 2010/11 National MSME Collaborative Survey: MSME National Baseline Collaborative Survey Report, Release in May 2012.
[29]. Ogundele, O. J. K. (2007). Introduction to Entrepreneurship Development. Corporate Governance and Small Business Management (Lagos: Molofin Nominees).
[30]. Okpara, J. O., & Wynn, P. (2007). Determinants of Small Business Growth Constraints in a Sub-Saharan African Economy. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 1(1) 76 – 94.
[31]. Oshagbemi, T. A. (2003). Small Business Management in Nigeria. Longman, London.
[32]. Peacock, R. (2000). Failure and Assistance of Small Firms [online].[Accessed 13th Feb 2011].
[33]. Phaladi, M., & Thwala, W. (2008). Critical Success Factor for Small and Medium Sized Contractors in North West Province, South Africa. [online]. Available: [Accessed: 16 May 2009].
[34]. Smith S., (2013). Determining Sample Size: How to Ensure You Get the Correct Sample Size. Retrieved from on 8th April, 2013.
[35]. Stanger, H. (2010). Failing at Retailing: the Decline of the Larkin Company, 1918-1942. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 2(1), 9-40.
[36]. Sulaiman, K. (2014). Kano State Industrial Survey: Sharada, Challawa and Bompai industrial Estates. Department of industries, Ministry of Commerce and Industries Kano state, Nigeria.
[37]. Sunday, Y.E. (2008). Introduction to Business, 2nd Edition Published by Olas Ventures, Lagos, Nigeria.
[38]. Syamala, D. B., Nune, S. R. & Dasaraju, S. R. (2017). A study on Issues and Challenges faced by SMEs: A Literature Review, Research Gate Publication, India.
[39]. Wijaya, T., Nurhadi, A. & Kuncoro, A. M. (2017), Exploring the Problems Faced by Practitioners of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) inYogyakarta. Journal of Management, VOL.19, NO. 1, 38–45
[40]. Williams, A.J (1986). A longitudinal Analysis of the Characteristics and Performance of Small Business in Australia. Conference Series No 14, University of Newcastle.
[41]. Williams G, James M, & Susan M. (2005). Fundamentals of Business: Starting a Small Business. McGraw-Hill/Irwin: New York.
[42]. World Bank, (1995). Nigeria: A Diagnostic Review of Small and Medium Enterprises Sector, World Bank Working Paper, Washington DC.
[43]. Zacharakis, A., Meyer, D., & DeCastro, J. (1999). Differing Perceptions of New Venture Failure: A Matched Exploratory Study of Venture Capitalists and Entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 37(3), 1-14.
[44]. Zahra, A. (2011). An Empirical Study on the Causes of Business Failure in Iranian Context. African Journal of Business Management, 5(17), 7488-7498, 4 September, 2011 Available online at
[45]. Zammel, M. & Khoufi, W. (2016). The Causes of Tunisian SME Failure. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review 6: 274.

Dr Salihu Abubakar “External Environmental Factors and Failure of Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.139-144 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Work-Life-Balance: The Nigerian Organizational Experience (A Study of Selected Banks in Ebonyi State)

Ogar, Cassius Ayam, Amanze, Darlane – March 2019 Page No.: 145-157

This paper was conducted to investigate the effect of work-life-balance on employees’ performance in an organization. The key objective of the study was to examine the implication of work-life-balance on workers commitment and performance. The problem that necessitated the study was the time frame between resuming and closing of work by employees, which does not permit work flexibility, commitment, job performance and leisure. Research questions such as: what are the implication of work-life-balance on workers’ commitment and performance? were asked and hypotheses such as: work interference with leisure and personal life has no significant effect on commitment of employees in organizations was formulated to guide the researchers. Current literatures from different scholars were reviewed to further buttress the discourse. The Survey research design with an interpretivist research philosophy was adopted. The population of the study covered 145 respondents of the selected banks and the Taro Yamane formula was adopted to determine the sample size of 106 respondents of the banks through the use of simple random sampling technique to draw responses from the target sample population. Data collected were analyzed using the Cronbach Alpha technique in testing the hypotheses. The notable finding of the study revealed that, employee assistance programme has a significant influence on performance of employees. The researchers recommended that there should be adequate and consistent implementation of employee assistance programmes within commercial banks. This will not only benefit the employees but it will also enable the employees to come more productive and efficient towards their duties.

Page(s): 145-157                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2019

 Ogar, Cassius Ayam
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH) Nigeria

 Amanze, Darlane
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH) Nigeria

[1]. Baral, R., & Bhargava, S. (2010). Work-family enrichment as a mediator between organizational interventions for work-life balance and job outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(3), 274-300.
[2]. Byrne, U. (2005). Work-life balance: Why are we talking about it at all?. Business Information Review, 22(1), 53-59.
[3]. Crompton, R., & Lyonette, C. (2006). Work-life ‘balance’in Europe. Acta sociologica, 49(4), 379-393.
[4]. Emslie, C., & Hunt, K. (2009). ‘Live to work’or ‘work to live’? A qualitative study of gender and work–life balance among men and women in mid‐life. Gender, Work & Organization, 16(1), 151-172.
[5]. Fleetwood, S. (2007). Why work–life balance now?. The international journal of human resource management, 18(3), 387-400.
[6]. Greenblatt, E. (2002). Work/life balance: Wisdom or whining. Organizational Dynamics, 31(2), 177-193.
[7]. Gregory, A., & Milner, S. (2009). Work–life balance: A matter of choice?. Gender, Work & Organization, 16(1), 1-13.
[8]. Guest, D. E. (2002). Perspectives on the study of work-life balance. Social Science Information, 41(2), 255-279.
[9]. Hill, E. J., Miller, B. C., Weiner, S. P., & Colihan, J. (1998). Influences of the virtual office on aspects of work and work/life balance. Personnel psychology, 51(3), 667-683.
[10]. Hughes, J., & Bozionelos, N. (2007). Work-life balance as source of job dissatisfaction and withdrawal attitudes: An exploratory study on the views of male workers. Personnel Review, 36(1), 145-154.
[11]. Ip, E. J., Lindfelt, T. A., Tran, A. L., Do, A. P., & Barnett, M. J. (2018). Differences in Career Satisfaction, Work–life Balance, and Stress by Gender in a National Survey of Pharmacy Faculty. Journal of pharmacy practice, 0897190018815042.
[12]. Jones, F., Burke, R. J., & Westman, M. (Eds.). (2013). Work-life balance: A psychological perspective. Psychology Press.
[13]. Kalliath, T., & Brough, P. (2008). Work–life balance: A review of the meaning of the balance construct. Journal of management & organization, 14(3), 323-327.
[14]. Khavis, J., & Krishnan, J. (2017). Employee Satisfaction in Accounting Firms, Work-Life Balance, Turnover, and Audit Quality.
[15]. Lewis, S., Anderson, D., Lyonette, C., Payne, N., & Wood, S. (2017). Public sector austerity cuts in Britain and the changing discourse of work–life balance. Work, employment and society, 31(4), 586-604.
[16]. Lewis, S., Gambles, R., & Rapoport, R. (2007). The constraints of a ‘work–life balance’approach: An international perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(3), 360-373.
[17]. Lockwood, N. R. (2003). Work/life balance. Challenges and Solutions, SHRM Research, USA.
[18]. McDowell, L. (2004). Work,workfare, work/life balance and an ethic of care. Progress in Human Geography, 28(2), 145-163.
[19]. Peters, P., Blomme, R. J., Derks, D., & van Heertum, A. (2017). Exploring the ‘Boundary Control Paradox’and How to Cope with it: A Social Theoretical Perspective on Managing Work-Life Boundaries and Work-Life Balance in the Late Modern Workplace. Bulletin of Comparative Labour Relations. Work-Life Balance in the Modern Workplace: Interdisciplinary perspectives from work-family research, law and policy on the blurring of boundaries between work and private life., 261-284.
[20]. Poulose, S., & Sudarsan, N. (2018). Work life balance: A conceptual review. IJAME.
[21]. Rapoport, R., Bailyn, L., Fletcher, J. K., & Pruitt, B. H. (2002). Beyond work-family balance: Advancing gender equity and workplace performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
[22]. Schwartz, S., Adair, K., Rehder, K., Bae, J., Shanafelt, T., & Sexton, J. (2018). 1271: The Relationship Between Work-life Balance Behaviors And Teamwork, Safety, And Burnout Climates. Critical Care Medicine, 46(1), 619.
[23]. Shanafelt, T. D., Boone, S., Tan, L., Dyrbye, L. N., Sotile, W., Satele, D., … & Oreskovich, M. R. (2012). Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population. Archives of internal medicine, 172(18), 1377-1385.
[24]. White, M., Hill, S., McGovern, P., Mills, C., & Smeaton, D. (2003). ‘High‐performance’management practices, working hours and work–life balance. British journal of industrial Relations, 41(2), 175-195.

Ogar, Cassius Ayam, Amanze, Darlane “Work-Life-Balance: The Nigerian Organizational Experience (A Study of Selected Banks in Ebonyi State)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.145-157 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Socioeconomic Impacts and Damages Encountered with Re-activated Landslide in Udawatta Area – A Case Study from Hanguranketha Area in Nuwara Eliya District

J. D. S. N. Siriwardana – March 2019 Page No.: 158-161

A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits. More than 95 percent of all deaths caused by hazards occur in developing countries, and losses due to natural hazards are 20 times greater in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Disasters may disrupt the normal conditions of existence and causing a level of suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community. Among all the disasters, landslide had become the most commondisaster in the country within short period of time in the recent past. The social impacts of landslides may consequences to human populations who were lived within the affected area that alter the day to day life-styles, livelihood patterns, cultural integrity and social network of affected families. The study revealed that one of the major landslide which were occurred in the Hanguranketha divisional secretariat inNuwaraEliya district having comprehensive impacts on human lives which may cannot easily be unravelled.

Page(s): 158-161                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2019

 J. D. S. N. Siriwardana
Geologist, Landslide Research and Risk Management Division, National Building Research Organization, Sri Lanka

[1] Kjekstad O., Highland L. (2009) “Economic and Social Impacts of Landslides”. In: Sassa K., Canuti P. (eds) Landslides – Disaster Risk Reduction. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 573-587
[2] Bhasin, R., Grimsatd, E., Larsen, J.D., Dhawan, A.K., Singh, R. Verma, S.K., and Venkatachalam, K. (2002) “Landslide hazards and mitigation measures at Gangtok, Sikkim Himalaya”, Engineering Geology, vol. 64, 2002, pp. 351–368
[3] David Petley; “Global patterns of loss of life from landslides”. Geology ; 40 (10): 927–930.
[4] Cruden, D.M., Thomson, S., Bomhold, B.D., Chagnon, J.-Y, Locat, J., Evans, S.G., Heginbottom, J.A., Moran, K., Piper, D.J.W., Powell, R., Prior, D. and Quigley, R.M. (1989) “Landslides: extent and economic significance in Canada”. In E.E. Brabb and B.L. Harrod, eds., “Landslides: extent and economic significance, Proc.”, 28th Int’l. Geol. Congr., Symp. on Landslides, Washington, D.C., 17 July, pp. 1–23
[5] Kröner A. and I. S. Williams, “Age of Metamorphism in the High-Grade Rocks of Sri Lanka,” The Journal of Geology 101, no. 4 (Jul., 1993): 513-521.
[6] Sanjeewa P. K. Malaviarachchi. (2018) “Review on Age of Magmatism and Crust Formation in Sri Lanka: U–Pb and Lu–Hf Isotopic Perspectives”. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science 1.
[7] Kjekstad, Oddvar (2007) “The challenges of landslide hazard mitigation in developing countries”, Keynote Lecture, First North-American Landslide Conference, Vail, Colorado USA, 3–8 June, 2007.

J. D. S. N. Siriwardana “Socioeconomic Impacts and Damages Encountered with Re-activated Landslide in Udawatta Area – A Case Study from Hanguranketha Area in Nuwara Eliya District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.158-161 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Implementation of Bonded Zone Facilities in Indonesia

Ita Sulistyawati, Adi Sulistiyono, Moch. Najib Imanullah – March 2019 Page No.: 162-167

This paper discussed the issue of efforts to increase users of bonded zone facilities and increase exports in the industrial sector by analyzing new regulations to create policies that facilitate and stimulate export activities. The Directorate General of Customs and Excise (DJBC) issued a new regulation on Bonded Zones aimed at increasing investment and encouraging export growth. This study was a normative legal research using a statute approach, carried out by examining all laws and regulations relating to the addressed legal issues. Through the Regulation of the Minister of Finance Number 131/PMK.04/2018 concerning Bonded Zones and the Regulation of the Director General of Customs and Excise Number PER-19/BC/2018 concerning Management of Bonded Zones, DJBC seeks to provide certainty and various facilities to users of export and import services.

Page(s): 162-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2019

 Ita Sulistyawati
Law Graduate School, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Adi Sulistiyono
Law Graduate School, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Moch. Najib Imanullah
Law Graduate School, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

[1]. Aggarwal, A. (2007). Impact of Special Economic Zones on Employment, Poverty and Human Development. Working Paper, New Delhi: ICRIER, No. 194.
[2]. Akinci, G. &Crittle, J. (2008).Special Economic Zones: Performance, Lessons Learned, and Implications for Zone Development, Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) occasional Paper. World Bank: Washington, D.C.
[3]. Ali, A. (2002). Menguak Tabir Hukum: Suatu Kajian Filosofisdan Sosiologis. Gunung Agung.
[4]. Anwar, M. A.(2014). New Modes of Industrial Manufacturing: India’s Experience with Special Economic Zones. Bulletin of Geography Socio-economic Series, No. 24.
[5]. Bea Cukai, Rebranding KawasanBerikatLangkah Bea CukaiDorongGeliatEksporDalamNegeri. (2018).<>Diakses 2 Februari 2019.
[6]. Bea danCukai, Rebranding KawasanBerikatUpaya Bea CukaiDorongInvestasidanCiptakanDampakEkonomiPositif. (2017).>diakses 2 Februari 2019.
[7]. František, L.,Slávka, K., &Viliam, K.(2015). Special Economic Zone Constitution According to Cluster Analysis. Proceeding Economics and Finance, Vol. 27.
[8]. Friedman, L. M. (2009).SistemHukum; PerspektifIlmuSosial. The Legal System; A Social Science Perspective. Nusa Media, 5.
[9]. Fuady, M. (2003). Perseroan TerbatasParadigmaBaru. Cet. I. PT. Citra Aditya Bakti.
[10]. Le, R.&Schoeman, A. (2016). Comparative Analysis of the Design of Special Economic Zones.Journal of Economic and Financial Sciences, Vol.9, No. 3.
[11]. Marzuki, P. M. (2015).PenelitianHukum. Prenadamedia Group.
[12]. Sari, W., Anoviar, A.N.,&Santoso, A. J. (2012). The Key Success Factors of Penang as the Silicon Valley of the East. SBS Journal of Applied Business, Vol.1, No.1.
[13]. Simon, A., Lin, S., &Fabrizio, Z.(2016). Economic Reforms and Industrial Policy in a Panel of Chinese Cities. Journal of Economic Growth, Vol. 21, No. 4.
[14]. Surjantoro, D.(2018). PemerintahLuncurkan Program Perizinan Online. Warta Bea CukaiPeluncuran Program Perizinan Online, Vol. 50, No. 5.
[15]. Suryantini, A. (2018).Sinergi DJBC dan DJP untukOptimalisasiPenerimaan.Warta Bea CukaiPeluncuran Program Perizinan Online, Vol. 50, No. 5.
[16]. Syarif, H. &Agus, S. H.(2010). Quo Vadis KawasanEkonomiKhusus. Rajawali Press.
[17]. The Regulation of the Director General of Customs and Excise Number PER-08/BC/2016 concerning Online procedures of transactional permit services in bonded zones.
[18]. The Regulation of the Director General of Customs and Excise Number PER-19/BC/2018 concerning Procedures of Bonded Zones.
[19]. The Regulation of the Minister of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia Number 131/PMK.04/2018 concerning Bonded Zones.
[20]. Yesuari, A. P.(2013). MengenalKawasanEkonomiKhusus.<>Diakses1 Januari 2019.
[21]. Yoze, David, &Reymond. (2015).KawasanEkonomiKhususdanStrategis Indonesia:TinjauanAtasPeluangdanPermasalahan. PT. Kanisius.
[22]. Diakses 28 Februari 2019.
[23]. Diakses 28 Februari 2019.

Ita Sulistyawati, Adi Sulistiyono, Moch. Najib Imanullah “Implementation of Bonded Zone Facilities in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.162-167 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


The Role of Islamic Economic System in Tackling Poverty in a Society

Aminu Yakubu, Dahiru Usman – March 2019 Page No.: 168-170

Poverty is regarded as a weapon of mass destruction in a society. It is also a major causes of social, Religious and political conflicts. It is pertinent to note that the conventional western base economic system has failed and the world is moving forward looking out for a strong and reliable system that will stand the taste of time. The west over a decade ago has suffered a lot on the issue of financial meltdown which resulted into objected poverty. This therefore is what prompted the research to examine the role of Islamic system in alleviating poverty in the society. The study use contest analysis in analysing the data and the corpuses is the Qur’an and Hadith of the prophet (S.A.W). The also find out that the existed economy system totally failed and there is need for remedy.

Page(s): 168-170                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2019

 Aminu Yakubu
Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola College of Continuing Education Islamic Studies Department,
Centre for Islamic Development Management Studies (ISDE), University Science Malaysia

 Dahiru Usman
Department Arabic Medium, Federal College of Education, Yola, Nigeria

[1]. M.R. Ab. Aziz, “opportunity for agro entrepreneur in developing agro initiative in Islamic banking in Malaysia” the journal of animal and plant sciences, vol.21, no.2, pp. 290-302, 2011
[2]. Retrieved on March 15, 2018 from
[3]. Retrieved on March 15, 2018 from
[4]. Muhammad Z. islam and poverty,January 4,2017
[5]. Islamic finance for dummies,Retrieved on 09 April, 2018 from wiki. Islamic…./mudarabah.
[6]. ibn Al-atheer, Al- nihaya (d606AH) p.630
[7]. Al-Azhari (d.370AH) Tahzib Al. Lugah 3/2704
[8]. Al- Awwa, M.S. (1989) fi al-Nizamalsiyasi li al dawiah al- islamiyya. Cairo Dar al-sharuq.
[9]. al- Ghazali, A.H (1997). Al mustasfa min-ilm al-usul. In M.S. al-ashqar(Ed.). beruit: Muassasat al-Risalah.
[10]. al-Qardawi,Y. (1999). Fiqh al Zakah. A comparative study of Zakah, Regulations and Philosophy in the light of Qu`an and Sunnah (M. khaf, Trans) Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre.

Aminu Yakubu, Dahiru Usman “The Role of Islamic Economic System in Tackling Poverty in a Society” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.168-170 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Governance Factors Affecting Citizens Participation in District Performance in Rwamagana District, Rwanda Local Government

NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim – March 2019 Page No.: 171-180

The purpose of this study was to assess the persistent reasons behind limited participation of citizens in the planning, monitoring and evaluation of the performance contract in the local government of Rwanda
The study also has investigated the factors and actors contributing and influencing citizens participation as well as causes for low levels of citizen participation. A total of 97 respondents from among the citizen’s members were interviewed through questionnaires. Others were local leaders; Executive secretaries of sector and District Executive members and Councillors were also interviewed and involved in the FGD.
Data were analysed, interpreted and presented the results using tabulations, figures and graphs. The analysis showed that the citizens were participated in the performance contract in the local government and people were participating through budget consultation meetings, performance contracts planning, monitoring and evaluation though at appreciable level using various citizen participation channels that government of Rwanda initiated.
The analysis also showed that, the government of Rwanda is politically willing and committed to work transparently and make accountable all leaders including both at central and local through provision of various citizens participation channels including community outreach’s (Inteko z’abaturage), community work (Umuganda), parent’s evening forums (Umugoroba w’ababyeyi) to mention but a few.
The study showed the benefits of citizen’s participation in the performance contracts implementation as well as speed up the implementation of the government programs and policies towards, middle income country as per Vision 2020. Among the benefits of engaging active citizens participation in the local government performance contracts includes increase of citizen ownership, transparency, accountability and social, economic development, which doesn’t leave anyone behind.
The study also indicated that there is significant relationship between active (strong) citizen’s participation and the local government performance contracts implementation and this towards good governance.
It noted that, participatory governance as a subset of good governance since it consists of state- sanctioned institutional processes that provide effective avenues to citizens to exercise their rights to voice their ideas, to vote constantly, directly and indirectly, and to contribute to the formulation and implementation of performance contract in the local government which in turn, produce substantial changes in their lives.
Despite the government efforts, study showed some weaknesses to be fixed in the local government layers (Village to Districts) being the incidence of low citizens participation, ineffective implementation of performance contracts, decrease of ownership and unsustainable development which were mentioned to weaker citizen’s participation in local government performance contract. It was therefore recommended that, people is the first owner and partner of local government success that influencing the good governance principles which contribute positively the active citizen’s participation in performance contracts.

Page(s): 171-180                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2019

PhD Student, Governance and Leadership, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kenya

[1]. Arnstein, Sherry R. “A Ladder of Citizen Participation,” JAIP, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1969, pp. 216-224.
[2]. Bellina S., Magro H., et Villemeur V, 2008, La gouvernance démocratique, un nouveau paradigme pour le développent, éditions Karthala, Paris
[3]. Cornwal, Andre and Gaventa, John (2002), From Users and choosers IDS ULLETIN, 31 (4): 50-62
[4]. Eszter Hartay in his book titled “ Citizens participation”, October, 2011
[5]. IRDP, Citizen’s participation in democratic governance in Rwanda, 2011
[6]. Jiang, Y., & Seidmann, A., (2014) Capacity planning and performance contracting for service facilities. Decision Support Systems, 5, 831-42.
[7]. MINALOC (2006), Making decentralized service delivery work in Rwanda, Putting the People at the Center of Service provision. A policy note based on discussions at the 2005 National Conference on Decentralization, Accountability, and Service Delivery, Kigali, October 2006
[8]. MINALOC, Revised Decentralization policy, 2012
[9]. RGB, Rwanda Citizen’s Report card, 2014
[10]. RGB, Rwanda Citizen’s Report card, 2015
[11]. RGB, Rwanda Citizen’s Report card, 2016
[12]. RGB, Rwanda Citizen’s Report card, 2017
[13]. Timothy C. Okech , Impact of performance contracting on efficiency in service delivery in the public sector, May,2017
[14]. WAHEDUZZAMAN, People’s participation for good governance: A study of Rural Development programs in Bangladesh, 2010
[15]. NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim, Public policy, governance and promotion of socio economic development in Rwanda:
a case study of the health services (community health insurance policy) in Gasabo district, Kampla Uganda, October, 2012
[16]. Holdar, G. G. & and Zakharchenko, O., 2002, Citizen Participation Handbook: People’s Voice Project International Centre for Policy Studies, Kyiv: iMedia Ltd
[17]. MINALOC, National Decentralisation Policy (Revised), Kigali, June, 2012
[18]. Timothy C. Okech, Impact of performance contracting on efficiency in service delivery in the public sector, International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. United Kingdom Vol. V, Issue 5, May 2017 ISSN 2348 0386
[19]. Government of Rwanda (2010a) “Concept paper on Imihigo Planning and Evaluation”, Kigali, February.
[20]. Waheduzzaman, People’s Participation for Good Governance: A Study of Rural Development Programs in Bangladesh, March 2010
[21]. The Institute of Policy Analysis and Research – (IPAR-Rwanda) IMIHIGO EVALUATION FY 2014/2015, August, 2015
[22]. The Institute of Policy Analysis and Research – (IPAR-Rwanda) IMIHIGO EVALUATION FY 2016/2017, October 2017
[23]. NAR, Governing with and for citizens, Lessons from post-genocide Rwanda, August, 2016
[24]. Larga, State of Elected Local Councillors & Constituency Interactions in Rwanda: Implications for Accountable Local Governance, July 2015
[25]. Republic of Rwanda, The Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of 2003 revised in 2015, Kigali Rwanda, 2015. Official Gazette n° Special of 24/12/2015
[26]. Jackson Estomih Muro, G. S. Namusonge, Governance Factors Affecting Community Participation In Public Development Projects In Meru District In Arusha In Tanzania JUNE 2015 ISSN 2277-8616

NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim “Governance Factors Affecting Citizens Participation in District Performance in Rwamagana District, Rwanda Local Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.171-180 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Youth, Luxury and the Willingness to Pay

Suleiman Ocheni – March 2019 Page No.: 181-189

The concept of luxury has existed for as long as the emergence of hierarchies in society, and has been in a constant state of flux ever since. At its inception it was characterised by exclusivity, superior quality and price. However, as it has evolved over time it has come to mean different things to different people, meaning that the motivation for consuming luxury products change from place to place and even between groups within the same society. A comprehensive review of the literature available on this topic revealed a gap; the motivation of undergraduate students for consuming luxury products still remains unclear. The aim of this study is to study undergraduate students in the United Kingdom and determine whether or not they are willing to pay premium prices for luxury products. This paper goes a step further and also examines their motivation for this behaviour. A qualitative inquiry was carried outon six respondents with the help of semi-structured interviews. This study concluded that students are in fact willing to pay premium prices for luxury, but only if they are satisfied that they were able to get the best deal. This research also reveals that undergraduate students in the United Kingdom are more interested in luxury items if they offer a previously absent convenience, therefore, are willing to pay a higher price for this expediency.A conceptual framework has also been proposed to aid luxury marketers in targeting undergraduate students.

Page(s): 181-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2019

 Suleiman Ocheni

Ajzen, I., 2011. The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Reactions and Reflections. Psychology & Health, 26(9), pp. 1113-1127.
[2]. Alphonce, R. & Alfnes, F., 2012. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Food Safety in Tanzania: an Incentive-Aligned Conjoint Analysis. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 36(4), pp. 394-400.
[3]. Baines, P. & Fill, C., 2014. Marketing. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[4]. Balogh, P. et al., 2016. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Traditional Food Products. Food Policy, Volume 61, pp. 176-184.
[5]. Bian, Q. & Forsythe, S., 2011. Purchase Intention for Luxury Brands: A Cross Cultural Comparison. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), pp. 1443-1451.
[6]. Boster, F. J., Shaw, A. Z., Carpenter, C. J. & Lindsey, L. L. M., 2014. Simulation of a Dynamic Theory of Reasoned Action. Simulation & Gaming, 45(6), pp. 699-731.
[7]. Constantinides, E., 2014. Foundations of Social Media Marketing. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, Volume 148, pp. 40-57.
[8]. Diaz-Bustamante, M., Carcelen, S. & Puelles, M., 2016. Image of Luxury Brands: A Question of Style and Personality. Sage Open, 6(2), pp. 1-15.
[9]. Erdogmus, I. E. & Cicek, M., 2012. The Impact of Social Media Marketing on Brand Loyalty. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 58, pp. 1353-1360.
[10]. Felix, R., Rauschnabel, P. A. & Hinsch, C., 2017. Elements of Strategic Social Media Marketing: A Holistic Framework. Journal of Business research, Volume 70, pp. 118-126.
[11]. Franz, G. A., 2008. Price Effects on the Smoking Behaviour of Adult Age Groups. Public Health, Volume 122, pp. 1343-1348.
[12]. Goldsmith, R. E. & Newell, S. J., 1997. Innovativeness and Price Sensitivity: Managerial, Theoretical and Methodological Issues. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 6(3), pp. 163-174.
[13]. Heller, M., 2016. “Outposts of Britain” The General Post Office and the Birth of a Corporate Iconic Brand, 1930-1939. European Journal of Marketing, 50(3/4), pp. 358-376.
[14]. Jiang, P. & Rosenbloom, B., 2005. Customer Intention to Return Online: Price Perception, Attribute-Level Performance, and Satisfaction Unfolding Over Time. European Journal of Marketing, 39(1/2), pp. 150-174.
[15]. Kang, K. H., Stein, L., Heo, C. Y. & Lee, S., 2012. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Green Initiatives of the Hotel Industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 31, pp. 564-572.
[16]. Kapferer, J.-N. & Laurent, G., 2015. Where Do Consumers Think Luxury Begins? A Study of Perceived Minimum Price for 21 Luxury Goods in 7 Countries. Journal of Business Research, 69(1), pp. 332-340.
[17]. Kapferer, J.-N. & Valette-Florence, P., 2016. Beyond Rarity: the Paths of Luxury Desire. How Luxury Brands Grow Yet Remain Desirable. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 25(2), pp. 120-133.
[18]. Keegan, W. J. & Green, M. C., 2013. Global Marketing. 7th ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
[19]. Kim, A. J. & Ko, E., 2011. Do Social Media Marketing Activities Enhance Customer Equity? An Empirical Study of Luxury Fashion Brand. Journal of Business Research, Volume 65, pp. 1480-1486.
[20]. Kim, D., Pan, Y. & Park, H. S., 1998. High- Versus Low-Context Culture: A Comparison of Chinese, Korean, and American Cultures. Psychology and Marketing, 15(6), pp. 507-522.
[21]. Kim, H.-b. & Kim, W. G., 2005. The Relationship Between Brand Equity and Firms’ Performance in Luxury Hotels and Chain Restaurants. Tourism Management , 26(4), pp. 549-560.
[22]. Kim, J. & Johnson, K. K., 2015. Brand Luxury Index: A Reconsideration and Revision. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 19(4), pp. 430-444.
[23]. Kim, J.-E., Lloyd, S. & Cervellon, M.-C., 2015. Narrative-Transportation Storylines in Luxury Brand Advertising: Motivating Consumer Engagement. Journal of Business Research, 69(1), pp. 304-313.
[24]. Ko, E. & Megehee, C. M., 2011. Fashion Marketing of Luxury Brands: Recent Research Issues and Contributions. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), pp. 1395-1398.
[25]. Lagerkvist, C. J. & Hess, S., 2011. A Meta-Analysis of Consumer Willingness. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 38(1), pp. 55-78.
[26]. Li, G., Li, G. & Kambele, Z., 2012. Luxury fashion Brand Consumers in China: Perceived Value, Fashion Lifestyle, and Willingness to Pay. Journal of Business Research, Volume 65, p. 1516–1522.
[27]. Masiero, L., Heo, C. Y. & Pan, B., 2015. Determining Guests’ Willingness to Pay for Hotel Room Attributes with a Discrete Choice Model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 49, pp. 117-124.
[28]. Miller, K. W. & Mills, M. K., 2011. Contributing Clarity by Examining Brand Luxury in the Fashion Market. Journal of Business Research, Volume 65, pp. 1471-1479.
[29]. Price, T., King, P. S., Dillard, R. L. & Bulot, J. J., 2011. Elder Financial Exploitation: Implications for Future Policy and Research in Elder Mistreatment. The Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(3).
[30]. Rohm, A. J. & Swaminathan, V., 2004. A Typology of Online Shoppers Based on Shopping Motivations. Journal of Business Research, 57(7), pp. 748-757.
[31]. Samaha, S. A., Beck, J. T. & Palmatier, R. W., 2014. The Role of Culture in International Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, Volume 78, pp. 78-98.
[32]. Shen, K. N., Vel, P. & Khalifa, M., 2016. Website Design: Place for Luxury Brands in Cyberspace?. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35(12), pp. 1115-1129.
[33]. Shukla, P., Banerjee, M. & Singh, J., 2015. Customer Commitment to Luxury Brands: Antecedents and Consequences. Journal of Business Research, Volume 69, pp. 323-331.
[34]. Shukla, P. & Purani, K., 2012. Comparing the Importance of Luxury Value Perceptions in Cross-National Contexts. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), pp. 1417-1424.
[35]. Sidgwick, H., 2000. Utilitarianism. Utilitas, 12(3).
[36]. Sonkova, T. & Grabowska, M., 2015. Customer Engagement: Transactional vs. Relationship Marketing. Journal of International Studies, 8(1), pp. 196-207.
[37]. Spencer, M., 2014. Humans and Change: Blackberry Haters to iPhone Fans. Performance Improvement, 53(9).
[38]. Stryker, S. & Burke, P. J., 2000. The Past, Present, and Future of an Identity Theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(4), pp. 284-297.
[39]. Szymanski, D. M. & Hise, R. T., 2000. e-Satisfaction: An Initial Examination. Journal of Retailing, 76(3), pp. 309-322.
[40]. Vigneron, F. & Johnson, L. W., 2004. Measuring Perceptions of Brand Luxury. Journal of Brand Management, 11(6), pp. 484-506.
[41]. Yang, W. & Mattila, A. S., 2014. Do Affluent Customers Care When Luxury Brands Go Mass? The Role of Product Type and Status Seeking on Luxury Brand Attitude. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(4), pp. 526-543.
[42]. Yim, M. Y. et al., 2014. Drivers of Attitudes Toward Luxury Brands. International Marketing Review, 31(4), pp. 363-389.
[43]. Zhan, L. & He, Y., 2011. Understanding Luxury Consumption in China: Consumer Perceptions of Best-Known Brands. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), pp. 1452-1460.

Suleiman Ocheni “Youth, Luxury and the Willingness to Pay” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.181-189 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Human Capital Flight, Remittances and the Problem of Achieving Sustainable Economic Growth in Africa

Samuel B. Adewumi, Chinedu J. Ogbodo, James E. Onoh – March 2019 Page No.: 190-197

The research employed data from twenty African countries namely: Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, Senegal, Niger, Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria, Zambia, South Africa, Namibia and Mozambique; and with variables such as real GDP, stock of physical capital, labour force, remittances received, per capita income, human capital flight-proxied by net migration, education-proxied by secondary school enrolment and technology- proxy by total factor productivity. The data were collected for the rage of 40 years (1977-2016). The result shows that remittances, per capital income, labour force, stock of physical capital, education and total technology exert positive relationship with economic growth, while human capital flight shows non-significant relationship with economic growth. We therefore recommend proper channeling of remittances in productive activities, as remittances can serve as compensation for human capital flight.

Page(s): 190-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2019

 Samuel B. Adewumi
Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 Chinedu J. Ogbodo
Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 James E. Onoh
Department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

[1]. Achouak B., & Mohamed, E. H., (2013). The Effect of Migrant Remittances on Economic Growth through Education: the case of Tunisia; international Journal of Economics and Management Science, Vol 2(8)
[2]. Adela S., and Dietmar M., (2016). Remittances and their impact on Economic Growth; Journal for Social Science, Vol 12(2), pp(12-15).
[3]. Agriculture Organization (Ed.). (2014). The state of food insecurity in the world 2014: Strengthening the enabling environment for food security and nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization.
[4]. Anastasia B., & Christos N., (2014). Emigrants Remittances and Economic Growth in Small Transition Economies: The case of Moldova and Albania; Journal of Economics and Business, Vol 17 (2)
[5]. Azam M., & Khan A., (2011). Workers’ Remittances and Economic Growth: Evidence from Azerbaijan and Armenia; Global Journal of Human Social Science, USA.
[6]. BakareA., Najimdeen K.,&Durrani A. T. (2014). Human Capital Flight: Impact and Challenges on Economy; A Case of Pakistan: Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, MCSER publisher, Rome-Italy, Vol 5(1)
[7]. Banga, R., &Sahu, P. K., (2010). Impact of remittances on poverty in developing countries. UNCTAD, United Nations, Switzerland.
[8]. Beine M., Docquier, F., & Rapoport H., (2008), Brain Drain and LDCs’ Growth: Winners and Losers; Centre for International development working paper pp (6).
[9]. Bogaards, C. (2016). Labor Remittances and Economic Growth in Developing Countries. Do Current Theories Travel Worldwide? (Bachelor’s thesis).
[10]. Caitlin C., & Mohamed A. H., (2008). UK Somali Remittances Survey: Department for International Development Profile Business Intelligence Limited, USA.
[11]. Carree, M., Van Stel, A., Thurik, R., &Wennekers, S. (2002). Economic development and business ownership: an analysis using data of 23 OECD countries in the period 1976–1996. Small business economics, 19(3), 271-290.
[12]. ChamiR.,Barajas, A., Fullenkamp, C., Gapen M., & Montiel, R. (2009). Do workers Remittances Promote Economic Growth? IMF Working Paper No 09(153). Washington DC: International Monetary Fund.
[13]. Chenery, H. B., & Strout, A. M., (1966). “Foreign Assistance and Economic Development.” American Economic Review 66(4):679-733.
[14]. De Mello, L. R., (1999), Foreign Direct Investment-led Growth: Evidence from Time Series Panel Data, Oxford Economics Paper, Vol. 51(1), pp(133-151)
[15]. Denison E. F., (1967), Why Growth Rates Differ: Post-War Experience for Nine Western Countries, Washington DC
[16]. Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (2012). Globalization, brain drain, and development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(3), 681-730.
[17]. Dodoo, F. N., &Takyi B. K., (2002).“Africans in the Diaspora: Black-White Earnings Differences among America’s Africans.”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25(6), 913-941.
[18]. Fields, G. S. (1980). Poverty, inequality, and development. CUP Archive.
[19]. Giuliano, P., & Ruiz-Arranz, M. (2009). Remittances, financial development, and growth. Journal of Development Economics, 90(1), 144-152.
[20]. Global finance ((2017). The annual global financial report. Routledge.
[21]. Görlich, D., &Trebesch C., (2008). “Seasonal Migration and Networks – Evidence on Moldova’sLabour Exodus.” Review of World Economics.Vl144(1): pp. 107-133.
[22]. Harris, J. R., & Todaro, M. P. (1970). Migration, unemployment and development: a two-sector analysis. The American economic review, 60(1), 126-142.
[23]. International Organization for Migration. (2008). World migration 2008: Managing labour mobility in the evolving global economy (Vol. 4). Hammersmith Press.
[24]. Jonathan, G., (2017); Poorest Countries in the World: Global news and insight for corporate financial professionals, London, United Kingdom.
[25]. Jordanna, K. K. (2015). Dealing in desire: Asian ascendancy, Western decline, and the hidden currencies of global sex work. University of California Press.
[26]. Kaba, A. J. (2011). The Status of Africa’s Emigration Brain Drain in the 21st Century. Western Journal of Black Studies, 35(3).
[27]. Kanu, S.I., &Ozurumba, B.A. (2013). Migrant’s remittances and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigeria, Ghana and South Africa. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. 4(10), 537- 550.
[28]. Katsushi I., Raghav G., Abdilahi A., &Kaicker N., (2011). Remittances, Growth and Poverty: New Evidence from Asian Countries; Research institute for economics and Business Administration, Kobe University Japan
[29]. Khatiwada, Y. (2005). Remittance Inflows in Nepal and Emerging Issues. In Second Global NRN Conference, Kathmandu, Nepal.
[30]. Krueger, A. O. (1997). Trade policy and economic development: how we learn (No. w5896). National Bureau of Economic Research.
[31]. Kwok V., &Leland H., (1982). An economic model of brain drain: The American Economic Review, 72(1):91-100.
[32]. Lalla, B., &Barka, N., (2012). Brain Drain in Africa: Facts and Figures; United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA).
[33]. Lewis, A.W., (1954), “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor,” Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies, 22, (May): 139-191.
[34]. Lucas, R.E, (1988). On Mechanics of Economic Growth. Journal of monetaryEconomics, 22 (July):3-42.
[35]. Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., & Taylor, J. E. (1993). Theories of international migration: A review and appraisal. Population and development review, 431-466.
[36]. Muhammad J.,Arif U., & Qayyum A., (2012). Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth and Poverty; Academic research international, Vol 2(1) pp 2.
[37]. Muhammad, A., Asmatullal K., (2011). Workers’ Remittances and Economic Growth: Evidence from Azerbaijan and Armenia. Global Journal of Human Social Science. XI. 41-46.
[38]. Muriel A. A., (2015). Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth: Evidence from Selected West African Countries (Cameroon, Cape Verde, Nigeria and Senegal); Institute for Social Development, Faculty of Economic & Management Science, University of the Western Cape (UWC), South Africa.
[39]. Murphy, K. M., Shleifer, A., &Vishny, R. W. (1989). Industrialization and the big push. Journal of political economy, 97(5), 1003-1026.
[40]. New Telegraph (2017), 15,000 doctors dump Nigeria for overseas:
[41]. Ngoma, A., and Ismail, N. (2013), The determinants of brain drain indeveloping countries. International Journal of Social Economics,40(8):744-754.
[42]. Owens, E., (1987). The Future of Freedom in the Developing World, Pergamon Press
[43]. Papanek, G.,(1973). “Aid, Foreign Private Investment, Savings, and Growth in LessDeveloping Countries,” Journal of Political Economy, 81:120-130.
[44]. Pernilla L., &ÅngmanJ., (2014). Remittances and Development- Empirical evidence from 99 developing countries; Department of Economics Uppsala University, PP(7-9)
[45]. Persyn, D. (2010). XTWEST: Stata module for testing for cointegration in heterogeneous panels.
[46]. Riccardo F., (2006). Remittances and the Brain Drain; IZA Discussion Paper No. 2155, IZA World of Labour, Belgium Germany.
[47]. Romer, P., (1986). “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth,” Journal of Political Economy, (October): 1002-1037.
[48]. Sani, D., Zuber, S.,Stojilovska, A., &Koneska, C., (2012). Migration and development: the effects of remittances on education and health of family members left behind; An Analytical Journal, Vol 5(1).
[49]. Schiff, M., &Ozden, C., (Eds.). (2007). International migration, economic development & policy. The World Bank.
[50]. Sherr, Kenneth, Antonio Mussa, Baltazar Chilundo, Sarah Gimbel, James Pfeiffer, Amy Hagopian, and Stephen Gloyd. “Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.” PloS one 7, no. 4 (2012): e35840.
[51]. Siddique, A., Selvanathan, E. A., &Selvanathan, S. (2012). Remittances and economic growth: empirical evidence from Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka. Journal of development studies, 48(8), 1045-1062.
[52]. Solow, R., (1956), “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(February): 65-94.
[53]. Swan, T. W. (1956). Economic growth and capital accumulation. Economic record, 32(2), 334-361.
[54]. Thanh Le., & Philip B. (2011). Remittances or technological diffusion: Which is more important for generating economic growth in developing countries? Journal of Development Economics, Vol 11 (7)
[55]. Todaro, M. P. (1969). A model of labor migration and urban unemployment in less developed countries. The American economic review, 59(1), 138-148.
[56]. United Nation Millennium development Project (2012). The millennium development goals to sustainable development goals. The Lancet, 379(9832), 2206-2211.
[57]. United Nations Migration Report (2015). International migration report 2015 (Vol. 240). United Nations Publications
[58]. Victor L., (1987). “Aid and economic growth in the sub- Saharan: Africa: The recentexperience,” European Economic Review, 32; 1777-1795.
[59]. Wolfgang E., Krieger T., & Meier V., (2007). Education, Unemployment and Migration; CESifoWorking Paper No. 2119:Volker Meier Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich Germany
[60]. World Bank (2015). Migration and Remittances Unit. Washington, DC, http://go.worldbank.
[61]. World Health Organization. (2015). The Selection and Use of Essential Medicines: Report of the WHO Expert Committee, 2015 (including the 19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines and the 5th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children) (No. 994). World Health Organization.

Samuel B. Adewumi, Chinedu J. Ogbodo, James E. Onoh “Human Capital Flight, Remittances and the Problem of Achieving Sustainable Economic Growth in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.190-197 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Role of Community Involvement in Peace Building: A Case of Mount Elgon in Bungoma County, Kenya

Ronald E Wanda, Joyce Muchemi, Nyandoro K Obondi & Ogachi O Nyamora – March 2019 Page No.: 198-207

All over the world conflicts in communities materialize because of many reasons. At the community level, social changes often occur very often as a result of a conflict. The conflict that took place in Mt Elgon between 2006 and 2008 was devastating in many ways; it left many dead and destroyed many a property. This study was to assess community participation in peace-building in the Mt Elgon area between 2007 and 2017. The study also sought to assess the use of indigenous or traditional methods of conflict resolution embedded in restorative practices, as well as establish the role that Mount Elgon’s Residents Association (MERA) played through its programmes in peace-building in the area. The study revealed a yawning need for younger community members to be more involved in peace-building activities in the Mt Elgon area. The study further revealed that those aged between 35 and 54 years largely thought that their traditional culture and indigenous practices was central to their peace-building efforts in their locality.

Page(s): 198-207                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2019

 Ronald E Wanda
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Joyce Muchemi
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Nyandoro K Obondi
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Ogachi O Nyamora
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

[1]. Aall, P. (2015).Conflicts in Africa: Diagnosis and Response, CIGI papers, No 71, Canada: CIGI.
[2]. Adams, T. (2008). A Review of Narrative Ethics. Qualitative Inquiry, 14(2): 175-194.
[3]. Adedeji, A. (Ed.). (1999). Comprehending African Conflicts, Comprehending and Mastering Africa Conflicts, London: Zed Books.
[4]. Ajayi, T. and Buhari, O. (2014). Ethiopia, Africa Research Review, Vol 8, 2.
[5]. Allen, T. and Thomas, A. (2000). Poverty and Development into the 21st Century. Oxford: The Open University Press.
[6]. Allena, T. (2004).Restorative Justice on the College Campus, Springfield: Charles Thomas Publishers Ltd.
[7]. Babitt, E. and Hampton, F. (2011).The Negotiated Settlement, International Studies Review, 13, 15.
[8]. Bar-Tal, David. (2000). From Intractable Conflict through Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation: Psychological Analysis,Political Psychology. 21:351-365.
[9]. Bercovitch, J., (1999) Mediation in International Conflict: An Overview of Theory, A review of Practice, in Zartman, I. W. & Rasmussen, J.L.,(eds.), Peace Making in International Conflict: Method and Practice, Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press.
[10]. Bercovitch, J. and Allison, H, (1996).The Study of International Mediation: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Evidence in Bercovitch, J., (ed.), Resolving International Conflicts: The Theory and Practice ofMediation, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
[11]. Best, J.W., and Khan, J.V., (2003).Research in Education, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
[12]. Brink, H. (2006).Fundamentals of Research Methodology for Health Care Professionals (2nd ed.). Cape Town: Juta.
[13]. Boege, Volker, Anne Brown, Kevin Clements and Anna Nolan (2009). On Hybrid Political Orders andEmerging States: What is Failing States in the Global South or Research and Politics in the West?in: Martina Fischer and Beatrix Schmeltzer (eds.). Building Peace in the Absence of States: ChallengingThe Discourse on State Failure. (Berghof Handbook Dialogue No 8.) Berlin: Berghof Research Center.
[14]. Bowd, R. and Chikwanha, A. (2010).Understanding Africa’s Contemporary Conflicts, Monograph 173, available at (accessed 14th July 2017).
[15]. Boye, S. and Kaarhus, R. (2011), Competing claims and contested boundaries: legitimating land rights in Isiolo District, northern Kenya, Hamburg: Africa Spectrum 46, 2.
[16]. Bryman, A., (2001).Social Research Methods, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[17]. Calhorn, A. (2013). Introducing Restorative Justice: Revising Responses to Wrongdoing, PreventionResearch, 20, 1.
[18]. Cooper, T. L. (Ed) (2001). Handbook of Administrative Ethics. (2nd edition). New York:Marcel Dekker.
[19]. Creswell, J. (2009). Research Design, (3rd edition.), London: Sage.
[20]. Croswell, J.W. (2012).Education Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Boston: Pearson Education Inc.
[21]. Deutsch, M. (1973).The Resolution of Conflict: Constructive and Destructive Processes. NewHaven, CT: Yale University Press.
[22]. Galtung, J. (1996) Peace by Peaceful Means, London: Sage.
[23]. Gaviglio, G. and Raye, D. (1971).Society as It Is: A Reader, New York: Macmillan.
[24]. Global Risk Report, (2016).The Global Risks Report, 11th Edition, World Economic Forum, Geneva:available at 3rd September 2017).
[25]. Groves, R. (2010). Research Methodology: A Step by Step Guide for Beginners, (2nd Ed). London: Sage.
[26]. Faure, G.A. (2000). Traditional Conflict Management in Africa and China, in: I. William Zartman(ed.). Traditional Cures for Modern Conflicts: African Conflict “Medicine”.Boulder, CO: LynneRienner, 153-165.
[27]. Ferreira, R. (2010). Qualitative data collection: Tshwane: University of South Africa.
[28]. Freitas, H., et al., (1998). The focus group: A qualitative research method – reviewing the theory, and providing guidelines to its planning. ISRC Working Paper No. 010298(online). Available at: [Accessed 20th May 2017].
[29]. Foster, M.N., (2002) Herder: Philosophical Writings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[30]. Hartzell, C. and Hoddie, M. (2003). Institutionalizing Peace: Power Sharing and Post-Civil War Conflict Management.American Journal of Political Science47: 318-332.
[31]. Hoddie, M., and Hartzell, C.(2005). Power Sharing in Peace Settlements: Initiatingthe Transition from Civil War, in Philip G. Roeder and Donald Rothschild(eds.)Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy after Civil WarsIthaca: Cornell University Press.
[32]. Miall , M, Ramsbotham, O. and Woodhouse, T. (2001).Contemporary Conflict Resolution: The Prevention of Deadly Conflicts,Cambridge: Polity Press.
[33]. Huyse, L. (2008). Introduction: Tradition-Based Approaches in Peacemaking, Transitional Justiceand Reconciliation Policies, in: Luc Huyse and Mark Salter (eds.). Traditional Justice and Reconciliationafter Violent Conflict. Learning from African Experiences.Stockholm: InternationalIDEA, 1-22.
[34]. Jones, S. (2016, June 8th). Conflict and Terrorism Cost the World Trillions, The Guardian Newspaper, London.
[35]. Kerlinger, F. N. (1986). Foundations of Behavioral Research (3rd ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
[36]. Krueger RA & Casey MA (2000) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
[37]. Khadiagala, G. (2009). Regionalism and Conflict Resolution: Lessons from the Kenyan Crisis.Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, England: Routledge.
[38]. Kottak, C.P., and Kozaitis, K. (1999).On Being Different.Boston: McGraw-Hill.
[39]. Leone, R. (1998). Foreword in David Callahan Unwinnable Wars: American Power and Ethnic Conflict. New York: Hill and Wang.
[40]. Licklider, R. (2005). Comparative Studies of Long Wars, in Grasping the Nettle: Analysing Cases of Intractability, (edited by Cooker, C.). Washington, US Inst of Peace.
[41]. Lederach, J.P. (1995). Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies, Washington DC: US Inst of Peace Press.
[42]. Kamungi, P. (2009). The politics of Displacement in Multiparty Kenya.Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 27, No.3.
[43]. Malesi, R. (2008).Information and Knowledge Management in Fostering Ethnic Cohesiveness, Nairobi: Longmann Publishers.
[44]. Maltosa, K. (1999) Conflict Management: Lesotho Political Crisis After the 1998 Elections in Lesotho.Social Science Review, 5, No. 1.
[45]. Marfo E, Schanz H. (2009).Managing logging compensation payment conflicts in Ghana: Understanding Actor-Empowerment and Implications for Policy Intervention. Land use policy.
[46]. McCusker, K, and Guynadin, S. (2015).Researching Using Quantitative, Qualitative or Mixed Choice Based on the research, Perfusion, Vol. 30 (7) New York: SAGE.
[47]. Mill, J. S. (1869). The Subjection of Women, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.
[48]. Miller G, Bartos O.J., Wehr, P. (2002). Using Conflict Theory. Contemporary Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[49]. Morgan, D.L. (1997). Focus Groups as Qualitative Research, (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks: Sage.
[50]. Mokua ,O. (2014).Indigenizing Peace-building in Kenya’s Sotik/Borabu Cross-border Conflict.Available online at www. (accessed 10th July 2017).
[51]. Mugenda, O.M. and Mugenda, A.G. (2003).Research Methods, Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Acts Press, Nairobi, Kenya.
[52]. Murenga, H. (2010).Sources of Information and Socio Cultural Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Organic Farming and Agro Forestry in Mau East Catchment Area in Nakuru, Kenya, PhD thesis, department of Sociology and Anthropology,Njoro: Egerton University.
[53]. Nabudere, D. W. (2009). See The Developmental State, Democracy and the Glocal Society in Africa, Pretoria: UNISA Press.
[54]. Office of the Controller of Budget, Government of Kenya. (2015).Bungoma County, accessed at, on 14th September 2017.
[55]. Richard, H. (1988). Conflicts Unending: The United States and regional Disputes, New Haven: Yale University Press.
[56]. Salehyan, I et al, (2012). Social Conflict in Africa: A new Database.International Interactions, 38, England: Routledge.
[57]. Schiff, M. (2013).Dignity, Disparity & Desistance: Effective Restorative Justice Strategies to Plug the School-to-Prison Pipeline. Center for Civil Rights Remedies National Conference.Closing the School to Research Gap: Research to Remedies Conference. Washington, DC.
[58]. Schon, D.A. (1983).The Reflective Practitioner. London: Temple Smith.
[59]. Sekeran, V. (2003).Research Methods for Business, A Skill Building Approach, 4th Edition, New York: Prentice Hall.
[60]. Silverman, D. (2000).Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook. London: Sage.
[61]. Sikuku, A.K. (2011). The Land Question and Intra-Ethnic Conflict in Squatter Enclaves of Mt.Elgon Region, western Kenya.Un-published Thesis, Kakakmega: Masinde Muliro University.
[62]. Stove, D. (1993). John Stuart Mill’s ‘The Subjection of Women, Philosophy,68.
[63]. Susskind, L., Boyd. F., David, F. and Michele, F. (2003). The Organization and Usefulness of Multi-stakeholder Dialogues at the Global Scale.International Negotiation: A Journal of Theory and Practice 8(2).
[64]. Themner, L. and Wallensteen, P. (2014). Armed Conflicts, 1946–2013.Journal of Peace Research 51: 541–54
[65]. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016).Global Trends Forced Displacement, Geneva: United Nations.
[66]. Vedeld, P., vanRooij, A., Sundnes, F. and Jorgensen, I.T. (2005). Final Appraisal of theMt. Elgon Regional Ecosystem Conservation Programme (MERECP). Noragric Rapport No.25. Agricultural University of Norway.
[67]. Walterman-Spreha, (2013).Engaging Studies on the Topic of Restorative Justice, Contemporary Justice Review, 16, 1.
[68]. Waltzer, A. (1992). Just and Unjust Wars, New York: Basic Books.
[69]. Wanda, R.E. (2008). Grounds for Hope.BBC Focus on Africa. Vol. 19. No. 2. PP 30-31.
[70]. Wanda, R.E. (2013).Afrikology and Community: Restorative Cultural Practices in East Africa.Journal of Pan African Studies, Vol.6. No. 6.
[71]. Wanda, R.E. (2016).Constituting Folklore: A Dialogue onThe 2010 Constitution in Kenya.Africology, Journal of Pan African Studies, Vol 9, No. 1.
[72]. Withnall, A. (2016). There are Now Only 10 Countries in the World That Are Actually Free from Conflict, The Independent, London.
[73]. Zartman, W. (2000).Conclusions: Changes in the New Order and the Place for the Old, in:I. William Zartman (ed.). Traditional Cures for Modern Conflicts.African Conflict “Medicine.Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 219-230.
[74]. Zartman, W. and Touval, S. (1985). International Mediation: Conflict Resolution and Power Politics.Journal of Social Issues, 41, (2).
[75]. Zehr, H. (2002). The Little Book of Restorative Justice, Intercourse, PA: Good Books

Ronald E Wanda, Joyce Muchemi, Nyandoro K Obondi & Ogachi O Nyamora “Role of Community Involvement in Peace Building: A Case of Mount Elgon in Bungoma County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.198-207 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Application of Competitor Focused Accounting (CFA) Method as Competitive Advantages in Foods and Baking Enterprises in Kano, Jigawa and Bauchi States of Nigeria

Sabo Usman; Musa Muhammed Bello – March 2019 Page No.: 208-216

The paper explores the application of competitor focused accounting (CFA) method as competitive advantages in foods and baking enterprises in Kano, Jigawa and Bauchi states of Nigeria. The population of the study is made up of all foods and baking enterprises in the three states out of which nine (9) enterprises three (3) from each state have been selected to form the sample of the study. The one-sample t-test and the frequency table have been used in the analysis of the data. Ninety (90) questionnaires have been administered out of which seventy eight (78) have been collected. The findings of the study reveal that all aspect of competitor focused accounting method captured in the study (Competitor Cost Assessment, Competitor Position Monitoring, Competitor Appraisal based on Financial Statement) are significantly used in the foods and baking enterprises in the three (3) states. It is recommended that the competitor focused accounting method should be more formally used in food and baking enterprises in the states. Finally, they should introduce comprehensive accounting system by ensuring that record keeping and preparation of financial statements is given utmost regards as it has received less concentration.

Page(s): 208-216                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2019

 Sabo Usman

 Musa Muhammed Bello

[1]. Alsoboa, S. & Alalaya, M.M., (2015). Practices of competitor accounting and its influence on the competitive advantages: An empirical study in Jordanian manufacturing companies: Global journal of management and business research: Accounting and auditing: 15(3):14-23
[2]. Barnett V. (1999). Guide to Statistical Information Sampling for Surveys, Royal statistical society. Retrieved July 2018 from…/short-sample-surveys-final.pdf
[3]. Biskra, M.K., (2014). Product innovation and competitive advantage: European Scientific Journal: 1(1): 140-157.
[4]. Chew, B., (2000). The geometry of competition. Retrieved July, 2018 from,…/jamar-v3-1-heinen.pdf.
[5]. Chartered institute of management accountants, (1992). Management accounting in support of strategic management process: CIMA executive summary report, 11(1): 1-17.
[6]. Dirisu, J. Iyiola, O. & Ibidunni, O.S., (2013). Product differentiation: A tool of competitive advantage and optimal organizational performance (A study of unilever Nigeria PLC): European Scientific Journal, 9(1):258-281.
[7]. Douglas, B., & Richter, R., (2014). Competitive Positioning: Competitive Assessment and Price-to-Win. Retrieved July, 2018 from
[8]. Duncan, W.J., Ginter, P.M. & Swayne, L.E., (1998). Competitive advantages and internal organizational assessment: Academy of management executive, 12(3): 6-16.
[9]. Egbunike, A. & Odum, A.N., (2014). Adoption of competitor focused accounting (CFA) in selected manufacturing firms In Nigeria: Asian Journal of Economic Modelling Contribution/ Originality: 2(3): 128-140.
[10]. Gračanin, S., Kalac, E., & Jovanović, D., (2015). Competitive intelligence: Importance and application in practice: Review of innovation and competitiveness, 1(1):25-44.
[11]. Grant, R.M. (2001). The resource based theory of competitive advantage: Implication for strategy formulation: California management review, 1(1): 115-135.
[12]. Guilding, C., (1999). Competitor-focused accounting: an exploratory note: Accounting, Organizations and Society: 24(1): 583-595.
[13]. Heinen, C. & Hoffjan, A., (2005). The strategic relevance of competitor cost assessment – an Empirical Study of Competitor Accounting: JAMAR, 3(1):17-34.
[14]. Heinen, K.C. & Hoffjan, A., (2002). About the strategic relevance of competitor cost assessment: An empirical study regarding competitor accounting. Retrieved July, 2018 from…/jamar-v3-1-heinen.pdf
[15]. Hoopes, D.G., Madsen, T.L. & Walker, G., (2003). Guest editors’ introduction to the special issue: Why is there a resource-based view? Toward a theory of product heterogeinety Strategic Management Journal, 24(1): 890-902.
[16]. Laakso J., (2017). A competitor analysis tool for a small to medium sized company. (MSc. Dissertation, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, 2017).
[17]. Malinić, S., Jovanović, D., Janković, M., (2012). Competitive management accounting response to the challenges of strategic business decision making: Economics and Organization, 9(3): 297 – 309.
[18]. Mazreku, A., (2015). Impact of customer satisfaction and customer orientation of the company on the verge of gaining: European journal of research and reflection in management sciences, 3(4): 28-41.
[19]. Moro, B. (2008). The theory of the revenue maximizing firm: JSSM 1(1): 172-192.
[20]. NG’OO, T.K., (2016). Influence of positioning strategies on competitive advantages of the insurance firms in Kenya. (MSc. Dissertation, school of business, university of Nairobi Kenya).
[21]. Nulty D.D., (2008). The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys: what can be done: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(3) 301-314.
[22]. Neuman W.L. (2005). Social research method: Qualitative and quantitative approach, 7th edition, Wisconsin: whitewater publishers.
[23]. Organization of economic cooperation and development, (2017), Competition Assessment Toolkit: Volume 1. Principles,Retrieved July, 2018 from
[24]. Papulova, E. Papulova, Z., (2006). Competitive strategy and competitive advantages of small and midsized manufacturing enterprises in Slovakia. Retrieved July, 2018 from
[25]. Porter, M.E. & Millar, V.E., (1985). How information gives you competitive advantage: Harvard business review, 1(1):1-13.
[26]. Porter, M.E., (1985). Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. Free press, Maxwell macmillan Toronto, Canada.
[27]. Saunders M., Lewis P. & Thornhill A. (2009). Research method for business students, 7th edition, Kirby street London: Pearson professional limited.
[28]. Theriou,, N.G., Georgios V.A. & Theriou, N. A (2009). Theoretical Framework Contrasting the Resource-Based Perspective and the Knowledge-Based View (2009) European Research Studies, XII, (3).
[29]. Vroom, G. & Mccann, B.T. (2009). Ownership structure, profit maximization and competitive behavior: Working paper series, IESE business school university of Navarra.

Sabo Usman; Musa Muhammed Bello “Application of Competitor Focused Accounting (CFA) Method as Competitive Advantages in Foods and Baking Enterprises in Kano, Jigawa and Bauchi States of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.208-216 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Access to Credit Facilities and Tax Compliance among SMEs: Evidence from Nigeria

Salawu, R.O., Adegbie, F. F., Oladejo, O.F. – March 2019 Page No.: 217-225

We investigate the impact of access to credit on tax compliance among SMEs in Nigeria. The need to generate revenue to meet up with the running of government activities has been a focus of every government across the globe, and SMEs are vital to revenue generation in emerging economies like Nigeria. We employ a survey of 400 SME operators in Nigeria. The findings reveal that there is a positive and significant relationship between access to credit and tax compliance (α=0.715, t(395)=15.637, p=0.000). The implication is that access to credit facilities contributes significantly to tax compliance among SMEs operators in Nigeria. The study concluded that access to credit facilities contributed significantly to tax compliance among SMEs operators in Nigeria. The study recommends that the Central Bank of Nigeria, Bank of Industry, Development Bank of Nigeria, Bank of Agric, Ministry of Finance and other government agencies involves in intervention fund should set up a technical committee that will monitor the disbursement and monitoring of intervention funds for SMEs so as to ensure that the SMEs operators access the fund and also to see that the fund is channeled for the purpose to which it was disbursed.

Page(s): 217-225                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2019

 Salawu, R.O.
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilishan –Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 Adegbie, F. F.
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilishan –Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 Oladejo, O.F.
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilishan –Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

[1].Adebisi, J.F & Gbegi, D.O. (2013). Effect of Tax avoidance and tax evasion on personal income tax administration in Nigeria. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences., 1(3), 125-134.
[2]. Adesina .O.O & Uyioghosa, .O. (2016). Tax Knowledge, Penalties and Tax Compliance in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.
[3]. Ado, .A., & Mallo, .M.J. (n.d.). Impact of deficient electricity supply on the operations of small scale businesses in the north east Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Economic Development, 3(1).
[4]. Aimurie, I. (2012). Taxation as a tool for wealth and employment creation. Tax Justice Network-Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: Bright Wood Apartments.
[5]. Akabueze, B. (2002). Financing small and medium enterprises (SMEs): The small and medium industries equity investment scheme (SMIEIS) option. Paper delivered at e-week 2002 seminar, MUSON Centre, Lagos, Nigeria. Retrieved February 11-14, 2002
[6]. Akaeze, C.O., & Akaeze, N. (2017). Exploring the Survival Strategies for Small Business Ownership in Nigeria. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 5(7), 35-48.
[7]. Apulu, I. and Latham, A. (2009). Knowledge management: facilitator for SME’s competitiveness in Nigeria’, UK Academy for Information Systems Conference Proceedings 2009, Paper 6 .
[8]. Aryeetey, E. (2005). Informal finance for private sector development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of microfinance, 7(1), 13-26.
[9]. Atawodi, O. W. (2012). Factors that affect tax compliance among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in North Central Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management, , 7(2), 87-96.
[10]. Ayozie, D. O. (2006). The role of small scale industry in national development in Nigeria. Association for Small Business & Entrepreneurship 32nd annual conference, Corpus .
[11]. Cant, .M.C., Wiid, .J.A., & Kallier, .S.M. (n.d.). Small business owners’ perceptions of moral behaviour and employee theft in the small business sector of Nigeria. Gender & Behaviour. 11(2), pp. 5775-5787.
[12]. CBN. (2017). Cenbank News. The Staff Newsletter of Central Bank of Nigeria, 40(12).
[13]. CBN. (2018). Bullion. Publication of the Central Bank of Nigeria, 42(2).
[14]. Egwu, I. L. (2014). Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria: A Review. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. .
[15]. Emefiele, .G. (2018). The Need To Finance SMEs By Nigeria Banks. CENBANK NEWS, 41(13).
[16]. European Commission. (2007). Definition of small scale enterprises.
[17]. EVBUOMWAN, . G.O. , IKPEFAN, O. A. and OKOYE, L.U. (2015). Structure and Constraints of Micro, Small And Medium Scale Enterprises (Msmes) In Nigeria .
[18]. Gbandi, .E.C. & Amissiah, G. (2014). Financing Options For Small And Medium Enterprises (Smes) In Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 10(1).
[19]. Gberegbe,F.B., Umoren, A.O. (2017). The Perception of Tax Fairness and Personal Income Tax Compliance of Smes in Rivers State. Journal of Research in Business and Management, 5(2), 40-51.
[20]. George, M. N., Makokha, E.N., & Gregory S.N. (2017). Determinants of Tax Compliance among Small and Medium Enterprises in Bungoman County, Kenya. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(18).
[21]. Hendrickson, R. (2012). Adjustment in the role of the overseas private investment corporation (OPIC) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Today. 58(4), pp. 66-86, 145.
[22]. Ibrahim, H.A & Muhammad, M.Y. (2017). Analysis Of Constraints To Credit Access For Smes In Sokoto Metropolis. Asian Journal of Economic Modelling, 5(2).
[23]. Ihua, U. (2009). SMEs Key Failure-Factors: A Comparison between the United Kingdom and Nigeria.
[24]. John, M. S. (2017). Tax Compliance Cost And Tax Payment By Small And Medium Enterprises In Embu County, Kenya. International Academic Journal of Economics and Finance, 2(3), 206-219.
[25]. Mutula, S.M and Brakel, V.P. (2006). Importance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria. p. 403.
[26]. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD. (2005). Glossary of Statistical Terms.
[27]. Oyebamiji, T. A. (2018). Tax Justice and Compliance of Nigerian Taxpayers .
[28]. Pandula, G. (2011). An empirical investigation of small and medium enterprises’ access to bank finance: The case of an emerging economy. Proceedings of ASBBS,. 18(1).
[29]. Sanusi, L. (2011). “Banks in Nigeria and National Economic Development: A critical Review’, Keynote Address at the Seminar on “Becoming an Economic Driver while applying Banking Regulations”. Organized by the Canadian High Commission in Collaboration with the Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria and Royal Bank of Canada. On March 7, 2011.
[30]. SMEDAN. (2007). National Policy on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises”, Federal Republic of Nigeria, SMEDAN, Abuja, Nigeria, January.
[31]. SMEDAN. (2012). Survey report on Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria. Abuja: Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria, 2012.
[32]. Taiwo, .J.N. & Falohun, .T.O. (2016). SMES Financing & Its Effects On Nigeria Economic Growth. European Journal Of Business Economics and Accountancy, 4(4).
[33]. Timberg, T. (2000). Strategy of financing small and medium enterprises in a new economic environment. Paper presented at the Conference on The Indonesian Economic Recovery in Changing Environment, held by the Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia,Jarkata, October., (pp. 4-5).
[34]. United States, the small business administration (SBA). (2011). Small Business Lending in the United States, 2010-2011.

Salawu, R.O., Adegbie, F. F., Oladejo, O.F. “Access to Credit Facilities and Tax Compliance among SMEs: Evidence from Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.217-225 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Science Classes at the Primary Schools of Bangladesh: Classroom Practice and Challenges

A K M Obaydullah and Nusrat Jahan – March 2019 Page No.: 226-230

This study presents of classroom practice about primary science at the primary schools of Bangladesh. Various video graphs, personal observations and research findings along with some reports depicts that the Primary Science classroom situation in the primary schools of Bangladesh is below standard. The participants of this study were 40 primary School teachers from 40 schools purposively sampled based on qualities like teachers activities and classroom facilities. Teachers still now follow the traditional system of classroom practices about primary science because of lack of potential knowledge and classroom management skills, lack of motivation towards teaching and lack of professional satisfaction. In that reason have some bad effect on the learning of the student. So, some recommendations have been proposed to confirm quality primary science classroom practice at the primary schools of Bangladesh. However, now a days the situation is changed with the many steps of the government which should be a matter of comfort for the future generations

Page(s): 226-230                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2019

 A K M Obaydullah
Instructor, URC, Primary and Mass Education Ministry, Bangladesh.

 Nusrat Jahan
Lecturar, Department of Islamic History, Government Ispahani College, Dhaka, Bangladesh

[1]. A K M Obaydullah, & Md Abdur Rahim. (2019). Use of ICT for Primary science Teaching and Learning at the Primary Schools in Bangladesh. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas In Education, 5(1), 642-651.
[2]. Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) (2012) Basic Education Statistics- 2011. [Online] Available from: http://www. cle&id=483&Itemid=193 [Accessed 29 October 2013].
[3]. Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) (2009) Statistics. [Online] Available from: bImil/,nlip? option=com_content & task=view&id=434 & Itemid48 [Accessed 29 October 2013].
[4]. Hart, B. (2008) Bangladesh School. [Online]. Available from: http:// [Accessed: 29 October 2013].
[5]. Power learning (2011) Early EIA Classroom Practices 1. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed: 29 October 2013].
[6]. Intlhomeroom (2012) School kids as they are Learning English during their class. [Online]. Available from: http:// watch? v= AR5u268FMRo [Accessed 29 October 2013].
[7]. Haq, M. N. Ehsan, A. & Jabbar, A. (2004) Assessing Quality of Primary Education in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Education Journal, 3(1), 13-26.
[8]. Ahmed, M., Nath, S. R., Hossain, A. & Kalam, M. A. (2005) Education Watch 2003/4: quality with equity: the primary education agenda. Dhaka, Campaign for Popular Education (CAMPE).
[9]. Rahman, R. I. & Otobe, N. (2005) The Dynamics of the Labor Market and Employment in Bangladesh: A focus on Gender Dimensions. Employment Strategy Papers. Geneva, International Labour Organisation.
[10]. The World Bank (2011) Pupil-teacher ratio, Primary. [Online] Available from: [Accessed: 29 October 2013].
[11]. Kabeer, N. Nambissan, G B. Subrahmaniam, R. Eds. (2003) Child Labour and the Right to Education in South Asia: Needs versus Rights. New Delhi, Sage Publications.
[12]. Alam, A. K. M. B. & Jahan, K. A. (2007) Quality Education in Selected Primary Schools of Bangladesh: Perceptions of Classroom Teachers. Bangladesh Education Journal, 6(1), 43-51.
[13]. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) (2013). Literacy Assessment Survey (LAS) 2011. Dhaka, BBS.
[14]. Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) (2006) Educational Structure of Bangladesh. [Online] Available from: [Accessed 29 October 2013].
[15]. Chowdhury, M. R. Nath, S. R. Chowdhury, R. K. & Ahmed, M. (2002), Renewed Hope, Daunting Challenges: State of Primary Education in Bangladesh. Dhaka, University Press Limited.
[16]. Jahan, S. Pervin, A. Reza, S. Afroz, R. Islam, S. Azad, S. Hashim, M. Shahnewaz, S. Rahman, A. T. M. M. & Amin, S. M. N. (2002) A Study on Government Primary Education in Dhaka City. Democracy Watch. Dhaka, DTP.
[17]. Ehsan, D. M. A. (1997) Curriculum Development: Theories and Methods. Dhaka, Chatrabandhu Library.
[18]. United Nations Development Program (2011) Bangladesh School Classrooms Get High-Tech Makeover. [Online] Available from: http: \~ww.voutubc.COm watch? v=FCMkMILrSGk [Accessed: 30 October 2013].
[19]. Nath, S. R. Mahbub, A. Shahjamal, M. M. Kabir, M. M. and Zafar, T. (2004) Case Study of Quality Primary Education in Bangladesh. Directorate of Primary Education. Dhaka, DPE.
[20]. National Curriculum of Primary Level (2012) Aims and Objectives. Dhaka, National Curriculum and Textbook Board.
[21]. Haq, M. N. & Islam, M. S. (2005) Teachers’ Motivation and Incentives in Bangladesh. [Online]. Available from http:’ upload/1/ document/0709/Teacher motivation Bangladesh.pdf [Accessed: 29 October 2013].

A K M Obaydullah and Nusrat Jahan “Science Classes at the Primary Schools of Bangladesh: Classroom Practice and Challenges” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.226-230 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Local Government Fiscal Autonomy and Its Impact on the Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria

Chijioke Basil Onuoha, Henry Ufomba – March 2019 Page No.: 231-241

In the literature on the structure of government and its impact on development in the grassroot there is a resurgence in the focus on the role of Local Government as government in the grassroot level in stimulating economic activities that will significantly improve the general well-being of the populace and contribute to sustainable economic development. Situated within this focus, this study examined the impact of Local Government fiscal autonomy on the performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMSE) in Nigeria. Using a questionnaire as instrument the study adopted a survey method and collected data from 248 entrepreneurs from the three senatorial districts of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. The correlation analysis of the data showed two insightful results-both the level of Local Government fiscal autonomy and its level of expenditure have significant impact on the performance and profitability of SMSEs. It therefore recommend for higher Local Government fiscal autonomy as an important step to stimulate inclusive economic activities and growth.

Page(s): 231-241                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 March 2019

 Chijioke Basil Onuoha
PhD, Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 Henry Ufomba
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

[1]. Aborisade, O. (1989). Nigerian Local Government. Ile-Ife. Obafemi Awolowo University Press.
[2]. Ademolekun, L., Olowu, D. & Melaye, M. (1988). Local Government in West Africa Since Independence. Lagos. University of Lagos Press.
[3]. Adetoritse, T. D. (2011). Conceptualizing Local Government from a Multi-Dimensional Perspective. Journal of Higher Education of Social Science Vol. 1(1): 66-71.
[4]. Ahmed, A. A. (2012). Local Government Authority and Its Effectiveness in Nigeria (http://www/ accessed 12th of November, 2018.
[5]. Aluko, J. O. (2000). Corruption in the Local Government System in Nigeria. Ibandan. OluBen Printers
[6]. Anyebe, A. A. (2001). Reading in Development Administration Zaria. Shareef Salam Press.
[7]. Awofeso, O. (2004). Issues in Local Government Administration in Nigeria. Lagos. Jolly Services.
[8]. Bello-Imam, J. B. (1996). Local Government in Nigeria. Evolving a Third Tier of Government. Ibadan. Heinemann.
[9]. Bello-Imam, J. B. (1996). Local Government in Nigeria. Lagos. Heinemann.
[10]. Chijioke, A. I. (2016). Readings in Rural Development Programmes in Nigeria. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited.
[11]. Cochrame, G. (1994). “Policies of Strengthening Local Government in Developing Countries” Washington DC. World Bank Working Paper No. 578.
[12]. Deijomaoh, I. & Eboh, E. (2010). Local Government in Nigeria: Relevance and Effectiveness in Poverty Reduction and Economic Development. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 1(1): 15 -32.
[13]. Egonawan, J. & Ibodje, S. (1993). Reinventory Local Government in Nigeria from Hierarchy to Participation. Benin City, Feta printing Press Limited.
[14]. Egonmwan, J. (1984). Principles and the Practice of Local Government in Nigeria. Benin. AKA and Brothers Press.
[15]. Egurube, J. O. (1991). “The Evolution of Local Government in Nigeria, C. G. O (eds). Current Issues in Public and Local Government Administration. Enugu. Fourth Dimension Publishers.
[16]. Ekpe, A. N., Attach, V. J. & Ekpe M. A. (2018). Local Government in Akwa Ibom State (1987 – 2017). Evolving Grassroot Governance. Uyo. Sleumas Publishers.
[17]. Ezekiel E. U. (1994). Principles and Practice of Local Government in Nigeria. Jos. FAB Education Books.
[18]. Federal Government of Nigeria (1976). Guidelines for Local Government Reform Lagos. Government Printer.
[19]. Federal Government of Nigeria (1999). Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Lagos. Government Printer.
[20]. Hills, D. M. (1974). Democratic Theory and Local Government. London. George Uwin.
[21]. Ibodje, S. (1999). Comparative Local Government. Warri: Eregha Nigeria Company.
[22]. Ismail, J., Bayart, S. & Meyer, I. (1997). Local Government Management. Boston. Houghton Mufflin.
[23]. Mei, C. Clerk, Wu Xun (2016). Local Government Entrepreneurship in China: A Public Policy Perspective. China: An International Journal 14(3): 3-15.
[24]. Mohammed, O. A. (2010). “An Appraisal of the Concept of Centralization and Decentralization” In Obi, E. A. (eds). Comparative Local Government. Onitsha. Bookpoint Educational Limited.
[25]. Ndan, L. D. (2001). The Challenges of Developing Nigeria’s Local Government Areas. Jos. Mgbanqzee Venture Limited.
[26]. Newman, J. Raine, J. & Sketcher, C. (2001). “Developments: Transforming Local Government: Innovation and Modernization” Public Money and Management 21, (2): 61-68.
[27]. Obeta, K. C. & Ohide, C. C. (2010). Rural Development Trends in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. Abuja. DFRRI Press.
[28]. Obi, E. A. (2010a). “Introduction: Government at the Grassroots”. In Obi, E. A. (eds). Comparative Local Government. Onitsha. Bookpoint Educational Limited. Pp 1-8.
[29]. Obi, E. A. (2010b). “Issues in Local Government Administration” in Obi E. A. (ed) Comparative Local Government: An Ecological Approach. Onitsha Book-Point Educational Limited pp 4-35.
[30]. Oboli, M. U. (2005). Local Government Administration System. An Introductory and Comparative Approach. Onitsha Asbort Books Limited.
[31]. Offoze, A. (1997). Local Government in Nigeria: An Historical Disocurse. Abakiliki. Willy Rose and Appleseed.
[32]. Okafor, C., Chukwuemeka, E. E. O. & Udents J. O. (2015). “Developmental Local Governance as a Model for Grassroots Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria”. International Journal of Arts and Humanities 4(2): 42-59.
[33]. Okoli, F. C. (2000). Theory and Practice of Local Government. A Nigerian Perspective. Enugu. John Jacobs Classic Publishers Limited.
[34]. Okoli, F. C. (2000). Theory and Practice of Local Government. A Nigerian Perspective. Enugu. John Jacobs Class Publishing.
[35]. Ola, R. (1984). Local Administration in Nigeria. London. Kegan.
[36]. Olasupo, F. A. (2013). The Scope and Future of Local Government Autonomy in Nigeria. Advances in Applied Sociology 3(5): 2017 – 214.
[37]. Olowo, D. (1988). African Local Governments as Instruments of Economic and Social Development. Hague. International Union of Local Authorities.
[38]. Olowu, D. (1988). African Local Governments as Instruments of Economic and Social Development. Hague International Union of Local Authorities.
[39]. Olowu, D. (1999). “Local Governance, Democracy and Development” in R. Joseph (eds) State, Conflict and Democracy in Africa. Boulder. Lynne Kienner. Pp. 23-24.
[40]. Onah, R. C. (1995). “The Functions of Local Government” in Ikejiani-Clark M. & Okoli, F. C. (eds) Local Government Administration in Nigeria: Current Problems and Future Challenges. Lagos. Headeing Preis. Pp. 105 – 120
[41]. Orekoya, T. & Agbugba, T. (2001). Local Government Administration in Nigeria. Lagos. Pure language Communications.
[42]. Orewa, G. O. & Adewumi, J. B. (1992). Local Government in Nigeria: The Changing Scene. Benin. Ethiopia Publishing Company.
[43]. Orewa, G. O. (1991). The Maker of Modern Local Government in Nigeria. Lagos. Central Book Limited.
[44]. Walker, R. M. (2006). “Innovation Type and Diffusion: An Empirical Analysis of Local Government” Public Administration 84(2): 311-335.
[45]. Yapeng, Z. (2012). “Policy Entrepreneur, Civic Engagement and Local Policy Innovation in China: Housing Moneterization Reform in Guizhou Province”. The Australian Journal of Public Administration 71(2):191-200.
[46]. Yizi, C. (1915). “A Realistic Alternative for China’s Development and Reform Strategy: Formalized Decentralization” Journal of Contemporary China 10: 81-92.

Chijioke Basil Onuoha, Henry Ufomba “Local Government Fiscal Autonomy and Its Impact on the Performance of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.231-241 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Factors for Teachers’ Low Use of ICT in Secondary Schools in Tanzania

Shima Dawson Banele – March 2019 Page No.: 242-246

ICT in education shifted classroom activities from traditional to technological mediated teaching and learning paradox. There are need to understand factors abided to teachers only on low use of ICT in secondary schools classroom teaching and learning activities. Purpose of the study dwelled to influence stakeholders on current ICT devices available in schools and teachers’ influencing factors replicated to low use of technologies so that to step in Tanzania secondary schools. Descriptive cross sectional survey research design bedded into ethnographic methods allowed narrative nature of teachers’ norms and attitudes to emerge. 50 teachers, 12 heads of schools and 12 secondary schools from Kibaha district were selected using simple stratified and purposive procedures. Data was collected using structured checklist observations and Focus Group Discussion techniques. Reliability of the data collection instruments was determined by split-half method. Collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics; however the study findings had implication on use of ICT in secondary classroom.

Page(s): 242-246                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 March 2019

 Shima Dawson Banele
The Open University of Tanzania, Faculty of Education, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

[1]. Afshari, M., Bakar, K. A., Su Luan, W., Samah, B. A., & Fooi, F.S. (2009). Factors Affecting Teachers’ Use of Information and Communication Technology. International Journal of Instruction. 2(1), 77-104.
[2]. Balanskat, A., Blamire, R. & Kefala, S. (2006). The ICT Impact Report, A Review of Studies of ICT Impact on Schools in Europe. European School Net in the Framework of the European Commission’s ICT cluster. Available online at: accessed 18 January 2019.
[3]. Banerjee, A., Cole, S., Duflo, E. and Linden, L. (2004), Remedying Education: Evidence
[4]. Cavas, B., et al. (2009), A study on Science Teachers Attitudes Toward Information and Communication Technologies in Education, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 20-32
[5]. de Corte, E., Verschaffel, L., Entwistle, N., & van Merrienboer, J. (Eds.). (2003). Powerful Learning Environments: Unraveling Basic Components and Dimensions. Oxford: Pergamon/Elsevier.
[6]. Ghavifekr, S., Afshari, M., & Amla Salleh. (2012). Management strategies for E-Learning system as the core component of systemic change: A Qualitative Analysis. Life Science Journal, 9(3), 2190-2196.
[7]. Grabe, M., & Grabe, C. (2007). Integrating Technology for Meaningful Learning (5th Ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
[8]. Hammond, M., Crosson, S., Fragkouli, E., Ingram, J., Johnston-Wilder, P., Johnston-Wilder, S., Kingston, Y., Pope, M., & Wray, D. (2008). Why do some student teachers make very good use of ICT? An exploratory case study. Coventry: University of Warwick.
[9]. Hare, H. (2007). ICT in education in Tanzania, in G. Farrell, S. Isaacs & M. Trucano (ed.), Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: 53 Country Reports, DC: infoDev / World Bank, Washington.
[10]. Hooker, M., Mwiyeria, E., & Verma, A. (2011). ICT competency framework for teachers (ICT-CFT): Contextualization and piloting in Nigeria and Tanzania (World Bank and GESCI Initiative Synthesis Report No. Draft). Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: (MoEVT), Retrieved on 12 January 2019.from:
[11]. Lawless, K., & Pellegrino, J. (2007). Professional development in integrating technology into teaching and learning: Knowns, unknowns and ways to pursue better questions and answers. Review of Educational Research, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 575-614.
[12]. Mwalongo, A. (2010). Teachers’ Knowledge, Beliefs and Pedagogical Practices in Integrating ICTs in Different Curriculum Areas in Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Pakistan, Educational Research Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 69-79.
[13]. Keengwe, J., & Onchwari, G. (2008). Computer technology integration and student learning: Barriers and promise, Journal of Science Education and Technology, vol. 17, pp. 560– 565.
[14]. Komba, W. (2009). Increasing Educational Access through Open and Distance Learning in Tanzania. A Critical Review of Approaches and Practices. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technolgy, 5(5), 8–21.
[15]. Mwalongo,A. (2011). Teachers’ Perceptions about ICT for Teaching, Professional Development, Administration and Personal Use. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2011, Vol. 7, Issue 3, pp. 36-49.
[16]. Steel, C. (2009). Reconciling university teacher beliefs to create learning designs for LMS Environments, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 399-420.
[17]. Swarts, P. & Wachira, E. M. (2010). Tanzania: ICT in education situational analysis (Survey Results Report) (p. 67). Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GESCI). Retrieved on 10 December 2018 from
[18]. Tanzania Institute of Education. (2009). Information and Computer Studies Pedagogy Syllabus for Diploma in Secondary Education. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Tanzania Institute of Education.
[19]. United Republic of Tanzania. (2003). National Information and Communication Technologies Policy. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Communication and Transport.
[20]. United Republic of Tanzania. (2004). Information and Communication Technology: Education Management Information System (EMIS) Development Plan 2004-2007. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Education and Culture.
[21]. United Republic of Tanzania. (2007). Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Basic education (Policy Document) (pp. 1–30). Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT). Retrieved from December 30, 2018
[22]. United Republic of Tanzania. (2010, June). Education Sector Development Programme-ESDP (2010-2015). Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT). Accessed February 3, 2019
[23]. Yilmaz, N.P. (2011). Evaluation of the Technology Integration Process in the Turkish Education System. Contemporary Educational Technology, vol.2, no.1, pp. 37-54, 2011

Shima Dawson Banele “Factors for Teachers’ Low Use of ICT in Secondary Schools in Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.242-246 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Application of Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Technique in Managing Couples with Infertility Problems

ADEJARE, Toosin Adeyinka, YARO, Hauwa Bodinga – March 2019 Page No.: 247-253

This study examines the application of Cognitive Restructuring counselling techniques in managing couples with infertility challenges. The paper identified the favourable conditions concept/ types of infertility which includes: Primary and Secondary infertilities. Causes of infertility in men such as low or absence of sperm cells while in women it includes irregular or absence of menstrual cycle among others were highlighted. Also the explanation of cognitive restructuring, application of cognitive restructuring counselling techniques in managing couple with infertility challenge were discussed, they include: Changing the irrationals and believes with rational ones some preventions/suggestions were made such as providing the psychological needs such fertility clinics, subsidized medication, among others. For couples with infertility challenges which goes a long way in improving their chances of bearing children.

Page(s): 247-253                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 March 2019

 ADEJARE, Toosin Adeyinka
Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo Unoversty, Sokoto, Nigeria

 YARO, Hauwa Bodinga
Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo Unoversty, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Bernard, C.A. (2012). Don’t Ignore the Pain of’ Infertility, www. infertility. Accessed on 10 September 2013.
[2]. Boivin, J. (2007). International Estimates of Infertility Prevalence and Treatment-Seeking: Potential Need and Demand for Infertility Medical Care. Human Reproduction 22,(6) 506-512
[3]. Bradbury, T. N., Fincham, F. D. & Beach, S. R. H. (2000). Research on the Nature and Determinants of Marital Satisfaction: A Decade in Review, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 964-980
[4]. Bridges, S. K. (2005). A Constructivist Approach to infertility: Loss and Meaning Reconstruction. Contemporary Sexuality, 39 (12).
[5]. Butler, A. C., & Beck, J. S. (2000). Cognitive therapy outcomes: A review of meta-analyses. Journal of the Norwegian Psychological Association, 37, 1-9
[6]. Covington, S.N., Burns, L.H. (2006). ‘Infertility Counseling’. A Comprehensive handbook for Clinicians. UK; Cambridge University Press.
[7]. Driver, J. & Gottman, J. (2004) Daily Marital interactions and Positive Affect During Marital Conflict Among Newlywed Couples. Family Process, 43 (3), 301-314
[8]. Ellis, A. (1991). ‘Rational-emotive therapy; Research data that supports the clinical and personality hypotheses of RET and other modes of cognitive-behaviour therapy’. The Counseling Psychologist, 7, 2-19.
[9]. Gibson, D.M. (2007). ‘The Relationship of Infertility and Death: Using them Relational/Cultural Model of Counseling in Making Meaning’. The Humanist Psychologist, 35(3), 275-289.
[10]. Gonzalez, L. O. (2000). Infertility as a Transformational Process: A Framework for Psychotherapeutic Support of Infertile Women. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 21, 619- 633.
[11]. Haynes, J. and Miller J. (2003). Inconceivable Conceptions, Psychological Aspects of Infertility and Reproductive Technology, Brunner-Rutledge. Human Reproduction, 10.1093. Infertility
[12]. Kanter J. W., Schildcrout, J. S. & Kohlenberg, R. J. (2005). In vivoprocesses in cognitive therapy for depression: Frequency and benefits. Psychotherapy Research. 15 (4) 366–373.
[13]. Long, L. L and Young, M. E. (2007). Counselling and Therapy for Couples (2nd Edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
[14]. Ombelet W., Cooke I., Dyer, S., Serour, G. & Devroey P. (2008). Infertility and the provision of
infertility medical services in developing countries. Health Science Journal. 14 (6) 605-21
[15]. Raskin, J. D. and Bridges, S. K. (2002) Studies in Meaning: Exploring Constructivist Psychology. New York: Pace University Press.
[16]. Related Stressors and Psychological Distress in Infertile Women.
[17]. Smith, J.A., and Smith, A.H. (2004). Treating Faith-Based infertile Couples Using Cognitive- Behavioural Counseling Strategies: A Preliminary investigation. Counseling and Values, 49, 48-63.
[18]. US Department of Health and Human Services (2009)
[19]. Verhaak, C. O., & Vaillant, G. E. (2001). Is the U-curve of marital satisfaction an illusion? A 40-year study of marriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 230-239.
[20]. Women’s Health Council, (2009). Call for infertility Awareness. Accessed on 21st August 2011.

ADEJARE, Toosin Adeyinka, YARO, Hauwa Bodinga “Application of Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Technique in Managing Couples with Infertility Problems” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.247-253 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Accounting Information System as an Aid to Decision Making Process in Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria

Olalekan Oladipo Akinrinola, Enyi Patrick Enyi, Ishola Rufus Akintoye – March 2019 Page No.: 254-263

Information is indispensable for decision making in any business organisation. Accounting Information System (AIS) performs a vital role in decision making in banks. Inadequate attention to the quality and reliability of the information on which decisions are made largely contribute to the failure of the use of accounting information in businesses leading to inaccurate decisions to the detriment of the organisation. This study examined the influence of AISon decision making of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (DMBs).Survey research design was adopted for the study with employees of all licensed commercial DMBs in Nigeria totaling 100,590 constituted the study population. The sample size comprised 420 randomly selected staff in the operations, information technology, finance and control functions. The data collected, through the use of questionnaire, were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics through the use of the ordered logistic regressions. The study established that AIS has a significant positive effect on decision making process (β=3.432, 1.534, 2.612 and 2.992; W(402)=19.122, 2.586, 13.965 and 15.797; p= 0.000, 0.108, 0.000 and 0.000; R2 = 0.473). The null hypothesis that accounting information system does not significantly affect the decision making process was rejected with the model p-value of 0.000.The study concluded that decision making process is influenced by quality of accounting information system across DMBs in Nigeria and that AIS practices are similar in the DMBs. The study recommended that management of DMBs should continuously evaluate their accounting information system and ensures that the qualitative characteristics are not compromised.

Page(s): 254-263                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 March 2019

 Olalekan Oladipo Akinrinola
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Enyi Patrick Enyi
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Ishola Rufus Akintoye
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

[1]. Borthick, A. F., & Clark, R. L. (1990). Making accounting information systems work: An empirical investigation of the creative thinking paradigm. Journal of Information Systems, 4(3), 48-62.
[2]. Choe, J. M. (1996). The relationships among performance of accounting information systems, influence factors, and evolution level of information systems. Journal of management information systems, 12(4), 215-239.
[3]. Eierle, B., & Schultze, W. (2013). The role of management as a user of accounting information: implications for standard setting. Journal of Accounting and Management Information Systems.
[4]. Esmeray, A. (2016). The impact of accounting information systems on firm performance: Empirical evidence in Turkish small and medium sized enterprises. International review of management and marketing, 6(2), 233-236.
[5]. Eugenia, I. & Tiberiu, S. (2013). Accounting information for strategic decisions. Educational Research International, 1(1), 92-93.
[6]. Financial Accounting Standards Board – FASB. (2010). Statement of financial accounting concepts No. 8 Conceptual framework for financial reporting: Qualitative characteristics of useful financial information. FASB.
[7]. Haldma, T. & Laats, K. (2016). Influencing Contingencies on Management Accounting Practices in Estonian Manufacturing Companies. Management Accounting Research, 13 (4), 379-400.
[8]. Hanifi, F., & Taleeib, A . (2015). Accounting information system and management’s decision making Process. Management Science Letters 5 , 685-694.
[9]. Harash, E. (2017). Accounting performance of SMEs and effect of Accounting Information System: A conceptual model. Global journal of management and business: The accounting and auditing, 17(3), 20-26.
[10]. Hla, D., & Teru, S. P. (2015). Efficiency of accounting information system and performance measures – Literature review. International journal of multidisciplinary and current research, 3(Sept/Oct. 2015), 976-984.
[11]. Kanakriyah, R. (2016). The Effect of Using Accounting Information Systems on The Quality of Accounting Information According to Users Perspective In Jordan. European Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance Research, 4(11), 58-75.
[12]. Kanakriyah, R. (2017). The impact of accounting information systemson the banks success: Evidence from Jordan. Research journal of finance and accounting, 8(17), 1-14.
[13]. Markus, M. L., & Pfeffer, J. (2013). Power and the design and implementation of accounting and controlling Systems. Accounting, Organisation and Society, Vol. 8, No. 2 – 3, 205-218.
[14]. Meena & Dangayach, S. (2016). Analysis of Employee Satisfaction in Banking Sector. International Journal of Humanities and Applied Sciences, 1(2), 78-81.
[15]. Misni, F., & Lee, L. S. (2017). A Review on Strategic, Tactical and Operational Decision Planning in Reverse Logistics of Green Supply Chain Network Design. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 83-104.
[16]. Modum, U. (1995). Management information system analysis and design (1st ed.). Enugu: Fourth dimension publishing co. limited.
[17]. Nicolaou, A. (2000). A contingency model of perceived effectiveness in Accounting Information System: Organisational Coordination and Control Effects. International journal of accounting information systems, 1(2), 91-105.
[18]. Siyanbola, T. T. (2012). Accounting information as an aid to management decision making. International journal of management and social sciences research, 1(3), 29-34.
[19]. Srinivas, G. & Gopisetti, R. (2012). Accounting information system (AIS) – A Conceptual study. Indian Streams Research Journal, 1(V), 1-4.
[20]. Xiang, H. & Yin, K. (2011). Research on the construction of accounting information based on events approach. American journal of engineering and technology research, 11(9), 154-169.
[21]. Young, J. F. (1982). Decision-making for Small Business Management. 2nd ed. Florida: Krieger Publishing Company.
[22]. Zare, I., & Shahsavari, A. (2012). Ability of accounting information to anticipate risk. American Journal of Scientific Research, Issue 49 (2012), 5-10.

Olalekan Oladipo Akinrinola, Enyi Patrick Enyi, Ishola Rufus Akintoye “Accounting Information System as an Aid to Decision Making Process in Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.254-263 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Effect of Counselling in Teenage Mothers Academic Performances in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

Lydia Cheptoo Koech, John Simiyu, Herbert Ndimo – March 2019 Page No.: 264-280

Many girls suffer denied childhood due to teenage pregnancy, and the shame associated with the pregnancy do not allow the young mothers the opportunity to come back to school and therefore missed lifetime opportunities for the groups affected. Teenage pregnancy is widespread in the world, with Sub-Saharan African been the most affected in terms of the number of young mother and school drop outs. The exact impact of teenage motherhood on education is not well presented and therefore this study explored using qualitative and quantitative methods. The main purpose of the study was to assess the effects of teenage motherhood on academic performance in public secondary schools in Uasin-Gishu County. The study was guided by the following objectives: to assess the status of teenage motherhood in public secondary schools, to assess effects of teenage motherhood absenteeism on academic performance, to assess the perception of teenage motherhood repetition of class on academic performance, to assess effects of teenage motherhood self-esteem on academic performance, to find out challenges faced by teenage mothers. The study was informed by Resiliency Theory. The descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The target population included 392 school teenage mothers drawn from 144 public secondary within Uasin-Gishu County. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the public secondary schools while the purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents of the study. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The major findings from the study showed that teenage motherhood negatively affected academic performance due inability to raise funds to feed themselves and their children. Constant absenteeism and lack of adequate time to accomplish school tasks due to divided attention led to repeating of classes which in turn affected their self-esteem and confidence. It was also established from this study that most schools had strategies in place to enhance mother return to school policy which included a no-abortion policy and guidance and counseling services. Conclusions arising from the findings are as follows: Most of the teenage mothers are not able to attend school five days a week; majority of the respondents have repeated classes involuntary and their self-esteem is low due to hurdles they face in their schooling. Recommendations arising from this study are: teenage motherhood should not be a reason for school drop-out, rather these youth should be assisted to develop resilience; teenage mothers should be motivated and provided with all the support they need for their schooling; no teenage mother should be forced to repeat classes missed since this reduces their self-esteem; and guidance and counseling services should be offered to all stake holders to facilitate easy transition from teenage motherhood to student hood.

Page(s): 264-280                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2019

 Lydia Cheptoo Koech
Department of Education Technology, University of Eldoret., P. O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret, Kenya

 John Simiyu
Department of Education Technology, University of Eldoret., P. O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret, Kenya

 Herbert Ndimo
Department of Education Technology, University of Eldoret., P. O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret, Kenya

Achoka,J&Njeru , F (2012). De-stigmatizing teenage motherhood: Towards achievement of universal basic education in Kenya
[2]. Bankston, C. L. & Zhou, M. (2002). Being well vs. doing well: Self-esteem and school performance among immigrant and non-immigrant racial and ethnic groups. International Migration Review, 36, 389-415
[3]. Batbaatar, M., Bold, T., Marshall, J., Oyuntsetseg, D., Tamir, C., and Tumennast, G. (2006). Children on the move: rural-urban migration and access to education in Mongolia. CHIP Report No. 17. Save the Children UK/CHIP.
[4]. Beesham N (2000). The life-world of the schoolgirl-mother. Kwa Dlangezwa: University of Zululand. (M.Ed.-dissertation)
[5]. Benard, B. (1991). Fostering Resiliency in Kids: Protective Factors in the Family, School, and Community. San Francisco: Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. .
[6]. Benard, B. (1995). Fostering Resilience in Children: Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education.ERIC Digest University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign
[7]. Bezuidenhout, F. J. (2008). Teenage pregnancy. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
[8]. Bhalalusesa, E., (2000). An Appraisal of Research and Evaluation in Distance Education; The Tanzanian Experience.
[9]. Bourne, P.A., (2004).An Inquiry of certain factors that influence the academic performance of students who write the Advanced Level Accounting Examination,2004.The University of the West Indies, Mona , Thesis, Kingston.
[10]. Boyle, S., Brock, A., Mace, J. and Sibbons, M. (2002). Reaching the Poor: The ‘Costs’ of Sending Children to School. Synthesis Report. London: DFID.
[11]. Brindis, C.D., Sattley, D., Mamo, L. (2005). From Theory to Action: Frameworks for implementing community-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention strategies. San Francisco, CA: University of California, Bixby Center for Reproductive Health Research & Policy, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology &Reproductive Science, and the Institute for Health Policy Studies. Texas Tech University, Valerie McGaha-Garnett, May 2007 124 .
[12]. Bynner, J., Londra, M., and Jones, G. (2004). The impact of government policy on social exclusion among young people. London: ODPM publications.
[13]. Bynner, J., Parsons, S., (2002) Social exclusion and the transition from school to work: the case of young people not in education, Journal of Vocational Behaviour Vol. 60
[14]. Chang‟ach, J.K. (2012). Impact of Teenage Pregnancy on the Education of the Girl-Child: A Care Study of Keiyo South District, Keiyo-Marakwet Country, KENYA. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, (1). : 1-8..
[15]. Chauke O., (2013) Teen pregnancy:Hosi is concerned. (22 October 2013)
[16]. Chavkin, N. F., & Gonzales, J. (2000). Mexican immigrant youth and resiliency: Research and promising programs. Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 447990).
[17]. Chigona A &Chetty R (2007). Girls’ education in South Africa: special consideration to teen mothers as learners. Journal of Education for International Development, 3(1): 1-16.
[18]. Colclough, C., Rose, P. and Tembon, M. (2000) Gender inequalities in primary schooling: the roles of poverty and adverse cultural practice. International Journal of Educational Development, 20: 5–27.
[19]. Crosson-Tower,C.(2007).Fourth Edition. Exploring Child Welfare: A Practice Perspective. USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
[20]. Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. London: Sage.
[21]. Davies, J. and Brember, I. (1999).Gender, attainment and self-esteem in year 2 – a nine year cross-sectional study Paper presented in the Conference in Warwick, University of Warwick, Coventry, England, 12–16 April 1999.
[22]. Dawson, N and Hosie, A (2005) The education of pregnant young women and young mothers in England. University of Bristol, Bristol
[23]. De Villiers FPR&Kekesi J (2004). ‘Social interaction of teenage mothers during and after their pregnancy’. SA Family Practice, 46(2):21-23
[24]. Disiye M. A.(2012) Influence of parent adolescent communication on psychology adjustment of secondary school students in Eldoret municipality. Unpublished DPhil Thesis: Moi University Eldoret
[25]. DlaminiLS, Van der Merwe MM & Ehlers VJ (2003). ‘Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland’. Health SA, 8(3):74-85.
[26]. Dweck, CS, Leggett, EL. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality Psychol. Rev. 95:256–73
[27]. Dweck, CS. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. Am. Psychol. 41:1040–48
[28]. Eloundou-Enyégué, PM. (2004). Pregnancy- related dropouts and gender inequality in education .Demography, 413:509—528.
[29]. FAWE, (2003) The Quest for Quality in Girls’ Education: FAWECentres of Excellence—Grand Diourbel Junior Secondary School, Diourbel, Ghana. Nairobi:.
[30]. Frost, R.E. (2001). Grade point averages of male and female student-athletes at public and private Division III institutions during traditional and nontraditional seasons.Unpublished master’s thesis, Springfield College.
[31]. Gachukia, E. (2003) Task Force on Meeting the Needs of Children with Special Needs. A report on Disadvantaged Groups of Children and Free Primary Education. Nairobi: Government printers
[32]. Gonzales, J. (2003). Cesar Chavez: A case study of a resilient child’s adaptation into adulthood. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Ed478347)
[33]. Government of Kenya. (2001). Report of the task force on student indiscipline and unrest (Wangai Report).
[34]. Gyan, C. (2013). The Effects of Teenage Pregnancy on the Educational Attainment of Girls at Chorkor, a Suburb of Accra. Journal of Educational and Social Research MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy Vol. 3 No. 3 September 2013
[35]. Hamilton, B.E. Martin, J.A. Ventura, S.J. (2006).Births: preliminary data for Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2007.
[36]. Harris, A and Goodall, J (2008). Do Parents Know They Matter? Engaging All Parents In Learning. Educational Research, Vol 50: No 3, pages 277 – 289
[37]. Holgate, H.S. Evans, R. and Yuen, F.K.O. (2006). Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood: Global Perspectives, issues and Interventions. London and New York: Routledge.
[38]. Holmlund, H. (2005) Estimating long-term consequences of teenage childbearing: an examination of the siblings approach. Journal of Human Resources, 40, 716-43.
[39]. Hosie, A. and Selman, P. (2006 forthcoming). “Teenage Pregnancy and Social Exclusion: an exploration of disengagement and reengagement from the education system” in Holgate H and Evans R Pregnancy and Parenthood: Global perspectives, Issues, and Interventions, London: Taylor and Francis. .
[40]. Howerton, D.L., J.M. Enger and C.R. Cobbs, (1994). Self-esteem and achievement of at-risk adolescent Black males. Res. Schools, 1: 23-27
[41]. Inter Press Service. (2011). Teen Pregnancy Bucks Global Downward- IPS Inter Press Service Nov, 02 2011.
[42]. James, W. Auerbach, F. Desai, Z. Giliomee, H. Jordan, P. Krog, A. Kulayi, T. Lehoko, K. Leibowitz, B. and Tlakula, P. (2000). Values, Education and Democracy. Report on Working Group on Values in Education. South Africa.
[43]. Jeptoo, I. (2012) Challenges facing girl-child access to university education in arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya: A case study of Keiyo District. M. phil Thesis. Moi University Eldoret (unpublished)
[44]. Jeyness, W. H. (2007). The Relationship between Biblical Literacy, Academic Achievement, and School Behavior Among Christian and Public-School Students. Journal of Research on Christian Education (April 2013), 37–41.
[45]. Johnson, M. P. (2011). Women’s Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study. University of Iowa
[46]. K’ Aluoch, M. (2009) “Fury over pregnant Girls; School principals Blame Game Over who is Responsible”. The Daily Nation .Government press.
[47]. Kamara, M. K. (2011), Challenges facing teen mothers in Kenya. A case study of Wareng district. D Phil Thesis. Moi University Eldoret
[48]. Kaplan, A. Midgle, C. (1997). The effect of achievement goals: Does level of perceived academic competence make a difference? Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 22:415–35
[49]. Kathuri, J.N. and Pals, D.A. (1993). Introduction to Educational Research. Njoro: Egerton University Press.
[50]. Kearney, M. S. (2010). Teen pregnancy prevention. In Targeting Investments in Children: Fighting Poverty When Resources are Limited. University of Chicago Press.
[51]. Kenyan-Danish Research (KEDAHR), (2013). Why Luo teenage mothers never go back to school.
[52]. Kerlinger W F (1978). Foundations and Behavioral Research. New Delhi: Sarjeet Publications
[53]. Kombo, D. K. and Tromp, D. I. (2006) Thesis and thesis writing: an introduction. Nairobi: Pauline’s publications Africa.
[54]. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (2nd Ed.). New Delhi: New Age International limited.
[55]. Krejcie, R.V. and Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement.
[56]. Lall, M. (2004). Exclusion from school: Addressing the Hidden Problem of Teenage Pregnancy, New Deal for Communities Research report 28, London: Educational Policy Research Unit, Institute of Education.
[57]. Lemos, G. (2009). Freedom’s Consequences. Reducing Teenage Pregnancy and their Negative Effects in the UK. London. Lemos and Crane.
[58]. Levine JA, Pollack H and Comfort ME, (2001). Academic and behavioral outcomes among the children of young mothers, Journal of Marriage and the Family, , 63(2):355-369.
[59]. Levine, D.L. Painter, G. (2003). The schooling costs of teenage out-of-wedlock childbearing: analysis with a within-school propensity score-matching estimator. Rev Econ Stat.
[60]. Lloyd C & Mensch B (2008). Marriage and childbirth as factors of school dropout: an analysis of data from sub-Saharan Africa. Population Studies, 62(1): 1-13
[61]. Lockett, C. T. and Harrell, J. P. (2003). Racial Identity, self-esteem, and academic achievement: Too much interpretation, too little supporting data. Journal of Black Psychology, 29(3).
[62]. Madeni F., Horiuchi S., Iida M. (2011): Evaluation of a reproductive health awareness program for adolescence in urban Tanzania-A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test research. Reproductive health; 8(27)
[63]. Madhaven S (2005) Childbearing and schooling: new evidence from South Africa. Comparative Education Review, 44(2).
[64]. Malahlela, M.K. (2012). The effect of teenage pregnancy on the behaviour of learners at secondary schools in the Mankweng area, Limpopo. M Ed dissertation. Pretoria: UNISA
[65]. Mamhute R (2012). The educational challenges of pregnant and nursing adult learners: a case study of Morgenster teachers’college. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University. (Med -dissertation)
[66]. Marteleto, L., D. Lam, V. Ranchhod. (2008). Schooling and Early Childbearing in Urban South Africa. Studies in Family Planning, 39(4):
[67]. McWhirter, J. J. McWhirter, B. T. McWhirter, E. H. and McWhirter, R. J. (2007). At-risk youth: A comprehensive response (4th Ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
[68]. Mensch, B.S. Clark, W.H. Lloyd, C.B. Erulkar, A.S. (2001). Premarital sex, schoolgirl pregnancy, and school quality in rural Kenya. Studies in Family Planning,
[69]. Micklewright, J. and K. Stewart (1999), ‘Is the Well-Being of Children Converging in the European Union?’, Economic Journal, 109, no. 459: F692-F714.
[70]. MOEST, (2001). Report of the Task Force on Student unrest in Secondary Schools.Nairobi :Jomo Kenyatta Foundation
[71]. MOEST, (2007). Gender Policy in Education. Nairobi: Government printer
[72]. Moffitt, M. A. Kazoleas, D. and Kim, Y. (2001). Institutional image: A Case Study. Corporate Communications, 6, 205-216
[73]. Moffitt, T. and the E-Risk Study Team (2002). Teen-aged mothers in contemporary Britain. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43 (6).
[74]. Mohase TB (2006). ‘Influence of teenage pregnancy and parenting on the performance of Soshanguve secondary school learners’. Pretoria: Tshwane University of Technology
[75]. Muganda-Onyando, R., & Omondi, M. (2009). Down the Drain: Counting the Costs of Teenage Pregnancy and School Dropout in Kenya. Nairobi: Centre for the Study of Adolescence
[76]. Mugenda, O. M. and Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Research methods. Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
[77]. Mulama, J. (2009). Education Kenya: Nomadic schools for mobile girls. Nairobi: Thegender wire. Retrieved March 26, 2009 from
[78]. Nachmias, C. F. and Nachmias, D. (2008). Research methods in the social sciences. 7thed. New York: Worth.
[79]. Ogula, P. A. (2011). Research Methods. Nairobi: CUEA Publications.
[80]. Okeyo Nicky O. (2009), Influence of TICH partnership program on Caregiver’s knowledge, attitude and practices in feeding of infant and young children under-five years of age: A comparative study of Nyahera and Kanyawegi sub-sub locations, Kisumu District, Unpublished Masters thesis, Great Lakes University of Kisumu
[81]. Omulako E. J., Jepchumba V., (2011). The Teacher, Educational Leadership, Research Paper, Primary school teachers’ perception of head teachers’ curriculum supervision in Emgwen Division, Nandi North District, Kenya
[82]. Ormrod, J. E. (2006). Educational psychology: Developing learners (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
[83]. Oso, W.Y. Onen, D. (2005). A General Guide to Writing Research Proposal and Report: A Handbook for Beginning Researchers. Kisumu, Kenya: Option Press and Publishers.
[84]. Oyaro, K. H.P. (2009) on-line Teenage mothers Denied Education. Available/ http.// Id news
[85]. Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
[86]. Pridmore, P. (2007a) Adapting the primary school curriculum for multi grade classes: a 5-step plan and an agenda for action. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 39(1),pp.559-576.
[87]. Propper, C., Monstad, K., and Salvanes, K. G. (2011), “Is Teenage Motherhood Contagious? Evidence from a Natural Experiment,” Tech. Rep. 11/262
[88]. Rabi A., B. Amudha, P. Van Teijlingen, E. and Glyn, C. (2010). Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancy in South Asia: a systematic review.HSJ.GR – Health science Journal, 4(1): 612-645
[89]. Rangiah, J. (2012). The experiences of pregnant teenagers about their pregnancy. MNC dissertation. Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch
[90]. RitcherMS &Mlambo GT (2005). ‘Perceptions of rural teenagers on teenage pregnancy’. Health SA, 10(2): 61-69
[91]. Russell, S.T. (2002) Childhood developmental risk for teenage child bearing in Britain. Journal of Research on Adolescence Vol. 12 (3) 305-324.
[92]. Scott-Fisher, K., &Cambell-Forrester, S. (2000). Resiliency factors in Jamaican adolescents. The Pan American Health Organisation, Caribbean Subregion, Barbadoes, WI and the WHO Collaborating Center on Adolescent Health, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota. Secondary analysis on resiliency funded by USAID/CHANGE
[93]. Selman, P. Richardson, D. Hosie, A. and Speak, S. (2001) Monitoring of the Standards Fund Teenage Pregnancy Grant, Newcastle; University of Newcastle, available at:
[94]. SEU (Social Exclusion Unit) (1999) Teenage Pregnancy. London: HMSO
[95]. Shaningwa LM (2007). Educationally related challenges faced by teenage mothers on returning to school: A Namibian case study. Grahamstown: Rhodes University
[96]. Sibeko, P. G. (2012). The effect of pregnancy on a schoolgirl’s education. Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education, University of Zululand
[97]. Smith Battle, L (2000): The vulnerabilities of teenage mothers: Challenging prevailing assumptions. Pretoria: University of Pretoria Health References Centre-Academic.
[98]. Smith, R. Nesbakken, G. Wirak, A. and Sonn, B. (2007). The Link between Health, Social Issues, and Secondary Education: Life Skills, Health, and Civic Education .Washington DC: The World Bank.
[99]. Swann, C. Bowe, K. McCormick, G. Kasmin, M. (2003) Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood: a review of reviews, London, Health Development Agency.
[100]. TEMAK, hp. (2009). On-line Teen pregnancy Available http//www.gendergovernance Kenya
[101]. The Prince’s Trust, (2000). Mapping Disadvantage: Young people who need help in England and Wales, London: The Prince’s Trust.
[102]. Thomas, E. (2002). Healthy Futures: Reducing Barriers to Primary School Completion for Kenyan Girls. Baltimore: John Hopkins University.
[103]. UNESCO, (2003). Integrating Girl Child Issues into Population. Education.
[104]. UNICEF.(2006). National Home Encyclopedia Statistics
[105]. Wallace, H.M. and Baumeister, R.F.(2002).The effects of success versus failure feedback on further self-control. Self and Identity, 1, 35–41.
[106]. Wellings, K. (2001) Teenage Sexual and Reproductive Behaviour in Developed Countries: country report for Great Britain. Occasional Report No. 6.The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
[107]. Wellings, K. (2002) Evaluation of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy – Annual Synthesis Report no 1, London: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
[108]. Wellings, K., Wadsworth, J., Johnson, A., Field, J., McDowall, W. (1999) Teenage fertility and life chances, Reviews of Reproduction Vol. 4: 184-190
[109]. West, H.A., &Verhaagen, D. (nd). Giving kids a future and a hope: Promoting resiliency in children. Retrieved July 17, 2006, from .
[110]. Whitty, G. (2001) Education, social class and social exclusion, Journal of Education Policy Vol. 16 – 4 287-295
[111]. Williams, A. (2010).At- Risk Teenagers. A Helpful Source for Parents with At- Risk Teenagers. At-©2010.
[112]. Wilson, T.D. (2002). Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA.
[113]. Woodall, P. (2002) Resiliency 101. National Education Association Health Information Network.
[114]. World Health Organisation (WHO), (2008). Young People and Family Planning: Teenage Pregnancy. Malaysia: UNICEF
[115]. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.
[116]. Zondo MS 2006. Challenges faced by teenage mothers when balancing their child rearing responsibilities with academic excellence in three secondary schools in Inanda. Durban: University of KwaZulu-Natal

Lydia Cheptoo Koech, John Simiyu, Herbert Ndimo “Effect of Counselling in Teenage Mothers Academic Performances in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.264-280 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Ejagham Cross Border Re-integration between Cameroon and Nigeria 1916-1961

Raphael Achou Etta (PhD) – March 2019 Page No.: 281-287

The 1913 colonial boundaries which came on the heels of a series of Anglo-German border agreements from 1885 officially divided the Ejagham community putting them astride in the German and British territories of Cameroon and Nigeria, respectively. This colonial administrative surgery was plotted along the Cross River and the Awa stream which lay within the Ejagham land. These natural waterways that hitherto served as an economic vacuum for loose exploration and exploitation became lines of political and economic division among the Ejagham of the two territories. The German attempt to rigidly control and prevent the flow of goods and people to the British territory seriously affected, although did not completely perturb the interactions among the Ejagham of both sides in all spheres of life. The article on this premise posits that the German departure from the territory and British succession was a blessing for the Ejagham communities severed by the colonial borders. The British decision to jointly administer the Southern Cameroons as an integral part of South Eastern Nigeria reinvigorated the firm resolve for the Ejagham to re-establish economic and socio-cultural integration on both sides of the border.

Page(s): 281-287                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2019

 Raphael Achou Etta (PhD)
University of Bamenda, Cameroon

[1]. Anene, J.C., The International Boundaries of Nigeria 1885₋1960; the Framework of an Emergent African Nation, London, Longman group Limited, 1970.
[2]. Ardener, S.G.,Eye-Wtnesses to the Annexation of Cameroon 1883-1887,Buea Government Press,1968.
[3]. Chem-Langhёё ,B.,The Paradoxes of Self-Determination in the Cameroons under United Kingdom Administration:The search for Identity,Well-Being and Continuity,Lanham,Boulder,New York,Oxford,University Press of America, 2004.
[4]. Kale ,P.M., Political Evolutions in Cameroon, Buea, Government Printer, 1967.
[5]. Ebune, J.B., The Growth of Political parties in Southern Cameroons1916-1960, Yaounde,CEPER, 1992.
[6]. Elango, Z.L.,The Anglo-french Condominum in Cameroon 1914-1916: History of Misunderstanding, Limbe, Navi-Group Publications,1987.
[7]. Ngoh V.J., Constitutional Development in Southern Cameroons 1946-1961 :From Trusteeship to Independence,Yaounde,CEPER, 1990.
[8]. Nicolson, I.F., The Administration of Nigeria, 1900-1960,Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1969.
[9]. Onor, O. S., The Ejagham Nation in the Cross River Region of Nigeria, Ibadan, Kraft Books Ltd, 1994.
[10]. Rudin, H., The Germans in the Cameroons 1884-1914: A Case Study of Modern Imperialism, New York, Greenwood Press, 1968.
[11]. Talbot, P.A,In the Shadow of the Bush,Connnecticut,NUP, 1912.
[12]. Wesseling, H.L.,Divide and Rule: The Partition of Africa 1880-1914, Westport, Connecticut and London, Praeger Publication, 1996.
[13]. Elango, L., “The Anglo-French Condominium in Cameroon,”JHSN, Vol.10,No 2, 1980 .
[14]. Fanso, V.G, “Traditional and Colonial African Boundaries, Concepts and Functions in Inter-Group Relations”, in Présence Africaine, No. 1371138, 1986.
[15]. Osuntokun, A.,“Anglo-French Occupation and provisional Partition of the Cameroon 1914-1916,”JHSN,VOL.7No.4, 1975.
[16]. Atem, G., “Cameroon-Nigeria Relation 1884-1961: A Study in Political, Economic and Social Interraction between two neighbouring State,” Ph.D Thesis in History, University of Calabar Nigeria, 1984.
[17]. Atem, N. C., “German Colonial Administration in Ossidinge District 1896-1914: A Historical Survey” MA Dissertation in History, University of Yaoundé I, 2001
[18]. Bonchuk, O.M., “International boundaries and divided people; The case study of Boki and Ejagham Communities in the Cross River Area1884-1994”, Ph.D Thesis in History, University of Calabar, 1999.
[19]. Chem-Langhёё, B., “The Kamerun Plebiscite 1959-1961: Perceptions and Strategies,”Ph.D thesis in History, University of British Columbia, 1976.
[20]. Etta, A. R.,“Modern Migration and Settlement of Ejagham Njemaya 1947-1982”, MA Dissertation in History, University of Yaoundé I, 2007.
[21]. Fanso, V.G., “Trans-Frontier Relations and Resistance to Cameroon-Nigeria Colonial Boundaries 1916-1945”, Doctoral d’Etat thesis in History, University of Yaoundé, 1982.
[22]. Ngwar, B.E., “Western Education in Southern Cameroon between the World Wars (1922-1939)” Post Graduate Diploma in History, University of Yaounde, 1982.
[23]. Niba, M.L, “Nationalism in the Southern Cameroons 1939-1959”,Ph.D thesis in History,University of Nigeria,Nsuka, 1986.
[24]. Onor, S .O., “Ejagham Nationality in the Cross River Region of Nigeria: A Study of its Origin and Development to 1900,”Ph.D thesis in History, University of Calabar,1992
[25]. Takang, S., “Ejagham Migration, Settlement and Resettlement: A Cultural History ,Post GraduateDiploma ,University of Yaounde ,1986.
National Archives Buea
[26]. File No. 133/1927 An Assessment Report on the Ekwe District of Mamfe.
[27]. File No. 1460/1937 Intelligence Report on Kembong area.
[28]. File No. AF/27/1927, Assessment Report on the Keaka tribe area.
[29]. File No. 1530/1925, 7/12/1925, Future Development of Nigeria propaganda for 2-road Development Cameroon Province.
[30]. File No. AF 30/1939.
[31]. File No.QFA/1980/4 Cameroon –Nigeria Boundary.
[32]. File No.QF/d 1929/4 Cameroon –Nigeria Tribal Boundary–Mamfe Division Classified by Prince
[33]. Mbain Henry, 3 October 2003.
[34]. File No 3364, Af28, Keaka Assessment Report.
[35]. File No LGP.663, Ejagham Council, 1959.
[36]. File no O.1545, Co-operation between Nigeria and Cameroon, 28th Oct.1965
[37]. File No.Af 26/1926 Assessment Report.
[38]. File No.Af27⁄1927, Assessment Report on Obang–Balundu District, Mamfe Division, 1925.
[39]. File No, 1530 /1925 .7/12/1925,Furture Developmen tof Nigeria propaganda for two roads. development in Cameroon province.
[40]. File No sp 65939 /1/1926, Ikom-Mamfe- Bamenda road.
[41]. File No.74642/9/37 Calaba-Mamfe Road.
[42]. File No.Ph/1915/1,78/15, Proclamation of the Governor General 1917.
[43]. File No.200/1920 Cameroon Law administration.
National Archives Enugu
[44]. File no conf.E61/1913, Calprof, Instruction to F.Hives, political officer withAnglo-German Boundary patrol, june10, 1913
Calabar District Archives
[45]. CADIST,1/4/193, “Ejagham improvement Union” by J.V. Dewhurst.

Raphael Achou Etta (PhD) “Ejagham Cross Border Re-integration between Cameroon and Nigeria 1916-1961” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.281-287 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Evaluation of the Assessment Programme in Special Education Schools in Bauchi State, Nigeria

Mohammed Gishiwa, Luka Yelwa Barde, Waziri Garba, El-jajah, Musa Hassan Elzaman, Tabita Sule Gaba – March 2019 Page No.: 288-294

This study investigated the evaluation of the assessment programme in special education schools in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There were 4 purposes that guided the study. 4 research questions and 4 null hypotheses was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 100 subjects comprising school administrators and classroom teachers of senior secondary schools in Yobe State. The Sample size of 100 elements comprising teachers were selected for the study. A structured questionnaire with 20 items was used to gather data using five likert format rating scale. The statistical tool used in the analysis of 4 research question was mean and standard deviation while Chia-square was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of this study revealed that special education graduates can compete favorably in the labour market and they should not be discriminated against in the labour market, special education graduates can compete favorably in the labour market and they should not be discriminated against in the labour market certificates issued in special schools is valid the quality of the certificate is considerably equal to those obtainable in normal conventional schools, there need for including some subjects the curriculum of special schools especially vocational training bearing in mind the nature of deformity in each group of the students. Bauchi governments should offer special train in, and in-service training to teachers in the field of special education in special schools. The overall result indicates that there is statistically significant difference in evaluation of the assessment programme in special education schools in Bauchi State. This study also recommends Bauchi State Government to provide available teaching materials in special schools.

Page(s): 288-294                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2019

 Mohammed Gishiwa
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria.

 Luka Yelwa Barde
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria.

 Waziri Garba, El-jajah
Yobe State Teaching Service Board Damaturu Yobe State, Nigeria.

 Musa Hassan Elzaman
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria.

 Tabita Sule Gaba
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria.

[1]. Desforges, M. and Lindsay, G (2010). Procedures Used to Diagnose a Disability and to Assess Special Educational Needs: An International Review.Trim: NCSE.
[2]. Eskay, M. (2009). Special education in Nigeria . Germany, Koln: Lambert Academic Publishing.
[3]. Eskay, M. (2009). Special education in Nigeria . Germany, Koln: Lambert Academic Publishing.
[4]. Huda, D. (2008). The role of assessment in the successful implementation of inclusive education. In B. Okeke, & T. Ajobiewe (Eds.), Inclusive education and related issues National Council for Exceptional Council.
[5]. Huda, D. (2008). The role of assessment in the successful implementation of inclusive education. In B. Okeke, & T. Ajobiewe (Eds.), Inclusive education and related issues National Council for Exceptional Council.
[6]. Kalra, A (2018) Special needs students still struggle to access quality education. Here’s how teachers can help. Teaching and Learning International Survey, Directorate for Education and Skills.
[7]. Kane, G., Armstrong, D., Kelly, M and O’Sullivan, G. (2010). National Survey of Parental Attitudes to and Experiences of Local and National Special Education Services.Trim: NCSE.
[8]. Laju A (2012), Ability in Disability. Educating Children’s with Special Needs, Lagos.
[9]. Michael E, onu. V and janeth, I (2012) A review of special education services delivery in the united States and nigeria: implications for inclusive education. Us-china education review, 25-830
[10]. Michael E, onu. V and janeth, I (2012) A review of special education services delivery in the united States and nigeria: implications for inclusive education. Us-china education review, 825-830
[11]. National council for special education (2013) Supporting Students with Special Educational Needsin Schools.1–2 Mill Street Trim Co. Meath, 5-45
[12]. Odekunle, R M (2013) Academic Research: Developing stills in project writing (2nd Edition).RECHPublishing House, Lagos.
[13]. Olanrewaju. R. A, Jerry. E. J, Ademola. S. R And Nwakaego., E, I (2014) Barriers to special needs education in journal of education and research (2). 11,
[14]. Rix, J., et ai . (2013). Continuum of Education Provision with Special Education Needs: Review of International Policies and Practices. Trim: NCSE.
[15]. Unegbu, J.I. (2006). Service provision for special needs children. In E.D. Ozoji, I.O. Ezera, N.E. Ezeani and M. Abednego (Eds). Contemporary issues in Special Needs Education (161-166). Jos: Deka Publications
[16]. United Nations (2006) United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol. UN.

Mohammed Gishiwa, Luka Yelwa Barde, Waziri Garba, El-jajah, Musa Hassan Elzaman, Tabita Sule Gaba “Evaluation of the Assessment Programme in Special Education Schools in Bauchi State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.288-294 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Understanding the Causes of Students’ weak Performance in Geography at the WASSCE and the Implications for School Practices; A Case of Two Senior High Schools in a Rural District of Ghana

Moses Ackah Anlimachie – March 2019 Page No.: 295-311

The study investigates the causes of students’poor performance in Geography at the West Africa SeniorSchool Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in Ghana. To inform policy and practice on how policymakers, educators, teachers, students and communities/parents could better collaborate to improve teaching and learning, and students’ learning outcomes in Senior High Schools in Ghana. The study argues that linking the classroom to students’lifeworlds through practical and fieldwork activities make learning attractive, practical and permanent to students. This is fundamental to improve students’achievements while maximizing relevant educational outcomes for national and community sustainability.

Page(s): 295-311                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 April 2019

 Moses Ackah Anlimachie
School of Education, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

[1] Adu Boahen, A.(1975). Ghana: Evolution and Change in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Longman Group Ltd.
[2] Alorvor, L.K and M.el Sadat, A. 2010. Effective Teaching Strategies for Teachers. Accra: Spirit Soul & Body Limited
[3] Aggarwal, J. C. 2005. Theory and Principles of Education: philosophical and sociological bases of education. New York: Vikas publishing.
[4] Amadahe, F. and Gyimah, A. 2008. Introduction to Measurement and Evaluation. Centre for Continuous Education, University of Cape Coast: CCE publications.
[5] Amoako-Mensah, T. (2010), Simplified Physical Geography for Senior High Schools. Kumasi: Watara Publishing Ltd.
[6] Amponsah, M. O., Milledzi, E. Y., Ampofo, E. T. & Gyambrah, M. 2018.The relationship between Parental Involvement and Academic Performance of Senior High School Students: The Case of Ashanti Mampong Municipality of Ghana. American Journal of Educational Research, 6, 1-8.
[7] Ankrah-Dove, L. 1982. The Deployment and Training of Teachers for Remote Rural Schools in Less-Developed Countries. International Review of Education, 28, 3-27.
[8] Bishop, R. 2008. ‘Te kotahitanga: kaupapa māori in mainstream classrooms’. In: Denzin, N. K., Lincoln , Y. S. & Smith, L. T. (eds.) Handbook of critical and indigenous methodologies. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.
[9] Bronfenbrenner, U. 1979. The ecology of human development: The experiments by nature and design. , Cambridge, Massachusetts: , Harvard University.
[10] Bryman, A. 2012. Social research methods. 4th ed., Oxford, Oxford University
[11] Bunce, D.M., Flens, E.A., and Neiles, K.Y. (2010). How long can students pay attention in class? A study of student attention decline using clickers. Journal of Chemical Education, 87 (12), 1438-1443
[12] Castagno, A. E. & Brayboy, B. M. J. 2008. Culturally Responsive Schooling for Indigenous Youth: A Review of the Literature. Review of Educational Research, 78, 941-993
[13] Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. 2011. Designing and conducting mixed methods research, Los Angeles, SAGE Publications.Dakpoe, A. (2006). Technique in Practical Geography for Senior High Schools.Great Britain: DLR Press.
[14] Dunbar, G. 2001. Geography: Discipline, Profession and Subject since 1870 An International Survey (Springer Archives). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands: Imprint: Springer.
[15] Education Sector Performance Report (ESPR). 2015. Ministry of Education, Accra. Ghana.Foster, P. (1965). Education and Social Change in Ghana. London: Routledge &Kegan Paul.
[16] Geoffrey J. (2005). All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas, 4th ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
[17] GSS 2012. The 2010 National Population and Housing Census; Summary Report of Final Results. Accra, Ghana Statistical Service
[18] Government of Ghana (GOG). 2012. Education Strategic Plan (2010 -2020) Volume 1. Policies, Strategies, Delivery and Finance. Ministry of Education. Accra, Ghana.
[19] Hill, N. E. & Taylor, L. C. 2004. Parental School Involvement and Children’sAcademic Achievement: Pragmatics and Issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 161-164.
[20] Koomson, A.2010. General Principles and Methods of Teaching. Centre for Continuous Education, University of Cape Coast: CCE Publications.
[21] Kubow, P. K. & Fossum, P. R. 2007. Comparative Education: Exploring issues in International Context, New Jersey, Pearson Merill Prentice Hall.
[22] Kuusilehto-Awale, L. & Lahtetro, T. 2012. Combining Equity and Quality in Achieving Excellent Outcomes in Education For All-Case Of Finland. Comparative Education Review, 2012-2013, 34, 7-12.
[23] Ladson-Billings, G. 1995. Toward A Theory Of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 465-491.
[24] Lingard, B., Hayes, D. & Mills, M. 2003. Teachers And Productive Pedagogies:Contextualising, Conceptualising, Utilising. Pedagogy, Culture &Amp; Society, 11, 399-424
[25] Lesley, B. (1997). Describing the Geography: Collections at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
[26] Marzano, R. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action? Alexandria- Virginia.
[27] Ministry of Education (MoE), Ghana, 2010 Teaching Syllabus for Geography (Senior High School 1 – 3). Accra:Curriculum Research and Development Division (CRDD) of Ghana Education Service, Ghana
[28] Ministry of Education, Science and Sports, Ghana, 2005 “Linking ESP and the White Paper Reform. Accra, Ghana
[29] OECD 2005. Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers, Education and Training Policy. Paris: OECD Publishing
[30] Sitwell, O. 1993. Four Centuries of Special Geography : An Annotated Guide to Books that Purport to Describe All the Countries in the World Published. Vancouver: UBC Pres
[31] Pimpong, E. 2006). Interactions between education, economy and politics: acase of Ghana’sEducational system from a historical perspective. (Master’s thesis, University of Bergen.
[32] Poku, J. Godfred, M. Aawaar, T., & Worae A. (2013). Educational Sector Reforms in Ghana: A Review: Global Research Journal of Education Vol.3 (2) pp. 20 – 31 June.
[33] Prosser, B. 2010. Connecting lives and learning: mapping the territory. In: PROSSER, B., LUCAS, B. & REID, A. (eds.) Connecting lives and learning: renewing pedagogy in the middle years Introduction. Kent Town, South Australia, Wakefield Press.
[34] Rizvi, F. & Lingard, B. 2010. Globalizing Education Policy. London: Routledge.
[35] Taylor, S. 1997. Critical Policy Analysis: exploring contexts, texts and consequences. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education,18, 23-35.
[36] UNESCO 2015a. Educational for All 2000-2015: Achievement and challenges. EFA Global Monitoring Report. UNESCO, Paris.
[37] UNESCO 2015b. World Education Forum 2015. Final Report., UNESCO, Paris: France.
[38] UNESCO, ” Education for All 2015 National Review Report. Ghana. 2015. Accessed on: July, 10, 2016.[Online] Avialable:
[39] Wallace , A. & Boylan, C. 2009. Reviewing the ‘Rural Lens’ in Education Policy and Practice. Education in Rural Australia, Australia, SPERA.
[40] West Africa Examination Council(WAEC). 2006. West African Senior School Certificate Examination, June (2006) Chief Examiners’ Reports (General Arts Programme). Accra: WAEC.
[41] Withers, C. (2007). Placing the Enlightenment thinking geographically about the age of reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Moses Ackah Anlimachie “Understanding the Causes of Students’ weak Performance in Geography at the WASSCE and the Implications for School Practices; A Case of Two Senior High Schools in a Rural District of Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.295-311 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Zimbabwe 2018 Elections: Shattered Hopes for Change and Economic Recovery

Cosmas Chikwawawa – March 2019 Page No.: 312-316

This paper presents an analysis of the 2018 harmonised presidential, parliamentary and local government elections in Zimbabwe, a Southern African country with a population of about 14 million people, which gained independence from Britain in 1980, following an armed struggle. The elections engendered hope for change and development against the backdrop of a debilitating and prolonged economic crisis. Although this is a controversial position, the Zimbabwean society associated electoral democracy with economic development. AsBratton and Masunungure (2018) note, Zimbabweans were tentatively hopeful that fair and free elections would break the trend of past disputed elections, restore leadership legitimacy and launch economic reforms. The paper looks at the pre-election period, the vote casting day and the post-election period, with a view to assessing the credibility of the election. The paper concludes that the elections in a large measure lacked credibility and were not free and fair by any standard, yielding a disputed outcome, which left the country mired in political tension and economic decline. As such, the election left the generality of the Zimbabwean populace deeply disillusioned, with their hopes of returning to democracy and economic revival depressingly shattered.

Page(s): 312-316                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 April 2019

 Cosmas Chikwawawa
PhD student, College of Business, Peace, Leadership and Governance, Africa University, Mutare, Zimbabwe

[1]. Adjei, A. O. (2008) Windows of opportunity – the Ghana experience. In: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2008) Democracy and Development in aGlobalized World.
[2]. Adejumobi, S. (2000)Between Democracy and Development in Africa: What Are the Missing Links? A Paper Presented to the World Bank
[3]. Bardhan, P. K. (2008) Democracy – facilitating or hampering development? In: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2008) Democracy and Development in aGlobalized World.
[4]. Bratton, M. and Masunungure, E. (2018) Public attitudes towards Zimbabwe’s 2018 Elections: Downbeat Yet Hopeful? Afrobarometer Policy Paper Number 47.
[5]. Cheema, G.S. and Maguire, L. (2014)Democracy, Governance and Development: A Conference on “Development Thinking in the Next Millennium”, Paris 26-28 June 2000.
[6]. African Union Election Observation Mission (2018) Preliminary Statement. Harare, 1 August 2018.Conceptual Framework.United Nations Development Programme.
[7]. Chikerema, A.F. and Chakunda, V. (2014) “Political Culture and Democratic Governance in Zimbabwe”. Journal of Power, Politics & Governance, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 55-66.
[8]. Common Wealth Observer Group (2018) Zimbabwe Harmonised Elections 30 July 2018.
[9]. iamond, L. (2008) Democratic Development and Economic Development – Linkages andPolicy Imperatives. In: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2008)Democracy and Development in a Globalized World.
[10]. Election Support Network- Southern Africa (2018)Eminent Persons Observer Mission Report to the Zimbabwe Harmonised Elections 2018.
[11]. European Union Election Observation Mission (2018) Final Report: Republic of Zimbabwe Harmonised Elections 2018.
[12]. Gberevbie, D.E. (2014) Democracy, Democratic Institutions and GoodGovernance in Nigeria EASSRR, Vol. XXX, No. 1, Pp132-153.
[13]. Gerring, J., Knutsen, C.H., Skaaning, S., Theorell, J., Maguire, M., Coppedge, M. and Lindberg, S. (2016) Electoral Democracy and Human Development. Paper prepared for presentation at the ECPR joint sessions of workshops, Pisa, April 24-28, 2016.
[14]. Guramatunhu, P. (2018) ‘EU Pressuring ZANU PF to Implement Reforms “Bulawayo 24 News
[15]. Jamo, I.A. (2013) Democracy And Development In Nigeria: Is There A Link?Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN Chapter) Vol. 3, No.3; Oct. 2013, pp.85-94
[16]. Magaisa, A.T. (2018)Big Saturday Read: Zimbabwe – the democracy & stability narratives
[17]. Mavhiki, R. N. (2016). Does democracy promotion promote democracy? The Zimbabwean case. Master’s thesis, Lingnan University,Hong Kong.
[18]. Media Monitors (2018) Reporting on Zimbabwe’s 2018 Elections: A Post-Election Analysis.
[19]. Mhaka, T. (2016) “How did Mnangagwa win Zimbabwe’s landmark July 30 election? The factors that led to Mnangagwa’s victory signal a grim future for Zimbabwe’s democracy”.
[20]. Njeru, S. (2018) Electoral Commissions of SADC Countries (ECF) 2018 Briefing. Research and Advocacy Unit
[21]. Somolokae, G. (2008) Democracy, Development and POVERTY – on Strengthening the Capacity of African Parliaments and Political Parties to Play a More Effective Role in Poverty Reduction. In: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2008)Democracy and Development in a Globalized World.
[22]. Tar, U.A. (2010) The challenges of democracy and democratisation in Africa and Middle East. Information, Society and Justice, Volume 3 No. 2, pp. 81-94.

Cosmas Chikwawawa “Zimbabwe 2018 Elections: Shattered Hopes for Change and Economic Recovery” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.312-316 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Socio-Economic Profiles of Beekeeping Farmers in Marigat, Baringo County – Kenya

Chemwok C. K, Tuitoek D. K, Nganai S. K. – March 2019 Page No.: 317-321

Knowledge of demographic characteristics of farmers is very critical in the design, implementation and review of policies geared towards adoption of new technologies by farmers. This study was set to establish the demographic profiles of bee keeping farmers in Marigat, Baringo County. The paper estimated the mean, median, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, Skewness, kurtosis, Jarque-Bera and probability of each demographic variable. The results are presented below. The paper recommends policy makers to consider demographic characteristics of beekeeping farmers when designing policies.

Page(s): 317-321                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 April 2019

 Chemwok C. K
University of Eldoret, Kenya

 Tuitoek D. K
Moi University, Kenya

 Nganai S. K.
Moi University, Kenya

[1]. Adjare, O. S. (1990). Beekeeping in Africa FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 68/6. FAO. Rome, Italy.
[2]. Berem, Risper M. ET AL., (2010). Is Value Addition in Honey A Panacea For Poverty Reduction In The Asal In Africa? Empirical Evidence from Baringo District,
[3]. Bradbear, N., Fisher, E. and Jackson, H. (2002) Strengthening livelihoods: exploring the role of bee keeping in development. Bees for Development, Monmouth, UK
[4]. Cicek H., Tandogon M., Terzi Y., & Yardimci M., (2007). Effects of some technical and socioeconomic factors on milk production costs in Dairy enterprise in Western Turkey. World J. Dairy and F. S. 2(2): 69-73.
[5]. Dick R., Adato M., Haddad L. & Hazell p., (2004). Science and poverty: An interdisciplinary assessment of the impact of agricultural research. IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute), Washington, DC, USA.
[6]. Feder, L., R.E., Just & O. Zilberman, 1985. Adoption of Agricultural Innovation in Developing Countries:” A Survey” Economic Development and Cultural Change, 32(2): 255-298. Kenya Contributed Paper Presented at The Joint 3rd African Association Of Agricultural Economists (Aaae) And 48th Agricultural Economists Association Of South Africa (Aeasa) Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 19-23, 2010.
[7]. Gardner, B. L., & Rausser G. C. Handbook of Agricultural Economics. Handbook of Agricultural Economics: Elsevier, 2001.
[8]. GoK (2008, 2012, 2013). Economic Survey (various issues). Nairobi: Government Printer.
[9]. GOK (2010). Economic Survey (various issues). Nairobi: Government Printer.
[10]. Hiroki Uematsu H., & Mishra A. K., (2010). Net Effect of Education on Technology Adoption by U.S. Farmers Selected Paper prepared for presentation at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, February 6-9, 2010
[11]. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2009), Population Census.
[12]. Key JP (1997). Research Design in Educational Operation. Oklahoma State University.
[13]. Masuku M.B. (2013) socioeconomic analysis of beekeeping in Swaziland: A case study of the Manzini Region, Swaziland. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics
[14]. Nsubuga G. (2000). Opportunities and Constraints for women participation in Beekeeping; Case study of Butuntumula Sub-county, Luwero Sub County. Makerere University Dissertation.
[15]. Quddus M. A., (2012). ‘Adoption of Dairy Technologies by Small Farm Holders: Practices and Constraints’, Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science.
[16]. Rahm, M. R. & Huffman W. E. “The Adoption of Reduced Tillage: The Role of Human Capital and Other Variable.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 66, no. 41984: 405-413.
[17]. Saha, A., H. A. Love, & R. Schwart. “Adoption of Emerging Technologies under Output Uncertainty.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 76, no. 41994: 836‐846

Chemwok C. K, Tuitoek D. K, Nganai S. K. “Socio-Economic Profiles of Beekeeping Farmers in Marigat, Baringo County – Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.317-321 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Causes, Prevention and Solutions to Domestic Violence against Women in Cameroon: A Qualitative Study of Opinions from Perpetrators and Victims

Teke Johnson Takwa, Johnson Sambitla Tita-Fangmbung – March 2019 Page No.: 322-327

Information on domestic violence against women in Cameroon comes essentially from various operations of Demographic and Health Surveys and is essentially quantitative and incomplete for the proper understanding of this social ill. Quantitative data has revealed that the frequency of this ill in Cameroon is high and even higher than many other sub-Saharan countries. In order to better grasp how the key perpetrators of domestic violence (men) and the main victims (women), perceive the causes, consequences, prevention and solutions to the problem, a focus group discussion of six women and five men was organized in each of Cameroon’s ten regional capitals. The study revealed that despite divergent perceptions of gender-based domestic violence, both female and male discussants in a majority considered it bad and good for elimination. However, some men feel that it can be good if it is mild and aimed at correcting the wrongs of a woman. Some women, especially in the South, East and Centre regions of Cameroon, feel that some degree of domestic violence against them is necessary to serve as an expression of love. On a whole, both men and women participants at the focus group discussions see gender-based domestic violence as a social ill that needs religious, traditional, judiciary and administrative authorities to combat as well as individual self-control.

Page(s): 322-327                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 April 2019

 Teke Johnson Takwa
Central Bureau for Censuses and Population Studies, BUCREP, Yaoundé-Cameroona

 Johnson Sambitla Tita-Fangmbung
PhD Student in Conflict Resolution and Peace Building, Atlantic International University Honolulu USA.

[1]. BUCREP(2013). Plaquette de la Journée Internationale de la Femme:” Elimination et prévention de toutes formes de violence l’égard des femmes et des filles ». 12p
[2]. BUCREP (2013). Plaquette de I’EQVD : « Violences faites aux femmes et aux jeunes filles au Cameroun Cameroun : Defis et Perspectives ». 18P
[3]. Greaves Hankivsky O. (1995). SelectedEstimates of the Costs of Violence againstWomen, London (Ontario), Centre de recherche sur la violence faites aux femmes et aux enfants, P2
[4]. National Institute for Statistics, Cameroon,(2013). DHS-MICS, Main Report, Macro International, New York, 546p
[5]. National Institute for Statistics, Cameroon,(2011). DHS, Main Rapport, Macro International, New York, 376p
[6]. International RescueCommittee,(2012). Je ne veux pas mourir avant mon heure : Les violences domestiques en Afrique de l’Ouest, New York.
[7]. Laurence, L. et Spalter-Roth, R. (1996). Measuring the costs of domestic violence against women and the cost-effectiveness of interventions: An initial assessment and proposals for further research, Washington, D.C, Institute for Women’s Policy Research
[8]. UNICEF (2000): La violence domestique à I’égard des femmes et des filles, Innocnti Digest,(No.6), Florence, 30P.
[9]. UNICEF (2006). Derrière les portes close (L’impact de la violence domestique sur les enfants, Traduction conjointe du rapport rédigé par Body International, 10P

Teke Johnson Takwa, Johnson Sambitla Tita-Fangmbung “Causes, Prevention and Solutions to Domestic Violence against Women in Cameroon: A Qualitative Study of Opinions from Perpetrators and Victims” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.322-327 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Access and Use of Seasonal Climate Forecasts Information on Maize Crop Production in Vihiga County, Kenya

Ambubi Andrew Josephert, Cholo Wilberforce, Mulinya Caroline, Paul Obino Ong’anyi – March 2019 Page No.: 328-338

Vihiga County has been faced by drastic reduction of maize crop yields in recent years making the realization of food security unattainable. The county live in absolute poverty, and therefore food insecure. The purpose of this study was to exploit the extent of access and use of seasonal climate forecast information by small-scale maize farmers on maize crop production in Vihiga County. The scope of the study mainly focused on evaluating the influence ofaccess and use of seasonal climate forecast information as the most adaptive strategy on maize crop production. This study was conducted through descriptive survey research design. This study targeted a population of 3,234 households of small-scale farmers with > 1 to 4 acres of land. The sample size of 153 households was used in the study. A systematic sampling technique was employed by purposeful selection of three constituencies of Hamisi, Vihiga and Luanda. Secondly, by purposeful selection of three wards of Muhudu, Mungoma and Luanda South that cut across agricultural zones in the county. Finally developing a sample frame of 3,234 households. Meteorologists and crop officers were purposefully sampled based on their availability. Primary data on the access and use of SCF information on maize crop production were collected by use of pre-tested Questionnaires. The secondary data was collected by use of Key Informant Interview Schedule for meteorologist and crop officers for the period 2004-2014 on rainfall, temperature, and maize crop production. Data was analysed both in descriptive and inferential using Microsoft software’s. Descriptive analysis was used to assess the extent of access and use of SCF on maize crop production. Correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between access and use of SCF and maize crop production in Vihiga County. The information obtained provided a feedback on the extent to which farmers are responding to seasonal climate forecasts information and provided a framework for improving maize crop production in Vihiga County. The study showed that there is a decline in maize crop production in Vihiga County and yet farmers accesses and uses SCF information. Where by the number of bags per acre dropped from 21.5 bags to 15.2 bags between (2004-2014). The study found that there is no significant relationship between access, use (r=0.018588, p=0.098141). The study concludes that futher research need to be conductedin the area to find out the main cause of decline in maize production in Vihiga County.The study however recommends the County government and the NGO’s in Vihiga County to come up with interventions strategies that may help small-scale farmers to increase maize crop production.

Page(s): 328-338                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 April 2019

 Ambubi Andrew Josephert
Department of Geography, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Cholo Wilberforce
Department of Health Sciences, Masinde Muliro University, Kenya

 Mulinya Caroline
Department of Geography, Masinde Muliro University, Kenya

 Paul Obino Ong’anyi
Department of Geography, Kibabii University, Kenya

[1]. Alvaro, C., Tinglu, Z.,Katrina, R., Richard, S.J. and Claudia, R. (2009). Economy-Wide Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Discussion Paper 00873:1.
[2]. Bagamba, F., Bashaasha, B., Claessens, L. &Antle, J. (2012).Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Smallholder Agricultural Systems in Uganda. African Crop Science Journal, 20(2): 303-316.
[3]. Bawakiyillenou, et al.,.(2014) Effects of Climate Variability in Northern Africa.
[4]. Brooks, N., Adger, W.N., Kelly, M.K., 2005. The determinants of vulnerability and Adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environmental Change 15,151–163.
[5]. Calzadilla, A., Zhu, T., Rehdanz, K., Tol, R. S. J. &Ringler, C. (2009).Economy-Wide Impact of Climate on Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFRI). Discussion Paper 00873:1.
[6]. Cane, M. A., Eshel, G. and Buckland, R. W. (1994).Forecasting Zimbabwean maize yield using eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature.Nature16: 3059–3071.
[7]. Cash, D.W., Borck, J. C. and Patt, A. G. (2006). Countering the loading dock approach to linking science and decision making: comparative analysis of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasting systems. Science, Technology and Human Values 31: 465–494.
[8]. Cash, D. W., Clark, W. C., Alcock, F., Dickson, N. M., Eckley, N., Guston, D. H., Jager, J. and Mitchell, R. B. (2003). Knowledge systems for sustainable development.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ofAmerica100: 8086–8091. CCAFS (2009).Climate Change,
[9]. Chipanshi, A.C, Chanda , R and Totolo, O.(2003). Vulnerability assessment of the maize and sorghum crops to climate change in Botswana, climate change, 61.339-360.
[10]. Coelho ,C.A.S and Costa, S.M.S. (2010) Challengers for lntergrating seasonal climate forecasts in user application. Journal of current opinion on environment sustainability. Agricultural Ecosystem & Environment, 126:24-35(Accessed on 04/03/2008)
[11]. David Grigg(1984). The Dynamics of Agricultural Change: The history experience: New York. St Maths 1982. Pg. 260
[12]. Deressa, T., Hassan, R.M., Ringler, C. (2008).Measuring Ethiopian Farmers’ vulnerability to climate change across regional states. International Food Policy Research Institute.IFPRI Discussion Paper 00806.
[13]. DFID. (1999) Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets. Section 2 (Framework) http:/ Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheet. pdf(Accessed on 28/12/2013).
[14]. FAO.(2013). Climate-Smart Agriculture 018/i3325e.pdf.
[15]. Funk, C. C., Dettinger, M. D., Michaelsen, J. C., Verdin, J. P., Brown, M .E., Barlow, M. &Hoell, A. (2008). Warming of the Indian Ocean Threatens Eastern and Southern African Food Security but could be mitigated by Agricultural Development. Pro Nat AcadSci USA, 105: 11,081 – 11,086.
[16]. Gadgil, S., Friedman, R.M., Rao, P.R.S. and RAO, K.N (2002). Use of Climate Information for Farm-Level Decision Making: Rain-fed Groundnut in Southern India. Agricultural Systems, 74: 431-457.
[17]. Gbetibouo, G. A. (2008). Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Climate Change and Variability: The Case of the Limpopo Basin, South Africa, IFPRI Discussion PAPER.Ifpri, Washington, DC.
[18]. Gimenez, A. &Lanfranco, B. (2012).Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability: Some Response Options to Agricultural Production in Uruguay. Revista Mexicana de CienciasAgricolas, 3(1): 611 – 620.
[19]. Hansen, J.W. (2002). Realizing the Potential Benefits of Climate Prediction to Agriculture: Issues, approaches, Challenges. Agricultural Systems, 74:309-330.
[20]. Hansen, J.W. and Indeje, M. (2004).Linking Dynamics Seasonal Climate Forecasts with Crop Simulations for Maize Yield Prediction in Semi-Arid Kenya. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 125:143-157
[21]. Hansen, J.W., Baethgen, W., Osgood, D., Ceccato, P. and Ngugi, R.K. (2007). Innovations in Climate Risk Management: Protecting and Building Rural Livelihoods in a Variable and Changing Climate. Paper submitted for the ICRISAT 35TH Anniversary Symposium, “Climate-Proofing Innovation for Poverty Reduction and Food Security,” 22-24 November 2007. Open Access Journal, 4(1)
[22]. IPCC.(2007 b). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Working Group II Contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press
[23]. IPCC.(2007 c).Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Working Group II Contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press
[24]. Irungu et al (2009). Soil fertility status in smallholder farms in semi-arid areas in TharakaNithi District: KARI;Nairobi, Kenya.
[25]. Klopper, E., Vogel, C.H. & Landman, W.A. (2006). Seasonal Climate Forecasts –Potential Agricultural – Risk Management Tools. Climate Change, 76:73-90
[26]. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. (2nd ed.). New Delhi: New Age International Ltd
[27]. Lemos, M.C., Finan, T.J., Fox, R.W., Nelson, D.R. and Tucker, J. (2008).The use of seasonal Climate Forecasting in Policy Making: Lessons from Northern Brazil.Climate Change, 55:479-507
[28]. Macharia, P. N., Thuranira, L. W., Ng’ang’a, J. &Wakori, S. (2012).Perceptions and Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability by Immigrant Farmers in Semi-arid Regions of Kenya.African Crop Science Journal, 20(2): 289 – 296
[29]. Misselhorn, A.A. (2005). What Drives Food Insecurity in Southern Africa? A Meta-Analysis of Household Economy Studies, Global Environmental Change, 15:33-43
[30]. MOA (2006).Ministry of Agriculture, Western Province 2006 annual report.MOA and MLFD (2004).Strategy for revitalising Agriculture. Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printers
[31]. Mugenda, M. &Mugenda, A. G. (2003).Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative approaches. Nairobi: ACTS Press
[32]. Patt, A. and Gwata, C. (2002). Effective Seasonal climate Forecast Applications : Examining Constraints for Subsistence Farmers in Zimbabwe, Global Environmental Change, 12:185-195.
[33]. Recha, C.W., Shisanya, C.A., Makokha, G.L., and Kinuthia, R.N. (2008). Perception and Use of Climate Forecast Information amongst Small-Holder Farmers in Semi-Arid Kenya. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 1(2): 128-135.
[34]. Recha, W.C.S. (2013). Effects of Climate Variability on Water Resources and Livelihoods and State of Adaptive Capacity in Semi-Arid Tharaka District, Kenya.UnpublishedPh.D Thesis.
[35]. Republic of Kenya. (2013). Kenya Climate Change Action Plan. Nairobi: Government Printers
[36]. Republic of Kenya (2010a) Kenya National Bureau of Statistics: 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census, Volume 1A.Nairobi: Government Printers.
[37]. Republic of Kenya. (2010b). National Climate Change Response Strategy.Nairobi: Government Printers.
[38]. Thompson, M. and Rayner, S. (1998). Cultural Discourses, in Rayner, S. &Malone,E. (eds.),Human Choice and Climate Change: the societal Framework, Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, 265-343
[39]. Yusuf, M., Di Falco, S., DeressaT.,Ringler, C and Kohlin, G. (2008). The Impact of Climate Change and Adaptation on Food Production in Low-Income Countries: Evidence from the Nile Basin, Ethiopian, International Food Policy Research Instituite, Environment and Production Technology Division, Washington DC.
[40]. Ziervogel, G. (2001). Global Emvironment Change Research Community Workshop, Rio de Janeiro, October 6-9, 2001, on 29/11/2011).
[41]. Ziervogel, G., A. Nyong, B. Osman, C. Conde, S. Cortes and T. Dowing. (2006). Climate Variability and Change: Implications for Household Food Security. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning. 1(8), 138-143

Ambubi Andrew Josephert, Cholo Wilberforce, Mulinya Caroline, Paul Obino Ong’anyi “Access and Use of Seasonal Climate Forecasts Information on Maize Crop Production in Vihiga County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.328-338 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


The Adoption and Use of Online Transactions in Retail Banking: The Case of Gwanda Town in Zimbabwe

Cinderella Dube, Victor Gumbo – March 2019 Page No.: 339-343

Online transaction services have been in use in the banking environment for the past few decades. Their use is attracting more and more organisations due to the convenience that they offer to customers as well as the efficiency offered to banks. The adoption and use of online transactions in banks has been generally accepted in many parts of the world. However, there has been little information on the adoption and use of online transactions in Zimbabwe in general and in Gwanda in particular. The study thus sought to find out the adoption and use of online transactions in retail banks in Gwanda town in Zimbabwe. The adoption and use of online transactions was also explored in terms of gender and age differences. In this study, the online transactions examined were Internet Banking, Automated Teller Machines (ATM) and Mobile Banking. The study took an exploratory and mixed methods approach where interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data. The results revealed that although banks had adopted online transactions, the adoption and use by customers was still low. There were no gender based disparities with regards to the adoption of online transactions under study. However, the study found out that the younger generations adopted more online transactions than the older generation. The study recommended customers to adopt the online transactions adopted by banks. Banks were also urged to use age-based marketer persuasion tools in order to persuade both the younger and older generations to adopt online transactions.

Page(s): 339-343                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2019

 Cinderella Dube
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe.

 Victor Gumbo
University of Botswana, Botswana

[1]. Al-ali, M. and Abdulhadi, M. (2003). Electronic banking system. Available from:
[2]. Bailey K. D. (1987). Methods of Social Research, 3rd Ed. London: Macmillan.
[3]. Carlson, M. and Mitchener, K. J. (2006). Branch Banking, Bank Competition, and Financial Stability. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 38(5), 1293-1328.
[4]. Chavan, J. (2013). Internet Banking – Benefits and Challenges in an emerging Economy. International Journal of Research in Business, 1(1), 19-26.
[5]. Chisamba, J. (2010). Zimbabwe’s Transition to a cashless society. The Standard, 18 November 2010. Available from:
[6]. Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries. (2014). 2014 CZI Manufacturing Sector Survey Report. Available from:
[7]. Costa, A. (2008). List of Generations Chart. Available from:
[8]. Dhliwayo, C. L. (2014). A Sound Financial Sector – Heart Beat Of Growth. Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe: 2014 Annual Conference of the Institute of Administration and Commerce. Zimbabwe: Caribbea Bay Resort in Kariba. 1 – 2 October 2014.
[9]. Dixit, N. and Datta, S. K. (2010). Acceptance of E-banking among Adult Customers: An Empirical Investigation in India. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 15 (2), 1-17.
[10]. Dube, T., Chitura, T. and Runyowa, L. (2009), Adpotion and use of Internet Banking in Zimbabwe: An exploratory Study. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 14(1), 1 – 13.
[11]. Dube, T., Njanike, K., Manomano, C. and Chiriseri, L. (2011). Adoption And Use of SMS/Mobile Banking Services in Zimbabwe: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 16 (2), 1-15.
[12]. Ernst and Young (2017). Banking on gender differences? Available at:…/EY-banking…/EY-banking-on-gender-differences.pdf.
[13]. Franklin, A. and Douglas, G. (2003). Competition and Financial Stability. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking. 36(3), 453-480.
[14]. Goyal, K. A. and Joshi, V. (2011). A Study of Social and Ethical issues in Banking Industry. International Journal of Economic Research, 2 (5), 49-57.
[15]. Hosein, N. Z. (2009). Internet Banking: An Empirical Study of Adoption Rates among Midwest Community Banks. Journal of Business & Economics Research. 7(11), 51-72.
[16]. Krathwohl, D. R. (1993). Methods of Educational and Social Research: An Integrated Approach. London: Great Britain: Longman.
[17]. Maswaure, F and Choga, F. (2016). Electronic Banking Uptake in Zimbabwe. Journal of Business and Management. 18 (4), 80-82.
[18]. Miles, M. and Hubberman, M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. London: SAGE Publications.
[19]. Muchetu, R. (2017). Gwanda residents urged to embrace plastic money. Available from:
[20]. Municipality of Gwanda. (2013). Gwanda. Gwanda. Zimbabwe: Thumbprint Multimedia.
[21]. Musekiwa, A., Njanike, K. and Mukucha, P. (2010). Gender effects on Consumer Satisfaction in Banking Industry a case of Commercial Banks in Bindura, Zimbabwe. Journal of Business Management and Economics, 2 (1), 40 – 44.
[22]. Ndlovu, I. and Ndlovu, M. (2013). Mobile Banking the Future to Rural Financial Inclusion: Case Study of Zimbabwe. Journal of Humanities and Social Science.
[23]. Njanike, K. (2010). The Impact of Globalisation on Banking Service Quality in Zimbabwe (2003 – 2008) Annals of the University of Petroşani, Economics. [Online] volume 10 (1), 205-216.
[24]. Peterson, H. (2014). Millennials are old news — here’s everything you should know about generation z. Available from:
[25]. Phiri, G. (2018). Bank profits surge as economy dies. The Daily News. 6 June 2018. Available from:
[26]. Pikkarainen, T., Pikkarainen, K., Karjaluoto, H. and Pahnila, S. (2004). Consumer acceptance of online banking: an extension of the technology acceptance model. Internet Research. 14 (3), 224–235.
[27]. Rahmani, Z., Tahvildari, A., Honarmand, H., Yousefi, H. and Daghighi, M. S. (2012). Mobile Banking and its Benefits. Arabian Journal of Business and Management, 2 (5), 37-40.
[28]. Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. (4th Ed.). New York: Free Press.
[29]. Sakarombe, U. and Marabada, D. (2017). Electronic Money or Cash? In Face of Liquidity Crisis in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 7 (11), 63 – 73.
[30]. Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Sheu, P. C., Li, X. and Guo, H. (2010). The Formal Design Model of an Automatic Teller Machine ATM. Available from:

Cinderella Dube, Victor Gumbo “The Adoption and Use of Online Transactions in Retail Banking: The Case of Gwanda Town in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.339-343 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Social Laws of Intolerance “On the Metaphysics of Terrorism and Genocide”

Munthir Chel’loob – March 2019 Page No.: 344-349

Bigotry alone does not lead to disasters and cause genocides to occur; other different types of ideas may entail this possibility. Ironically, even tolerance may be leading to similar results. The reason is that tolerance may become a pretext for excluding those who do not believe in it; that is, people who may think that they are tolerant may work towards the exclusion of those who are different from them in the name of defending tolerance.
I attempt to expose the concepts of tolerance and extremism and reach the functioning actors, on the social level, who shape the genocide laws governing the events of cultural, ethnic and religious exclusion, the paradox of tolerance and the fallacy of using reason to reach consensus between humans. I also attempt to resolve the contradictions of anti-tolerance attitudes by using the concept of common sense.

Page(s): 344-349                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2019

 Munthir Chel’loob
Kufa University, Iraq

[1]. Atkins, Peter; Four Laws That Drive the Universe, OUP Oxford, 2007.
[2]. Devlin, Patrick; The Enforcement of Morals, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1968.
[3]. George, Robert P.; Making Men Moral: Civil Liberties and Public Morality, Oxford, Calrendon Press, 1993.
[4]. Locke, John; A Letter Concerning Toleration, Translated by: William Popple, 1689.
[5]. Locke, J.: The Works of John Locke in Nine Volumes, London, Rivington, Vol. 5, 12th ed, 1824.
[6]. Majlisi, Mohammad Baqer: Seas of Lights, (Biharul Anwar), Beirut, 1403 AH.
[7]. Mill, John Stewart; On Liberty, 1859, Batoche Books Limited, Ontario, Canada, 2001.
[8]. Popper, Karl; The Open Society and its Enemies, 5th Edition, 1962.
[9]. Qur’an; Translated by: Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, & Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Published by Dar-us-Salam Publications.
[10]. Rawls, John; Political Liberalism, New York: Colombia University Press, Paperback Edition, 1996, 2nd edition, 2005.
[11]. Rawls, J; A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, Revised Edition, 1999.
[12]. Saduq, Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali bin Babawaih; Reasons of laws, (Elalul Sharaie), Alhaidariya library, Najaf, 1385 AH, 1966 AD.
[13]. Saenz, Carla; Political Liberalism and Its Internal Critiques, a PhD. Dissertation, The University of Texas, May, 2007.
[14]. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Freedom Friends of Speech”, 17 April 2008 . Retrieved 10 June 2013.
[15]., wiki, Common_sense.
[16]. Wolfenden Report; The Report of the Committee on Homosexual Offenses and Prostitution, published on September 3, 1957 by the British government.

Munthir Chel’loob “Social Laws of Intolerance “On the Metaphysics of Terrorism and Genocide”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.344-349 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


An Ethical Assessment of the Impact of Inequitable Land Ownership Patterns on Women’s Economic and Social Rights: A Case Study of Mumbwa District

Shadrick Chembe, Dr. Anthony Musonda – March 2019 Page No.: 350-356

The study ethically assessed the impact of inequitable land ownership patterns on women’s economic and social rights in Mumbwa district. Despite more women than men being dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, the majority of women in Zambia do not own land due to inequitable land ownership patterns. The problem is that while it is generally known that inequitable land ownership limits women’s access to livelihoods, it is not clear how much this affects their access to economic and social rights. Thus, the specific objectives of the study were: to investigate the current state of land ownership between men and women in Zambia; to establish factors that contribute to the existing land ownership patterns; and to ethically assess the impact of existing land ownership patterns on women’s economic and social rights in Mumbwa district.
A case study research design was employed using a qualitative methodology with an ethical component. With a sample size of 78, primary data was collected through in-depth interviews with 37 community members, 4 head persons, 1 government representative and 1 representative from a local Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) called Women for Change. Four focus group discussions with 35 community members in addition to observations were also used to collect primary data. Secondary data was collected by reviewing books, journals, articles and internet-based materials. Community members and traditional leaders were selected using simple random sampling while representatives from government and NGO were purposively selected based on possession of knowledge about land ownership in the area. Content analysis was used to analyse data followed by an ethical evaluation of the study findings.
The study found that there is inequality in land ownership between men and women. Land is mostly owned by the men who also exercise greater control over its use. The existing unequal land ownership patterns were attributed to five main factors which are power imbalances, culture, land allocation practices, suppression of women and allocation of labour. Unequal land ownership impacts negatively on women and on their ability to earn enough to meet their family basic needs. Consequently, it negatively affects their ability to have adequate food and facilitate their children’s access to education.
An ethical evaluation of the findings was guided by rights theory and the ethics of care. As regards rights theory, there was discrimination of women on the basis of gender and marital status. It was observed that such a violation on women’s rights should not be tolerated as Zambia is a State Party to many international commitments that affirm equal rights to land. Using ethics of care, it was observed that land ownership for women is critical to promoting their well-being as care-givers. Compromising women’s land rights not only affects them but also affects children and the aged who are mostly under their care.
Among others, recommendations were made that government should conduct ethical awareness raising on equal land ownership rights, should introduce legislation to promote joint land ownership and should effectively enforce statutory law to guarantee equal enjoyment of land ownership rights between men and women under customary land.

Page(s): 350-356                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2019

 Shadrick Chembe
Master of Arts in Applied Ethics, Department of Philosophy and Applied Ethics, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, The University of Zambia

 Dr. Anthony Musonda
Master of Arts in Applied Ethics, Department of Philosophy and Applied Ethics, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, The University of Zambia

[1]. ACORD, Oxfam and ActionAid. (2012). The Right to Land and Justice for Women in Africa. African Women’s Land Rights Conference, Nairobi, Kenya.
[2]. Becker, M. (1999). Patriarchy and inequality: towards a substantive feminism. University of Chicago Legal Forum. 1999,1.
[3]. Burke, C. and Kobusingye, D.N. (2014). Women’s Land Rights in Northern Uganda (West Nile, Acholi, Lango, Teso and Karamoja). Oxfam.
[4]. Central Statistical Office. (2012). 2010 Census of population and housing; Population Summary Report. Lusaka: Central Statistical Office.
[5]. Central Statistical Office [Zambia], Ministry of Health [Zambia], and ICF International. (2014). Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14. Rockville, Maryland, USA: Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Health, and ICF International.
[6]. Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) Act, 2015.
[7]. Doss, C., Kovarik, C., Peterman, A., Quisumbing, A.R. and Bold, M. (2013). Gender Inequalities in Ownership and Control of Land in Africa; Myths versus Reality. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01308. Poverty, Health, and Nutrition Division. International Food Policy Research Institute. Pp 1-39.
[8]. FAO. (2010). Gender and Land Rights – Understanding complexities, adjusting policies, Economic and Social Perspectives, Policy Brief No. 8. Accessed on 14th April 2018 from
[9]. FAO. (2013). The gender and equity implications of land-related investments on land access, labour and income-generating opportunities: A case study of selected agricultural investments in Zambia. Rome: FAO
[10]. FAO. (2017). Gender and land statistics. Accessed on 14th April 2018 from
[11]. Fisher, B. and Naidoo, R. (2016). The Geography of Gender Inequality. Plos One, 11(3): e0145778. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145778.
[12]. Global Land Rights Index. (2017). Tracking Legal Recognition of Land and Resource Rights. Accessedon 14th April 2018 from
[13]. Gomez, M. and Tran, D. H. (2012). Women’s land and property rights and the post-2015 development agenda. The Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Landesa Center for Women’sLand Rights.
[14]. Kachika, T. (2009). Women’ land rights in Southern Africa: Consolidated baseline findings from Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Niza & ActionAid International. Accessed from on 29th September 2016.
[15]. Kouamé, E.B.H. and Fofana, N.B. (2015). Gender and the political economy of land in Africa. African Economic Conference. November 2-4, 2015. Kinshasa. Accessed from on 30th December 2016.
[16]. Lankhorst, M. (2012). Women’s land rights in customary dispute resolution in Rwanda.Focus on land in Africa. Accessed from on 28th December 2016.
[17]. Makama, G. A. (2013).Patriarchy and gender inequality in Nigeria: the way forward. European Scientific Journal. 9, 17.
[18]. Mgugu, A. M. (2013). Land Rights of Women in Southern Africa: We Effect, Regional Office Southern Africa.
[19]. Odeny, M. (2013). Improving Access to Land and strengthening Women’s land rights in Africa. Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty 2013. The World Bank – Washington DC.
[20]. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (2010). Atlas of Gender and Development: How social norms affect gender equality in non-OECD countries.
[21]. Sitko, N. J., Chapota, A., Kabwe, S. et al. (2011). Food security research project: Working paper No. 52. Accessed from on 25th June 2016.
[22]. Ssenyonjo, M. Land ownership and economic, social and cultural rights in the Southern African Development Community. In Chigara, B. (ed.). (2012). Re-conceiving property rights in the new millennium; towards a new sustainable land relations policy. New York: Routledge.
[23]. Syampeyo, Y. (2016). Referendum: Missed opportunity for Zambians. Zambia Daily Mail. Accessed on 7th April 2018 from
[24]. Tura, H.A. (2014). A Woman’s Right to and Control over Rural Land in Ethiopia: The Law and the Practice. International Journal of Gender and Women’s Studies. 2, 137-165.
[25]. United Nations. (2013). Realizing women’s rights to land and other productive resources. HR/PUB/13/04. New York: United Nations.
[26]. United Nations Women. (2013). Women’s land rights are human rights, says new UN Report. Accessedon 14th April 2018 from
[27]. Vanhees, K. (2014). Property rights for women in Rwanda: Access to land for women living in de facto unions. MA Thesis, University of Gent, Belgium.
[28]. Veit, P. (2011). Women and customary land rights in Uganda. Focus on Land in Africa.
[29]. ______. (2012). Custom, law and women’s land rights in Zambia. Focus on Land in Africa.
[30]. Women for Change. (2014). A baseline survey on access to and control over productive resources in Kapiri Mposhi and Mumbwa districts. Lusaka.
[31]. ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬______. (2015). Gender needs assessment. Lusaka

Shadrick Chembe, Dr. Anthony Musonda “An Ethical Assessment of the Impact of Inequitable Land Ownership Patterns on Women’s Economic and Social Rights: A Case Study of Mumbwa District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.350-356 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Influence of Talent Development on Knowledge Retention in Government Ministries in Kenya

Loise Wachuka Mungai, Wario Guyo, Willy Muturi, Assumpta Kagiri – March 2019 Page No.: 357-364

The two objectives of this study were to assess the influence of talent development on knowledge retention in government ministries in Kenya and to establish if top management commitment moderates the influence of talent development on knowledge retention. A survey was conducted with employees of 7 randomly sampled government ministries as the respondents. The sample size was 385 respondents selected using a statistical formula for determining sample size from populations with over ten thousand subjects. Pearson Correlation and linear regression models were used in determining the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
The study found that government ministries have put in place various talent development measures. Findings of the study confirmed that talent development significantly influences knowledge retention in government ministries in Kenya. Top management commitment was found to significantly moderate the influence of talent development on knowledge retention. The study recommends that government ministries in Kenya improve talent development and other talent management practices in order to improve on knowledge retention and remain competitive. It also recommends that top management remain committed to talent development and communicate this commitment internally and externally in order to attract and retain the appropriate talent.

Page(s): 357-364                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2019

 Loise Wachuka Mungai
PhD Student, JKUAT, College of Human Resource Development, Department of Entrepreneurship, Technology, Leadership and Management, Nairobi, Kenya.

 Wario Guyo
Senior Lecturer, JKUAT, College of Human Resource Development, Department of Entrepreneurship, Technology, Leadership and Management, Nairobi, Kenya.

 Willy Muturi
Professor, JKUAT, College of Human Resource Development, Department of Economics, Accounts and Finance, Nairobi, Kenya.

 Assumpta Kagiri
Lecturer, JKUAT, College of Human Resource Development, Department of Entrepreneurship, Technology, Leadership and Management, Nairobi, Kenya.

[1]. Australian Government (2010) Report.
[2]. Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practices.Uk. Kogan Page.
[3]. Bethke-Langenegger, P., Mahler, P., & Staffelbach, B. August (2010). Effectiveness of Talent Management Strategies in Swiss Companies.University of Zurich.
[4]. Chitsaz-Isfahani., A. & Boustani., H. (2014). Effects of Talent Management on Employees Retention: The Mediate Effect of Organizational Trust. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 3(5), 2226 – 3624.
[5]. CIPD (2010). Learning and Development Annual Survey Report.
[6]. CIPD (2017). Human Capital Theory: Assessing the evidence for the value and importance of people to organizational success.
[7]. Cummings-White., I.& Diala., I.,S. (2013). Knowledge Transfer in a Municipality Study on Baby Boomer Exodus from the Workforce. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research,2 (3), 367 – 373.
[8]. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). Boston, MA Pearson.
[9]. Davies.,F., M., Gould-Williams., & Seymour.,J. (2005). Using social exchange theory to predict the effects of HRM practice on employee outcomes. Public Management Review 7 (1).
[10]. Devine., M. & Powell., M. (2008). Talent Management in the Public Sector. The Ashridge Journal Autumn (2008).
[11]. Dube., L. & Ngulube., P. (2013).Pathways for Retaining Human Capital in Academic Department of a South Africa University. South African Journal of Information Management, 15(2).
[12]. Garavan,T.N.,Carbery,R.,&Rock,A.(2012).Mappingtalentdevelopment:definition,scope and architecture. European Journal of Training and Development, 36(1),5-24.
[13]. Göthensten., D. (2014). & Persson., C.(2014). Knowledge Transfer in the Chinese Automotive Industry. Bachelor Thesis Spring. 2014.
[14]. Harrison.,L.,H. & Human Capital Institute. (2013). Set Talent in Motion: Achieving Organizational Success with Talent Mobility. HCI Research.
[15]. Kabwe., C.,B. (2011). The Conceptualization and Operationalization of Talent Management: The Case of European Internationally Operating Businesses. Phd Thesis. University of Central Lancashire.
[16]. Kagwiria.,R., l.(2013). Role of Talent Management on Organızatıon Performance in Companıes Lısted in Naıbobı Securıty Exchange in Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(21).
[17]. Kehinde.,J.,S. (2012). Talent Management: effect on organization performance. Journal of Management Research.
[18]. Kenani., D., M. (2011). Strategic Options to HR in Geothermal Operations in Kenya. Proceedings, Kenya Geothermal Conference 2011, KICC, Nairobi, Kenya.
[19]. Kibui.,A. W., & Kanyiri., J., W. (2014). Role of Talent Retention on Generation Y Employees in Kenya’s State Corporations: Empirical Review. International Journal of Applied Researchand Studies 3(3).
[20]. Kibui.,A. W. (2015). Effect of Talent Management on Employee Retention in State Corporations in Kenya. A Publishes PhD Thesis at JKUAT, Nairobi, Kenya.
[21]. Kireru., D., M., Karanja., K. & Namusonge.,G.,S. (2017). Role of Talent Development Process on Competitive Advantage of Telecommunication Firms in Nairobi County, Kenya. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research, 5(8), 1-11.
[22]. Klassen.,T., R.& Higo., M. (2015). The future of mandatory retirement: A Japan- Korea comparison and policy lessons. In Retirement in Japan and South Korea: The Past, the Present and the Future of Mandatory Retirement.
[23]. Kothari, C. R. (2012). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. (2nd Ed). Nairobi, Kenya: New Age International Publishers.
[24]. Macon, M., & Artley, J. B. (2009). Can’t we all just get along? A review of the challenges and Opportunities in Multigenerational Workforce. International Journal of BusinessResearch, 9(6), 90-94.
[25]. Maganga.,J.,J., & Wario.,G. (2017). Knowledge Management and Performance of National Government Ministries in Kenya. The Strategic Journal of Business and Change Management 4(29), 528-554.
[26]. Manpower Group Talent Shortage Survey (2011). Talent Shortage 2011Survey Results.
[27]. Nachmias.,C., F. &Nachmias., D. (2003). Research Methods in the Social Sciences. (5thEd.)St.Martin’s Press.
[28]. Ng’ethe, J.M. (2012). Determinants of Academic Staff Retention in Public Universities in Kenya. A PhD Thesis in Human Resource Management. JKUAT.
[29]. Okemwa.,O.,E. & Smith., J.,G. (2009). The role of knowledge management in enhancing government service-delivery in Kenya. South Africa Journal of Libraries &Information Science, 2009, 75(1).
[30]. Pena., A.,M.(2013). Institutional Knowledge: When employees leave, what do we lose? New Mexico State University.
[31]. Public Sector People Managers Association (PSPMA). (2006). Talent management: the capacity to make the difference.
[32]. Singh,A.,K.(2009). Tests, Measurements and Research Methods in BehavioralScience. Bharat Bhawan, New Delhi.
[33]. Sutherland., M. (2005) Rethinking the Retention of Knowledge Workers: You are Managing aRiver, not a Dam. South African Journal of HRM,2(2), 55-64.
[34]. Razak et al (2013). Leveraging Knowledge Transfer in Strategic Human Resource Management. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 4(4)2013.
[35]. Thomas.,H.,Smith.,R.,R &Diez., F.(2013). Human Capital and Global Business Strategies. New York. Cambridge University Press.
[36]. Timbe., M.,W. & Sira,. F.,N. (2013). Challenges Facing Succession Management in the Kenyan Civil Service: A Case Study of Nairobi County Ministry of Education. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Management and Computer Applications,8, 18-23.
[37]. Tymon.,W.,G., Stumpf.,S., A. & Doh., J., P. (2010). Exploring talent management in India: The neglected role of intrinsic rewards. Journal of World Business, 45(2), 109-121.
[38]. Waiganjo., E.,W. (2015). Effect of Competitive Strategies on Relationship between Strategic HRM and Firm Performance of Kenya’s Corporate Organizations. Published PhD Thesis, JKUAT
[39]. White,H.,L. (2009). Talent Development and Management: Optimizing Human Performance in the Public Sector. A Paper Presented at an International Conference on Administration Development towards Excellence in Public Sector Performance in Saudi Arabia.
[40]. World at Work Research (2009). The relative influence of total rewards elements and attraction, Motivation and retention. Http//
[41]. Zikmund.,W.,G. (2010). Business Research Methods. (7Ed.). New Delhi.

Loise Wachuka Mungai, Wario Guyo, Willy Muturi, Assumpta Kagiri “Influence of Talent Development on Knowledge Retention in Government Ministries in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.357-364 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


The Nexus between Teaching Method and Academic Performance of Students in Anambra State

Mayor, A. and Ogbogbo, G. O. – March 2019 Page No.: 365-369

This study examined teaching methods and their impact on performance of Student in a tertiary institution. The teaching methods considered in this study includes: discussion method, demonstration method, lecture method and questioning method. Primary source of data collection was adopted for this study with the aid of a well structured questionnaire. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the obtained data. Findings showed that majority of the respondents agreed that discussion method is the most preferred teaching method. It was found that there exist no significant difference on the preferred teaching method. It was found that majority of the respondents to a large extent have the understanding of the various teaching methods. Also, it was found that there exist no significant difference on the level of understanding of the respondents on the various teaching methods. It was found that majority of the respondents believe that demonstration method is the best followed by discussion method of teaching while lecture method was found to be the least most effective method. Also, it was found that the commonly used method of teaching was the lecture method followed by demonstration method of teaching while questioning method was found to be the least most effective method of teaching.

Page(s): 365-369                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2019

 Mayor, A.
Department of Statistics, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria

 Ogbogbo, G. O.
Department of Statistics, Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria

[1]. Adunola, O. (2011). An Analysis of the Relationship between Class Size and Academic Performance of Students. Ego Booster Books, Ogun State, Nigeria.
[2]. Armila, D., Musfiq, M. C., Shorefuzzaman, M. and Min-Ho, K. (2015). Evaluation of teaching methods on students’ academic Performance in the University of Dhaka. AEIJMR, 3(4): 1-15.
[3]. Barr, R. B. and Tagg, J. (1995). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change, 27, 12-15.
[4]. Chang, Y. (2010). Students’ Perceptions of Teaching Styles and Use of Learning Strategies, Retrieved from: http://trace.tennessee.udu/utk gradthes/782.
[5]. Corneille, L. T., Simon, K. S., and Guillaume, B. B. (2017). Effectiveness of the Teaching Methods of Elementary Reading on Pupils’ Academic Performance. Education,: 7(6): 112-123
[6]. Ganyaupfu, E.M. (2013). Teaching Methods and Students’ Academic Performance. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(9): 29-35.
[7]. Ijeoma, N. B. (2014). The Contribution of Fair Value Accounting on Corporate Financial Reporting in Nigeria. American Journal of Business, Economics and Management, 2(1): 1-8.
[8]. Ijeoma, N., Aronu, C. O. (2013). Effect of Human Resource Accounting (HRA) on Financial Statement of Nigerian Banks. International Journal of Advancement in Research & Technology, 2(8): 342-347.
[9]. Montogomery, D. C. and Runger, G. C. (2003). Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers (3rd Edition). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. USA, 2003.
[10]. Muzenda, A. (2013). Lecturers’ Competences and Students’ Academic Performance, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 3 (1): 6-13.
[11]. Nworuh, G. E.(2004). Basic Research Methodology for Researchers Trainees and Trainers in Management Sciences (Second Edition). Ambix Printers Nigeria.
[12]. Wen-Hwa, K. O. and Feng-Ming, C. (2014). Teaching Quality, Learning Satisfaction, and Academic Performance among Hospitality Students in Taiwan. World Journal of Education, 4(5).

Mayor, A. and Ogbogbo, G. O. “The Nexus between Teaching Method and Academic Performance of Students in Anambra State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.365-369 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management In Ifite, Awka Urban Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

Kelechi Friday Nkwocha, Chukwuma Patrick Nwabudike, Samuel Oji Iheukwumere, Kenneth O. Oluyori, Peter Peter Umeh – March 2019 Page No.: 370-374

Owing to a rapid surge in population and urbanization in Ifite, Awka Urban area of Anambra state, problems associated with municipal solid waste management have become a critical issue. Its direct impact on human health and aesthetic values of the environment makes it crucial. The aim of this study is to develop an optimum municipal solid waste collection and disposal system in Ifite, Awka urban area, Anambra state Nigeria through recommending best route for solid waste collection and disposal. From the findings, a collection and disposal plan was developed using GIS tools. ArcGIS 10.2 Network Analyst software was used to optimize solid waste collection and disposal routes for Ifite (scenario 1) as well as to calculate the distance for the scenario. The distance covered for scenario 1 is 12.3km.

Page(s): 370-374                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2019

 Kelechi Friday Nkwocha
Department of Geography, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

 Chukwuma Patrick Nwabudike
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Samuel Oji Iheukwumere
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Kenneth O. Oluyori
Department of Geography, Nigeria Defence Academy Post Graduate School, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

 Peter Peter Umeh
Department of Geography, Nigerian Army University, Biu, Borno State, Nigeria

[1]. KALU, E.O, INYAMA, S.C, and NWOBI, F. N. (2017): Mathematical Model of Municipal Solid Waste Management System in Aba Metropolis of Abia State Nigeria. Journal of Research in Applied Mathematics. Vol. 3, issue 7, pp. 38-51 ISSN(Online) : 2394-0743 ISSN (Print):2394-0735.
[2]. EZERIE, H.E, CHIMA, G.N, OGBONNA, C.E, and CHIBUNNA, J.B. (2017): Municipalsolid waste management in Aba, Nigeria: Challenges and prospects. Journal of Environmental Engineering Research. Vol. 22, No.3, pp. 231-236.
[3]. UWAKWE, F.E (2013): Solid Waste Management in Owerri Municipality and its Immediate Environs. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. Vol. 2, No. 5, pp.141.
[4]. IMAM, A. MOHAMMED, B. WILSON, D.C and CHEESEMAN, C. R (2008): Solid waste management in Abuja. Elsevier Journal of waste management. Vol. 28, pp. 468-472.
[5]. AKANWA, A. O. (2017): Characterization of Leachates from Solid wastedumpsites and its Implication on Sustainable Groundwater Sources in Anambra State, Nigeria. A paper delivered at 2nd International conference on the Environment (FESCON 2017), Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University.
[6]. EZENWAJI, E. E., PHIL-EZE, P. O., ENETE, I. C., and OSUIWU, B. O. (2014): An Analysis of the Cycles and Periodicities of Annual Rainfall over Awka Region, Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences. Vol. 4, pp. 665-671.
[7]. EZENWAJI, E.E., PHIL-EZE, P.O., OTTI, V.I., and EDUPUTA, B.M.(2013): Household water demand in the peri-urban communities of Awka, capital of Anambra state, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning.Vol.6, No.6, pp. 237-243. ISSN. 2070-1845.
[8]. EZEAH, C.(2010): Analysis of Barriers and Success Factors affecting the Adoption of Sustainable management of municipal solid waste in Abuja, Nigeria. A Ph.D thesis submitted to university of Wolverhampton.
[9]. GEOFFREY, I. N. (2005): The Urban Informal Sector in Nigeria: Towards Economic Development, Environmental Health, and Social Harmony. Global Urban Development Magazine . Vol. 1, No. 1.
[10]. HAREESH, K.B., MANJUNATH, N.T., and NAGARAJAPPA D.P. (2015): Route Optimization Model for Municipal Solid Waste Management by a Decentralized System in Davangaree City. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering.Vol. 5, ISSN 2250.
[11]. IGBINOMWANHIA, D. I. (2011). Status of Waste Management. Journal of Integrated Waste Management Vol. 2, pp. 11-34.
[12]. IRO, S. I, OKORONDU, U. V, MBANO, E., and Duru, P. (2012): “Implications of Geographic Information System in Mapping Solid Waste Collection Points in New Owerri, Imo State”. An International Journal of Science and Technology Bashir Dar, Ethiopia. Vol.1, No.1, pp. 60-69.
[13]. KADAFA, A.Y., ABDULLAH, H. O., and SULAIMAN, W.N. (2013): Current Status of Municipal Solid Waste Management Practice in FCT Abuja. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. Vol.5, No.6, pp. 295-304, ISSN: 2041-0484; e-ISSN: 2041-0492.
[14]. KARADIMAS, N. V., KOLOKATHI, M., DEFTERAIOU, G., & LOUMAS, V. (2007).Municipal Waste Collection of Large Items Optimized with Arc GIS Network Analyst. 21st European Conference on Modeling and Simulation.
[15]. KARADIMAS, N.V, and LOUMOS, V.G. (2008): GIS- based modeling for the Estimation of Municipal Solid Waste Generation and Collection. Journal of Waste Management and Research. Vol. 26, pp. 337-346.
[16]. KANCHANABHAN, T.E., MOHAIDEEN, J.A., SRINIVASAN, S., and SUNDARAM, V., (2010): Optimum Municipal Solid Waste Collection using Geographical Information System (GIS) and Vehicle Tracking for Pallavapuram municipality. Journal of Waste Management and Research. Vol.8, No. 6.

Kelechi Friday Nkwocha, Chukwuma Patrick Nwabudike, Samuel Oji Iheukwumere, Kenneth O. Oluyori, Peter Peter Umeh “Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management In Ifite, Awka Urban Area, Anambra State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.370-374 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Personality Factors Affecting Athlete Performance in Baseball and Softball: Identification and Instrument Development

Weni Endahing Warni, Urip Purwono – March 2019 Page No.: 375-384

Aside from physical and technical factors, personality plays an important role in athlete’s achievement and performance. Despite its importance, study in this area, especially in the area of Baseball and Softball is very limited. In Indonesia personality research related to Athlete’s performance and achievement in Baseball and Softball has never been reported. This study is aimed at filling this gap. The objectives are two folds. Grounded in traits and types approach to personality, the first objective of the study was to identify personality dimensions critical to athlete’s performance in baseball and softball. Further, this study also addressed the need for a well-grounded, reliable, and valid tools to assess these personality dimensions by developing a self-report instrument. We first conduct a series of interview and focused group discussion with coaches and elite athletes to identify dimensions important to athletes’ performances in baseball and softball fields. We found 13 personality dimensions identified as critical to athletes’ performances in baseball and softball, namely (1) Practical intelligence, (2) Concentration, (3) Emotional Stability, (4) Self Confidence, (5) Ability to Control Anxiety, (6) Adjustment, (7) Self-Discipline, (8) Commitments, (9) Openness, (10) Motivation, (11) Ambition for Achievement, (12) Teamwork, and (13) Leadership. These results were validated by a panel of experts through an invited workshop. To assess these these dimensions, we develop Athlete Personality Questionnaire (APQ) consisting of 80 items. Rating Scale analysis using Rasch Model to the field testing data collected from 514 baseball and softball athletes shows the APQ yield scores with high reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha = .96) and person reliability of .95. The item polarity indices also indicate that the instruments have items with a very good level of measurement accuracy. We also validated the instrument using Batting Average, as criterion. Employing Partial Least Square procedure, we found that eight personality dimension has a significant relationship with the criterion measures while five other dimensions did not.

Page(s): 375-384                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2019

 Weni Endahing Warni
Airlangga University, Indonesia

 Urip Purwono
Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

[1]. Amrun, I. T. (2017). Adversary Mental Profile: Profil Mental Pemenang. Penerbit: Lembaga Psikologi Terapan Universitas Indonesia Jakarta.
[2]. Baker, J., & Horton, S. (2004). A Riview Primary and Secondary Influences on Sport Expertise. High Ability Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, December. Carfax Publishing: Taylor & Francis Group.
[3]. Boone, W.J., Staver, J. R., & Yale, M. S. (2014). Rasch Analysis In The Human Sciences. Dordrecht : Springer.
[4]. Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (2008). Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory. Mason, OH: Cengage.
[5]. Dieffenbach, K. & Moffett, A. (2001). The Development of Psychological Talent in U.S. Olympic Champions. Thesis.
[6]. Dimyati. (2010). Psychological Characteristics of Athletes at Students Education and Training Centre. Anima Indonesian Psychological Journal, Vol. 25, No. 3, 172-180.
[7]. Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. (2000). Item Response Theory for Psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
[8]. Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K., & Moffett, A. (2001). The Developmental of Psychological Talent in US Olympic Champions. Final Grand Report Executive Summary. University of North Carolina at Greesboro: Applied Sport Psychology Laboratory Department if Exercise & Sport Science.
[9]. Gunarsa, S. D. (1989). Psikologi Olahraga. Jakarta: Gunung Mulia.
[10]. Hambleton, R.K., Swaminathan, H., & Rogers, H.J. (1991). Fundamental of Item Response Theory. Newburry Park, CA: Sage Publications.
[11]. Hartanti, Y. L., Pambudi, I., Zainal, T., & Lasmono, H. K. (2004). Aspek Psikologis dan Pencapaian Prestasi Atlet Nasional Indonesia. Anima Indonesian Psychological Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1, 40-54.
[12]. Linacre, J. M. (2006). Data variance explained by measures. Rasch Measurement Transactions, 20, 1045– 1047.
[13]. Linacre, J. M. (2012). A User’s Guide to Winsteps [User’s manual and software].
[14]. Linacre, J. M. (2016). Winsteps: Rasch measurement computer program User’s Guide. Beaverton, Oregon:
[15]. McCreary, L. L., Conrad, K. M., Conrad, K. J., Scott, C. K., Funk, R. R., & Dennis, M. L. (2013). Using the Rasch measurement model in psychometric analysis of the family effectiveness measure. Nursing Research, 62(3), 149-159.
[16]. Nunnally, J.C. (1981). Psychometric Theory. Second Edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
[17]. Sumintono, B & Widhiarso, W. (2015). Aplikasi Model Rasch Untuk Penelitian Ilmu-ilmu Sosial. Edisi Revisi. Cimahi: Trim Komunikata Publishing House.
[18]. Suryanto. (2010). Identifikasi Kondisi Psikologis (Mental) Atlet Junior Cabang Olahraga Panahan Di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. FIK, 014/ PPI/ L/ 2010. Bidang Olahraga dan Kesehatan.
[19]. Utama, B. (2010). Aspek Psikologi Dalam Pembinaan Atlet Tenis Meja. Yogyakarta: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta.
[20]. Weinberg, R.S & Gould, D. (2007). Foundation of Sport and Exercise Psychology. United States: Human Kinetic.
[21]. Wheaton, K.A. (1998). A Psychological Skills Inventory of Sport. Dissertation.
[22]. Wright, B. D., & Masters, G. N. (1982). Rating Scale Analysis: Rasch Measurement. Chicago: Mesa Press.
[23]. Yen, W.M. (1993). Scaling Performace Assessments: Strategies for Managing Local Item Dependence. Journal of Educational Measurement, 30 (3), p: 187-213.
[24]. Yuwanto, L & Sutanto, N. (2012). Deskripsi Psikologis Atlet Remaja Berdasarkan Analisis Struktur EPPS. Mind Set, Juni 2012, hal 115-122.

Weni Endahing Warni, Urip Purwono “Personality Factors Affecting Athlete Performance in Baseball and Softball: Identification and Instrument Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.375-384 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Evaluation of Awareness Level and Public Perception of the Image of Insurance Companies in Enugu State

Marafa Salisu Sagagi, Ekperi, Paul Madukwe, Nwadike, Stanley Chukwuma – March 2019 Page No.: 385-390

The study therefore examined the level of awareness and public perception of insurance companies in Enugu State. A structured open-ended and likert scale questionnaire were used to elicit information from 400 respondents. Tables, percentages, chart and means scores where used to analyze the research questions, while Pearson Chi Square test was used to test the postulated hypothesis. Findings show low awareness by the public of insurance enterprise in Enugu State, despite the fact that the city is viewed as an enlightened city. The image of insurance companies in Enugu State was also found to be poor. This low level of awareness coupled with the poor image of the insurance companies in the state was found to be the reason for the low demand and patronage of insurance products and services in the state. The study thus recommends among others that insurance companies should engage in trade fairs, workshops, radio/TV jingles, etc. as this will serve as effective communication strategies to enlighten the public on their products and services. Also staff and agents of insurance companies should be properly trained and monitored in other to ensure that carry out their activities in an ethical and professional manner.

Page(s): 385-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2019

 Marafa Salisu Sagagi
Department of Marketing, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria

 Ekperi, Paul Madukwe
Institute for Development Studies, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria

 Nwadike, Stanley Chukwuma
Department of Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria

[1]. Ajala, O.V (2011). Public relations: in search of professional excellence, Ibadan: May Best Publication.
[2]. Edeani, David O. (1993), “Marketing as an Intrinsic Part of Public Relations,” Public Relations for Local Government in Nigeria, Ike Nwosu and UchennaEkwo (eds.), Lagos: Talkback Publishers Ltd., p. 106.
[3]. Elewachi, U, C (2013). Enhancing the image of insurance industry in Enugu and Anambra States: an unpublished thesis report presented to the Department of Marketing, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu.
[4]. Emilefo, A (2010. Issues in the development of grassroots patronage of insurance companies.Journal of the chartered insurance institute, 12(3), 35-41.
[5]. Fombrun, Charles (1996). The Reputational Landscape.Corporate Reputation Review. Vol. 1, pp. 5 – 14.
[6]. Gopalakrishna, G (2009). Essentials and Legalities of an Insurance Contract. Available at…/Journal08_%20pg06-14_ess.pdf accessed on 24/11/2018.
[7]. Moller, V.A (2004).Researching quality of life in a developing country: lessons from South Africa. Retrieved online from Http// pdf
[8]. National Population Commission (2006).Population and Housing Census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja.
[9]. Nwaizugbo, C (2014). Principles of marketing, Enugu: Generation books.
[10]. Nwosu, I.E (1996). Public relations management: principles, issues, and applications, Lagos: Dominican publishers.
[11]. Nwosu, I.E and Uffoh, V.O (2005) Environmental public relations management: principles, strategies issues and cases, Enugu: Institute for Development Studies, UNEC.
[12]. Onomivibori, E. (2010). The challenges of underwriting of marine Hull insurance.Journal of the chartered insurance institute of Nigeria, 12(6), 24-42.
[13]. Rayner, J. (2003). Risk Management – 10 principles, Elsevier plc Group, Great Britain.
[14]. Seog, S.H (2002). Equilibrium price dispersion in the insurance market. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 69(4), 517-536.
[15]. Uche, C.U and ChikelezeB.E (2001). Reinsurance in Nigeria: The issue of compulsory legal cession. The Geneva paper on risk and insurance, 26(3), 490-504.
[16]. Udry, C (1994). Risk and insurance in a rural credit market: An empirical investigation in Northern Nigeria. Review of economic studies, 61(3), 495-536.
[17]. Uduji, J.I. (2007), “Public Relations and Corporate Image/Reputation Building and Management”, in Public Relations Journal Vol. 3, No. 2.
[18]. Villanova, L., Zinkhan, G. M., & Hyman, M. R. (2000), “On Defining and Measuring Store Image,” Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing Science, April, eds. B. J. Dunlap, New Orleans, LA: Academy of Marketing Science, 466-470.

Marafa Salisu Sagagi, Ekperi, Paul Madukwe, Nwadike, Stanley Chukwuma “Evaluation of Awareness Level and Public Perception of the Image of Insurance Companies in Enugu State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.385-390 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Challenges Facing the Effectiveness of Secondary School Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development in the Sekyere District: Enhancing Practise with Human Performance Technology

Alexander Kyei EDWARDS & Isaac OSEI-MENSAH – March 2019 Page No.: 391-403

The proposition is that the concept of human performance technology (HPT) into teacher continuous professional development (CPD) will enhance effectiveness in advancing the work of teaching. Data came from 120 out of the 150 purposively sampled SHS teachers from Sekyere District who responded to a survey questionnaire with open-ended items. Results showed four main motivational factors: (i) capacity building (83.3% Agreed), (ii) pedagogical content knowledge upgrade (88.0% Agreed), (iii) meaningful contents to add value (88.3% Agreed), but for (iv) a career progression and/or to gain experience through CPD was moderately low (56.7% Agreed). Also four challenges were discovered within the opinions of respondents. Therefore the study revealed a new thinking for consideration in the use of HPT theoretical framework for knowledge transfer to enhance the effectiveness of teacher CPD. The discourse focuses on challenges and implications for professional development, policy direction, and a practical application of HPT in the Ghana Education Service (GES). Study recommendations include first, school leadership to motivate teachers when it comes to CPD in secondary schools. Secondly, the National Teaching Council (NTC) should prescribe contents based on their need assessment for other training providers, HPT experts, and CPD facilitators to bring consistency, relevance, and quality to the work of teaching. Finally, it is believed that HPT providers in partnership with NTC should enhance CPD successfully to simplify the necessity for the teacher certification, teacher education practices, and add value to the government’s free secondary education policy.

Page(s): 391-403                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2019

 Alexander Kyei EDWARDS
Centre for Educational Policy Studies, University of Education, Winneba-Ghana

Department of Educational Leadership, University of Education, Winneba-Ghana

[1]. Abdul-Rahaman, N., Rahaman, A. B. A., Ming, W., Ahmed, A., & Abdul-Rahaman S. S. (2018) The Free Senior High Policy: An Appropriate Replacement to The Progressive Free Senior High. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies. Vol. 6, Issue 2, pp. 26-33
[2]. Anderson, J. (2001). The content and design of in-service teacher education and development. Paper presented at the National Teacher Education Policy Conference, Midrand, 20-21 October, 2001.
[3]. Ball, D. L. & Forzani, F. M. (2009). The work of teaching and the challenge for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education. 60(5), 497-511
[4]. Bjorklund, B. R & Bee, H. L (2008). The journey of adulthood (6th ed) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
[5]. Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3-15.
[6]. Borko, H., & Putnam, R. T. (1996). Learning to teach. In D. C.Berliner, & R. C. Calfree (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 673–708). New York: Simon & Schuster.
[7]. Bredeson, P. V. (2003). Designs for learning. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
[8]. Caena, F. (2011). Quality in teachers’ continuing professional development education and training 2020. Thematic Working Group ‘Professional Development of Teachers’. June 2011. Retrieved on 12th November, 2015 from http://.www.quality-en.pdf.
[9]. Cheng, I. (2007). Empowering teachers to experience transformative and generative learning through authentic collaboration during summer school/inter-session. A paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago. Retrieved on April, 10, 2007 from
[10]. Davidson, J., Hall, J., Lewin, J., & Wilson, V. (2006). Developing teachers in Scotland. A Review of Early Learning, 3(1), 30-34.
[11]. Day, C. (1999). Developing teachers: The challenges of lifelong learning. London: Falmer Press.
[12]. Dillon, J., Osborne, J., Fairbrother, R., & Kurina, L. (2000). A study into the professional views and needs of science teachers in primary and secondary schools in England. London: Council for Science and Technology.
[13]. Edwards, A. K. (2015). Developing teachers using human performance technology: Considering the nexus between purpose-driven life and curriculum leadership. International Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research (JEPER). Vol. 2, N0.5. pp 165-174
[14]. Edwards, A. K. & Aboagye, S.K. (2015). Assessing school leadership challenges in Ghana using leadership practices inventory. International Journal of Education and Practice, 3(4), 168-181
[15]. Edwards, A.K. & Dampson, D.G. (2018). Considering primal teacher leadership through quadrant intelligent (Qi) model for teacher education content validity in Ghana. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development. Vol. 6, Issue No 7, pp 94-110
[16]. Falk, B. (2001). Teachers caught in the action: Professional development matter. New York: McGraw-Hill
[17]. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education (6thed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
[18]. Hammond, M. (2002). Two up: A case study exploring new information and communications technology teachers experiences of their second year of teaching. Journal of Teacher Development, 6(2), 39-71.
[19]. Harris, A. (2002). Leadership in schools facing challenging circumstances. Copenhagen: International Congress of School Effectiveness and School Improvement. Report of Teacher Training Agency.
[20]. Hess, F. M., Rotherham, A. J., & Walsh, K. (Eds.). (2004). A qualified teacher in every classroom? Appraising old answers and new ideas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
[21]. Jacobs, R. L. (1999). Structured on-the-job training. In H. D. Stolovitch & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of Human Performance Technology: Improving individual and organizational performance worldwide (2nd ed., pp. 606-625). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
[22]. Joshi, L., & Latha, B. M. (2014). Professional Development-Current Trends in Teacher Education (With Reference to ELT and Computer Science). International Journal, 2(5), 4-7.
[23]. Kokebe, M. Y. (2013). Practices and challenges of continuous professional development in primary schools of Metekel Zone. A thesis submitted to Institute of Education and Professional Development Studies, Department of Educational Planning and Management in partial fulfillment for the requirements of Master of Arts Degree in Educational Leadership. Jimma, Ethiopia: Jimma University. Accessed on 24th September, 2015 from
[24]. Labaree, R. (2013). Organizing your social sciences research paper. Retrieved on 28th September, 2015 from
[25]. Mann, S. (2005). The language teacher’s development. Language Teaching, 38(3), 103-118.
[26]. Mekonnen, A. (2014). Practices and challenges of school based continuous professional development in secondary schools of Kemashi zone (Doctoral dissertation, Jimma University).
[27]. Misko, J. (2008). Combining formal, non-formal and informal learning for workforce skill development. Adelaide, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
[28]. MoE (1974). The new structure and content of education for Ghana. Accra, Ghana: The Ministry of Education
[29]. Muijs, D., Day, D., Harris, A., & Lindsay, G. (2004). Evaluating CPD: An overview. In: Day, B. & Sachs, J. (Eds.), International handbook on the continuing professional development of teachers. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education.
[30]. NTC/T-Tel (2016). National teachers’ standards and teacher education curriculum framework for Ghana: Handbook for profession development coordinators. Retrieved on May 2018 from
[31]. Pershing, J. A. (Editor) (2006). Handbook of human performance technology: Principles, Practices, and Potential. (3rd Ed,) San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer
[32]. Raza, N. A. (2010). The impact of continuing professional development on EFL teachers employed in federal universities in the United Arab Emirates (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Exeter).
[33]. Singh, G., & Richards, J. C. (2006). Teaching and learning in the language teacher education course room: A critical sociocultural perspective. RELC Journal, 37(2), 149-175.
[34]. Stolovitch, H. D. (2000). Human Performance Technology: Research and theory to practice. Human Improvement. Vol 39, No 4, pp7-16
[35]. Stolovitch, H. D., & Keeps, E. J. (1999a). What is Human Performance Technology? In H. D. Stolovitch & E. J. Keeps (Eds.), Handbook of Human Performance Technology: Improving individual and organizational performance worldwide (2nd ed., pp. 3-23). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
[36]. Supovitz, J. A. (2001). Translating teaching practice into improved student achievement. In S. Fuhrman (Ed.), National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
[37]. Thomas, G. (n.d.). Mentoring beginning teachers. Alberta: The Alberta Teachers’ Association.
[38]. Mertler, C. A., & Vannatta, R. A. (2009). Advanced and multivariate statistical methods: Practical application and interpretation (4th ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.
[39]. Wei, R. C., Darling-Hammond, L., & Adamson, F. (2010). Professional development in the United States: Trends and challenges. Dallas, TX: NSDC.
[40]. Wheeler A. E. (2001). Bridging the North-South divide in teacher education. Teacher Education, La formation des Maîtres, 1(41), 12–15.
[41]. Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W., & Shapley, K. (2008). The effects of teachers’ professional development on student achievement: Findings from a systematic review of evidence. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, March 24-28, 2008, New York: Teachers’ College Press.
[42]. Zakaria, E., & Daud, M. Y. (2009). Assessing mathematics teachers’ professional development needs. European Journal of Social Science, 8, 225-231.

Alexander Kyei EDWARDS & Isaac OSEI-MENSAH “Challenges Facing the Effectiveness of Secondary School Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development in the Sekyere District: Enhancing Practise with Human Performance Technology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.391-403 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


The use of English as a Language and Medium of Instruction in Higher Learning Institutions: A Case of one Private University in Tanzania

Mary Atanas Mosha (PhD) – March 2019 Page No.: 404-415

This paper examined the use of English as a language and medium of instruction at the University of Bagamoyo in Tanzania. The study applied case study design. It was guided by four research questions. Mixed approaches were utilized. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 students from three Colleges (College of Law, College of Education, and College of Science). Five lecturers teaching at the Colleges were included in the study. The study had a sample of 65 people. Interview guides and questionnaires were used to collect data from the students and the lecturers.
Results from the study showed that students had difficulties in understanding the content presented in English, the medium of instruction at the three Colleges. The problem was partly contributed by difficulty English terminologies and students’ poor English background from lower levels (primary to secondary schools). Additionally, students were not confident and competent in using English in classroom discussions as well as communicating to each other and other staff outside classrooms. Most of the time students used Kiswahili because it was found easier and familiar compare to English on one hand; on the other hand; some of the lecturers used difficulty vocabularies and broken English that hindered students understanding of the content taught. However, findings from lecturers indicated that students had minimal English vocabulary and their English grammar was poor. In addition to that, students’ level of the English language reached before entry into University was found low. Kiswahili was found a viable alternative to the English medium because it would contribute to students’ high performance at the institution. Moreover, Kiswahili language was found simple and understandable to all students selected in the study. Despite the fact that Kiswahili was suggested to be used as a medium of instruction there were some of the students who thought that it would be difficult to translate and explain English concepts in all subjects in Kiswahili. The fact that one can understand better when taught in his/her language, and there had been long debates on language of instruction in Tanzania, there is a need for the government to rethink about the use of its own national language (Kiswahili) to be medium of instruction from nursery schools to tertiary education to minimize the problem.

Page(s): 404-415                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2019

 Mary Atanas Mosha (PhD)
College of Education, University of Bagamoyo, P.O BOX 31285, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

[1]. Association for the Development in Africa (ADEA) (2005). Conference on bilingual education and the use of local languages in education. International Education Journal, 17 (2), 1-5.
[2]. Brock-Utne, B. (2000). Whose education for all? The recolonization of the African mind. New York: Falmer Press.
[3]. Brock-Utne, Birgit and Halmarsdottir, Halla (2003). Language policies and practices- Some preliminary results from a research project in Tanzania and South Africa. In: Brock-Utne, Birgit, Desai, Zubeida and Qorro, Martha, Language of instruction in Tanzania and South-Africa (LOITASA) Dar-es-Salaam: E&D Limited.
[4]. Alidou, H., Aliou, B., Brock-Utne, B., Diallo, Y. S., & Heugh, K. (2006). Optimizing learning and education in Africa – the language factor. A stock-taking research on mother-tongue and bilingual education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Association for the Development of Education in Africa, UNESCO Institute for Education, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit. Working Document for the ADEA Biennial 2006, Libreville, Gabon, March 27-31.
[5]. Brock-Utne, B. (2004). English as the language of instruction or destruction – how do teachers and students in Tanzania cope? LAUD: University of Duisburg-Essen.
[6]. Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? London: SAGE Publications.
[7]. Coleman, J. A. (2006). English medium teaching in European Higher Education. Language Teaching, 1(1), 1-14.
[8]. Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating qualitative and quantitative research (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
[9]. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom.
[10]. Crystal, D. (2004). The past, present and future of World English: Globalization and the future of German (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter), 27-46. (Accessed on 10th October 2018 from
[11]. Dearden, J. (2014). English as a medium of instruction – a growing global phenomenon. University of Oxford: British Council.
[12]. Debreli, E. & Oyman, N. (2016). Students’ preferences on the use of mother tongue in English as a foreign language classrooms: Is it the time to re-examine English-only policies? English Language Teaching 9 (1): Lefke, Turkey.
[13]. Di Pietro, R. (1994). Helping people do things with English. In Kral, T. (1994) Teacher development: Making the right moves. Washington, DC: English Language Programmes Division, pp 131-138.
[14]. Galloway, N. (2017). How effective is English as a medium of instruction (EMI)?
[15]. Gran, L. K. (2007). Language of instruction in Tanzanian higher education: A particular focus on the University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam.
[16]. Gee, J, P. (1992). The social mind: Language, ideology, and social practice. New York: Bergin and Garvey.
[17]. Graddol, D. (1997). The future of English. In: A guide to forecasting the popularity of the English language in the 21st century. London: The British Council. (Accessed on 10th October, 2018 from
[18]. Holmarsdottir, H. (2003). In search of an appropriate theory. Paper presented at the second LOITASA workshop held at the University of Western Cape 29/4 – 25/4 2003.
[19]. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology. New Delhi: New Age International.
[20]. Malekela, George, A. (2003). English as a medium of instruction in post-primary education in Tanzania: Is it a fair policy to the learner? In: Brock-Utne, Birgit, Desai, Zubeida and Qorro, Martha, Language of instruction in Tanzania and South-Africa (LOITASA) Dar-es-Salaam: E&D Limited
[21]. Mkwizu, M. A. (2003). The pedagogical implications of using English as the medium of instruction in teaching civics in Tanzanian Secondary schools. University of Oslo: Institute of Educational Research.
[22]. MoEVT (2008). Sector development programme: Objectives, priorities, strategies and targets. Dar es Salaam: KIUTA.
[23]. Mwinsheikhe, H. M. (2001). Science and the language barrier: Using Kiswahili as a medium of instruction in Tanzanian Secondary Schools as a strategy of improving student participation and performance in science. University of Oslo: Institute for Educational Research.
[24]. Mwinsheikhe, H. M. (2002). Science and the Language Barrier: Using Kiswahili as a medium of instruction in Tanzania Secondary Schools as a strategy of improving student participation and performance in science. Education in Africa, Vol.10, Report no. 1.2002. Oslo: Institute for Educational Research, p. 123.
[25]. Mwinsheikhe, H. M. (2003). Using Kiswahili as a medium of instruction in science teaching in Tanzanian secondary schools. In: Brock-Utne, Birgit, Desai, Zubeida and Qorro, Martha, Language of instruction in Tanzania and South-Africa (LOITASA) Dar-es-Salaam: E&D Limited
[26]. Nyamubi, J. (2003). Attitudinal and motivational factors influencing performance in English language among Tanzanian school students. Master of Education Dissertation in Language. Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam.
[27]. Omari, L. (1997). Review on language crisis in Tanzania: The myths of English versus education. Papers in Education and Development, 19, 17-19.
[28]. Richard Nordquist, R. (2017). Second language (Accessed on 24th October 2018 from
[29]. Peterson, R. (2006). The use of an African language as language of instruction at university level: The example of Kiswahili department at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Oslo: Institute of Educational Research.
[30]. Puja, G. K. (2002). The challenges of gender equality: The response of selected African Universities. University of Dar es Salaam: Library Department.
[31]. Puja, G. K. (2003). Kiswahili and higher education in Tanzania: Reflections based on a sociological from three Tanzanian university campuses. In Brock-Utne, Birgit, Desai, Zubeida and Qorro, Martha (eds.), Language of Instruction In Tanzania and South Africa (LOITASA) Dar-es-Salaam: E&D Limited.
[32]. Karvonen, H. (2017). English as a medium of instruction. Master Thesis in Education. Ethiopia: University of Turku.
[33]. Qorro, M. (1997) (Eds.). Language of instruction in Tanzania and South Africa. (LOITASA). Dar es Salaam: E&D Limited.
[34]. Qorro, M. (2002). Language of instruction not determinant in quality education. The Guardian. Wednesday, May 29, 2002. Accessed from: (20.09.02).
[35]. Qorro, M. (2006). Does language of instruction affect quality of education? Dar es Salaam: Haki Elimu.
[36]. Quist, D. (2000). Primary teaching methods. London: Macmillan.
[37]. Rajani, R. (2006). Secondary education in Tanzania: Key policy challenges. Dar es Salaam: Haki Elimu.
[38]. Richards, J. C. and Schmidt R. (2002). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 3rd edition, London: Longman.
[39]. Ringbom, H. (1987). The role of the first language in foreign language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters LTD.
[40]. Ryhan, E. (2014). The role and impact of English as a language and a medium of instruction in Saudi Higher Education: Students-instructor perceptive. Study in English Language Teaching Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.140-148.
[41]. Roy-Campbell, Z. (1992). Power of pedagogy: Choosing the medium of instruction in Tanzania. Madison: University of Wisconsin.
[42]. Roy-Campbell, Z. & Qorro, M. (1997). Language crisis in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota.
[43]. Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing second language acquisition: Bilingualism learning strategies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
[44]. Shin, J., Sailors, M., McClung, N., Pearson, P. D., Hoffman, J. V. & Chilimanjira,
[45]. M. 2015. The Case of Chichewa and English in Malawi: The Impact of First Language Reading and Writing on Learning English as a Second Language. Bilingual Research Journal. Routledge.
[46]. Telli, G. (2014). The language of instruction issue in Tanzania: Pertinent determining factors and perceptions of education stakeholders. Journal of Languages and Culture, Vol. 5(1), pp. 9-16.
[47]. UNESCO (2005). EFA Global Monitoring Report: Education for All- The quality imperative. Paris: UNESCO.
[48]. UNESCO (2010). Why and how Africa should invest in African languages and multilingual education. An evidence- and practice-based policy advocacy brief. Germany: UNESCO Institute of Lifelong Learning.
[49]. Uys, M., Van der Walt, J., van den Berg, R.& Botha S. (2007). English medium of
[50]. instruction: a situation analysis. South African Journal of Education . 27 (1), 69–82.
[51]. URT (1993). The National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA). Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Education.
[52]. URT (1995). Educational training policy. Dar es Salaam: Adult Education Press.
[53]. URT (2005). Summary of the National strategy for growth and reduction of poverty. (Accessed on 15th October 2018 from
[54]. URT (2006). National website, information about education. (Accessed on 20th September, 2018 from
[55]. Vuzo, M. (2010). Exclusion through language: A reflection on classroom discourse in Tanzanian Secondary Schools. Papers in Education and Development, 29, 14-36.
[56]. Wilmot, E. M. (2003). Stepping outside the ordinary expectations of schooling effect of school language on the assessment of educational achievement in Ghana. Paper presented at the 47 th Annual Meeting of CIES March 12-16 in New Orleans.
[57]. Yohana, E. (2012). Effects of language of instruction on students’ performance in English: Experience from secondary schools in Dodoma. [Online] Available: (14th October 2018).\

Mary Atanas Mosha (PhD) “The use of English as a Language and Medium of Instruction in Higher Learning Institutions: A Case of one Private University in Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.404-415 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Establishment of Higher Terrestrial Plants and Animal Species Found in Matayos Division of Busia County, Kenya

Dr. Irene Mutavi, Dr. Albert Elim Long’ora – March 2019 Page No.: 416-422

In order to successfully achieve terrestrial biodiversity protection and conservation, more information is needed about the variety of plants and animal species existing in the ecosphere. Although biodiversity constitute a great asset in Kenya and Busia County at large, it is at risk of getting eroded due to increased anthropogenic activities, and therefore the urgent need to identify the various higher plants and animal species found in this sub-county. In the past, plants and animals were abundant in the area and currently some species are rare possibly due to destruction of their habitats by human activities. However, there is no known study that has focused on identifying the terrestrial plants and animals in the division. The study focused on Matayos division where biodiversity conservation issues have not been adequately addressed. Cross-sectional descriptive research design was used. A minimum sample size of 384 household heads was taken out of a study population of 56,186. Matayos division was stratified according to locations and then households selected through simple random sampling for questionnaire administration. Purposive sampling was used to get Key Informants such as village elders, chiefs and Sub chiefs. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administration, key informant interview, Focus Group Discussion, Field Observation and Photography. The results indicated that the division is endowed with variety of terrestrial plants and animal species which should be well protected. There is need for creating communities’ awareness on the various activities carried out and their effects on terrestrial biodiversity conservation so as to ensure conservation of the available species. Establishment of protected areas in the division to conserve these valuable species could benefit the community and the Busia County at large.

Page(s): 416-422                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2019

 Dr. Irene Mutavi
Lecturer, Department of Geography and Natural Resource Management, School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Maseno University, P.O Box, 333 Maseno- Kenya

 Dr. Albert Elim Long’ora
Lecturer, Department of Environmental Sciences, School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Maseno University, P.O Box, 333 Maseno-Kenya

[1]. Allister, S., Leon B., Henny, V., Koen, R., Lisa E. and Kerry, T. (2009). Study on Understanding the Causes of Biodiversity Loss and the policy assessment Framework; in the context of the Framework. Contract No.DG ENV/G.1/FRA/2006/0073, Nethterlands.
[2]. Botkia, P., and Talbolt, H. (1992). in Shalma N.P (ed) Managing the world forests; Looking for Balance between conservation and Development, Hunt, USA.
[3]. Conservation International (CI), (2007). Biodiversity Hotspots. Washington, D.C.
[4]. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), (2006). Global Biodiversity Outlook 2 report; Biodiversity in 2010; Montreal, UNEP/CBD/COP/8/12, 2006
[5]. FAO. (1998). The State of the Worlds Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
[6]. Gichuki, C. (2000) Community participation in the protection of Kenyas wetlands. Ostrich,71 122-125.
[7]. Kearns, C. (2010). Consrevation of Biodiversity. Nature Education Knowledge 1(9):7
[8]. Kevin, J.C. (2007). “Africa’s renaissance for the environment: biodiversity”. In Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Citler J., Clecvel and Washington D.S.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment.
[9]. Kokwaro J. O. (1993). Medicinal Plants of East Africa (2nd Edition), East African Literature Beaural Nairobi. ISBN; 9966-4419-05
[10]. Kokwaro, J.O and Timothy J. (1998) Luo Biological Dictionary. East African Educational Publishers Ltd. ISBN; 9966468412
[11]. Luc, H., and Emmanuel, K.B., (2003). Causes of Biodiversity loss; a Human Ecological Analysis; Human Ecology Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B- 1090- Brussels, Belgium; MultiCiencia: #1 2003
[12]. Maundu, P. and Tengnas B. (2005) Useful trees and Shrubs of Kenya; World Agroforestry Centre, Eastern and Central Africa Regional Programme, Nairobi-Kenya.
[13]. Mugabe, J. and Clark, N. (1998). Managing Biodiversity; National Systems of Conservation and Innovation in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; Acts Press.
[14]. Mugenda, O.N., and Mugenda, A.G. (2003). Research Methods; Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches . Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies Press
[15]. Perry, D.A. (1994). Forest Ecosystem; John HIPKINS University Press, Baltimore, USA
[16]. Rainforest Conservation Fund (RCF). (2010). Causes of recent decline in biodiversity; the Rainforest Premier; Organisation site by Plain Sight (501) (c) 3.
[17]. Raup, D.M. (1994). The role of extinction in evolution; proceedings National Acadeny Science; USA 9:6758-6763.
[18]. Republic of Kenya. (2003). Busia County Environment Report;Government printer, Nairobi.
[19]. Republic of Kenya. (2005). Busia County Development Plan; Government printer, Nairobi.
[20]. Situma, F.D. and Wamukuya, G.M. (1999). Environmental Management Coordination Act, Kenya.
[21]. Taylor, C.H. and Pollock, C.M. (2008). State of the World’s Species. In Wildlife in a Changing World: An analysis of the 2008 1UCN Red list of Threatened Species. Eds. Vie,j. Gland: International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2008
[22]. Tsingalia, M.H. (1990). Habitat Disturbance, Severity and Patterns of Disturbance in Kakamega forest, Western Kenya, Africa Journal of Ecology.
[23]. UNEP. (2002a). Global Environmental Outlook3. London
[24]. UNEP. (2006b). Global Deserts Outlook. Nairobi, Kenya.
[25]. UNEP. (2006c). Africa Environment Outlook-2: Our Environment, Our Wealth. Nairobi, Kenya.
[26]. UNEP. (2008d). Africa Atlas of our Changing Enviroment. Nairobi, Kenya.
[27]. UNEP. (2008e). Biodiversity and Agriculture; Safeguarding Biodiversity and Agriculture and securing Food for the World: Secretariat of the convention on Biological Diversity, Canada; ISBN 92-9225-111-2
[28]. Busia Wetland Status Report (BWSR). (1999). Wetland Status Report for Busia; Government Printer, Nairobi.
[29]. Wilson, E.O. (2003). Speciation and Biodiversity; American Institute of Biological Sciences. Maximillan publishers.

Dr. Irene Mutavi, Dr. Albert Elim Long’ora “Establishment of Higher Terrestrial Plants and Animal Species Found in Matayos Division of Busia County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.416-422 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Assessment of Community Participation in Forestry in Onigambari Forest Reserve

Chukwu, V. E. and Bada, S. O. – March 2019 Page No.: 423-430

This study investigated the degree of community participation in forestry among stakeholders of Onigambari Forest Reserve, Oyo State. Interviews and one hundred and sixty-seven structured questionnaires were employed with the view to gathering information from respondents that were drawn using both multi-stage and purposive sampling designs. The data were analysed using Descriptive and Chi-square test of independence statistics. Foremost among factors responsible for encroachment in the forest reserve is occupation, in which farming was identified as the most crucial. Other factors which affect health of the forest reserve include Sex, age, marital status, family size, literacy level, location of farm land; right to land, domestic fuel materials, activities carried out in the forest reserve, participation and involvement of the people in the management and implementation of programmes in the reserve, cooperation between the indigenous people and the officers of the reserve as well as perception of benefits derived from the reserve. Also, the indigenous people were not involved in the management and implementation of programmes in the forest reserve and that Oyo state policy is not effective in management of the forest reserve. However, sustainability of the forest reserve is dependent on its effective management, which has a strong bearing on the level of participation and involvement of the local people. Community participation in forestry which will reflect the needs of the people was therefore recommended as imperative to the survival of the reserve.

Page(s): 423-430                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2019

 Chukwu, V. E.
University of Ibadan, Nigeria, India

 Bada, S. O.
University of Ibadan, Nigeria, India

[1]. Abramovitz, J.N. (1998) “Putting a value on Natures ‘free’ Services,” Nature’s Hidden Economy Worldwatch Institute, Vol. 11, No.1. Jan./Feb; 1998; Cited by Eboh and Ujah,( undated): Measurement of sustainability indicators of forests in Nigeria: A case study of forest reserves in Enugu state,
[2]. Akinyemi, O.D, (1998) Ecological Studies on a Dry Lowland Rainforest : case study of Onigambari Forest Reserve- A thesis submitted in the Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[3]. Arnold, JEM (1992) Community Forestry. Ten Years in Review. Community Forestry Note of FAO, Rome.
[4]. Babalola, F. D. (2009) Joint Forest Management (JFM): opportunity for implementation of rural development in Cross River State, Nigeria. African Scientist Vol. 10, No. 3, September 30, 2009, Klobex Academic Publishers. PP 127
[5]. Bada, S.O (1999) Community Participation in the Management of Omo Forest Reserve Prepared for FORMECU, Federal Department of Forestry, Abuja, Nigeria. 49. 1999.
[6]. Bhattacharry, G.K. and Johnson, R.A. (1977) Statistical Concepts and methods, John Willey and Sons, New York. 639P.
[7]. Brender, T and Carey, H. (1998) Community Forest Defined. the Journal of Forestry, Vol. 96, No. 3, March 1998,pp 1.
[8]. FAO (2005) State of the World’s Forests 2005. FAO, Rome, Italy; Cited by ITTO: Status of Tropical Forest Management 2005-Nigeria: Information derived from a background paper and discussions with participants at a training workshop on International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO) criteria and indicators, held 12–16 December 2005, Abeokuta, Nigeria, attended by 49 people from government, civil Society and the private sector.
[9]. FDF (2001) Forestry Outlook Study for Africa. Country Report – Nigeria. Prepared by Aruofor, R., Federal Department of Forestry, July 2001. FAO, Rome, Italy.
[10]. FORMECU (1998): The assessment of vegetation and land use change in Nigeria between 1976/78 and 1993/95.
[11]. Hegde, R., S. Suryaprakash, L. Achoth, and K. S. Bawa. (1996) Extraction of NTFPs in the forest of Billigiri Rangan Hills India. Contribution to Rural Income. Economic Botany Vol. 50:243-251.
[12]. Higman S, Stephen B, Neil J, Jamen M and Ruth N (1999) The Sustainable Forestry Hand Book. London: EarthScan. 289.
[13]. Geist, H. J., and E. E. Lambin (2002) Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation. Bioscience 52(2): 143-150.
[14]. Alistair Sarre (1992) This popular movement presents a challenge to foresters in the 1990’s. The journal of the International Tropical Timber Organisation
[15]. Ngbanye N.C (1998) Sustainable Management: An Assessment of the Gmelina arborea plantations of Omo Forest Reserve in Ogun State, Nigeria; A thesis in the department of Forest Resources Management for the Award of Master of Science (M. Sc.) Degree in Forest Resources Economics and Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp5.
[16]. Okali, D.U.U and Amubode F.O (1995) Resource conservation in Oboto, Nigeria. Towards Common Ground: Gender and Natural Resource Management in Africa, African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi, Kenya. 31p.
[17]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2007) “Investment and financial flows to address climate change”. UNFCCC.pp.81.
[18]. WCED (1987) Food 2000: Global Policies for Sustainable Agriculture. A Report of the Advisory Panel on Food Security, Agriculture, Forestry and Environment to the World Commission on Environment and Development. London: Zed Books Ltd; Cited by Eboh, E.C and Ujah, O.C (undated): Measurement of Sustainability indicators of forests in Nigeria: A case study of forest reserves in Enugu state,

Chukwu, V. E. and Bada, S. O. “Assessment of Community Participation in Forestry in Onigambari Forest Reserve” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.423-430 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Challenges of the Transitional Justice Activities in Sri Lanka: A Special Study on Missing Persons in Northern Province

K. Jashmiya – March 2019 Page No.: 431-433

This research seeks to identify the challenges in dealing with issues pertaining to civilian disappearances in the Northern Province and how the ongoing transitional justice process of the government address the above issues. Transitional justice mechanisms essentially react to past human rights violations. Sri Lanka has the second highest record of disappearances in the world, which is largely a result of the war and its related atrocities. There is a need to probe into the issue in the interest of closure for those emotionally affected by such disappearances, and thereby ensure meaningful reconciliation in the country. The objective of this research is to identify the challenges of meaningfully engaging in this process. Primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed using the descriptive method. 30 respondents were selected from the districts of Jaffna, Vavuniya and Mannar for this purpose. Data were collected through observations, discussions and semi-structured interviews. The transitional government is conducting many activities for missing persons such as celebrating the day of missing persons, establishing missing person’s commissions, and recognizing many acts of missing persons. However, the government faces numerous challenges on this front such as the reluctance on the public’s part to share details about missing persons for security reasons, the belief that transitional justice initiatives are worthless, and the lack of faith in the government’s willingness to publicize the details of army personnel allegedly implicated in these this issue. The thrust of this paper is to approach these issues within a transitional justice framework, particularly arguing for truth, criminal persecutions, and reparation for those affected.

Page(s): 431-433                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 April 2019

 K. Jashmiya
University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

[1]. GaminiKeerawella(2013) Post war Srilanka: Is Peace a Hostage of the military?. Dilemmas of Reconciliation Ethnic cohesion and peace building,colombo 05.:Karunaratne & sons (pvt) ltd: 122, Havelack Road.
[2]. Institute for International Cooperation JICA (2002) Research study on peace buildingJapan: Shinjuku – ku, Tokyo, 2002
[3]. Jayadevauyangoda, (Ed) conflict (2005) conflict resolution and peace buildingan introduction to theories and practice
[4]. Laksiri Fernando (2016) Issue of New Constitution Making in Sri lanka; Towards Ethnic Reconciliation, Colombo Lack House Books Shope

K. Jashmiya “Challenges of the Transitional Justice Activities in Sri Lanka: A Special Study on Missing Persons in Northern Province” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.431-433 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Identity and Social Inclusion in Benue State: A Critical Review of Four Related Concepts

Comfort Erima Ugbem – March 2019 Page No.: 434-441

Identity is a critical aspect of social existence as it situates individuals and groups in a social setting. Beyond this, it is a tool used to create boundaries in social interaction thereby raising issues of exclusion and inclusion. Related to the subject of identity and exclusion is social solidarity which should characterize each social grouping in the society. The building block of social solidarity is very important as it has implications for cohesion and the survival of the group. Social solidarity also has implications for the strength of social capital which is important for integration, stability and development in society. These four concepts; social identity, social exclusion, social solidarity and social capital are examined in the light of their implications for economic, political and social existence of ethnic groups in Benue state. This paper suggests that a critical understanding of these concepts is needed for understanding social relations and addressing violent and non violent conflict among ethnic groups in Benue state as well as enhancing human and social development and recommends the integration of these concepts in development discourse as this would signify a departure from modernisation which regarded traditional relationships as impediments to development and dependency which defined social relations in relation to the means of production.

Page(s): 434-441                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 April 2019

 Comfort Erima Ugbem
Benue State University, Markurdi, Nigeria

[1]. Abdullahi, A. A., & Saka, L. (2007). Ethno-Religious and Political Conflicts: Threat to Nigeria Nascent Democracy. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 9(3).
[2]. Abubakar, D. (2001). Ethnic identity, democratization and the future of the Nigerian state: Lessons from Nigeria. 21½, 31-36.
[3]. Ajene, O.2006. Benue State University Report on conflicts in the Benue valley. DFID
[4]. Alii, W. 2007. The impact of globalization on conflict in Africa. Best (ed) Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Spectrum Books LTD Ibadan
[5]. Alubo, O .2006.Ethnic Conflicts and Citizenship Crises in the Central Region, Spectrum books Ibadan Nigeria
[6]. Alubo, O. 2004. Citizenship and Nation Making in Nigeria: new challenges and contestations. Identity culture and politics, CODESRIA Vol 5 no 1 and 2
[7]. Colletta ,J Cullen, M. 2000. Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda and Guatemala. The World Bank Washington. DC.
[8]. DFID. 2005.Reducing Poverty By Tackling Exclusion. A Policy Paper
[9]. Dustman, C and Preston, I.2001. Attitude to Ethnic Minorities, Ethnic Context And Location Decision. Economic Journal.111:470, 353-373
[10]. Egwu, G. 2007. Beyond “revival of old hatreds”: the state and conflict in Africa, Best (ed) Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Spectrum Books LTD
[11]. Gandu, K. 2001. Researching social identity: theoretical and epistemological problems. Zaria Historical Research 176-193
[12]. Henkel, M. 2005. Academic identity and autonomy in a changing policy environment. Higher Education.vol 49.1&2: 155-176
[13]. Hilary, I. social exclusion and social solidarity: three labour review. 133:5,6 , 531+
[14]. Ibeanu, O. (2000). Ethnicity and transition to democracy in Nigeria: Explaining the passing of authoritarian rule in a multi-ethnic society. African Journal of Political Science.
[15]. Ibrahim, J. 2000. The transformation of Ethno-regional Identities in Jega (Ed) Identity Transformation under Structural Adjustment in Nigeria. Nordic African institute, Uppsala
[16]. Jega, A.2000. The State And Identity Transformation Under Structural Adjustment in Jega(ed) Identity Transformation under Structural Adjustment in Nigeria. Nordic African institute, Uppsala
[17]. Loury , C. 1999. Social Exclusion and Ethnic Groups: A challenge to Economics. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics. 225 -259.
[18]. Lyam A. 2006. Kwande Crisis: A Community Conflict of Many Interests in Timothy and Ajene(eds) conflicts in the Benue valley, Benue State University Press Makurdi
[19]. Mu’azzam, I, and Ibrahim J. 2000. The transformation of regional identities Jega (Ed) Identity Transformation under Structural Adjustment in Nigeria. Nordic African institute, Uppsala
[20]. Nelto, G. (2008). Multicultration in the developed context: Minority ethnic negotiation of identity through engagement in the arts in Scotland. Sociology, 42(1): 47-64.
[21]. Nnoli, O. (2000). Globalisation and democracy in Africa. Globalisation and the Post-Colonial African State, Harare, AAPS Books, 173.
[22]. Nwajiaku-Dahou, K. (2009) “Heroes and Villains: Ijaw Nationalist Narratives of the Nigerian Civil War” Vol. XXXIV No. 1 pp. 47-67.
[23]. Obi, C. 2001. The Changing Forms Of Identity Politics In Nigeria Under The Economic Adjustment: The Case of The oil Minorities of The Niger Delta. Nordic African Institute Uppsala
[24]. Olurude, L.2005. Multiple Identities Citizenship Rights and Democratization. Ethnic Studies Review 28:2, 97+
[25]. Portes,A. 2000. The Two Meanings of Social Capital. Sociological Forum. 15.1, 1-12
[26]. Sanders, J. 2002. Ethnic Boundaries and Identity in plural Societies. Annual reviews of sociology ,28 :327 -352
[27]. Sarget, F. & Brettel, B. (2006). Migration identity and citizenship. Anthropological perspectives. American Behavioural Scientists, 50(1): 3-8.
[28]. Stor, J. (2009). Decalge: A thematic interpretation of cultural differences in the African diaspora. Journal of Black Studies, 39(5): 665-668.
[29]. Wienriech, P. 1998. Social Exclusion and Multiple Identities. Soundings. 9, 129-144
[30]. Nissen, B., & Jarley, P. (2005). Unions as social capital: Renewal through a return to the logic of mutual aid?. Labor Studies Journal, 29(4), 1-26.
[31]. Das, R. J. (2006). Putting social capital in its place. Capital & Class, 30(3), 65-92.

Comfort Erima Ugbem “Identity and Social Inclusion in Benue State: A Critical Review of Four Related Concepts” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 3, pp.434-441 March 2019  URL:

Download PDF


Paper Submission Deadline

Subscribe to Our Newsletter

Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.

    Subscribe to Our Newsletter

    Sign up for our newsletter, to get updates regarding the Call for Paper, Papers & Research.

    Track Your Paper

    Enter the following details to get the information about your paper