Disability and Education in Kenya

Dr Stephen Nzoka – September 2019 Page No.: 01-03

I. INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this paper contents that disabilities do not necessarily become handicaps when appropriate services are timely secured to reduce the severity of a disability be it behavioral, cognitive, visual or physical Barraga; Shool (1986). To this end, education plays an indispensable role towards this accomplishment.
At the achievement political independence, fifty six years down the line, Kenya recognized education as a basic human right and a powerful tool for human resource of national development. Since then, all policy documents and educational reports in the country have constantly retaliated the importance of education to be the key to eliminate the three social upheavals namely: poverty, disease and illiteracy(African socialist 1965; Abbot, S. & McConkey, R. 2006)
Certainly, it may readily be agreed that this political recognition of education as a basic human right covered all Kenyans, including those with disabilities. Hitherto, however, one wonders how far successful has this fight been for able bodied citizens let alone those with disabilities. How active has the government and the entire community been in championing the educational, social and political participation of persons with disabilities and what role have persons with disabilities themselves played and continue to play with regard to their pertinent and basic human development? Gachathi (1976) observed that nearly all children with disabilities, through education, could be helped to overcome limitations imposed upon them by their disabilities to live happily and constructively with the rest of their counterparts in society (Sessional paper No 1 2005)

Page(s): 01-03                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 September 2019

 Dr Stephen Nzoka
Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Dr Stephen Nzoka “Disability and Education in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.01-03 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/01-03.pdf

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The Reformulation on Land and Building Tax in Rural and Urban Areas (PBB-P2) as an Effort to Increase Local Revenue in Ngawi Regency

Canggih Swantaka Yoga Nendi, Dr Sunny Ummul Firdaus,S.H,M,H, Dr. AGUS RIWANTO, SH, S.Ag., M.Ag – September 2019 Page No.: 04-10

This study was intended to determine strategies for increasing acceptance of the Rural and Urban Building Land Tax (PBB-P2) in Ngwiwi District, factors that have prevented the achievement of strategies for increasing PBB-P2 acceptance and factors that can support the achievement of strategies for increasing PBB-P2 revenue in the Regional Revenue Service (Dipenda) Ngawi Regency. This type of research was a qualitative descriptive study. The type of data used in this study was primary data obtained from interviews with the research informants and secondary data in the form of reports and official documents. The instrument of this research was the researcher himself who in his implementation uses instrument such as interview guidelines and observation guidelines. Data collection techniques used in the form of interviews, observation and documentation, meanwhile, the data analysis techniques used was in the form of descriptive analysis by interpreting the data, facts, and information obtained. The results showed that the strategy undertaken by Dipenda of Ngawi District in increasing PBB-P2 revenue included forming the PBB-P2 intensification team, forming a task force in the District, socializing SPPT to the community through banners, especially when approaching maturity, issuing a Tax Collection Letter (STP) ) and do door to door and hold a Land and Building Tax payment week and raise the building land tax according to real conditions in the community. Factors that hindered the achievement of strategies for increasing PBB-P2 revenues in Sleman Regency were due to technological factors, limited facilities and infrastructure as well as budget limitations, while factors that could support included commitment to human resources, political, economic and social conditions which supports increasing PBB-P2 revenue.

Page(s): 04-10                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 September 2019

 Canggih Swantaka Yoga Nendi
Student of Postgraduate Study of Legal Science, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Dr Sunny Ummul Firdaus,S.H,M,H
Lecturer of Postgraduate Study of Legal Science, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Dr. AGUS RIWANTO, SH, S.Ag., M.Ag
Lecturer of Postgraduate Study of Legal Science, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

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Canggih Swantaka Yoga Nendi, Dr Sunny Ummul Firdaus,S.H,M,H, Dr. AGUS RIWANTO, SH, S.Ag., M.Ag ” From Globalization to Glocalization: Reaping the Positive Sides of Human Resource Flight for Economic Development in Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.04-10 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/04-10.pdf

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A Study on Interface Design Categories of Permanent Exhibition at Selected Museums in Malaysia
Norfadilah Kamaruddin – September 2019 – Page No.: 11-13

At a museum, the exhibition works can be demonstrated as a medium of presentation with an element of interface design for the collections and research works, In this sense, the interface design between the visitor and the museum collections was called as an exhibition where museum exhibition must communicate to the visitors deep to their mind and feeling. Within this understanding, there are 3 categories of interface design for museum exhibition namely Standard, Virtual and Augmented. In the case of it, this paper presenting the outcomes of practical analysis on the interface design performance of permanent exhibition at the selected museum in Malaysia. The analysis is based on specific interface design elements used toward an exhibition presentation.This review will helping the team of museum exhbitions in preparing en effective appearance of future exhbibition.

Page(s): 11-13                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 September 2019

 Norfadilah Kamaruddin
Creative Visual Exchange Group (CREaTE), Faculty of Art & Design, University Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

[1]. Hyowon Hyun, Jungkun Park, Tianbao Ren, Hyunjin Kim, (2018). “The role of ambiances and aesthetics on millennials’ museum visiting behavior”, Arts and the Market, Vol. 8 Issue: 2, pp.152-167. Retrieved at: https://doi.org/10.1108/AAM-04-2017-0006
[2]. Lord, B & Lord, G. Dexter, Mayrand, Y., (2001). The Manual of Museum Exhibitions: The Roles of Exhibition Designer, Altamira Press, Pg: 405-406.
[3]. Lorenc, J., Skolnick L. and Berger C. (2007). What is Exhibition Design? Switzerland: A RotoVision Book SA.
[4]. Kamaruddin, N.(2019). Interface Design Assessment of Museum Permanent Exhibition at the National Museum of Malaysia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 3(5), pp.295-300 (ISSN 2454-6186)
[5]. Nadine Ober-Heilig, Sigrid Bekmeier-Feuerhahn, Joerg Sikkenga, (2014) “Enhancing museum brands with experiential design to attract low-involvement visitors”, Arts Marketing: An International Journal, Vol. 4 Issue: 1/2, pp.67-86. Retrieved at: https://doi.org/10.1108/AM-01-2014-0006
[6]. Paola Castellani and Chiara Rossato, (2014). “On the communication value of the company museum and archives”, Journal of Communication Management, Vol. 18 Issue: 3, pp.240-253. Retrieved at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JCOM-02-2012-0018

Norfadilah Kamaruddin “A Study on Interface Design Categories of Permanent Exhibition at Selected Museums in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.11-13 September 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/11-13.pdf

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Women Empowerment in the Sokoto Caliphate

Tambari Abbas Bashar, Ph.D – September 2019 Page No.: 14-17

I. INTRODUCTION
It is the western world that brought out the concept of empowerment of women. Therefore, those aspects of women empowerment must reflect the ideology of the west. In most cases, women empowerment in the western world is restricted to promotion of material gain through economic (physical) empowerment only. According to the western world, women are to be empowered economically through upgrading and uplifting the standard of living of women, by giving them more economic power to satisfy or attain higher level of satisfaction (utility) in their consumption pattern better than before. This will lead them to consume more and more of what they have been consuming before and even engage in the consumption of they were not consuming in the past. Thus, there is upliftment in the standard of living, getting out of poverty, no matter how little it may be.

Page(s): 14-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 September 2019

 Tambari Abbas Bashar, Ph.D
Department of Islamic Studies, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Nigeria

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Tambari Abbas Bashar, Ph.D “Women Empowerment in the Sokoto Caliphate” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.14-17 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/14-17.pdf

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Teachers’ Ethical Behaviour: A Panacea for Curbing Corruption in Public Secondary Schools in Rivers State

Balafama Ipalibo-Wokoma, Prof. C. U. Madumere Obike, Dr. S. C. Anyamele – September 2019 Page No.: 18-22

The study examined teachers’ ethical behaviour as a panacea for corruption in public secondary schools in Rivers State. The teacher is a major tool for the achievement of educational goals and objectives. It is glaring that corruption which is the systematic use of public office for personal/private benefit has gone far in educational system. This calls for a professional code of conduct to guide the behavior of the teacher. Therefore teachers’ professional code of ethics are generally intended to guide and regulate the conduct of the teachers, so as to abide by the rules and regulations that were formulated by members in the teaching industry for the improvement of their professional interest and welfare. A teacher as an input operator in the education system who is charged with the responsibility of converting raw materials into finished goods, that is dynamic students must possess the ethical values of the teaching profession in order to reduce the damages of corruption. Therefore the study identified accountability, fairness, efficiency and integrity as ways of managing corruption in secondary education. It further identified some challenges such as: lack of teachers’ professional development. lack of interest in the teaching profession, conflict of interest and teachers addiction to drugs and alcohol was also discussed as challenges. Nevertheless the followings were suggested as the way forward; Government and educational stakeholders should encourage and sponsor teachers’ professional training, teachers’ code of conduct should be made available to all teachers, among others.

Page(s): 18-22                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 September 2019

 Balafama Ipalibo-Wokoma
Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Prof. C. U. Madumere Obike
Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Dr. S. C. Anyamele
Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1]. Afe, J. O. (1992). Trends in Teacher Education: The case of Colleges of Education in Nigeria. NEAP Publication.
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Balafama Ipalibo-Wokoma, Prof. C. U. Madumere Obike, Dr. S. C. Anyamele “Teachers’ Ethical Behaviour: A Panacea for Curbing Corruption in Public Secondary Schools in Rivers State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.18-22 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/18-22.pdf

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Students’ Psychological Predictors of Academic Achievement in Physics

Celina S. Gana Ph.D, Christian S. Ugwuanyi Ph.D, Terpase Abraham Ageda M.Ed – September 2019 Page No.: 23-28

Background: Research indicate that psychosocial factors such as students’ attitude, interest, motivation, self-efficacy, locus of control, anxiety and peer group pressure may be potent predictors of academic achievement in any school subject. Thus, the study determined the extent to which motivation, self-efficacy and locus of control predict students’ academic achievement in Physics.
Aims: The study sought to determine the predictive powers of motivation, self-efficacy and locus of control on students’ academic achievement in physics.
Sample: A sample of three hundred and seventy five (375) SSII students drawn using multistage sampling procedure was used for the study.
Methods: Correlational survey research design was adopted for the study. The study employed two researcher-developed instruments: Students’ Psychosocial Factors Questionnaire (SPFQ) and Students’ Physics Academic Achievement Proforma (SPAAP) for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using regression analysis.
Results: The result showed that 31%, 37% and 52% of the students’ academic achievement in physics is predicted by their motivation, self-efficacy and locus of control respectively.
Conclusion: Psychological factors such as motivation, self-efficacy and locus of control are prime determinants of students’ achievement in the Physics.

Page(s): 23-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 September 2019

 Celina S. Gana Ph.D
Department of Science Education School of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 Christian S. Ugwuanyi Ph.D
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Terpase Abraham Ageda M.Ed
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

[1]. Adedeji, T., Adeyinka, T. & Adeniyi, A. (2009). Locus of control, interest in schooling, self efficacy and academic achievement. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 4 (1), 168-182
[2]. Akomolafe, M.J., Ogunmakin, A.O., & Fasooto, G.M. (2013). The role of academic self-efficacy, academic motivation and academic self-concept in predicting secondary school students’ academic performance. Journal of educational and social research, 3(2), 102-109. 10.5901/jesr.2013.v3n2p335
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Celina S. Gana Ph.D, Christian S. Ugwuanyi Ph.D, Terpase Abraham Ageda M.Ed “Students’ Psychological Predictors of Academic Achievement in Physics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.23-28 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/23-28.pdf

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Strategies for Marketing Library Services and Information Products in College of Education

Eda Rita, Ukubeyinje, Sandra Ejiro- September 2019 Page No.: 29-33

The nonprofit organization like a library is basically engaged in the production of services rather than goods. Services are unique in nature primarily due to the attributes of being intangible, unbreakable, variable and perishable. Library and information context involves many problems. One of the most valuable things that a good library can give out is a long-term partnership with the people who use library services. Corporate employees nowadays begin to brand themselves as their own personal. Academic librarians can provide the most favorable stereotype by customizing library and data facilities with a long-lasting relationship’s own private touch flavor (brand).

Page(s): 29-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 September 2019

 Eda Rita
Library Department, College of Education, P.M.B 1251 Warri, Delta State, Nigeria

 Ukubeyinje, Sandra Ejiro
Library Department, College of Education, P.M.B 1251 Warri, Delta State, Nigeria

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Eda Rita, Ukubeyinje, Sandra Ejiro, “Strategies for Marketing Library Services and Information Products in College of Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.29-33 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/29-33.pdf

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Bilateral Economic Relations between Nigeria and United States: An Appraisal of Petroleum Resources

Abdulkarim Abdullahi – September 2019 Page No.: 34-42

In conducting diplomatic relations between countries, always national interests come first before the table of agreement. Relations where national interest cannot be projected that relation is said to be of no use, since the countries involved in the agreement cannot benefit. In Nigeria-United States relations, both the two countries benefit from one another that is why their relations is still in existence in the apex level. United States in interested in Nigeria’s oil that is the reason that oil companies owned by United States existed in Nigeria. While on the Nigerian side, her citizens are employed, and it raises the demand of Nigerian oil by the United States. Data were gathered using primarily. This paper adopted theory of liberalism (from the intergovernmentalism aspect) which viewed the relations of states in the world from the side of cooperation, so that there will be no escalation of conflicts between or among states in the world. This paper made use of simple percentage in analysing the gathered data. The paper addresses the problem whether petroleum is the major commodity of economic relations between Nigeria and United States; also, it looked at whether Nigerian economy developed because of her relations with United States. From the gathered result, result has shown that there are other variables in the development of Nigeria’s economy and not only because of her relations with United States. Lastly, the paper recommends that; there is need for Nigeria to place focal acquisition of skills, technologies and capital investment, and not to depend on exportation of primary commodities only.

Page(s): 34-42                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 September 2019

 Abdulkarim Abdullahi
Department of Political Science, Nile University of Nigeria, Nigeria

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Abdulkarim Abdullahi, “Bilateral Economic Relations between Nigeria and United States: An Appraisal of Petroleum Resources” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.34-42 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/34-42.pdf

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Sustainable Natural Resource Management in Ghana: The Role of Social Studies Education

Isaac Atta Kwenin- September 2019 Page No.: 43-50

The study investigated the role of social studies education in sustainable natural resource management (SNRM) in Ghana. Quantitative data collection and analyses were used. All the 346 Social Studies teachers in the Kumasi Metropolis during the 2017/2018 academic year were included (census) in the study. However, 341 teachers provided usable data for the study. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics with means and standard deviation was used to analyse and present the data. In effect, Social Studies teachers do not possess the requisite competence that would enable them teach concepts of SNRM in Social Studies. Even though most of the topics in the SHS social studies curriculum introduces students to sustainable use of natural resources, the content or body of knowledge and the activities involved are not explicitly linked to the understanding of sustainable natural resource management. It was concluded that in order to ensure the attainment of sustainable natural resource management in Ghana, the integrated approach to teaching social studies should be adopted by teachers when teaching social studies. This will ensure effective combination of knowledge, values, skills and experiences from other subject areas to enhance the realization of sustainable natural resource management objectives of social studies. Also, courses in the Social Studies in the teacher training institutions in Ghana and elsewhere should acquaint teachers with knowledge and experiences in SNRM and provide them with experiences in teaching SNRM. This will equip all Social Studies teachers to be better positioned to promote the management of natural resources in a sustainable manner.

Page(s): 43-50                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 September 2019

 Isaac Atta Kwenin
Lecturer, Department of Business & Social Sciences Education, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, West Africa

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Isaac Atta Kwenin “Sustainable Natural Resource Management in Ghana: The Role of Social Studies Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.43-50 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/43-50.pdf

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Insurance Policy Integration for Curbing Educational Waste in Public Secondary Schools in Rivers State

Richard ANIETIE, Tessy Lucky UBA, Rita Seimogha Matthew ODOU – September 2019 Page No.: 51-55

The study investigated insurance policy integration for curbing educational waste in Rivers State. To carry out this study, two research questions and one hypothesis were raised to guide the study. A mean, standard, rank order and percentage was used to answer research questions and a null hypothesis wastes at 0.5 of Alpha significant level. Descriptive survey design was adopted and a population of 494 was randomly selected from the secondary schools present in the 23 Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria, using stratified random sampling technique. A research questionnaire tagged “Educational Insurance Policy Integration Questionnaire (EIPIQ)”, with reliability coefficient of 0.72 obtained through a test-retest was formulated and tested for validity and reliability. The study identified family income insurance, child deferred assurance, school fees policy, long term disability insurance, health insurance policy as the insurance policies that can be integrated to curb educational waste. The study concluded that since education is an investment, it therefore entails that there will be need to find insurance policy that would curb investment waste. Based on the conclusion, the study recommended that all the educational stakeholders and the principals in particular must collaborate with insurance institutions to design insurance policy that would curb educational waste.

Page(s): 51-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 September 2019

 Richard ANIETIE
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Nigeria

 Tessy Lucky UBA
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Nigeria

 Rita Seimogha Matthew ODOU
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Nigeria

[1]. Agabi,O.G.(1999).Introducingeducationalplanning:PortHarcourt:Internationalcentrefor educational services.
[2]. Anietie, R.,& Zipamoh, M.(2017). Cost reduction strategies and efficient resource utilisation in secondary school in Rivers State. African Journal of Educational Research and Development. Vol 9(1), 230-237.
[3]. Akinsolu,A.O.(2014).Analyses of educational wastage in public senior secondary schools in Olorunda local government area, Osun State,Nigeria. African Journal of Educational Management. Vol. 24 (1), 39-55.
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[6]. Bosworth, B. P., & Durosaro, D. O. In Johnson, R.S (2012).Resource allocations and internal efficiency of secondary education in Bendel State. Nigeria. Unpublished PhD thesis. Department of Educational Management, University of Ibadan.
[7]. Durosaro, D. O. (2012).Cost of education: Where the shoe pinches. (103rd Inaugural) University of Ilorin, UniIlorin Press.
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Richard ANIETIE, Tessy Lucky UBA, Rita Seimogha Matthew ODOU “Insurance Policy Integration for Curbing Educational Waste in Public Secondary Schools in Rivers State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.51-55 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/51-55.pdf

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Smooth Functioning of Politics and Governance in Ensuring Sustainable Development: Academic and Procedural Review

Md. Nasir Uddin, Muhammad Kawsar Mahmud, Mehedi Hasan – September 2019 Page No.: 56-61

Sustainable development not only meets the needs of the present generation but also sees that of future generations. The United Nations adopted sustainable development goals for the world in 2015 that contains 17 goals with list of targets to achieve. It not only deals with environmental issues, but economic, social and cultural issues as well. Thus, it can be said that sustainable development therefore, have multiple contexts; involve multiple and often diametrically opposed values; demand an unprecedented interface between academic research and public policy; and there is none as sustainable development expertise, but rather a multiplicity of expertise. But the more pragmatic and policy-focused argument about how to put sustainable development into effect has been just in the center stage in contemporary debates in the social sciences. Among other, one of the most important preconditions for sustainable development is the state capacity to form and implement policy across the whole of their territory. A plenty of studies have demonstrated the importance of state capacity. For example, there is a causal link between the quality of public administration and economic growth. However, this paper based on secondary data attempts to define Sustainable development as well as discuss politics and governance in the sustainable development in its theoretical features.

Page(s): 56-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 September 2019

 Md. Nasir Uddin
Lecturer, Department of Public Administration, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh

 Muhammad Kawsar Mahmud
Section Officer, Counseling and Placement Centre (CPC), Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh

 Mehedi Hasan
Section Officer, Office of the Evaluation Faculty & Curriculum Development (OEFCD), Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh

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Md. Nasir Uddin, Muhammad Kawsar Mahmud, Mehedi Hasan “Smooth Functioning of Politics and Governance in Ensuring Sustainable Development: Academic and Procedural Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.56-61 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/56-61.pdf

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Drug Abuse and Trafficking as Impediments to Socio-Economic Development and National Security in Nigeria

Garba Ahmed Gusau, Muhammad Tasi’u Dansabo – September 2019 Page No.: 62-66

Drug abuse and trafficking constitute two problems face by nation across the globe. The two problems have negative effects on socio-economic development, national and international security. While government at various level are applying control measures, the problem continue to exist especially in developing countries with weak rule of law. Drug baron and cartels continue to threaten countries with weak governance and corrupt officials which easily become victims of the machinations and trick of traffickers. The paper addresses the problem of drug abuse and trafficking as impediment to socio-economic development and national security. Based on the findings of the paper, the paper recommends among others; enhance intelligence and information sharing; protect financial system and strategic markets against trafficking and other trans-national organized crime; strength interdiction, investigations and prosecutions; disrupt drug Trafficking and its facilitation of other transnational threats; and build international capacity, cooperation, and partnerships.

Page(s): 62-66                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 September 2019

 Garba Ahmed Gusau
(Bsc, Msc., Ph.D- Senior Lecturer), Department of Sociology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Muhammad Tasi’u Dansabo
(B.A (ED), Msc., Mphil., PhD- Senior Lecturer), Department of Sociology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

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Garba Ahmed Gusau, Muhammad Tasi’u Dansabo “Drug Abuse and Trafficking as Impediments to Socio-Economic Development and National Security in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.62-66 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/62-66.pdf

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Children’s Usage of Social Networking Sites and Family Relationship

Ying-Leh Ling, Byington Kua Tze Li – September 2019 Page No.: 67-73

The proliferation of social networking sites has changed the instrument people use to communicate with one another. Nowadays, individuals are using social networking sites more than ever to network with friends and family members. At the same time, many studies have been conducted on the use of social networking sites with family relationships. Therefore, researchers want to identify whether there is a need to study both the variables in future studies. Specifically, this research aimed to identify whether there is a significant and positive relationship between children’s usage of social networking sites and family relationship. The research also looked into the relationship between children’s daily usage (hours) of social networking sites with the quantity of time spent and the quality of face-to-face communication with family members. The researcher conducted a study with 40 teachers. The researcher uses structured questionnaire to collect quantitative data pertaining to the research. The analysed data shows that there is no significant relationship between children’s usage of social networking sites and family relationship. Therefore, children’s usage of social networking sites does not affect family relationship. Therefore, as a suggestion to future research, researchers may relate other variables in the in-depth look at the relationship between children’s usage of social networking sites and family relationship.

Page(s): 67-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 September 2019

 Ying-Leh Ling
Politeknik Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia

 Byington Kua Tze Li
Wawasan Open University, Malaysia

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Ying-Leh Ling, Byington Kua Tze Li “Children’s Usage of Social Networking Sites and Family Relationship ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.67-73 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/67-73.pdf

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Role of Hope Family Program (Program Keluarga Harapan) In Improving Management Access to Basic Education Service among Poor Family Children in Indonesia

M. Cholis Hasan, Kusmawan, Ahmad Suryadi, Adi Fahrudin – September 2019 Page No.: 74-84

The poor people and neglected children are cared for by the state, according to the article 34 paragraph (1) of the 1945 Constitution. According to Law Number 13 Year 2011 article 1 point 1 d, The word “poor people” is interpreted as a person who is does not have a source of livelihood and / or has a livelihood but does not have the ability to meet the needs that are appropriate for the life of himself or his family.
PKH is a part of efforts in poverty eradication which was launched firstly through a trial program in 2007, in the era of Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu which was led by President of RI Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, whose targets are Very Poor Households (RTSM) or Very Poor Families (KSM), namely those whose conditions are very concerning, especially related to health and education, and therefore the participation of PKH is only related to the health and education component. The writing focuses on the education component, because education is an integral part of the success of national development. The fact shows that the implementation of education has not been experienced by all of the Indonesian people, especially poor families based on data from the Central Statistics Agency in 2013 showing that the number of dropped-out children at the age of 7-12 years reached 0.67 percent, age 13-15 years reached 2.21 percent, and aged 16-18 years reached 3.14 percent.Whereas, UNICEF data in 2015 revealed that 2.5 million children in Indonesia could not get education, which consists of 600 thousand elementary school-aged children (SD) and 1.9 million junior high school-aged children (SMP). The main cause of this situation is the lack of awareness and / or understanding of poor families about the importance of education for a better future, and the lack of sufficient funds so that the children are unable to go to school (dropping out of school).To answer this challenge, the Government intervened through PKH, namely conditional cash assistance in order to make the poor families feel motivated to send their children to school or re-send their dropped-out children to school..
This research evaluation is aimed to see about how far the implemented policy such as regulation/rule of legislation that related to education program of PKH and its implementation in the field both for the local government and the accuracy of the program targets.

Page(s): 74-84                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2019

 M. Cholis Hasan
Scholar of Doctoral Program, University of Muhammadiyah, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Kusmawan
Professor, Institute of Technology and Business Ahmad Dahlan, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Ahmad Suryadi
Professor of Education Management, University of Muhammadiyah, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Adi Fahrudin
Professor of Social Work, University of Muhammadiyah, Jakarta, Indonesia

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M. Cholis Hasan, Kusmawan, Ahmad Suryadi, Adi Fahrudin “Role of Hope Family Program (Program Keluarga Harapan) In Improving Management Access to Basic Education Service among Poor Family Children in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.74-84 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/74-84.pdf

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Risk Management and Poverty Reduction through CBOs. Evidence from Hai District, Tanzania

Deogratias Basil Aikaruwa – September 2019 Page No.: 85-99

The study is on the investigation of the roles of CBOs in risk management and poverty reduction in Hai District. It is a case study research employing a total of 353 respondents as sample size. Data were collected through the use of different tools including observation, interview and documentary review. Most data collected were statistical thus analysed through SPSS software.
The findings indicate that most of CBO members’ annual income increased after joining CBO. This was due to members’ involvement in more income generating projects as a result of accessing credit opportunities. Despite the increased annual income a significant percentage of the respondents (12.6%) remained multidimensionally poor based on MPI.
The findings also demonstrated that CBOs coordinated and promoted private investments among their members as a way of fighting extreme poverty and improving the people’s livelihood. CBOs enabled members to identify market prospects for their products. Some CBOs had marketing managers who were employed solely to help members to search for markets for their products. Some CBOs were least equipped with the management competence needed to identify market chances as each member traded his/her products individually.

Page(s): 85-99                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2019

 Deogratias Basil Aikaruwa
Department of Accounting; Moshi Co-operative University (MoCU), Shinyanga, Tanzania

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[33]. Mansuri, G. and Rao, V. (2004). Community Based and Driven Development: The World Bank Observer. Vol. 19. No.1. 123pp.
[34]. Meena, R. (1997). The state and Civil Organisations in Tanzania: The State of the Art Political Culture and Popular Participation in Tanzania, REDET, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam. 47pp.
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[36]. Narayan, D. (2000). Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? World Bank and Oxford University Press. Washington, D.C. p. 17-25.
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[38]. Ndumbaro, L. and Mvungi, A. (2006). Non-Governmental Organizations Act 2002: A Suffocation of NGOs’ Struggle. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Civil Society and Democratic Development in Tanzania (Edited by A. Kiondo and J. Nyang’oro) . 12-16 May 2005, Dar es Salaam. p. 42-49.
[39]. Philippe, D. et al (2003). Community-Driven Development. Cornell University, New York. 128pp.
[40]. Racher, F. (2007). Running Head: The Community Health Action Model: Health Promotion by the Community, Brandon University Press, Lancaster. 35pp.
[41]. Sakiko, F. (2006). Humani Poverty Index. A Multidimensional Measure. International Poverty Centre, Brasilia. [http.www.org/ipc] site visited on 13/06/2012.
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[45]. Taylor, P. (1993). The Texts of Paulo Freire. Open University Press, Buckingham. Available at http:www.infed.org/thinkers/etfreir.htm. site visited on 18/01/2012.
[46]. UNDP, (2001). Attacking Poverty: Opportunity, Empowerment and Security. World Development Report, New York. 138pp.
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[55]. World Bank, (2004). Community Driven Development and Urban Services for Poor. [http.www.worldbank/socialdevelopment] site vsited on 08/01/2012.

Deogratias Basil Aikaruwa “Risk Management and Poverty Reduction through CBOs. Evidence from Hai District, Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.85-99 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/85-99.pdf

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Music in Unification and Resistance: Song and Artistic Performance since Land Reform in Zimbabwe

Isaac Machafa, Praise Zinhuku- September 2019 Page No.: 100-104

Song and artistic performance have long been dominant discourses in liberation struggles across the globe. Southern Africa, the United States of America, Ireland, and Latin America are just a few examples of where lyrics of freedom and artistic performances, used as a means of unification and resistance, have entered popular culture and the political imaginary during and well after times of struggle. In Zimbabwe similar trends are evident as several indigenous performing groups have used song and artistic performances to express their life aspirations in view of the new obtaining economic environment after the land reform of year 2000. This paper discusses how song and performance constitute a space of assertion and how performances of liberation have been translated into an expressive tool well after the attainment of political independence. The paper also discusses how song and artistic performance has adjusted to the opening and/or closing of space (temporal, geographical, psychological, and symbolic) within our indigenous traditional societies.

Page(s): 100-104                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2019

  Isaac Machafa
Lecturer, Department of Music Business, Musicology and Technology, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

  Praise Zinhuku
Lecturer, Department of Music Business, Musicology and Technology, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

[1]. Chifunyise, S. 1997. Government’s Dilemma on Cultural Policies.Nomdlalo, 2(1) Pp.3.
[2]. Pongweni, A. 1982.The Songs that Won the Liberation War. Harare: College Press.
[3]. Moyana, N. 1986.The African Heritage, Book 1. Harare: Longman.
[4]. Seda, K. 2004. Southern African Political History: A Chronology of Key Political Events 1970 to 2000. Harare: Mordon Printers.
[5]. Turino, T. 2000. Nationalist, Cosmopolitans, and Popular Music in Zimbabwe. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
[6]. Vambe, M. T., 2004, ‘Versions and Sub-versions: Trends in Chimurenga Musical Discourses of Post-Independence Zimbabwe’, African Study Monographs, 25(4): 167-193.

Isaac Machafa, Praise Zinhuku, “Music in Unification and Resistance: Song and Artistic Performance since Land Reform in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.100-104 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/100-104.pdf

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Galvanising Voices of Older Persons for Action in Nigeria

Atumah, Oscar N, Odesanya, Saheed O. – September 2019 Page No.: 105-109

In developing societies, older adults face many challenges to which the government paid little attention. Government priorities are misplaced when they are unable to care for older adults who contributed to nation-building. Older adults are known to suffer in silence because no one is interested in listening to their plights. This exploratory paper reviewed some of the challenges experienced by older adults in Nigeria and examined a few strategies to galvanize the voices of older persons. Some issues affecting the well-being of older adults include the lack of adequate healthcare facilities, lack of funding to cover medical cost, poverty, loneliness, neglect, abuse, and insecurity, among others. Older adults are an essential segment of the population whose wisdom and knowledge are indispensable to the socio-economic development of the society. The writer suggested a few ways to ensure that older adults have a voice in Nigeria.

Page(s): 105-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2019

 Atumah, Oscar N
Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Odesanya, Saheed O.
Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Nigeria

[1]. Akinyemi, Akanni (2012): Assessment of the influence of socioeconomic status on aging males’ Symptoms in Ijesaland, South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Men’s Health, Elsevier Publication, Netherland 9(1):51-57. 9. 51-57. 10.1016/j.jomh.2011.10.004.
[2]. Akpan, I. D., and Umobong, M. (2013). An Assessment of the Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Developing Countries Studies Online 3(5):10-15. www.llste.org (Accessed 3/8/2013)
[3]. Asiyanbola, A.R. (2018) Assessment of Family Care, Housing, Gender, Daily Activities, and Physical Well-being of the Elderly in Ibadan, Nigeria: International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Sciences Environment and Technology Vol 3, No 1
[4]. Barka, A. (2015). Family Ties and Ageing. LA: Pine Forge/Sage.
[5]. Etobe, E. & Etobe, E. (2013) The National Health Insurance Scheme and Its Implication for Elderly Care in Nigeria, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
[6]. Kahana, E., Kelley-Moore, J., & Kahana, B. (2012). Proactive aging: A longitudinal study of stress, resources, agency, and well-being in late life. Aging and Mental Health, 16(4),
[7]. Larkin, M. (2013). Resilience: a requirement for successful aging in all settings. Journal on Active Aging, 12(5), 22–29.
[8]. San Diego University to study successful aging in adults with HIV. (2013). Journal on Active Aging, 12(5), 15.
[9]. Smith, E. K., Rozek, E. K., & Moore, K. D. (2014). Creating SPOTs for Successful Aging: Strengthening the Case for Developing University-Based Retirement Communities Using Social-Physical Place Over Time Theory. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 28(1), 21–40.
[10]. Smith, N. J. (2011). Caregivers’ sensitivity to conflict: The use of the vignette methodology. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect; 8(1), 35–47 http://www.nursinghomeabuselaws.org/elders/
[11]. Troutman, M., Nies, M., & Bentley, M. (2011). Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults. Educational Gerontology, 37(1), 38–50. 438–451.
[12]. World Health Organization (2015) World Report on Ageing and Health. Geneva.
[13]. World Bank (2010) African Development Indicators 2010 Washington D. C. World Bank
[14]. Yunusa, U. (2014) Trends and Challenges of Public Health Care Financing System in Nigeria: The Way Forward IOSR Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR JEF) e-ISSN: 23215933, p-ISSN: 2321-5925.Volume 4, Issue 3. (May-Jun. 2014), PP 28-34.
[15]. Zulueta, C. (2017) “The Role of Caregivers to the Elderly” (NS).

Atumah, Oscar N, Odesanya, Saheed O. “Galvanising Voices of Older Persons for Action in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.105-109 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/105-109.pdf

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The Role of Sheikh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilory toward Educating Nigerian People

Dr. Gambo Hassan, Sulaiman Muhammad Bello – September 2019 Page No.: 110-113

The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of sheik Adam Abdullahi Al-ilory as a scholar in western Nigeria to the growth and development of Arabic and Islamic education while by simplifying the teaching of Arabic language to Yoruba community. This paper cast a retrospect at the various roles and contribution given by sheik in promoting and building schools across the ensile Yoruba. Among the scholar that sheik learn from are sheik Salih Asmiyobo, sheik Adam Namo’aji , Nasir Kabara Sheik Muhammad Alim. therefore this paper aims at presenting the educational philosophy of this seasoned scholar as a way of reclaiming the teaching of Arabic language identity that has been diluted among the contemporary Yoruba community and Nigeria in general.

Page(s): 110-113                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2019

 Dr. Gambo Hassan
Department of Arabic, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Sulaiman Muhammad Bello
Department of Arabic, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. AnNur: 37-38
[2]. Muhammad bin Isah Attirmizy, Sunanuattirmizy, darsadar, BerutLebaon, no date, bab ma ja’a fi dualilumri.
[3]. Nuru Atiku and Adam Masama, FannuMaqalalada Al- Ilori, Malam Vol. V111, Novermber: 2011 ADpp: 207.
[4]. Op-cit, p.207..
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[6]. Dr. Isa Alabiy, A’imalu al-allamatu al-ilory, qira’atunwa talkhesun,pg:26.
[7]. Kabir Adam, Tudunnufawa, Almadkhalila al-adabilarabiy an-naijairiyfilqani al-ishreen al-meladey, book 2, pg: 26
[8]. Dr. Isa alabiy, pg:27
[9]. Al-Ilori: Libab Al-Adab, pg: 11
[10]. Agaka, pg:15
[11]. AnNahal: 125
[12]. Kanzu al-Ummal fi Sunani Al-aqwalwa al-af’al 204/10.
[13]. Agaka pg:15
[14]. Al-Baqarah : 214
[15]. Agaka, pg: 16

Dr. Gambo Hassan, Sulaiman Muhammad Bello “The Role of Sheikh Adam Abdullahi Al-Ilory toward Educating Nigerian People” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.110-113 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/110-113.pdf

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Mobile Money Usage and Growth of Customers’ Deposits in Commercial Banks in Kakoba Division, Mbarara Municipality

Nuwamanya Allen, Nsambu Kijjambu Frederick, Nomugisha Mary- September 2019 Page No.: 114-125

The study established the effect of Mobile money usage on growth of customers’ deposits in commercial banks. The study was guided by four objectives; establishing the mobile money operating cycle, whether mobile money operators have bank accounts for their mobile money businesses, trend of growth of customers’ deposits in commercial banks and relationship between mobile money usage and the growth of customers’ deposits in commercial banks. The study used a cross sectional research design while collecting data, quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. The study used simple random and stratified sampling methods, while the questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect the data from different respondents, correlation matrix was run in order to establish the relationship between the variables.

Page(s): 114-125                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2019

 Nuwamanya Allen
Faculty of Business Studies, Bishop Sturt University, P. O box 09, Mbarara, Uganda.

 Nsambu Kijjambu Frederick
Faulty of Business and Management Science, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda

 Nomugisha Mary
Faculty of Business Studies, Bishop Sturt University, P. O box 09, Mbarara, Uganda

[1]. Ali Ndiwalana, Olga Morawczynski& Oliver Popov (2011) Mobile Money Use in Uganda APreliminary Study on Mobile Money in Uganda
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[11]. Greg Filbeck,DiannaPreece.(2010) Community banks and deposit growth. International journal of bank marketing. vol 28, Emerald group publishing limited.
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[29]. Oketch, M.L. (2015) ‘Mobile money account holders grow to 18 million’ DAILY MONITOR16th February Page 24
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Nuwamanya Allen, Nsambu Kijjambu Frederick, Nomugisha Mary, “Mobile Money Usage and Growth of Customers’ Deposits in Commercial Banks in Kakoba Division, Mbarara Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.114-125 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/114-125.pdf

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Assessment of the Effectiveness of Strategies That Were Implemented by the Government to Revive the Manufacturing Sector in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province during the Period 2009 to 2017

Fainos Chinjova – September 2019 Page No.: 126-130

This research was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the strategies that were implemented by the government to revive the manufacturing sector in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province during the period 2009 to 2017. The study was prompted by the fact that Bulawayo Metropolitan Province has always been the industrial hub of Zimbabwe, but has been reduced to a ghost town, regardless of a number of strategies implemented by both the government to revive the manufacturing sector since the introduction of the use of multicurrency in 2009. The researcher used an interpretivism research philosophy because it enabled access to reality of the effectiveness of strategies implemented to revive the manufacturing sector in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province through social constructions. A qualitative research methodology was applied in order to generate a lot of data in the field where participants experienced the problem under study as well as to understand the participants’ thoughts, feelings and viewpoints on the phenomenon. A multiple case study research design was used because it facilitated a holistic and in-depth assessment of the effectiveness of the strategies implemented to revive the manufacturing sectors in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province. Data was gathered using open-ended questionnaire that was administered by the researcher to 18 middle managers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 middle managers and 12 senior managers of manufacturing companies. A focus group discussion was conducted with 11 supervisors and general workers. The major findings of the study were that the strategies implemented to revive the manufacturing sector were not effective to revive the sector as manufacturing companies in Bulawayo continued to suffer a decrease in revenue, productivity, profitability and an increase in retrenchments during the period 2009 to 2017.

Page(s): 126-130                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 September 2019

 Fainos Chinjova
Graduate School of Business, National University of Science and Technology, P O Box AC 939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

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[3]. Friedman, A. L. and Miles, S. (2006). Stakeholders Theory and Practice. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.
[4]. Karim, A (2009). Manufacturing Practices and Performances: A Malaysian Study
[5]. Karombo, T. (2017). Firms in Zimbabwe Innovate to Survive in Business Report. [Online]. Available at https://www.iol.co.za/business-report/companies/firms-in-zimbabwe-innovate-to-survive-8753554.
[6]. Bonga, W. G (2014). World De-Dollarization Economic Implication of De-Dollarization in Zimbabwe: Introduction of special coins.
[7]. Mtetwa, E. (2012). De-industrialisation in Bulawayo started before 1980 in The Independent, 27 July. [Online]. Available at https://www.theindependent.co.zw/2012/07/27/de-industrialisation-of-byo-started-before-1980/.
[8]. National Budget Statement (2009): Government of Zimbabwe Publications
[9]. Noko, J (2009). Dollarization: The Case of Zimbabwe. Cato Journal, Vol. 31, pp 339-365
[10]. Sai, J. P and Zinyemba, A (2014). Impact of the Multi- Currency System on the manufacturing sector in Zimbabwe.
[11]. Sibanda, V. and Makwata, R. (2017). Zimbabwe Post Independence Economic Policies: A CriticalReview.[Online].Availablehttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/314154884_Zimbabwe_Post_Independence_Economic_Policies_A_Critical Review.
[12]. Nota, F and Sakupwanya, B (2012). The Sustainability of Multicurrency System: AnExamination of Zimbabwe’s Currency Management Options. Harare Centre for Economic and Social Policy Analysis.
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[16]. Dube, C. and Chipumho, E. (2016). Response of Manufacturing Sector to the Zimbabwe Economic Crisis: The Political Economy of Zimbabwe (1980-2008), Part II: Productive Sector Performance [Online].Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314374247 _Response_of_the_Manufacturing_Sector_to_the_Zimbabwe_Economic_Crisis_The_Political_Economy_of_Zimbabwe_1980-2008.
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Fainos Chinjova “Assessment of the Effectiveness of Strategies That Were Implemented by the Government to Revive the Manufacturing Sector in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province during the Period 2009 to 2017” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.126-130 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/126-130.pdf

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Tools and System Technologies as Strategies for Enhancing Effective Classroom Communication in Nigerian Secondary Schools

Umar Azare Iliyasu, Sagir Ahmad, Yalwaji Shehu- September 2019 Page No.: 131-136

Communication is the heart beat of teaching and learning, without which no meaningful progress will be achieved in whatever level of education in Nigeria. This paper therefore, examines the place of tools and system approaches for effective classroom communication. Tools technology describes the straight forward presentation of concepts in educational technology while system approach to instruction emphasis the step by step application of ideas, resources, people, materials and equipment to the solution of educational problem. Attempts are made to highlight the conceptual definition of the key terms, examine significance of communication as well as factors affecting communication in the classroom situation. It also deals with how to make communication effective and strategies for becoming an effective communicator in the classroom. The paper recommends among other thing that for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools, teachers should focus their attention in the application and utilization of tools and system approaches in the classroom communication.

Page(s): 131-136                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 September 2019

 Umar Azare Iliyasu
Department of Curriculum and Instructions, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 Sagir Ahmad
Department of Psychology, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 Yalwaji Shehu
Department of Psychology, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

[1]. Abdullahi M. (2013), Basic Concepts in Education Kano: Great Matador Press Nigeria Limited
[2]. Abimbade, A.(1999). Principle and Practice of Educational Technology. International Ibadan: Publishers Limited.
[3]. Abolade, A. O.& Yusuf M. (2006), Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the Nigerian Teacher Education Programme. A Handbook unpublished.
[4]. Adegbija M. V. (2004), The communication process and implication for instruction” in Abimbola I. O. &Abolade A.O. (ed) Fundamentals principles and practice of instruction. 459
[5]. Adewoyin, J. A. (2007). Fundamentals of Educational Technology. Oju-ore Ota: Attitude Communications Inc
[6]. Certer, C. (2002).Best Internet Activities Key to Effective Learning (3rd Edition) New Delhi Prentice The Hall
[7]. Ema, E &Ajayi, D. T. (2006), Educational Technology: Methods, Materials and Machines, Jos: Pulished by Jos University Press Ltd.
[8]. Ema, E &Ajayi, D. T. (2008), Educational Resources Management: Curriculum Design, implementation and Evaluation, Jos: Pulished by Jos University Press Ltd.
[9]. Federal Ministry of Education, (2008). The Development of Education National Report of Nigeria Abuja: Federal Ministry of Education
[10]. Lawal, M. M. (2009), Integrated Educational Technology for Trainees and Practicing Teachers, Kano: pmats Commercial Press.
[11]. National Educational Technology Centre (2001) Production and Effective Utilization of Teaching/ learning Materials. Lagos: UNICEF
[12]. NERDC (2007) 9-Years Basic Education Curriculum: Basic Science and Technology for Primary 4-6
[13]. Sokan, B. O., (2002) “Communication in the classroom” a paper delivered at the mobilization workshop on Teachers Professional Support.
[14]. Venkataiah, S. (2004) Media Education. New Delhi India Anmol Publications PVT. LTD
[15]. Yusuf, M. (2006), The History of Educational Technology in Nigeria and the Place of Educational Technology in Communication Process, Kano: pmats commercial press.

Umar Azare Iliyasu, Sagir Ahmad, Yalwaji Shehu “Tools and System Technologies as Strategies for Enhancing Effective Classroom Communication in Nigerian Secondary Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.131-136 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/131-136.pdf

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Assessment of Adequacy Facilities and Required Personnel for Implementation of NCE Mathematics Curriculum among Colleges of Education North-Central, Nigeria

ABDULRAHIM, Musbahu, Dr. R. W Gimba, Dr. A.A Hassan, Dr. M. Jiya – September 2019 Page No.: 137-143

The purpose of the study was to Assess the Nigeria Certificate in Education among Colleges of Education in North-Central, Nigeria. Two research questions with corresponding research hypotheses guided the study. The research adopted a descriptive survey design. The study was conducted in all the thirteen Colleges of Education in North- Central States of Nigeria. The population of this study consisted of 131 Mathematics lecturers and 116 Mathematics lecturers was sampled Data were collected through the use of questionnaire. The instrument has a reliability coefficient of 0.83. The findings showed that Workshops in Colleges of Education in North-Central States of Nigeria were inadequate and the required personnel need to be improved on as they were little challenges on the required personnel. Most of the equipment, tools, and machines available in the colleges were not enough to cater for increasing population of students’ enrolment. The study recommended that the Federal and States owned Colleges of Education should be provided with adequate workshops and required facilities to cater for the increasing students’ population. This will in turn promote teaching and learning in Nigeria Education sector.

Page(s): 137-143                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 September 2019

 ABDULRAHIM, Musbahu
Dept of Physics, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

 Dr. R. W Gimba
Dept of Science Education, Fedreal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

 Dr. A.A Hassan
Dept of Science Education, Fedreal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

 Dr. M. Jiya
Dept of Mathematics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

[1]. Abdulkarim A. A. (2012). Evaluation of the implementation Business education curriculum.Minna Journal of Educational Studies (MIJES). 5(1), 105-110.
[2]. Adegbesan, S.O (2010). Establishing quality assurance in Nigerian education system: Implication for educational manager.Educational research and Reviews, vol. 6(2), 147-151
[3]. Ali, A. A.&Ajibola A. L. (2015).Issues and prospects of effetive implementation of new secondary school curriculum in Nigeria.Journal of Education and Practice. 6(34),
[4]. Asebiomo, A. M. (2015). Moving with global trends in curriculum innovation: mitigating the challenges of curriculum implementation for effective teaching and learning in Nigeria. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research, 3(1), 26-33
[5]. Burden, R. &Bayliss, P. (2008).A survey into mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school in one local education authority.Journal of Educational Psychology, 20 (2): 191 – 215.
[6]. Glien, J. A. &Glien, R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting and reporting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for Likert-type scales. In proceedings of the Midwest research to practice conference in Adult, Community Education, (pp. 82-88), Ohio State Unversity, Columbus, Ohio, USA, Retrieved from http://s3.spanglefish.com/s/8287/documents/psychological%20measurement/cronbach%20alpha.pdf
[7]. Mbaga, E. V; Sambo, M. M &Tijjani, A. (2018). Adequacy of workshop facilities in colleges of education (technical) for training of trade teachers of technical colleges in north eastern states of nigeria. International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education Research.4(1), 42-49
[8]. Mohammed, J. (2012). Level of the equipment for English Language libraries and the implementation of the English Language programme at colleges of education in NorthCentral States of Nigeria.Academic Journal of Management Sciences. 1 (1), 38-40.
[9]. Owoeye, J. S. &Yara, P. O. (2011). School facilities and students’ academic achievement of secondary of secondary school agricultural science in Ekiti state, Nigeria. Asian SocialScience, 7(7), 64-74.
[10]. Richard J. &Aghanenu E. O. (2016).Effect of gender and subject combination on the achievement of NCE Mathematics students in colleges of education in Delta State.International Journal of Research, 3(12), 1011-1019
[11]. Emmanuel, D. E & Daniel, O. B. (2016).Challenges and prospects of mathematics education in Nigeria.Unpublished (PhD) thesis.
[12]. Eraikhuemen, L. &Oteze, I. K. (2010). An evaluation of the mathematics education component of the Nigeria Certificate in Education programme of the NTI http://www.saide.org.za/resources/Conf%202010/Eraikhuemen_and_Oteze_An_evaluation_of_the_Mathematics_Education_component_…pdf
[13]. National Commission for Colleges of Education, (2012).Minimum standards for NCE teachers. Abuja. National Commission for Colleges of Education.Ralph Shodeinde Street Garki Abuja.
[14]. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2012). National Commission for Colleges of Education: Nigeria Certificate in Education Minimum Standard for Sciences. Abuja: NCCE.
[15]. Tom-Lawyer, O. O. (2014). An appraisal of the revised Nigeria Certificate in Education minimum standard.EropeanScientific Journal, 5(12), 165-171.

ABDULRAHIM, Musbahu, Dr. R. W Gimba, Dr. A.A Hassan, Dr. M. Jiya “Assessment of Adequacy Facilities and Required Personnel for Implementation of NCE Mathematics Curriculum among Colleges of Education North-Central, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.137-143 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/137-143.pdf

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Implementing Results Based Management in the Zimbabwe Civil Service: Can it Work?

Jefias Mundondo, Vitalis Chikoko, Andrew Chindanya – September 2019 Page No.: 144-153

The overarching goal of the study was to establish what it entails to make the Results Based Management (RBM) system work in the Zimbabwe Civil Service. In pursuit of this goal, the study explored how civil servants understand and experience the implementation of the RBM system, their attitudes towards the system, factors affecting implementation and their perspectives regarding the way forward. A review literature and studies showed that there were mixed feelings about the efficiency, effectiveness, appropriateness, workability and sustainability of the RBM system in the Zimbabwe Civil Service. There seemed to be inadequate knowledge about what it entails to make RBM work. This study therefore sought to establish what really works for RBM in the Zimbabwe Civil Service.
The study used the qualitative approach to explore the phenomena under study. The phenomenology design was employed to bring to the fore experiences and perceptions of civil servants with regards to the implementation of RBM in the Zimbabwe Civil Service. Face-to-face individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to generate data from participants. The document analysis technique was also used to compliment face to face individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.
The study established that civil servants especially those in the lower levels of Ministries and Departments had not clearly understood and totally embraced the RBM system. They lacked the necessary competencies, knowledge and technical skills to effectively implement the RBM system. Civil servants did not have the motivation, passion and commitment to implement the RBM system. The RBM training exposed to civil servants was rather inadequate and ineffective especially to personnel at lower levels of Ministries and Departments. There was no meaningful feedback on performance and in addition, training needs and performance gaps were not regularly and adequately addressed. There were glaring gaps in monitoring and evaluation mechanisms and furthermore evaluation results were not fully utilized to improve the system. Generally, there were yawning gaps between ‘best practices ‘on RBM implementation and what was happening in the Zimbabwe Civil Service. The Zimbabwe Civil Service was simply not adhering to the principles and guidelines of RBM implementation.
All these yawning gaps point to the need of regular feedback, monitoring and evaluation as well as creation of a culture of learning during implementation. The regular feedback, monitoring and evaluation will result in making the necessary adjustments, modifications and corrections of the current RBM system. This continuous reviewing, updating and refinement of the system is anticipated to lead to the creation of a customized RBM system that speaks to the contextual issues of the civil service.
The study recommends that a large scale capacity building programme on RBM be conducted in all ministries and departments and across all categories of staff to enhance civil servants’ capacities to effectively implement RBM. It is also recommended that senior management should champion RBM implementation by supervising, monitoring, evaluating and enforcing its implementation. Monetary and non-monetary incentives be introduced to encourage implementation and improve civil servants’ attitudes towards the system. Further research on strategies of customizing the RBM system is recommended so that the system remains fit-for-purpose and continuously speak to the contextual factors of the Zimbabwe Civil Service and the country in general.

Page(s): 144-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2019

 Jefias Mundondo
(Educational Leadership and Management), Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

 Vitalis Chikoko
(Educational Leadership and Management), Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

 Andrew Chindanya
(Educational Leadership and Management), Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

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[2]. Amjad, S. (2008).Results Based Management Implementation for Outcomes: An Agenda for Action in Developing Countries, Paper Presented at National Health Policy Unit, Islamabad (Online) http://copmfdrafrica.nig.com/forum/topic/resultbased-management-1 (June, 2015)
[3]. Asian Development Bank, (2006). An Introduction to Results Based Management: Principles, Implications and Applications, Manila: Asian Development Bank.
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[7]. Common, R. (2011).International Trends in HRM in Public Sector: Reform Attempts in the Republic of Georgia. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 24(5) 421-434.
[8]. Commonwealth Secretariat, (2011) Managing and Measuring Performance in the Public Service in Africa, Report on Sixth Commonwealth Forum of Heads of Public Services, London, Commonwealth Secretariat.
[9]. Diamond, J. (2005). Establishing a Performance Management Framework for Government, IMF Working Paper, International Monetary Fund.
[10]. GAO, (2017). Foreign Assistance: Agencies Can Improve the Quality and Dissemination of Programme Evaluations, United States Government and Accounting Office.
[11]. Government of Zimbabwe (2018). Transitional Stabilisation Programme, Harare, Government Printers.
[12]. Government of Zimbabwe, (2005). Results Based Management Programme Document. Harare, Government Printers.
[13]. Government of Zimbabwe, (2007). RBM Programme Document, Harare. Government Printers.
[14]. Government of Zimbabwe, (2013). Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZIMASSET), Harare, Government Printers.
[15]. GoZ: Ministry of Public Service Training Manual, (2009). Results Based Performance Management System Appraisal Module, Harare Government Printers.
[16]. Gwata G., R., (2013). A Study on Factors Impacting the Implementation of Results Based Management (RBM) in the Public Service in Zimbabwe, Unpublished PhD Thesis. Harare, Zimbabwe Open University.
[17]. Jeong, C., H. (2007). Fundamentals of Development Administration, Selangor: Scholer Presss.
[18]. Madhekeni, A. (2012). Implementing Results Based Management Systems in Zimbabwe: Contexts and Implications for The Public Sector. International Journal for Humanities and Social Sciences. 2 (8) 125-128.
[19]. Mayne J. (2007a).Best Practices in Results Based Management, A Review of Experiences, Report For The United Nations Secretariat, New York, United Nation.
[20]. Mayne, J. (2006). ‘Challenges and Lessons in Result Based Management, Discussion Paper Published at CoP MfDR Forum Sponsored By Asian Development Bank.
[21]. Mayne, J. (2007). ‘Addressing Attribution Through Contribution Analysis: Using Performance Measures Sensibly’ Canadian Journal of Programme Evaluation,1(16) 81-96.
[22]. Mayne, J. (2007).Best Practices in Results Based Management: A Review of Experience- A Report for the United Nations Secretariat, Vol 1: Main Report, July 2007.
[23]. Mayne, J. (2007b).Challenges and Lessons in Implementing Results Based Management Evaluation, 13(1): 87-109.
[24]. Mayne, J. (2008).Building an Evaluative Culture for Effective Evaluation and Results Management, ILAC Working Paper 8, Institutional Learning and Change Initiative, Rome, Italy.
[25]. Meier W. (2003).Results Based Management, Towards a Common Understanding Among Development Cooperation Agencies. Ottawa, Canada.
[26]. OECD (2004).Public Sector Modernisation: Governing for Performance, Paris; OECD.
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[28]. OECD (2010). Glossary on Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management, Paris, OECD Publishing.
[29]. OECD (2016).“Providers’ Use of Results Information for Accountability, Communication, Direction and Learning: Survey Results,” OECD, Paris.
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[43]. Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development: Development Assistance Committee (2008).‘Managing For Development of Results, Principles of Action. Sourcebook on Emerging Good Practices, 2008. OECD.
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[46]. Otwori, M., J. (2013) Institutionalizing of Results Based Management in the Kenya Public Service: A Paper Presented at a High Level Seminar for Policy Makers and Policy Implementers on RBM, 28-30 January 2013, Results for Kenya, Nairobi.
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Jefias Mundondo, Vitalis Chikoko, Andrew Chindanya “Implementing Results Based Management in the Zimbabwe Civil Service: Can it Work?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.144-153 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/144-153.pdf

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Pollution Resulting From Oil Exploration in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria: A Need to Re-Evaluate the Legal Sanctions Contained in Nigerian Environmental Laws

Abdulwasi MUSAH, Adegoke Olusegun Steve – September 2019 Page No.: 154-165

Environmental pollution is commonly associated with oil spillage in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. To address the menace posed by pollution resulting from oil exploitation activities, the government has through legislations sought to outlaw acts capable of endangering the environment. The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended), Environmental Impact Assessment Act and Harmful Waste Act (both contained in Laws of Federation of Nigeria 2004) are some of the legislations through which the government seeks to make the Niger-Delta environment pollution free. Sanctions like fines, imprisonments and revocation of licences have been used to discourage oil companies from polluting the environment, yet the problem lingers on. It is therefore the aim of this paper to interrogate the potency of these environmental protection laws most especially the legal sanctions contained therein. It is a fact that the legal sanctions in the petroleum industry were out-dated and ineffective in making polluters comply in Nigeria. The loopholes in the laws have allowed polluters to escape without sanctions. It is also a fact that pollution is prevalent in the Niger-Delta communities and from findings, the regulators usually issued warnings without prosecuting the offenders. The government needs a transformation from making ineffectual laws to making laws that are effective so that any erring environmental polluter would immediately be made to face the music stemming from their misdemeanours and prosecuted accordingly while high fines and imprisonment terms should be imposed where they are found guilty. The Nigerian courts must also rise to the occasion by ensuring that environmental cases are treated with the seriousness they deserve. Justice and not technicality of laws should be the order when adjudicating on cases of environmental pollution.

Page(s): 154-165                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2019

 Abdulwasi MUSAH
Centre for Petroleum, Energy Economics and Law, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 Adegoke Olusegun Steve
Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

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[3]. Ayansina A, (2015). Assessing wetland pollution and loss of ecosystem services in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.Marine & Freshwater Research http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF15066.
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[6]. MUSAH A (2019), Comparative Assessment of Legal Sanctions forEnvironmental Pollution in Oil Producing Areas of Nigeria and Other Selected Countries, University of Ibadan Postgraduate School, (PhD Thesis) Unpublished.
[7]. Nwagbara, E. Abia, R. Inyang, F &Eleje, J. (2012). “Poverty, Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development: A discourse”. Global Journal of Human social science, sociology, economics and Political science.
[8]. Ogbara, N (2009) ―” Why the Extant Legal Framework Prohibiting Gas Flare in Nigeria did not Work”. A Paper. Presented at a Social Action Organised Forum on Gas Flaring Prohibiting and Sustainable Energy Future for Nigeria, 30 September 2009 at Bolton White Hotels ltd, Abuja. p.6
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Abdulwasi MUSAH, Adegoke Olusegun Steve “Pollution Resulting From Oil Exploration in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria: A Need to Re-Evaluate the Legal Sanctions Contained in Nigerian Environmental Laws” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.154-165 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/154-165.pdf

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Green IR Theory and Domestic Wars: Revisiting Environmental Conflicts in Africa

Michael J. Denis – September 2019 Page No.: 166-171

Recent outbreak of environmental conflicts in African countries is a threat to peaceful human co-existence. This is opposed to the rather decline in warfare on the international arena. This work therefore explored other possible means of tackling domestic conflicts by employing the Green International Relations (IR) theory in explaining the cause(s) and possible solutions to environmental conflicts in Africa. The methodology used in this study is mainly the analysis of secondary data from journals, literatures, documentaries, while also examining a couple of case studies as an empirical basis. The findings in this study revealed that environmental change is unlikely to be a an independent cause of domestic wars that are related to environmental scarcity in Africa, hence, sought relevance of other factors like economy and politics. It recommended that in order to avoid conflicts arising from environmental change, the state and non-state actors must consider the health of the ecosystem as paramount, adopt legal approaches to protecting the environment, take environmental consciousness as a moral duty, work for improved economy and a make the society relatively prosperous, and most importantly should opt for non-violent alternatives in the face of resource scarcity.

Page(s): 166-171                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2019

 Michael J. Denis
Centre for Conflict and Gender Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[18]. Galtung, J. (1982). Environment, Development and Military Activity: Towards Alternative Security Doctrines. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.
[19]. Gleditscha N. P., Buhaug, H. and Theisena, O. M. (2008). Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Implications of Climate Change for Armed Conflict. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute.
[20]. Goodin, R. E. (1992). Green political Theory, Cambridge, Oxford, UK: Polity Press.
[21]. Goodhand, J. (2003). Enduring disorder and persistent poverty: A Review of Linkages between War and Chronic Poverty. World Development, 31, 629e646.
[22]. Gough, M. (2002). Human security: The Individual in the Security question: The Case of Bosnia. Contemporary Security Policy. Vol. 23, pp. 145- 191.
[23]. Hauge, Wenche & Tanja Ellingsen, 1998. ‘Beyond Environmental Scarcity: Causal Pathways to Conflict, Journal of Peace Research 35(3): 299–317.
[24]. Homer-Dixon, T. (1991). On the threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict. International Security, 16, 76e116.
[25]. Homer-Dixon, Thomas, 1994. ‘Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases’, International Security Vol. 19 No. 1. Pp. 5–40.
[26]. Houghton Mifflin Company. The American Heritage Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1982.
[27]. IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved online http://www.mendeley.com/research/climate-change-2014-synthesis-report-contribution-working-groups-i-ii-iii-fifth-assessment-report-in-20 on 14th August 2019.
[28]. Kahl, C. (2006). States, Scarcity, and Civil Strife in the Developing World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
[29]. Keen, D. (2000). Incentives and Disincentives for Violence. In M. Berdal, & D. Malone (Eds.), Greed and Grievance: Economic agendas and Civil Wars. pp. 19- 42. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
[30]. Lawson, S. (2015). Theories of International Relations: Contending Approaches to World Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
[31]. Levy, M. A. (1995). Is The Environment A National Security Issue? International Security, 20(2): 35-62.
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[33]. Lumumba-Kasongo, T. (2017) Contemporary Theories of Conflict and Their Social and Political Implications. In Lumumba-Kasongo (ed) Peace, Security and Post-Conflict Reconstruction in the Great lakes Region of Africa. Oxford: African Book Collective. Pp. 29-48.
[34]. May, J. R. and Daly, E.,(2019). Global Judicial Handbook on Environmental Constitutionalism Third Edition 2019 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Delaware Law School.
[35]. Mueller, John, (1989). Retreat from Doomsday. The Obsolescence of Major War (New York: Basic Books).
[36]. N.P. Gleditsch,(2015). Nils Petter Gleditsch: Pioneer in the Analysis of War and Peace. Switzerlend: Springer International Publishing. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-03820-9_6.
[37]. Ohlsson, L. (2000). Livelihood Conflicts: Linking Poverty and Environment as Causes of Conflict. Stockholm: Environmental Policy Unit, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
[38]. Reno, W. (2000). Shadow States and the Political Economy of Civil Wars. In M. Berdal, & D. Malone (Eds.). Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas and Civil Wars. pp. 43-68. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
[39]. Schmid, Alex P. (1998). “Thesaurus and Glossary of Early Warning and Conflict Prevention Terms.” Abridged Version edited by Sanam B. Anderlini for FEWER. Rodderdam: Synthesis Foundation.
[40]. Smith, Robyn (2017). The Water Scarcity-Conflict Nexus: The Case of Darfur. Thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Political Science) in the Faculty of Arts and Social Science at Stellenbosch University.
[41]. Todaro, Michael, (1997). Economic Development 6th Edition. Reading. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
[42]. Vanderheiden, Steve(ed). (2008) Political Theory and Global Climate Change. The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England.
[43]. Wallensteen, Peter and K. Axell (1994). “Conflict Resolution and the End of the Cold War 1989-1993.” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 333-349.
[44]. Westing, Arthur H. (Ed.), (1986). Global Resources and International Conflict: Environmental Factors in Strategic Policy and Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Michael J. Denis “Green IR Theory and Domestic Wars: Revisiting Environmental Conflicts in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.166-171 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/166-171.pdf

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The Impact of Accommodation Location on Students Performance in General Chemistry at the Copperbelt University

Gibson Matipa, Nkhata Leonard – September 2019 Page No.: 172-183

The purpose of the study was “to investigate the impact of accommodation location on student’s performance in General Chemistry at the Copperbelt University.” The study objectives were; To investigate the ratio between the accommodated students and non-accommodated for CH110 students in the school of mathematics and natural sciences for each intake, To identify where students not accommodated on campus stay, To compare the performance of the students on campus to those outside campus in General Chemistry. This study was a cross sectional survey design using both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data from the school of mathematics and natural sciences, lists of students who were accommodated in 2015 and 2016 on campus from the accommodation department and answers from students through the questionnaire use. The two variables were; accommodation location (independent) and academic performance (dependent). The sample (781) was drawn from the Copperbelt University a place which is in Kitwe district of the copperbelt province. Data was gathered using a questionnaire and later analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics of Analysis of the t-test. The results collected for 2015 and 2016 intake were analyzed using the SPSS version 23. The findings suggested that “there is no significant relationship between students accommodation location and their academic performance” because the sample independent test value of significant was greater than the p value of 0.05. The recommendations were that the university should build more hostels, given allowance to outside accommodated students and set the timetable that favors them.

Page(s): 172-183                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2019

 Gibson Matipa
Copperbelt University, School of Mathematics and Natural Science, P.O Box 21692, Zambia

 Nkhata Leonard
Copperbelt University, School of Mathematics and Natural Science, P.O Box 21692, Zambia

[1]. Adriaanse CCM (2007) Measuring Residential Satisfaction: a Residential Environmental Satisfaction scale (RESS) . Journal of Housing and the Built Environment
[2]. Bowman, Robert L, Partin, Kenneth E (1993) The Relationship between Living in Residence Halls and Academic Achievement. College Student Affairs Journal
[3]. Molner D, Busseri M, Perrier C, Sadava S ( 2009) A longitudinal examination of alcohol use and subjective well-being in an undergraduate sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
[4]. Kuh GD, Hu S (2001) The effects of student faculty interaction in the 1990s. Review of Higher Education
[5]. Pascarell ET, Terenzini PT (1991) How college affects students: Findings and insights fromtwenty years of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
[6]. Adriaanse CCM (2007) Measuring Residential Satisfaction: a ResidentialEnvironmentalSatisfaction scale (RESS) . Journal of Housing and the Built Enviroment
[7]. Shoukat AZ (2013) Factors Contributing to Students Academic Performance.A case study of Islamia University Sun Campus. American Journal of Education Research
[8]. Adu-Gyamfi, S., Brenya, E., & Lamptey, E. E. L. (2014). Accommodation Reforms, Its Effects on students: A focus on Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology from 1960 to 2013. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: (H) Interdisciplinary. Volume 14 Issue 2 .Version 1.0
[9]. Agron, J. (1997). Innovations in residence-life programming American School and University, 69, pp. 81–87
[10]. Agus, A., & Makhbul, Z.K. (2002). An empirical study on academic achievement of business students in pursuing higher education: An emphasis on the influence of family backgrounds. Paper presented at International Conference on the Challenges of Learning and Teaching in a Brave New World: Issues and Opportunities in Borderless Education. Hatyai, Thailand
[11]. Ali, N., Jusoff, K., Ali, S., Mokhtar N., & Salamat A. S. A. (2009). The Factors Influencing Students’ Performance at University Technology, MARA Kedah, Malaysia. Management Science and Engineering. ISSN 1913-0341 Vol.3 No.4

Gibson Matipa, Nkhata Leonard “The Impact of Accommodation Location on Students Performance in General Chemistry at the Copperbelt University” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.172-183 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/172-183.pdf

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Factors Impact on Employee Turnover with Special Reference to the Apparel Industry in Sri Lanka

A.G.N.K. Fernando – September 2019 Page No.: 184-187

Employee turnover is identified as the one of the critical issues faced by the apparel industry in Sri Lanka. Thus, diminishing the turnover is more dynamic since apparel sector is the main employment and the main foreign exchange earner in the country. This study empirically evaluated the impact of four variables on the employee turnover with special reference to the non-executive carder employees in Apparel industry in Sri Lanka. The sample consisted of hundred and fifty non-executive level employees working in the apparel sector and the data were gathered by using self-administering questionnaires. The analysis exposes that working conditions, compensation, employee personal growth and career development implies negative relationship with the employee turnover. Thus there is positive relationship between work life stress and employee turnover. The study results will be beneficial for the apparel business to take suitable approaches to create the present context to formulate strategies to reduce the turnover of the employees in the organization.

Page(s): 184-187                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2019

 A.G.N.K. Fernando
Department of Management Sciences,Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka

[1]. Batt, R. & Valcour, P. M., 2003. Human resource practices as predictors of work–family outcomes and employee turnover. Industrial Relations, 42(189-220).
[2]. Chaminade, B. (2007). A retention checklist: how do you rate? Retrieved November 28, 2007.Retrieved from www.humanresourcesmagazine.co.au.
[3]. Samuel, & Chipunza. (2009). Employee retention and turnover: Using motivational variables asa panacea. African Journal of Business Management, 410-415.
[4]. Dheerasingha, R., 2006. Garment Industry in Sri Lanka Challenges, Prospects and Strategies.
[5]. Dulagil, A., 2012. The relationship of employee engagement and wellbeing to organisational and student outcomes. SBS HDR Student Conference.
[6]. Fernando, W. R., Selvam, M. & Bennet, E., 2010. Exhaustion and stress: an empirical study among Workers in Apparel Industry of Sri Lanka.. ICBI
[7]. Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M. & Jason D. Shaw, 2003. The relation between work–family balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behavior , Issue 63, p. 510–531.
[8]. Juhdi, N., Pawan, F. & Hansaram, R. M., 2013. HR practices and turnover intention:the mediating roles of organizational commitment and organizational engagement in a selected region in Malaysia.. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
[9]. Kalyani, L. D., 2006. An Empirical investigation of the Impact of Organizational Factors on the Perceived Job Performance of Shop Floor Employees of Large Garment Industry in Sri Lanka. Sabaragamuwa University Journal, pp. 82-92.
[10]. Kazi, G. M., Aziz, S. A. & Zadeh, Z. F., 2012. The Contribution of Organizational Variables and its Impact on Job Turnover and Job Satisfaction of Employee’s.. Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business..
[11]. Morris, M. L. & Madsen, S. R., 2007. Issue Overview: Advancing work-life interaction in individuals, organizations and communities. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Volume 9(4), pp. 439-454.
[12]. Samuel & Chipunza, 2009. Employee retention and turnover: Using motivational variables as a panacea.. African Journal of Business Management, pp. 410-415.

A.G.N.K. Fernando “Factors Impact on Employee Turnover with Special Reference to the Apparel Industry in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.184-187 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/184-187.pdf

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Admissions Policy for Higher Education: Experience of Quality Education in Selected Universities, in Kenya

Wekesa Moses Soita & Dr. Zacharia K. Kosgei (PhD) – September 2019 Page No.: 188-192

Quality higher education in Kenya appears to be influenced by several factors which include but not restricted to policies on quality education; admissions, funding, policies on inclusion and constitutional requirements. These policies are said to affect access to higher education in Kenya. However, the extent to which the identified policies impact on access to higher education in Kenya has not been extensively studied. The study objective was to determine the effects of admissions policy on quality of higher education. The target population in this study was 236, where 116 respondents were top managers while 120 respondents were students. Simple random sampling technique was used to select students who participated in this study. The questionnaire was used on the Admissions Officers, Deans, DVCs, DQA, finance officers, HODs, and the interview schedule was used on students. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study established that there was a positive and statistically significant relationship between admissions policy and access to quality higher education.The study recommended that the Universities should employ lecturers with PhD certificates to merge with student enrolment.

Page(s): 188-192                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2019

 Wekesa Moses Soita
Department of Educational Management, School of Education, University of Eldoret, Kenya

 Dr. Zacharia K. Kosgei (PhD)
Department of Educational Management, School of Education, University of Eldoret, Kenya

[1]. Allensworth (2006)-American Journal of Educational Researve 2005, volume3 number 12. Science and Education Publishing.
[2]. Altbach, Khoon, Philip G, Reisberg, Rumbley, Liz (7), Laura (8) (2009) Trends in Global Higher Education.Tracking an Academic Revolution.Boston College, USA, UNESCO.
[3]. Altbach, P. G., & Peterson, P. M. (1999).Higher education in the 21st century: Higher Education, 56(4), pp.407-421.
[4]. Carnoy, M. (2005).Globalization, educational trends and the open society.Paper presented at the Open Society Institute Education Conference, Stanford.
[5]. Cohen (1983) A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour 24(4), 385-396
[6]. Constitution of Kenya (2010) –https://en.wikipendia.org/wiki/ Constitution of Kenya.
[7]. CUE (2011).Quality Audit of Universities in Kenya. Nairobi: Commission of University Education.
[8]. Malechwanzi, J. M & and Mbeke, C., 2016, ‘Policies of access and the quality of higher education in China and Kenya: A comparative study’, Cogent Education, Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 1201990. doi: 10.1080/2331186x.2016.1201990
[9]. Nogueira, F., Jaana, F. (2013).A comparative analysis: The politics of access tohigher education in Argentina and Brazil.
[10]. Nyangau J.Z. (2014). Higher Education as an Instrument of Economic Growth in Kenya. Kent State University, USA. FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education.
[11]. Ogeto, A., (2015). High student enrolment has led to shortage of facilities and services’. Daily Nation.Retrieved from Daily Nation Newspaper.Retrieved from http://www.nation.co.ke on 6/8/2016.
[12]. Orodho and Kombo (2002) Research Methods, Nairobi. Kenyatta University Institute of Business 112 at Harvard.
[13]. Orodho, A.(2003) Key Issues Influencing the level of Community Participation in projects; Research Methods. Kenyatta University Press-Nairobi.
[14]. Republic of Kenya (2012), Laws of Kenya. Universities Act No. 42 of 2012. National Council for Law Reporting, Nairobi.
[15]. Segrera, F. L. (2010). Trends and innovations in higher education reform: Worldwide Latin America and in the Caribbean. Center for Studies in Higher Education Research & Occasional Paper Series.
[16]. Sifuna (2010), In a Comparative Analysis on Universal Primary Education Policy, Finance and Administration System in Sub- Saharan Africa.Kobe University.
[17]. Sifuna, D. N., (1998), Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.
[18]. Tieben and Wolbers (2010), Transitions to Post-Secondary and Tertiary Education in Netherlands. A trend Analysis of Unconditional and Conditional Social- Economic Background effects.
[19]. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.(2011). EFA Global Monitoring Report.
[20]. Vukasoviu and Sarrico( 2010), University Library. A Guide to the Harvard Style of Wachira, G. (2013). Quality higher education holds key to economic growth. Business Daily Africa, Daily Nation, Nation Media Group, A media of Africa for Africa.as retrieved on Tuesday, February 19th, 2013 at 11:35am, EastAfrica Time
[21]. Wan (2010)-Effective Solid Waste Management: A Solution to the Menace of Marine Litter in Coastal Communities of Lagos State. Nigeria.
[22]. Wanjohi, A. M. (2011). Development of Education System in Kenya since Independence.KENPRO Online Papers Portal.www.kenpro.org/papers., as retrievedon Sunday, November 18th, 2012; 5:01 pm East African Time.

S. Damayanthi Edirisinghe & S.D.K. Kulathunga “Admissions Policy for Higher Education: Experience of Quality Education in Selected Universities, in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.188-192 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/188-192.pdf

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Higher Education Funding Policy: Provision of Quality Education in Selected Universities, in Kenya

Wekesa Moses Soita & Dr. Rachel Koross (PhD) – September 2019 Page No.: 193-197

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of access policies on quality of higher education in selected Universities. The study objective was to find out the effect of funding policy of higher education on the provision of quality education. The sample size of the study was 195 where top managers of the selected Universities were 103 while students were 92. The research instruments used included questionnaire and interview schedules. The questionnaire was used on the Admissions Officers, Deans, DVCs, DQA, finance officers, HODs. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study established that there was a positive and statistically significant relationship between funding policy and access to higher education. The study recommended that the Universities must be funded Funding effectively, also government allocations to public Universities should be increased. Finally, if the issue of funding is not urgently addressed, then university education in Kenya is on its deathbed.

Page(s): 193-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2019

 Wekesa Moses Soita
Department of Educational Management, School of Education, University of Eldoret, Kenya

 Dr. Rachel Koross (PhD)
Department of Educational Management, School of Education, University of Eldoret, Kenya

[1]. Bundi, A. (2017). Reports of the African Peer Review Mechanism: Challenges for the African Union. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press
[2]. Creed, C., Perraton, H., and Waage, J., (2012).“Examining Development Evaluation in Higher Education Interventions: A Preliminary Study.”London International Devel0pment Center Working Paper.
[3]. Gudo, C. (2014).Financing higher education in Kenya: Public-private partnership approach. International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review.
[4]. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (1994). Air Quality, Determination of Performance Characteristics of Measurement Method ISO9196:1994.ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
[5]. Ludeman, R. B., Osfield, K. J., Hidalgo, E. I., Oste, D., & Wang, H.S., 2009, ‘Preface’. Students affairs and service in higher education: Global foundations, issues and best practices, (pp. ii–vi), Unesco and World Conference on Higher Education
[6]. MOEST, 2007, Strategic Plan 2007–2012. ‘Science, Technology and Innovation for National Prosperity and Global Competitiveness’.Retrieved from http:// www. Moest.gov.ke on 23/7/2016
[7]. Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education, Science Technology Sessional Paper No. 10. (2012) :Policy Framework for Education and Training.
[8]. Mwaniki, J. (2010). Gender Disparities in Education, Nairobi: Kenyatta University press.
[9]. Ngolovoi, M. (2008).Means testing of student loans in Kenya. New York, NY: ProQuest.
[10]. Republic of Kenya (2012), Laws of Kenya. Universities Act No. 42 of 2012. National Council for Law Reporting, Nairobi.
[11]. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.(2012). EFA Global Monitoring Report.
[12]. UnitedNations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. (UNESCO, 2017).Towards Knowledge Societies, Paris: UNESCO World Report.
[13]. Wanjohi, A. M. (2011). Development of Education System in Kenya since Independence.KENPRO Online Papers Portal.www.kenpro.org/papers., as retrieved on Sunday, November 18th, 2012; 5:01 pm East African Time.
[14]. Wenr. (2015), Education in Kenya. Retrieve from http://wenr.wes.org/2015/06/education-kenya

Wekesa Moses Soita & Dr. Rachel Koross (PhD) “Higher Education Funding Policy: Provision of Quality Education in Selected Universities, in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.193-197 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/193-197.pdf

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The Influence of Information Technology and Financial Availability on Service Delivery in Government Institutions of Kenya: A Case Study of Nairobi Huduma Centre

Patricia Chemutai, Caroline Chebet – September 2019 Page No.: 198-203

Efficient and effective service delivery remains a major concern in many public institutions in Kenya.The role of information technology is apparent in enhancing the rate at which various services are offered. Similarly, adequate financing is necessary in running day to day activities of the institution. For instance, regular maintenance of platforms is essential in realizing the goal of smooth running of activities. This study aimed at establishing the influence of information technology and finance availability on service delivery in government institutions of Kenya. The specific objectives were; to establish the effects of information technology and finance availability on service delivery in government institutions in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Stratified random sampling was employed and a sample size of 59 respondents was arrived at from a target population of 198 employees. The quantitative data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS and descriptive output presented using tables, figures and charts. The results showed that information technology affects the service delivery in government institutions at high rate of 82%. According to this study 62% of the respondents said that adoption of modern information technology influences service delivery to very great extent 26% to a great extent, 7% to a low extent while 5% to a very low extent. On finance availability, 88% of the respondents felt that finance availability affects service delivery in government institutions. Additionally, 59% of the respondents agreed that leaders were committed in ensuring adequate funding for effective service delivery to a very great extent, 28%to a great extent, 9% to a low extent, and 6% to a very low extent. The study recommends government institutions to embrace the adoption and use of modern information technology while setting aside enough funds for effective service delivery to the citizens.

Page(s): 198-203                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2019

 Patricia Chemutai
Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi Kenya

 Caroline Chebet
Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi Kenya

[1]. Arnold F. J., &Laytin, L. (2012).Government and Technology Today, 1st Edition. Belk, Press, USA.
[2]. Barling Enrich, P. and Stulz, R. (2014). Finance Strategies for Service Delivery in an Organization, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill. Press, Amsterdam
[3]. Brookes C. L. (2013). Information Communication Technology and Service Competition in Modern Business, 3rd Edition, Texas Printers, USA.
[4]. Brookes Cochran W.G (2013), Government and Technology use in Service Provision, 2nd Edition. John Willy and Sons Press. Newyork, USA.
[5]. Bird B. (2012). 360 degree leadership in the public sector: developing an approach to collective leadership, 4th Edition. Ontarion, Press, USA.
[6]. Burns, J.R., Capriole, G. and Levine, R. (2014). Learning Finance Sourcing for Service Delivery in Government, 7th Edition. Cambridge University Press, London.
[7]. Cohran, A. and Strahan, P. (2013). Government and Leadership, 5th Edition. Harlow Press, London.
[8]. DanielG.and Hull, H. (2015) Effective and Efficiency in Leadership, 2nd Edition. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning Press, London.
[9]. Government Publication (2017) Huduma Center Service Provision, Pg. 13-15
[10]. Gikandi, K. & Bloor P. (2010).Effective Technological Systems Today, 4th Edition. Belk, Press, USA.
[11]. Hiawalyer, K. and Lukeman N., (2012) Information Technology in Government 1th Edition, Los Angeles Press, USA.
[12]. Hill, J.R., Caprio, G. and Levine, R. (2013). Organizational Leadership Competencies in Service Delivery 7th Edition, Cambridge University Press. London.
[13]. Joseph, K.A. Edward K. and Narayanan, A. (2007).Understanding the dynamics of Government and Service Delivery”3rd Edition, Boston College Press, USA.
[14]. Kurt Lewis (1957).Theory of Change, 3rd Edition. Viginia, Press, USA.
[15]. Lovelock L.Fuse (2014). Service Delivery in Government Institution, 1st Edition. McGraw Hill, Amsterdam.
[16]. Milner Green.B. (2015) Challenges of Government in Service Delivery and in Business, 1st Edition. Virginia Press, USA.
[17]. Mugenda and Mugenda. (1999), Research Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 1st Edition. Acts Press, Nairobi, Kenya.

Patricia Chemutai, Caroline Chebet “The Influence of Information Technology and Financial Availability on Service Delivery in Government Institutions of Kenya: A Case Study of Nairobi Huduma Centre” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.198-203 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/198-203.pdf

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Is Justice for Sale in Ghana?

Anthony Kofi Anomah – September 2019 Page No.: 204-210

The materials in this article dates back to 1990 when Ghana was only 33years as an independent nation. However, at 62 years, the prevailing situations in the country has not changed significantly from what it was about 30 years ago. A lot of the issues encountered in those days are still present with us. Some of the issues that the country is currently battling with are corruption, nepotism, cronyism favouritism, injustice and underdevelopment. The promised land envisaged by Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah and subsequent leaders are yet to be attained. In this article, the writer re-visits the dreams of the leaders in terms of the definition of justice and the practice of justice prevailing then and now and comes to the conclusion that there is still much to be desire if Ghana is to attain the vision of freedom and justice envisaged for the people of Ghana in the twenty-first century. The perception among many Ghanaians is that the country as a whole is corrupt with corrupt and unjust leaders beginning from the Executive, Judiciary, Parliament and the ordinary citizen. Thus, many resort to instant justice instead of going to the court because they believe the judicial system favours the strong and the rich at the expense of the weak and the poor.
The writer is of the view that the majority of the citizenry should have access to legal aid and extrajudicial dispute resolution mechanisms; fast-track adjudication of justice and removal of all bottlenecks to the administration of justice.

Page(s): 204-210                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2019

 Anthony Kofi Anomah
PhD Candidate, Department of Religious Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana and Rector of the Spiritan University College, P. O. Box 111, Ejisu Ashanti, Ghana

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Anthony Kofi Anomah “Is Justice for Sale in Ghana?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.204-210 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/204-210.pdf

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Methods Used by Teachers in Teaching Sexuality Education within the HIV and AIDS Education Programme in Selected Kenyan Secondary Schools

Lily Jerotich Yego – September 2019 Page No.: 211-216

The HIV and AIDS prevalence in Kenya is still high and remains a major health concern despite the Kenyan government’s initiatives to create awareness about the epidemic through inclusion of the HIV and AIDS programme in schools. This is because the provision of sexuality, HIV and AIDS education in schools is not effective. Teachers face various challenges in the effective delivery of the subject due to their discomfort related to these sensitive topics. Therefore, learners are left inadequately supported by the teachers. With an immense variety of conflicting information about sexuality availed to young people through the social media and also through their peers, young people are left at risk of exploring their sexualities with inadequate and wrong information, thus exposing them to HIV infections. Since schools have been identified as ideal sites for the effective delivery of sexuality, HIV and AIDS education, teachers are expected to teach the learners using a variety of pedagogical strategies in order to achieve efficacy in the delivery of this subject, hence the need to explore teaching styles that could provide a safe space for the effective delivery of sexuality, HIV and AIDS education.
This study sought to explore the methods used by kenyan secondary school teachers in teaching sexuality education within the HIV and AIDS education programme in selected kenyan secondary schools, in order to understand how such methods could affect the teaching of Sexuality education. This study employed a phenomenological research design, interpretivist paradigm and a participatory methodology. Memory accounts, reflective journals and focus group discussions were used for data generation with nine secondary school teachers, from three purposively selected schools in Kenya. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory underpinned the study.
The findings revealed that teachers are uncomfortable teaching sexuality education because of fear of leading learners astray, fear of victimization and sexualization, and fear of misleading and hurting learners because of lack of knowledge. This resulted in teachers feeling guilty due to ineffective delivery of Sexuality education. The findings also revealed that participatory visual methods were effective for use by the teachers and the learners in the classroom to navigate issues around sexuality, HIV and AIDS. This was because they are learner-centred, thus making learners producers of knowledge while at the same time encouraging optimism in teaching and learning. This study thus recommends pre-service teacher training on participatory methods of teaching. Educational institutions should also arrange for workshops to train in-service teachers on comprehensive sexuality, HIV and AIDS education and how to tackle it in their classrooms. Moreover, curriculum developers should make sexuality, HIV and AIDS education a compulsory subject to give it equal status with other examinable subjects, for it to be taken seriously. It is only through concerted efforts from everyone that Kenya can reach its target of Zero new HIV infections

Page(s): 211-216                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2019

 Lily Jerotich Yego
Moi University, Kenya

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Lily Jerotich Yego “Methods Used by Teachers in Teaching Sexuality Education within the HIV and AIDS Education Programme in Selected Kenyan Secondary Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.211-216 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/211-216.pdf

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Managing Physical Hazards for Academic Staff Productivity in Public Universities in Rivers State, Nigeria

Vita, Barielnen, Abraham, Nath. M. – September 2019 Page No.: 217-223

This study investigated management of physical occupational hazards for academic staff productivity in public universities in Rivers State. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses. The population consisted of 2,498 academic staff of the three public universities in Rivers State. A sample of 250 academic staff was drawn through proportionate stratified random sampling technique. This represented 10% of the population. A researchers’ structured instrument entitled, “Management of Physical Occupational Hazards for Academic Staff Productivity Questionnaire (MPOHASPQ)” was used for data collection. The instrument was properly validated and the reliability tested through Cronbach Alpha Method yielded a reliability index of 0.83. Data collected were analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS), mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while independent sample z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The study revealed among others that the strategies for managing physical occupational hazards for academic staff productivity include: providing well ventilated lecture theatres/offices, air-conditioned/well ventilated laboratories/workshops and providing fire extinguishers in office/lecture areas. The study also revealed the challenges of managing physical occupational hazards to include among others; inadequate provision of safety tools for conducting practicals, inadequate funding of public universities and lack of viable monitoring team that monitors and evaluates the conditions of physical structures/tools/equipment in the universities. Based on these findings, conclusion was drawn and the following recommendations among others were made: caution signs should be provided around lecture theatres/lecturers offices as a way of controlling noise and there should be well established regulation directing members of staff and students to switch off electrical appliances in their offices/classrooms before they close for the day.

Page(s): 217-223                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2019

 Vita, Barielnen
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Abraham, Nath. M.
Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1]. Asuzu, M.C. (2009). Occupational health: A summary introduction and outline of principles. Ibadan: Afrka-Link Communications.
[2]. Chukwuemeka, H.C. (2010). A survey of occupational hazards in the teaching profession in secondary schools in Anambra State. M.ED Thesis. University of Port-Harcourt.
[3]. Cole, L. (2006). Oganizational behaviour. London: Eaglewood cliff.
[4]. Echeta, A. N. (2008). Management of occupational hazards in cement bagging companies in Rivers State. M.Ed Dissertation. Rivers State University.
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Vita, Barielnen, Abraham, Nath. M. “Managing Physical Hazards for Academic Staff Productivity in Public Universities in Rivers State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.217-223 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/217-223.pdf

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Income Levels and Gender based Violence among the Civil Servants in Kamukuzi Division, Mbarara Municipality

Nomugisha Mary, Turyamuhaki Peter, Nuwamanya Allen – September 2019 Page No.: 224-230

The study was about income levels and gender-based violence in Kamukuzi Division, Mbarara Municipality, Mbarara District Uganda; the study focused on the following objectives; to determine income levels of civil servants in relation to gender-based violence, to document the experiences of civil servants on gender-based violence (nature, magnitude etc.) in Mbarara Municipality and to ascertain the relationship between income levels and the rate of gender-based violence.
A case study design was adopted in this study; it involved both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. The study targeted civil servants in kamukuzi division where samples of 150 respondents were selected from teachers, social workers, administrators and health workers. The study employed questionnaire and interview method for investigation.
Basing on the study findings there is no significant relationship between income levels and gender-based violence. The study explored the different income levels basing on the salary scale for Uganda and the respondents studied ranged from U8-U3 as per the government of Uganda. The findings established similarly conditions, nature and perceptions towards gender-based violence. The study further established that civil servants have a negative attitude towards gender-based violence. It was also established that gender-based violence affects staff performance; it causes depression, stress and anger that undermine work performance.
Leaders especially the cultural, religious and human rights activist should clearly come to an understanding on the gender roles, positions and participation in family, government agency should always organize a come together sensitization campaign to discuss and explore domestic issues in general and NGOs and other private sectors should intervene to curb down the gender based violence among the working class, life planning.

Page(s): 224-230                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2019

 Nomugisha Mary
Department of Business Studies, Faculty of Business and Development Studies., Bishop Stuart University, P.box,09 Mbarara, Uganda.

 Turyamuhaki Peter
Department of Business Studies, Faculty of Business and Development Studies., Bishop Stuart University, P.box,09 Mbarara, Uganda.

 Nuwamanya Allen
Department of Business Studies, Faculty of Business and Development Studies., Bishop Stuart University, P.box,09 Mbarara, Uganda.

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Nomugisha Mary, Turyamuhaki Peter, Nuwamanya Allen “Income Levels and Gender based Violence among the Civil Servants in Kamukuzi Division, Mbarara Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.224-230 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/224-230.pdf

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An Analysis on the Impact of Gender Roles on Female Managerial Level Employees: An Investigation of the Garment Industry in Sri Lanka

Dr Hemamalie Gunatilaka – September 2019 Page No.: 231-238

Sri Lanka is no exception in relation to the impact of globalization on peripheral countries. The society itself had to get adjusted to changes required by globalization, such as letting go the females as unskilled labourers to foreign countries, to newly established garment factories, call centers etc. The need for females to work was all the more prominent in the background of thirty years of civil war where predominantly male armed forces were engaged in battle fields. The education system in Sri Lanka was such that more females entered tertiary level education and became qualified to get employed at managerial levels.
With the end of the three decade long civil war in year 2009, Sri Lanka is entering into a new development Era. Hence present economic trends in Sri Lanka will demand more female employees for emerging opportunities.
Sri Lankan garment sector consists of a large proportion of females, representing different levels of the organizational hierarchy. Entry of females into industry calls for new conditions of employment and addressing issues relating to diversity.
Within this backdrop this paper is written with the major objective of analyzing the impact of gender roles on managerial level female employees in Sri Lankan garment industry.
Gender roles’ as they are commonly known and which are the foundations of ascribed roles for gender, affect the lives of men and women around the globe. These impacts shape and reshape different facets of their lives such as personal, work and social.
Qualitative approach was used as the main research method. The study covers two Sri Lankan large scale private sector garment organizations. Using theoretical sampling in-depth interviews will be held with female and male managers.
Findings will enable to understand the gender role attitudes held by female and male managers and the impact of such attitudes on personal and work lives of female managers.

Page(s): 231-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2019

 Dr Hemamalie Gunatilaka
Department of Business Administration, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

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Dr Hemamalie Gunatilaka “An Analysis on the Impact of Gender Roles on Female Managerial Level Employees: An Investigation of the Garment Industry in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.231-238 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/231-238.pdf

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Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Strategies on Post Harvest Food Crops Storage in Belo Sub Division

Kelvin Toh Nkwain, Norbert Tohnain Lengha, Augustine Toh Gam – September 2019 Page No.: 239-250

Much food crops are cultivated in rural areas but farmers still suffer from food shortages due to increasing post-harvest losses. This is as a result of insufficient and or absent of conventional food processing, preservation and storage facilities. This has led to increasing and alternatively use of indigenous knowledge (IK) strategies for food crop preservation and storage. However, this research meant to enumerates the different food crops varieties and the distinct IKs strategies applied on post-harvest food crops, difficulties and the way forward. The study sampled nine out of the nineteen villages that make up Belo Sub Division. A three-stage sampling techniques were employed: purposive sampling in other to select the study villages and random and snowball sampling methods to equally arrive at the sample size of 150 and also ensure that respondents with exemplified IKs characteristics were identified and included in the study. Questionnaires, focus groups, interviews, and field observations were employed for data collection and the data was further analysed using Excel to transform it into tables and photos were equally taken to portrays the field reality. The results shows that a total of twenty-four different types of IKs in food storage were identified, ten to prevent weevils, five in preventing mould and rotting, four in maintaining freshness and five to prevent rodents, with the main preservation and storage facility being ikaɳ. Despite the available IKs, farmers still suffer enormous losses of food crops ranging from 20 to 43% due to limited space, limited storage facilities and above all limited fuel wood. We therefore recommend the integration of IKs with scientific knowledge of post harvest management and training, and provision of integrated post-harvest management facilities in the study area.

Page(s): 239-250                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2019

 Kelvin Toh Nkwain
Department of sociology, Centre for Food Technology and Research (CEFTER), Faculty of Social Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Norbert Tohnain Lengha
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Augustine Toh Gam
Department of Geography & Planning, Faculty of Arts, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

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Kelvin Toh Nkwain, Norbert Tohnain Lengha, Augustine Toh Gam “Assessment of Indigenous Knowledge Strategies on Post Harvest Food Crops Storage in Belo Sub Division” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.239-250 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/239-250.pdf

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Gender Inequality at Work: A Literature Review

Dr Hemamalie Gunatilaka – September 2019 Page No.: 251-256

Gender inequality at work is the focus of this article. Accordingly, it attempts to highlight the conceptual frameworks on gender inequality at work and present the practical applicability of these theories with the use of garment industry in Sri Lanka as an example. Women in the garment industry in Sri Lanka account for three fourth of the workforce in the industry and patriarchy plays a vital role within the social structure of the country. Buddhist philosophy highlights that a person becomes who s/he is with what s/he does, but not with what s/he has or who s/he is in the society. In contrast, Sri Lanka being a Buddhist country people’s position is still determined by who they are. Capitalist patriarchy, gender regimes, gendered organisations, creating subjectivities and resistance and agency are used as the conceptual frameworks to understand gender inequality at work. The literature on Sri Lankan women in the garment industry produce important evidence regarding women’s subordination, identities, agency, resistance etc. Most significantly patriarchy plays a vital role in creating gender subordination and government intervention facilitate the subordination of women employed in garment factories in Sri Lanka.

Page(s): 251-256                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2019

 Dr Hemamalie Gunatilaka
Department of Business Administration, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

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[2]. ______ , (2006). The gender regime of Swedish banks. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 22(3), pp.195–209.
[3]. ______ , (2006). Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organisations. Gender & Society, 20(4), pp.441–464.
[4]. Attanapola, C., (2006). Were They Ever ‘In Place’? Sense of Place and Self Identities Among Migrant Female Export Processing Zone Workers In Sri Lanka, Norwegian Journal of Geography, Vol. 60, pp. 217-226.
[5]. Bair, J., (2010). On Difference and Capital: Gender and Globalization on Production, Signs, 36 (1), 203-226.
[6]. Britton, D.M., (2000). The Epistemology of the Gendered Organisation. Gender & Society, 14(3), pp.418–434.
[7]. Charles, N., (1993). Gender Divisions and Social Change, Great Briton, Harvester Wheatsheaf.
[8]. Cockburn, C., (1991), In the Way of Women, London, Mcmillan Education Ltd.
[9]. ___________, (1983). Brothers: Male Dominance and Technological Change, London, Pluto Press.
[10]. Connell, R. W., (1987). Gender Regimes and the Gender Order in the Polity Reader on Gender Studies, Polity Press
[11]. _________, (2010). Advancing Gender Reform in Large-scale Organisations: A New Approach for Practitioners and Researchers, available at http://www.researchgate.net/publication Accessed on 12th June 2014
[12]. Elson, D., and Pearson, R., (1981). Nimble Fingers Make cheap workers: An analysis of women’s employment in third world export manufacturing, Feminist Review, No. 7, pp 87107.
[13]. _______________________., (1981).The Subordination of Women and the Internationalization of Factory Production, in Young, K., Wolkowitz, C, and McCullagh, R., 1981. (edited) of Marriage and the MARKET: Women’s subordination internationally and its lessons, London, CSE Books.
[14]. Fussell, E., (2010). Making labour flexible: the recomposition of Tijuana’s Maquiladora female labour force, Feminist Economics, Vol. 6(3) pp 59-79
[15]. Gunawardene, S.J., (2014), Reframing Employee Voice: A case Study in Sri Lanka’s Export Processing Zones, Work Employment and Society, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp. 452-468.
[16]. Hancock, P., (2006). Women Work and Empowerment: A Portrait of Women Workers in Two of Sri Lanka Export Processing Zones, Norwegian Journal of Geography, Vol. 60, Issue 3, pp.227-239
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[18]. Hewamanne, S, Brow, J., (1997). ‘If They Allow Us We Will Fight’: Strains of Consciousness among Women Workers in the Katunayake Free Trade Zone, Anthropology of Work Review, XIX
[19]. Jackson, C., Pearson, R., (edited) (1998). Feminist Visions of Development: Gender Analysis and Policy ,Oxon, Routledge.
[20]. Jayaweera, S., (2003).Continuity and Change: Women Workers in Garment and Textile Industries in Sri Lanka. available at: unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/…/UNPAN025233.pdf Accessed on 17th June 2014
[21]. Kelegama, S. (2005), Readymade Garment Industry in Sri Lanka: Preparing to Face the Global Challenges, Asia Pacific Trade and Investment Review, Vol. 1, No. 1
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[23]. Kurian, R., Jayawardena K., (2013). Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka, Conference on Bonded Labour, Migration, Diaspora and Identity Formation in Historical and Contemporary Context, June 6th. – 10th, 2013, Paramaribo, Suriname, available at: repub.eur.nl/pub/50375/Metis_193809.pdf – Accessed on 17th October 2014.
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[28]. Ruwanpura, K., (2003). The Survival Strategies of Sinhala Female-Heads in Conflict-Affected Eastern Sri Lanka, Working Paper No.11. Recovery and Reconstruction Department, ILO, Geneva.
[29]. ________., (2012). Ethical Codes: Reality and Rhetoric Ethical Codes, University of Southampton, Economic and Social Research Council, pp 1-41.
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[31]. Savchenko, Y., and Acevedo, G.L., (2012). Female Wages in the Apparel Industry Post-MFA The Cases of Cambodia and Sri Lanka, Policy Research Working Paper, available at: elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10 Accessed on 22nd February 2014
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[33]. Walby, S., (1986). Patriarchy at Work, UK, Polity Press.

Dr Hemamalie Gunatilaka “Gender Inequality at Work: A Literature Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.251-256 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/251-256.pdf

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Students’ Involvement in Physics Club Activities and Science and Engineering Fair, and Enrolment in Physics at KCSE level in Secondary Schools in Masaba South Sub-County, Kisii County-Kenya

Otieno Jacktone Gangre, Shem Mwalw’a, Billiah Gisore – September 2019 Page No.: 257-264

Low enrolment of students in Physics in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) has attracted the attention of various stakeholders in Masaba South Sub-County. This study was anchored on John Dewey’s Education Theory. The study sought to answer the question that: To what extent does involvement of students in Physics club activities and science and Engineering Fair influence enrolment of students in Physics at KCSE level in secondary schools in Masaba South Sub-County, Kisii County? This study used a mixed method approach, specifically, a convergent parallel mixed -method design with a population of 44 public secondary schools from where 13 were sampled. The 13 principals of the selected schools were purposively included in the study as well as 13 HODs and 13 Physics teachers. Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table was used to sample 354 out the 4,199 form four students in the sub county. Questionnaires for students, teachers of Physics and Heads of Department (HODs) and interview guides for Principals were used for data collection. The study obtained correlation coefficients of Alpha, α = 0.761, for students questionnaire, α = 0.897 for teachers of Physics questionnaire and α = 0.899 for HODs questionnaire. Thus, the study instruments were considered reliable as their reliability coefficients α > 0.70.The study achieved an overall response rate of 97.7%. The level of participation in Science Engineering Fair was generally to a low level as majority could only go up to the regional level 91 (26.2%) although Science club activities were found to improve the interest of students to learn Physics (Mean = 3.63 ± 1.437). The study established that there is a statistically significant relationship Chi-Square, χ2 = 6.606 (p = 0.037) between student participation in Physics Club and SEF and students enrolment in Physics at KCSE (p < .05). The study concludes that participation in science/Physics club activities as well as SEF enhances confidence and understanding of Physics concepts. The study recommends that school principals should facilitate formation of Physics clubs in addition to the existing science clubs in their schools.

Page(s): 257-264                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2019

  Otieno Jacktone Gangre
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

  Shem Mwalw’a
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

  Billiah Gisore
Kisii University, Kisii, Kenya

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[2] Adeyemo, S.A (2010). Teaching/Learning Physics in Nigerian Secondary Schools: The Curriculum Transformation Issues, Problems and Prospects. International Journal of Education Research and Technology, 1(1), 99-111
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Otieno Jacktone Gangre, Shem Mwalw’a, Billiah Gisore “Students’ Involvement in Physics Club Activities and Science and Engineering Fair, and Enrolment in Physics at KCSE level in Secondary Schools in Masaba South Sub-County, Kisii County-Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.257-264 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/257-264.pdf

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Public Engagement and Revenue Collection Effectiveness in Kagadi Town Council, Kagadi Local Government

Eric Sunday, Dr. Mohammad Ssendagi – September 2019 Page No.: 265-285

The study on “Public Engagement and Revenue collection Effectiveness in Kagadi Town Council” concentrated on analyzing the impact of public engagement on revenue collection effectiveness in Kagadi Town Council, Kagadi Local Government.
The researcher carried out a quantitative research with non-experimental, co-relational, cross-sectional, survey design considering a cross-sectional trend in order to reduce time and cost(s) involved. The target population was 1000 people from where a sample size of 278 respondents was sampled for the study using a combination of Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were employed. The researcher also carried out the validity and reliability of the research instruments that revealed R sqd (Alpha) value of 0.775 hence good fit.
The study findings revealed that public mobilization, public sensitization and consultations positively impact on the revenue contributions made by the business community in Kagadi Town Council. This was evidenced by Pearson’s rank correlation coefficients(r) of 0.534, 0.541 and 0.630 which were statistically significant at P-value (0.000<0.01) respectively.
Based on the study findings, it was recommended that in a way to further improve public mobilization, the town council tax administration should consider a range of assistance modalities to support revenue matters. And amongst them are the technical assistance, policy dialogue and financial assistance to guide public mobilization programs. Further there was need to promote transparency in order to improve accountability and awareness in various ways. In a move to broaden the consultation programs, the town council should encourage broad based dialogue on tax matters which include civil society groups, business and other stakeholders.

Page(s): 265-285                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2019

 Eric Sunday
School of Graduate Studies and Research, Team University, Plot 446, Kabaka Ajagara.rd. Kampala-Uganda

 Dr. Mohammad Ssendagi
School of Graduate Studies and Research, Team University, Plot 446, Kabaka Ajagara.rd. Kampala-Uganda

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Eric Sunday, Dr. Mohammad Ssendagi “Public Engagement and Revenue Collection Effectiveness in Kagadi Town Council, Kagadi Local Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.265-285 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/265-285.pdf

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Efficacy of Information Science in Bridging the Digital Divide in Kenyan Institutions of Higher Education and Learning

Nyapela Matthews Abijah – September 2019 Page No.: 286-290

– Digital age is heavily characterized by the merits of advanced technologies where digital divide evidently features out to be a spectacular concern affecting development of knowledge geographical society. Due to this development, the innovation of new technology is unfairly utilized by the rich members of society at the expense of poor ones. Quite a lot of research work done in developed and developing countries testify to the evidence of this technological divide. This paper suggests appropriate solutions to reduce this technological imbalance. The objectives of this article is to elucidate fundamental indicators of information science in bridging the digital divide in institutions of higher learning with reference to the University of Nairobi, to assess information science initiatives being undertaken in mitigating such unfavorable divide, to examine how broadband subscription can be applied to support learning and research in universities, and to find out factors that influence ownership, use and non-use of digital information devices. This paper will also enhance effective remedy and equal access to information and communications technology in institutions of higher learning. Understanding this article will enable us to discover major factors that inhibit access and utility of digital information being transition of digitization of resources, poor internet connectivity, insufficient ICT devices, and lack of skills and familiarity in the use of the same. It goes ahead to recommend on the need to train and reposition the information professionals and custodians, formulation of information science programs, sufficient acquisition of ICT resources, enhancement of bandwidth management, and impartation of information science in schools. The ultimate conclusion underscores the initiative of institutions of higher education and learning to do everything possible in bridging digital divide, with regard to the need for enhancing information science and ICT courses in pre-university learning institution.

Page(s): 286-290                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2019

 Nyapela Matthews Abijah
University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Nyapela Matthews Abijah “Efficacy of Information Science in Bridging the Digital Divide in Kenyan Institutions of Higher Education and Learning” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.286-290 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/286-290.pdf

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Environmental Impacts of the Uncontrolled Depletion of Rosewood (Madrid Wood) in Taraba State, Nigeria

John, Wajim – September 2019 Page No.: 291-299

Timber merchants are moving from one state to another in Nigeria depleting the Rosewood in their forests, leaving empty landscapes without minding the enduring effects of uncontrolled harvesting of the tree on the environment due to its demand over the past number of decade in China where they are used for the construction of furniture to satisfy the appetite of the country’s middle class whose wealth has been on the increase. Apart from the effect on the environment, the forestry experts fear that the illegal activities of local and Chinese merchants will also have telling economic implications in the near future on many communities where the forests that grow the much sought-after tropical Woods are located. This study examined the environmental impacts of the uncontrolled depletion of Rosewood (Madrid Wood) in Taraba State, Nigeria. A cross sectional survey research was conducted to generate the research data used to answer the research questions. Both secondary sources and quantitative research approaches were combined in this study. Samples of five hundred and forty-four (544) questionnaires were administered by four trained research assistants but five hundred and seventeen (517) were duly completed and returned. The data from the returned questionnaires were analyzed with the help of Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). Thus, amongst other recommendations, the study recommends that Taraba State government should empower its forestry department to fully enforce the country’s forestry laws and policies. The study further recommends extensive public awareness campaign on the dire consequences of deforestation to people and environment.

Page(s): 291-299                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2019

 John, Wajim
Department of Sociology, Federal University, Wukari, 200 Katsina-Ala Road, P.M.B 1020 Wukari, Nigeria

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John, Wajim “Environmental Impacts of the Uncontrolled Depletion of Rosewood (Madrid Wood) in Taraba State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.291-299 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/291-299.pdf

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Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Attitudes towards Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities

Shamsiah Md Nasir – September 2019 Page No.: 300-302

Malaysia’s development plan in education through the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 is in tandem with the global education agenda. Following the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education, those with special needs must have access to mainstream schools with an inclusive orientation which are the most effective means of overcoming discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities and building an inclusive society. This study aims to investigate the readiness of pre-service teachers towards the inclusion of special needs students in mainstream classrooms. A total of 56 pre-service teachers from one institute of teacher education participated in this study. Data were collected through The Sentiments, Attitudes, and Concerns about Inclusive Education Revised (SACIE-R) scale. The statistical analysis showed that pre-service teachers had moderate readiness towards inclusive education. Implications of the findings are discussed and further suggestions are made as to how institute of teacher education may engage pre-service teachers more effectively with their program to promote better inclusive practices.

Page(s): 300-302                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2019

 Shamsiah Md Nasir
Institute of Teacher Education Technical Education Campus, 71760 Bandar Enstek, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

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Shamsiah Md Nasir “Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Attitudes towards Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.300-302 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/300-302.pdf

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Overcoming Cultural Untranslatability: With Special Reference to Wikramasinghe’s ‘Gamperaliya’ and its English Translation, ‘Uprooted’ by Lakshmi de Silva and Ranga Wikramasinghe

Gunathilaka D. D. I. M. B. and Ariyaratne W. M. – September 2019 Page No.: 303-309

Translators encounter numerous issues in the process of translation. One of such issues is untranslatability, which occurs with the difficulty of finding appropriate target language equivalents for the source language terms, phrases or concepts. According to J. C. Catford, there are two categories of untranslatability namely linguistic untranslatability (LU) and cultural untranslatability (CU). To overcome these untranslatable scenarios, translators use several translation strategies. However, overcoming CU is problematic than LU. The purpose of this study was to discuss how this issue of CU has been overcome in the context of indigenous literature in Sri Lanka referring Wikramasinghe’s ‘Gamperaliya’ and its English translation, ‘Uprooted’. In this regard, the aforementioned novel and its translation were comparatively analyzed by using content analysis method. Theoretical reading materials related to the concept of untranslatability and regarding different translation techniques were also referred. In conclusion of this study, it was investigated that the novel ‘Gamperaliya’ is rich in cultural aspects where both translators found some difficulties in predisposing them for the target language audience. To overcome CU, translators have used different strategies individually and in combination of them such as the methods of Paraphrase, Regular Borrowing, Sentence Embedded Annotated Borrowing, Converted Borrowing, Loan Blend, Literal Translation, Calque, Equivalence, and Compensation. Two novel translation techniques, which fabricated with the combination of Borrowing and Equivalence, and Borrowing and Literal Translation have been invented and used. In addition to that, to overcome the CU in this context, they have even engaged in neologism and in utilizing the techniques of omission and addition. However, it was determined that the translators were not able to solve all scenarios of CU. Mistranslations and inconsistency of translated terminologies has negatively affected the understandability of the translation. This research proposed that these facts should be considered to make appropriate editing to ‘Uprooted’ in the future.

Page(s): 303-309                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2019

 Gunathilaka D. D. I. M. B.
Department of Languages, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka

 Ariyaratne W. M.
Department of Languages, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka

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[2]. Catford, J. (1965). A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics [Ebook] (p. 94). London: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/5249177/J_c.catford_a_linguistic_theory_of_translation_PDF
[3]. Dictionary.com. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.dictionary.com/browse/uproot
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[7]. Paul, G. (ed.) (2009). Translation in Practice [Ebook] (1st ed., pp. 41-57). London: Dalkey Archive Press. Retrieved from https://www.llvs.lt/img/File/Translation_in_Practice_book.pdf
[8]. Shuttleworth, M., & Cowie, M. (2014). Dictionary of Translation Studies [Ebook]. London: H Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/269293066DictionaryOfTranslationStudies/269293066-Dictionary-of-Translation-Studies_djvu.txt
[9]. Translation | Definition of translation by Lexico. (2019). Retrieved 5 September 2019, from https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/translation

Gunathilaka D. D. I. M. B. and Ariyaratne W. M. “Overcoming Cultural Untranslatability: With Special Reference to Wikramasinghe’s ‘Gamperaliya’ and its English Translation, ‘Uprooted’ by Lakshmi de Silva and Ranga Wikramasinghe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.303-309 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/303-309.pdf

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Socio-Political and Economic Implications of the Inconclusive Elections in Nigeria: Issues and Threads in the 2019 General Elections

BABATOLA, Adeleye Marcus (Ph.D) , ADEYEMI, Paul Adeniyi (Ph.D), ADEWUMI, Adebayo David – September 2019 Page No.: 310-318

The issue of the inconclusive elections in Nigeria is becoming appalling to the extent that the credibility of poll is threatened. The politics of power play among the political gladiators cannot be under estimated. It is found out to have played a vital role thus affecting the democratic consolidation and good governance in the country.
The study however finds out that due to the desperation on the part of the politicians and the desire to win elections at all cost has precipitated the philosophy of the inconclusiveness of elections most often. It is discovered that the system is characterized with evil activities which have become so rampant in most states of the federation.
The criminal activities such as the ballot snatching, destruction of election materials, killing of ad hoc and permanent staff of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), announcement of poll results under duress, disappearance of the returning officers with election results, over militarization of the poll and the issue of the fake military officers are also found to have been responsible for the inconclusiveness of elections. In view of this, the study examines the politics behind the inconclusiveness of the poll in Nigeria particularly in the 2019 general elections.
The study adopts both primary and secondary sources of data collection to accomplish its objectives. The study therefore concludes that for credible and acceptable poll to thrive in Nigeria, those involved in election frauds and violent must desist and government must ensure that anyone apprehended should be made to face the music accordingly.

Page(s): 310-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2019

 BABATOLA, Adeleye Marcus (Ph.D)
Ekiti State University, Department of Political Science, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 ADEYEMI, Paul Adeniyi (Ph.D)
Ekiti State University, Department of Economics, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 ADEWUMI, Adebayo David
Ekiti State University, Department of Sociology, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1]. Adigun. A. B. A, Larry.D.and Ebere.O.(2004) “Nigeria’s Struggle For Democracy And Good Governance-A Festschrift For Oyeleye Oyediran” Ibadan University Press.UI.Nigeria. ISBN978-121-400-7
[2]. Adiorho .J. (2019) “The Reign of Inconclusive Elections” Thisday March 14,
[3]. Akpeninor J.O(2007) “Democracy and Issues of governance in African politics: The Nigerian Perspectve” Book Wright Nigeria(Publishers).Bodija ,Ibadan. ISBN978-978-088-928-9
[4]. Akinbosade.A.(2007), “The Legislature. Law-Making Organ of Government” O&A Publishers.Akure. Ondo State. Nigeria. ISBN978-37982-7-8
[5]. Akintide.W,(2018)”ElectionFraud InNigeriaAndTheWayOut”http://www.gamji.com/article8000/NEWS8950.htm
[6]. Awosanya.S.O (2012) “Practical politics in an emerging Democracy” Supreme Mandate Consultancy Services. Ogun State.ISBN:978-978-927-521-2
[7]. Claire.W. (2019) “After Elections, Important Questions Remain for Nigeria’s Democracy” International Peace Institute Published March 19.
[8]. Makinde .F. (2019), “Inconclusive elections: Emerging threat to Nigeria’s democracy” The Analyst.NG April 1,
[9]. The Punch (2019), “Inconclusive elections, a consequence of politicians’ misconduct”
March 18, https://punchng.com/inconclusive-elections-a-consequence-of-politicians-misconduct/
[10]. Premium Times (2019) “Inconclusive Elections: INEC announces date for supplementary polls” March 12, https://www.premiumti mesng.com/…/319887-inconclusive-elections-inec-announces-
[11]. Premium Times (2019) “ANALYSIS: INEC, PDP’s lead and the burden of inconclusive elections” April 16,https://www.premiumtimesng.com/…/320354-analysis-inec-pdps-lead-and-the-burden…
[12]. Premium Times (2019) “What to know about the inconclusive elections in six states”
[13]. April 26,https://www.premiumtimesng.com/…/320383-what-to-know-about-the-inconclusive-e…

BABATOLA, Adeleye Marcus (Ph.D), ADEYEMI, Paul Adeniyi (Ph.D), ADEWUMI, Adebayo David “Socio-Political and Economic Implications of the Inconclusive Elections in Nigeria: Issues and Threads in the 2019 General Elections” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.310-318 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/310-318.pdf

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Strategic Use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Disaster/Crisis Management in Kenya

Joshua K. Kwonyike, John M. Momanyi – September 2019 Page No.: 319-323

In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the role of Information and communications technology in management of natural and man-made disasters in Kenya. In this age of technology, it is easier to manage natural and man-made disasters. The disasters outlined in this paper include floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, genocides, wars, workplace fires, and terrorism among others. Disasters can be managed using a number of features of Information and communications technology (ICT). ICT can be used in disaster prevention, mitigation and management. Advancements in ICT in form of radio, TV, telephone, SMS, satellite radio, sirens, cell broadcasting, drones, or the internet can help in a great deal in planning and reduction of hazards reduction measures. It is necessary for individuals and organisations have some degree of preparedness in terms of preparedness plans, early warning system, equipment and machinery that can be deployed for disaster response and mitigation.

Page(s): 319-323                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2019

 Joshua K. Kwonyike
Bomet University College, Bomet, Kenya

 John M. Momanyi
Bomet University College, Bomet, Kenya

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Joshua K. Kwonyike, John M. Momanyi “Strategic Use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Disaster/Crisis Management in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.319-323 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/319-323.pdf

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Establishing the Relationship between Agency Banking Costs and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Uganda: A Case Study of Centenary Bank, Mbarara Branch

Christopher Banura Ruyooka – September 2019 Page No.: 324-330

Evidence shows that financial performance of commercial banks in developing countries has remained relatively poor. Most of the commercial banks have failed to meet their operational costs and this has forced them out of the market. The biggest challenge however has been the result of poor bank policies and products offered to a relatively small customer base. Therefore, the introduction of agency banking is to boost the revenue collection of these commercial banks, increase their profitability levels, create more efficient and real time systems, and improve their overall financial performance. It’s against this background, that this research paper aims at establishing the relationship between agency banking costs and financial performance of commercial banks in Uganda, taking Centenary bank Mbarara branch as the research case.This study adopted a quantitative descriptive non-experimental case study design where data was collected from 52 bank officials by the use of Survey questionnaire checklists. Data was then analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Background characteristics of respondents was generated by the use of tables, frequencies and percentages. In order for the study to test the hypothesis, correlations and regression analysis was used to reach at the significance levels.The study revealed that agency banking costs is a significant determinant for the financial performance of commercial banks with a standardized beta coefficient of (r=0.621, p<0.05) meaning that agency banking costs are significantly positively related with financial performance of commercial banks. The coefficient of determination/ r2 for agency costs is equal to 0.386 implying that a 38.6% variation in the financial performance of commercial banks is brought about by the agency banking costs. This further means that the financial performance of commercial banks improves with low agency banking costs. For instance, the costs involved in agency banking transactions is low compared to the banking hall transactions. Secondly, the cost of setting up a bank agency is transferred to the bank agent who benefits from the commission got from every transaction made by the customer. This creates a low cost for offering any financial service offered by the bank through the agent. Thirdly, agency banking has low infrastructural cost which have reduced the operational cost of the main branches. Last but not least, the time spent in agency banking is low compared to the time spent in the banking hall. Overall the study was important and concluded that agency banking costs play a significant role in improving the financial performance of commercial banks and hence creating financial inclusiveness where individuals have greater access to affordable and useful financial services and products that can meet their needs in a responsible and sustainable manner.

Page(s): 324-330                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2019

 Christopher Banura Ruyooka
Ibanda University, Ibanda, Uganda

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[6]. Barnet & Wabwoba, T.B (2012) Challenges facing equity agency banking; a case of Pokot County, Kenya. Unpublished MBA project, University of Nairobi.
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[8]. Bram Peters and Naomi De Groot (2017, May 3) “the potential of Agency Banking in Uganda. Retrieved from http://uncdf.org/article/2084/
[9]. Bryman, A. (2013). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how is it done?’ Qualitative research, 6(1), 97 – 113.
[10]. Ciprian. Panturu (2019, February). “Introducing Agency Banking in Uganda: A new channel to increase Financial Inclusion. Retrieved from http://04.03.19-Agency- Bank-Uganda-mm4p (1).pdf
[11]. Davis, (2000, February 1). A Theoretical Extension of Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field studies. Journal of Management Science 46 (2): 186 – 204.Retrieved fromhttp://10.1287/mnsc.46.2.186.11926
[12]. Jagongo, A. O. & Molonko, B. (2014). Bottom of the Pyramid Strategy and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks: An Assessment of Agency Banking Operations in Kenya. Retrieved from http://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/1234567
[13]. Kamau, James. N (2012, October). The relationship between agency banking and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. Retrieved fromhttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/12858
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[15]. Oyugi, D. (2015). An investigation of the influence of alternative financial delivery channels on the performance of commercial banks in Kenya. Retrieved from http://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/12436
[16]. Timothy Musoke (2017, August 31). “Agency Banking is finally here: Where is the real opportunity for the banks?” Retrieved from http://www.laboremus.ug/post/agency-banking-is-finally-here-where-is-the-real-opportunity-for-the-banks

Christopher Banura Ruyooka “Establishing the Relationship between Agency Banking Costs and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Uganda: A Case Study of Centenary Bank, Mbarara Branch” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.324-330 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/324-330.pdf

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Destructive Nature of Communal Conflict in Nigeria: A Focus on Oruku and Umuode Conflict in Enugu State of Nigeria

Adenyi Theophilus Okechukwu, Nnamchi Kevin Chikwado, Onyia Michael Chukwuka – September 2019 Page No.: 331-342

This paper examines the destructive nature of communal conflict in Nigeria with a focus on Oruku/Umuode conflict in Enugu State. The specific objectives of the paper were to investigate factors that escalates the conflict, its effect on the development of the communities and to find out why the resolution strategies adopted by Enugu State Government and other Third Party interveners failed. Macro theory of conflict was adopted as framework of analysis. The study adopts documentary and survey research design while data were collected through primary and secondary sources. The secondary source are data in books, journals, internet materials, Court documents relating to the conflict, Government Gazettes on the conflict, memoranda and petitions submitted by the communities to different Panel of Inquiry, and recommendations of different Panels of Inquiry on the conflict. The primary source is data generated directly from respondents through interview. Purposive sampling technique was used to select forty (40) respondents inter viewed. The paper found that the conflict had led to loss of several lives and properties and created internally displaced persons who took refuge in the neighboring communities and within Oruku. The paper argues that resolution of such an intractable and destructive conflict requires neutrality by interveners and a change of strategy and approach with the adoption of conflict transformation through which both the actors, the issues, structural, behavioural and attitudinal aspects of the conflict will be transformed. The paper recommends that Government and third-party interveners should be neutral in their bid to resolve the conflict and that the youths who are combatants in the area should be demobilized and empowered. Those who were displaced by the conflict should be identified and rehabilitated by government or non-governmental organizations so as to alleviate their suffering and change their perception from the culture of war to a culture of peace.

Page(s): 331-342                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2019

 Adenyi Theophilus Okechukwu
Department of Political Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Nnamchi Kevin Chikwado
Department of International Relations/Peace Conflict and Strategic Studies, University of America Murrieta California, United States

 Onyia Michael Chukwuka
Department of International Relations/Peace Conflict and Strategic Studies, University of America Murrieta California, United States

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Adenyi Theophilus Okechukwu, Nnamchi Kevin Chikwado, Onyia Michael Chukwuka “Destructive Nature of Communal Conflict in Nigeria: A Focus on Oruku and Umuode Conflict in Enugu State of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.331-342 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/331-342.pdf

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Development of English in Analyzer Module in Increasing the English Language Ability for Health Analysis Students

Nova Mustika, Anggun Sophia – September 2019 Page No.: 343-347

One important thing to highlight in improving the quality of education in health tertiary institutions is the facilities and infrastructure in the form of learning modules, especially those concerning the English language practice specifically for health analysts. The author considers that the module is a very important tool in the smoothness of a learning process because the learning process module is expected to run more directed and the learning objectives can be achieved. This study aims to develop English in Analyzer module in improving English language skills for valid health analyst students. This type of research used is research and development or Research and Development (R&D), which is research that produces certain products. The development model used in this study is the 4 D model, namely Define, design, develop, disseminate. The research instrument used in the form of a questionnaire consisting of sheets of the validity of English learning outcomes tests. This English in Analyzer module is validated by 3 validators consisting of 1 Lecturer with an English Doctor’s Degree, 1 English Lecturer at the STIKes Perintis Padang and 1 Health Analyst Lecturer at the STIKes Perintis Padang. The results of the lecturer practicality and student practicality sheets showed the average kappa moment (k) scores were 0.87, 0.71, respectively. Both of these scores if interpreted in the kappa moment category then the validity and practicality category of this module is High. Modules that have been developed are practically used for learning English for Health Analyst Students.

Page(s): 343-347                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2019

 Nova Mustika
D III Analis Kesehatan, STIKes Perintis Padang, Lubuk Buaya Padang, Indonesia

 Anggun Sophia
D III Keperawatan, STIKes Perintis Padang, Lubuk Buaya Padang, Indonesia

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Nova Mustika, Anggun Sophia “Development of English in Analyzer Module in Increasing the English Language Ability for Health Analysis Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.343-347 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/343-347.pdf

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Economic and Political Challenges of Regional Integration in South-Asian Countries

Ajith Dissanayaka – September 2019 Page No.: 348-353

Economic and political integration in South Asian countries is said to be the major objective of SAARC. However, it is observed by many researchers that it is still far beyond the reality even after nearly 30 years from establishment of SAARC. Most of the studies on SAARC regional co-operation have highlighted more of the unsuccessful stories than successes. Changes in world economic order and changes in regional and domestic politics are blamed for it. This has lead variety of criticisms regarding the evolution of the SAARC to its present form. Criticisms range from the ides that it is a ‘talking shop’ to the critique that it is not a place for regional problems. Some commentators have gone to the extent that it is a “poor’s club”. In fact, these criticisms are not without reasons. This article examines political and economic factors behind the poor regional integration in SAARC.

Page(s): 348-353                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2019

 Ajith Dissanayaka
Department of Economics, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

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Ajith Dissanayaka “Economic and Political Challenges of Regional Integration in South-Asian Countries” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.348-353 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/348-353.pdf

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Financial Resources Management in Higher Education

Umeghalu, Evelyn Okwuchukwu, Agha, Chisara Julia, Okeowhor, Donatus Odinakachi – September 2019 Page No.: 354-359

Higher institutions of learning in Nigeria, especially government-owned ones are in need of strong financial resources management in order to be better the lot of the students as well as the full actualisation of their given mandate. In this respect, Financial Resources Management becomes one of the highly preferred corporate techniques by higher education institutions for serving as a reputable institution and attracts more financial gifting from the entire public as well as foreign vested interests. This study proffered exposition on the need for financial resources management in higher education, in the context of higher institutions of learning in Nigeria. Based on the exposition, it was suggested among others that, research work should be made available to the public on 80/20 ratio. 80 per cent commercialised and 20 percent open access. Also, students as well as other scholars of Higher Education should be provided with crowd-funding platform for research project.

Page(s): 354-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2019

 Umeghalu, Evelyn Okwuchukwu
Doctorate Student, University of Port Harcourt, Department of Educational Management – Administration option

 Agha, Chisara Julia
Doctorate Student, University of Port Harcourt, Department of Educational Management – Higher Education option

 Okeowhor, Donatus Odinakachi
Doctorate Student, University of Port Harcourt, Department of Educational Management – Administration option

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Umeghalu, Evelyn Okwuchukwu, Agha, Chisara Julia, Okeowhor, Donatus Odinakachi “Financial Resources Management in Higher Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.354-359 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/354-359.pdf

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Adapted Hypermedia Shapes the Achievement of Geography: A Case of Hearing Impaired Students in Kenya

Obondo Gaudence – September 2019 Page No.: 360-367

The hearing impaired (HI) students often encounter communication problems in classroom. Yet some specific media can facilitate and enhance their learning. This study reports on the development of hypermedia educational instruction that supports HI student’s achievement in Geomorphology. The objectives were to find out; the achievement of students exposed to hypermedia lesson in Geomorphology and gender disparity. The study was informed by multiple intelligence and cognitive theory of multimedia learning regarding individual differences and strength of the brain to store well and recall images as opposed to text. The study assumed a pragmatic research paradigm adopting mixed methods using quasi experimental approach involving Solomon four nonequivalent control group design. Simple random sampling procedure was used to obtain four schools, two for experiment and two for control group. Data collection instruments were pre-test, post-test and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that use of hypermedia for teaching HI resulted in higher achievement, girls improved more than boys. These findings may create awareness and need for integrating hypermedia in pedagogy for improved performance, thus helping learners to focus attention that promotes teachers’ instructional technique. The following recommendations were made; review of curriculum and digitize HI content, improve ICT infrastructure and facilities, teachers should exploit the potential of hypermedia to develop a wide range of student’s skills.

Page(s): 360-367                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2019

 Obondo Gaudence
Homa Bay Primary School: Box 33-40300 Homa Bay, Kenya

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Obondo Gaudence “Adapted Hypermedia Shapes the Achievement of Geography: A Case of Hearing Impaired Students in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.360-367 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/360-367.pdf

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Integration of Hypermedia Instruction: a Change in Pedagogy for Hearing Impaired Students in Kenya

Dr. Obondo Gaudence, Professor Nabwire Violet Kafwa, Professor Too Jackson Kiprop – September 2019 Page No.: 368-376

Hypermedia is being used increasingly to provide heuristic approach. Integration of hypermedia into pedagogy is on the assumption that it helps students learn. The study determined changes on the role of both students and teachers and challenges experienced in integrating hypermedia. The study employed multiple intelligent (MI) theory. A mixed method approach involving quasi experimental was used. Four schools were selected and assigned randomly to control and experimental. Data was collected through rigorous interview and questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was used to summarize data, which was presented in tables. The results revealed that there are changes in role; students from passive to active, teachers from dispenser of knowledge to facilitator. Hypermedia allows interaction and self-learning, it is difficult to integrate due to varied disabilities and prerequisites.

Page(s): 368-376                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2019

 Dr. Obondo Gaudence
Department of Curriculum Instruction and Educational Media, Moi University, Kenya

 Professor Nabwire Violet Kafwa
Department of Curriculum Instruction and Educational Media, Moi University, Kenya

 Professor Too Jackson Kiprop
Department of Curriculum Instruction and Educational Media, Moi University, Kenya

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[47]. Zamfirov, M., &Saeva, S. (2013) Computer enhanced English language tool for students with hearing loss — A Bulgarian study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 16(3), 259-273.http://www.ifets.info/journals/16_3/20.pd

Dr. Obondo Gaudence, Professor Nabwire Violet Kafwa, Professor Too Jackson Kiprop “Integration of Hypermedia Instruction: a Change in Pedagogy for Hearing Impaired Students in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.368-376 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/368-376.pdf

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The Influence of Leadership Style and Organizational Culture on Retention of Volunteers in Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya: A Case Study of Kenya Redcross Society

Patricia Chemutai, Janet Wanja – September 2019 Page No.: 377-383

Modern societies share a common value of helping each other; not only do volunteer acts assist others but they also benefit the individual on a personal level. NGO’s have had an increasing role in international development, particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation.The role of leadership style and organizational culture in managing and retaining volunteers is, therefore, essential. This study aimed at determining the influence of leadership style and organizational culture on retention of volunteers in non-governmental organizations in Kenya. The specific objectives were; to establish the effect of leadership style and organizational culture on retention of volunteers in non-governmental organizations in Kenya. A descriptive research design was used with a target population of 65 employees. Quantitative data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS and presented using tables, figures and charts. The results indicated that leadership style influencesretention of volunteers at a rate of 65%. Accordingly, 35% of the respondents agreed that creation of an enabling environment for proactiveness influences retention of volunteers to very great extent, 33% to a great extent, 10% to a moderate extent,5% to a low extent and15% to a very low extent. On the other hand, 79% of the respondents felt that organizational culture affect retention of volunteers in non-governmental organizations. Additionally, 42% of the respondents agreed that a culture that put emphasis on team-orientation ensures retention of volunteers to a very great extent, 19% to a great extent, 12% to a moderate extent, 5% to a low extent and 21% to a very low extent. The study recommends adoption of good leadership styles that encourage employees and volunteers to take self-initiatives while embracing an organizational culture that fosters teamwork in non-governmental institutions.

Page(s): 377-383                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 October 2019

 Patricia Chemutai
Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi Kenya

 Janet Wanja
Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi Kenya

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Patricia Chemutai, Janet Wanja “The Influence of Leadership Style and Organizational Culture on Retention of Volunteers in Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya: A Case Study of Kenya Redcross Society” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.377-383 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/377-383.pdf

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Effect of Integrating Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching of Electronics on the Development of 21st Century learning and Innovation skills in university students: A Case of Mukuba University

Charles Saviye, Jack G. Jumbe, Justin K. Pondo – September 2019 Page No.: 384-392

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of integrating ICT in the teaching of Introductory Electronics on the development of 21st century learning and innovation skills in university students. The study was undertaken with all 3rd year students of Introductory Electronics at Mukuba University, pursuing a Bachelor of Education in Physics. (B.Ed. Physics). Two groups pre-test post-test experimental design was used in this quantitative study. The sample consisted of 41 students who were randomly assigned into two groups i.e. the experimental and control groups. To assess 21st century learning and innovation skills, a self-assessment 21st century learning and innovation skills Likert scale questionnaire and an observation sheet with a rubric were used to collect data. A Mann-Whitney u-test at an alpha 0.05 was used to investigate if there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups before intervention (Pre-test) and after intervention (Post-test). The findings in the post-test indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in the 21st century learning and innovation skills between the Experimental (Mean rank = 31.00, Mean = 4.26, SD =0.70) and Control (Mean rank = 10.50, Mean =2.05, SD = 0.32) groups; u-test =0.000, Z-score= -5.673 and p=0.000. These results suggest that integrating information and communication technology in the teaching of Introductory Electronics to undergraduate students has a positive effect on students’ development of 21st century learning and innovation skills.

Page(s): 384-392                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 October 2019

 Charles Saviye
Mukuba University, School of Natural Sciences, P.O BOX 20382, Kitwe, Zambia

 Jack G. Jumbe
Copperbelt University, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, P.O BOX 21692, Kitwe, Zambia

 Justin K. Pondo
Copperbelt University, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, P.O BOX 21692, Kitwe, Zambia

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Charles Saviye, Jack G. Jumbe, Justin K. Pondo “Effect of Integrating Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching of Electronics on the Development of 21st Century learning and Innovation skills in university students: A Case of Mukuba University” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.384-392 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/384-392.pdf

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The Scourge of Child Labour in Ondo State and Its Social Implications

Saka-Olokungboye, N, Musa, T.O. – September 2019 Page No.: 393-400

The phenomenon of child labour is a global malaise. Children all over the world have been exposed to hard and labourious tasks, some of which have been found to be dehumanizing, having serious social and health implications. This study “The scourge of child labour in Ondo State and its social implications”, is aimed at investigating the existence of child labour its causes, constraints and social implications and how to eradicate it with particular interest in Ondo State. Ondo state, is one of the states in the south-west geopolitical zone in Nigeria. The state was created in 1976. The state is bounded in the north-west by Ekiti state, west central by Osun State, South-East by Ogun and Delta states and in the South by the Atlantic Ocean. The strategic location of Ondo State has made it one of the largest, the most populated states and one of the urbanized states in Nigeria. The increase in population of Ondo State has forced many families to be engaged in human activities to avoid starvation, scavenge for living that could be described as child labour. Despite measures put in place by the federal government and NGOs to deal with the issue of child labour which includes, the Child’s Right Act (CRA) 2003, trafficking in persons (prohibition) Law enforcement and Administration Act 2003, yet child labour has persisted till date. This paper suggested that government should make legislature that would tackle the problem of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria, effective implementation of policy that would outlaw all forms of child labour and enforcement of Girl-child educational policy.

Page(s): 393-400                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 October 2019

 Saka-Olokungboye, N
Department of Social Sciences Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, PMB 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Musa, T.O.
Department of Social Sciences Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, PMB 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

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Saka-Olokungboye, N, Musa, T.O. “The Scourge of Child Labour in Ondo State and Its Social Implications” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.393-400 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/393-400.pdf

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The Performance of National Pension Commission in Relation to the Management of Retiree’s Pension Funds at the Industrial Training Fund (ITF)

Amina Bala Salah, Assoc. Prof. Yahaya Adadu, Prof. Shaibu Ibrahim – September 2019 Page No.: 401-410

This study examines the Performance of National Pension Commission in Relation to the management of Retiree’s Pension Funds at the Industrial Training Fund (ITF). Survey and analysis of existing data research design was used to generate primary and secondary data respectively. Primary data was collected through the instrument of questionnaire and interview while, the secondary data was collected from textbooks, journals, magazines, periodicals, internet, etc. The study adopted Pension Productivity Theory propounded by Dorsey, Cornwell and Macpherson in 1998. The theory recognizes pension coverage as endogenous and it simultaneously estimates the channels through which pension incentives raise productivity. Findings from the study reveals that, Pension Fund Administrators under supervision of National Pension Commission have over the years of their operation remitted pension funds to the ITF Staff’ Retirement Saving Account. But that of the accumulated arrears are yet to be remitted to the individual RSA accounts. The Pension Fund Administrators in line with National Pension Commission (PenCom) directives have provided the ITF employees with various investment alternative opportunities to choose from. This has provided the platform for employees to decide which Pension Fund Administrators (PFAs) they wish to commit their pension funds into. The new pension scheme under supervision of PenCom has eliminated delay in disbursement of pension benefit to ITF Retirees as well eradicated corruption in the disbursement of pension benefit to ITF retirees. The study therefore recommends among other issues that government, through the instrument of PenCom, Pension Fund Administrators and other stakeholders should as a matter of necessity institute a committee to remit all the outstanding debt of pension arrears owed to ITF Staff and should be credited into their RSA.

Page(s): 401-410                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 October 2019

 Amina Bala Salah
Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria

 Assoc. Prof. Yahaya Adadu
Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria

 Prof. Shaibu Ibrahim
Department of Political Science, Nasarawa State University Keffi, Nigeria

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Amina Bala Salah, Assoc. Prof. Yahaya Adadu, Prof. Shaibu Ibrahim “The Performance of National Pension Commission in Relation to the Management of Retiree’s Pension Funds at the Industrial Training Fund (ITF)
” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.401-410 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/401-410.pdf

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Teachers’position on Implementing Competence Based Curriculum in Tanzania: Adoption of the First Framework

Sadiki M Feruzi and Yang Li – September 2019 Page No.: 411-416

Purpose: The study basically aimed at examining implementation of competence based curriculum in Tanzania using the FIRST framework. The framework has been in practice in one way or another althoughit seems to be new by name in the field of education. Essentially, the framework includes all tools in teaching-learning process where learners are placed at the centre and fully engaged throughout learning journey. By adopting FIRST framework a teacher assumes a facilitation role of all learning activities through actively reviewing every step of learning activities.
Methodology: Regarding the nature of the topic, the study adopted qualitative approach to explore value, opinions and experiences related to teaching and learning in the course of implementing competence based curriculum. A specific method adopted wasreviewing secondary works.
Findings: Some teachers particularly those who had received FIRST framework trainings showed high capacity of implementing competence based curriculum. The study found that implementation of competence based curriculum is well captured through the FIRST framework. In this case more training about the FIRST framework is highly recommended for a smooth implementation of competence based curriculum.
Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: Since implementation of competence based curriculum is very vital to improvement of education in the country the best way to carry it would be adoption of the FIRST framework which has shown positive impact. The study recommends more training of FIRST framework to teachers who are the focussed group meanwhile preparing enough teaching and learning resources. On going training programme to some Tanzanian teachers by SeGa group, the founder of FIRST framework should be strengthened and supported by the government for a greater impact.

Page(s): 411-416                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 October 2019

 Sadiki M Feruzi
School of Education Science, Harbin Normal University, China

 Yang Li
Department of Education, Muslim University of Morogoro, Tanzania

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[3]. Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. SHRE and Open University Press.
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[8]. URT, (2004). Rapid Survey for reviewing Secondary Education Curriculum in Tanzania Mainland. Dar es salaam: Tanzania Institute of Education
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[17]. Kouwenhoven, G. W. (2003). Designing for competence in Mozambique: Towards a competence based – curriculum for the Faculty of Education of the Eduardo Mondlane University. Retrieved on February 29, 2019, from http://www.doc.utwente.n/41442/1/thesis_kouwenhoven.pdf
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[19]. Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why students don’t like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Sadiki M Feruzi and Yang Li “Teachers’position on Implementing Competence Based Curriculum in Tanzania: Adoption of the First Framework” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.411-416 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/411-416.pdf

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Effect of the 21st Century Skills on the Performance of Students in Linear Transformations: A Case of Mukuba University, Kitwe District, Copperbelt Province, Zambia

Evans Musonda – September 2019 Page No.: 417-420

This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of the 21st Century Skills on the performance of Students in Linear Transformations. The problem of poor performance of Second Year Students in Linear Algebra (MAT260), especially in Linear Transformations at Mukuba University has been a matter of concern. To solve this problem a study was conducted by the Researcher. The study population included all Second Year Students doing Linear Algebra (MAT 260)and pursuing a degree programme at Mukuba University. The study was based on one research question and two hypotheses. The research method used was an Experimental Design. The sample size was 60 Students comprising 43 male and 17 female Students. The Shapiro-wilk test was used because of the small sample size. The two groups were made from a homogeneous class at random. Particularly, 30 Students were assigned to the Experimental Group and 30 Students to the Control group. These two groups were subjected to a Pre-test. The Experimental group was lectured using the 21st Century Skills while the Control group was lectured using Conventional methods. The analysis of data was done with the help of SPSS, considering the mean and standard deviation. Then an Independent sample t-test was conducted at alpha (α) = 0.05 to analyse the results of the Post-test scores. The study showedthat there was a statistically significant mean difference in the Post-test scores for Experimental group (Mean = 56.67, standard deviation = 18.26) and the Control group (Mean = 42.67, standard deviation = 19.51), P = .006. Therefore, using 21st Century Skills in lecturing Linear Transformations was found to have a positive effect on Students’ performance.

Page(s): 417-420                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2019

 Evans Musonda
Mukuba University, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, P.O Box 20382, Kitwe, Zambia

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Evans Musonda “Effect of the 21st Century Skills on the Performance of Students in Linear Transformations: A Case of Mukuba University, Kitwe District, Copperbelt Province, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.408-413 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/417-420.pdf

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Monitoring and Evaluation Training on Implementation of Community Projects; Case of Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority, Kenya

Kahuthia, R. W. M, Dr. Ochieng, D. O – September 2019 Page No.: 421-429

Monitoring and evaluation is vital for any project to be implemented effectively. In order to enhance the achievement of this effectiveness, certain factors have to be put into consideration. In Kenya, monitoring and evaluation is a new concept especially in the public sector and is slowly gaining momentum. It is for this reason that this study sought to investigate theeffects of monitoring and evaluation training on project implementation in Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority.The study was anchored on the Participatory Development Model and the Interdependence Theory. In a bid to attain the set objectives, the study adopted descriptive survey design. The target population for the study was 392 staff members of Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority. The study employed stratified and simple random sampling techniques to select a sample of 72 respondents sampled from members of staff from the sampled organisation and purposive sampling technique was employed to select 7 key informants who were heads of different departments in the organisation. Qualitative data was analysed thematically in narrations and descriptions while quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, especially frequencies and percentages, with the assistance of the Statistical Data Analysis Package for Social Sciences. Analysed data was presented in tables of frequencies and percentages, graphs and charts. Analysed data indicated that 88.6% of respondents in the sampled organisation had not received training in monitoring and evaluation.The study recommends M&E training to be offered and highly prioritized and should be offered to all members of staff in the organisation regardless of the department they belong to and the position they hold in the organisation and proper structures need to be put in place. This will contribute positively to monitoring and evaluation in practice, policy and theory in the organization and elsewhere.

Page(s): 421-429                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2019

 Kahuthia, R. W. M
Masters Candidate, St. Paul’s University (SPU), Limuru, Kenya

 Dr. Ochieng, D. O
Senior Lecturer, St. Paul’s University (SPU), Limuru, Kenya

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Kahuthia, R. W. M, Dr. Ochieng, D. O “Monitoring and Evaluation Training on Implementation of Community Projects; Case of Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.421-429 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/421-429.pdf

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Principals’ Supervisory Technique as Predictor of Teachers’ Motivation in Senior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria

Mohammed Gishiwa, Luka Yelwa Barde, Emmanuel Bulus, Ali Mai Abba, Abubakar Aliyu, Waziri Garba El-Jajah – September 2019 Page No.: 430-434

This paper assessed the principals’ supervisory technique as predictor of teachers’ motivation in senior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. There was one purpose that guided the study. One research question and one null hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 5,322 subjects comprising school administrators and classroom teachers of senior secondary schools in Yobe State. The Sample size of 359 respondents comprising school administrators and Teachers were selected using Taro Yamane’s method and 18 senior secondary schools were selected through purposive sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data. Using five likert format rating scale. Mean and standard deviation was used to analyze the research question and linear regression was also used to to analyses the null hypothesis. Findings from this study showed that Principals’ supervisory technique predicted 9.0% of teachers’ motivation. The result also established that Principals’ supervisory technique and teachers’ motivation were found to have weak relationship. (r value = 0.229). Principals’ supervisory technique is moderate and teachers’ motivationis high in senior secondary schools in Yobe state This study also recommended that principals and teachers should maintain cordial relationship with each other, ensure that all instructional materials are kept safe hence Teachers should plan their lesson update school records, use instructional materials in their daily classroom interactions, in senior secondary schools in Yobe State

Page(s): 430-434                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2019

 Mohammed Gishiwa
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Luka Yelwa Barde
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Emmanuel Bulus
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Ali Mai Abba
Teaching Service Board Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.

 Abubakar Aliyu
Umar Suleiman College of Education Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Waziri Garba El-Jajah
Teaching Service Board Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria.

[1]. Akinfolarin. A. V, & Rufai, R. B. (2017). Extent of information and communication technology (ict) utilization for students’ learning in tertiary institutions in Ondo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, 3(3), 2369-2376.
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[11]. Wanja. D. G, (2012) Influence of teachers’ motivation on students’ performance in kenya certificate of secondary education in public secondary schools in imenti south district kenya .

Mohammed Gishiwa, Luka Yelwa Barde, Emmanuel Bulus, Ali Mai Abba, Abubakar Aliyu, Waziri Garba El-Jajah ” Principals’ Supervisory Technique as Predictor of Teachers’ Motivation in Senior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.430-434 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/430-434.pdf

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Teacher Competences in the Teaching of Fashion and Fabrics Practical Skills in Eswatini High Schools

Hlengiwe Ntfombiyekhaya Magagula, Molyn Mpofu, Sithulisiwe Bhebhe – September 2019 Page No.: 435-442

Fashion and Fabrics is a discipline that is practically and theoretically oriented. Teacher competences in teaching Fashion and Fabrics practical component are of critical importance in imparting skills to the students. The purpose of this study was to ascertain teacher competences in teaching the Fashion and Fabrics practical component in Eswatini. The study was purely qualitative and descriptive in nature. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews and observation. The data were analysed using the thematic analysis. Findings of the study revealed that teachers had varying competencies in the sewing processes that they needed in order to impart skills to the students; teachers were competent in the construction and neatening of plain open and closed seams, preparing and attaching patch pocket, disposing of fullness in the construction of garments such as single pointed darts, pleats, gathers. Deficiencies were also noted in the application of openings and fasteners, that is, press studs, hook and eyes and attaching of sleeves. The study concludes that Fashion and Fabrics teachers had varying competencies in the sewing processes that they needed to impart skills to the students. This literally means that the teachers have the knowledge, skill and ability to impart these skills to the students to enable them to produce garments of a high standard. Hence, the study recommends that in-service training be undertaken to equip all Fashion and Fabrics teachers with the practical skills that they lack.

Page(s): 435-442                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2019

 Hlengiwe Ntfombiyekhaya Magagula
Department of Consumer Science Education and Community Development, University of Eswatini, Eswatini

 Molyn Mpofu
Department of Consumer Science Education and Community Development, University of Eswatini, Eswatini

 Sithulisiwe Bhebhe
Department of Primary Teacher Education, University of Eswatini, Eswatini

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Hlengiwe Ntfombiyekhaya Magagula, Molyn Mpofu, Sithulisiwe Bhebhe “Teacher Competences in the Teaching of Fashion and Fabrics Practical Skills in Eswatini High Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.435-442 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/435-442.pdf

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Gender Performance in Home Economics at Mandanga Primary School in Mongu District of Western Province, Zambia: A Comparative Study

Sishuwa Sishuwa, Likando Mundia (PhD) – September 2019 Page No.: 443-445

the purpose of the study was to compare the performance of boys and girls in home economics at grade five school levelat Mandanga Primary school in Mongu district of Western Province in Zambia. The research instruments used in this research included classroom observations, focused groups and semi-structured interviews. Data collected was analysed inductive approach using constant comparative data analysis. The study has revealed that there was balance on the gender performance of Home Economics among the grade five classes at Mandanga Primary School in Mongu district of Western Province in Zambia.

Page(s): 443-445                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2019

 Sishuwa Sishuwa
Student, Mongu Catholic College of Education, Zambia

 Likando Mundia (PhD)
Mongu Catholic College of Education, Zambia

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Maniford Malama, Professor Kakoma Maseka “Gender Performance in Home Economics at Mandanga Primary School in Mongu District of Western Province, Zambia: A Comparative Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.443-445 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/443-445.pdf

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Intellectual Dialogue Between: Renewed “Muhaddith” Al-Imam Ibn Shihab Al-Zuhuri (124 A.H ) and Prominent “Orientalist”: Goldziher Ignas (1339 A.H)

Abdulmalik Sani – September 2019 Page No.: 446-450

Verily, science of hadith is one of the noblest profession comprehended by  few among large number of Islamic scholars, however, Imam Al-zuhuri was not just one of those  professionals but a famous one, he was one the sixth Hadith narrators whom most chains of Hadith passed through them. He devoid and exterminate his life in learning and spreading the authentic Sunnah as well as analyzing the fabricated, weaks Hadiths and criticizing their narrators. Imam Al-zuhri was not just a mere scholar, but one of the renewed philanthropic personage who spends a lot on his Hadith students. His trustiness, sureness cast him high reputation which make hadith narrators from different part of the world troops to narrate hadith from him. Imam Al-zuhri was a scholar blessed with vigorous memory and same time enjoyed marvelous respect and good relationship with the calipers of Umayyad emperor, this paved him more opportunities to easily spread the knowledge he’s blessed with. On other hand, GoldziherIgnas -one of the famous orientalist of his days- raised some issues and indictments against this scholar which can lead to overturning and dawn falling the respected status enjoyed by Imam Al-zuhuri. The factual stand point of Goldziher’s argument was not only the personality of Imam Al-zuhri, rather, the large number of hadith he had preserved and narrated for the Ummah; because trustiness and sound moralities are pre-requisite for hadith of any narrator to be accepted. Here comes the significance of this paper which is made-up of two parts: first briefly discussed life history of Imam Al-zuhri and Goldziher while other part aimed at analyzing the accusations linked to Al-zuhuri and finally came-up with sound epilogue that can either Exculpate  or prove Imam Al-zuhuri culprit of the allegations.

Page(s): 446-450                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2019

 Abdulmalik Sani
Postgraduate Student, Department of Fiqh Al-Sunnah (Sunnah Jurisprudence), Faculty of Hadith and Islamic Studies, Islamic Universitym Madina, Saudi Arabia

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Abdulmalik Sani “Intellectual Dialogue Between: Renewed “Muhaddith” Al-Imam Ibn Shihab Al-Zuhuri (124 A.H ) and Prominent “Orientalist”: Goldziher Ignas (1339 A.H)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 9, pp.446-450 September 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-9/446-450.pdf

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Adequacy of Truth Commissions as Alternative to Criminal Prosecution: A Discourse

Emmanuel Agu Enna, Augustine Mogom Idom – September 2019 Page No.: 451-456