The Place of Social Work in Preserving Human Rights in Context of Changing Gender Roles in Nigeria

Atumah, Oscar N, Agwu, Prince. C. & Okoye, Uzoma. O. – June 2019 Page No.: 01-05

Contemporary struggles between genders have ensued changes in gender roles, with relative harmful implications for family and societal members. This has occasioned implications for human rights, thus creating relevance for the social work profession in managing such change. This paper utilized the rational choice theory in justifying core reasons people derive from maximizing their potentials and fulfilling their goals. The paper stuck to secondary sources of data collection and concluded that these changing gender roles occasion cases of human rights concerns which cut across various levels of practice. Hence, social workers as stakeholders in human rights fields should play the role of professionals with relevant skills and knowledge to achieve successful management of the inevitable change.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2019

 Atumah, Oscar N
Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

 Agwu, Prince. C.
Department of Social Work, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Okoye, Uzoma. O.
Department of Social Work, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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Atumah, Oscar N, Agwu, Prince. C. & Okoye, Uzoma. O. “The Place of Social Work in Preserving Human Rights in Context of Changing Gender Roles in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.01-05 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/01-05.pdf

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Determining the Actus Reus of Attempt: Legal Issues and Options

Uduak Alphonsus Ikono – June 2019 Page No.: 06-18

The criminal law does not punish people merely for intending to commit a crime, but it may punish attempt aimed at carrying out such a crime because the conduct constituting the attempt may be as guilty if it fails to achieve its purpose as though it had been successful. Criminal attempt is a generic name for inchoate offences which though short of completion are crimes of their own right. The rationale for criminal attempt is for the prevention of crime. Although a crime of its own, criminal attempt is confronted with many problems. This paper examines the law of attempt, noting the inherent problems associated with it especially the difficulties in determining what constitutes the actusreus of attempt. The paper canvasses inter alia for a reenactment of criminal attempt with a delimiting general rule vesting in the courts discretion on arriving at what constitutes the actusreus.

Page(s): 06-18                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2019

 Uduak Alphonsus Ikono
University of Uyo, Nigeria

Reference are not available

Uduak Alphonsus Ikono ” Determining the Actus Reus of Attempt: Legal Issues and Options ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.06-18 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/06-18.pdf

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Is it Possible to Fulfil the Abundant Educational Demand through ODL System in Modern Era- Teachers’ View
Dr. Tapas Ghoshal – June 2019 – Page No.: 19-20

The present investigation has been conducted to study the teachers’ perception about ODL system. The ODL system distinct from traditional education system and an open concept education system that offer an opportunity for everyone to study and attain degree credentials irrespective of age, qualification, race, creed etc. In modern time higher education demand is gradually increasing. To fulfil that demand, ODL system as well as traditional education system has gradually occupied a major role. In the early 1990s, only 5% of the total eligible population enrolled in higher education institutions of India. But as per AISHE (all India survey in higher education-2011-12) total enrolment in higher education has been estimated to be 28.56 million, among that distance enrolment 12.5% of the total enrolment in higher education. The study involved one hundred and twenty (120) secondary school teachers who are randomly selected. The collected data are analysed with suitable statistical techniques such as mean and percentile. The results indicate that very few teachers thought that ODL system is not enough for modern educational demand. On the other hand, most of the teachers think that ODL and formal education- both are essential for fulfil the huge modern educational demand.

Page(s): 19-20                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2019

 Dr. Tapas Ghoshal
Assistant Teacher, Sagar Bhanga High School, Durgapur-13, W.B, India

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[6]. Chaudhary,S.V.S. & Dey,N.(2013) “Assessment in open and distance learning system (ODL):A Challenge”, open praxis,Vol-5/3.pgs.207-216.

Dr. Tapas Ghoshal “Is it Possible to Fulfil the Abundant Educational Demand through ODL System in Modern Era- Teachers’ View” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.19-20 June 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/19-20.pdf

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Negritudism in African Education: The Ghanaian Perspective

Ruby Jecty, Benjamin Ayerkain Tettey – June 2019 Page No.: 21-25

The main objective of the study was to transfer the philosophies of negritude as an ideology in literature into education to sensitize well-meaning Ghanaians, stakeholders in education and traditional custodians on the collapse of cultural awareness subjects from Ghanaian school curriculum. The study traced the continuity from a much older work Ethiopia Unbound to a more recent one Two Thousand Seasons to see how Ghanaian novelists have contributed textually to the sentiments of negritude which can be adapted and adopted by curriculum designers for Ghanaian education. The research design used for this study was a library research which involved activities in which the researcher worked exclusively on literature which addresses the issue. No attempt is made at reviewing literature on this study as the authors, saturated with the numerous experiments with issues of Ghanaian education by politicians wish to express a ‘spontaneous overflow of strong emotions.’ However, the knowledge gained by the authors was derived from various literature and these are duly acknowledged. The findings led to suggesting subjects and courses to be studied in Ghanaian schools.

Page(s): 21-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 June 2019

 Ruby Jecty
Foso College of Education, Assin Foso, Central Region, Ghana

 Benjamin Ayerkain Tettey
Foso College of Education, Assin Foso, Central Region, Ghana

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Ruby Jecty, Benjamin Ayerkain Tettey “Negritudism in African Education: The Ghanaian Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.21-25 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/21-25.pdf

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Teachers’ Perception of Effective Training and Adequacy of Qualified Teachers for the Implementation of UBE Programme in Ankpa Education Zone of Kogi State

Shaba Iyogbele, Shaibu Leonard Phd – June 2019 Page No.: 26-37

The study investigated teachers’ perception on the implementation of UBE programme in Ankpa Education Zone of Kogi State. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of 112 UBE schools in Ankpa Education Zone with the population 2,234 teaching staff. A sample of 400 teachers from 25 UBE schools were used for the study. A 20 – item four-point rating scale questionnaire title “Effective Training and Adequacy Of Qualified Teachers Parameter (ETAQTP)” was used for data collection. The reliability of the instrument was established through the Cronbach Alpha which yielded 0.77. Mean and Standard Deviations were used to answer the four research questions, while chi-square (x2) was used to test the two hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed among others that training (248.50>3.84) and teacher’s qualification (210.17>3.84), have significant relationship with the implementation of UBE in Ankpa Education Zone of Kogi State. Based on the results of this study, the researcher recommended that school administrators should ensure that their teachers are trained and retrained and that training should be elongated to ensure that teachers will have more time to interact with one another as well as with resource persons so as to make them well equip to implement the UBE programme. Government should set a standard of a minimum of first degree in Education as highest qualification to teach in the UBE programme.

Page(s): 26-37                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 June 2019

 Shaba Iyogbele
Department of Social Studies Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Shaibu Leonard Phd
Department of Educational Foundations, Kogi State University, Anyigba- Nigeria.

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[4]. Adebola O.J. (2007). Perceived impact of UBE on national development inNigeria. A case study of Lagos State: International Journal of African American Studies. 1(1) pp. 25 – 31. 11thJanuary, 2007.
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[6]. Adepoju, A & Fabiyi, A. (2009). Universal basic education in Nigeria: challenges and prospects. Http://uaps2007.princetonedu/ download.aspx? Submission=70830. (Retrieved 08-04-11).
[7]. Adesina, S. (2002). Memorandum submitted to the panel on alternative sources of funding education. Lagos: Federal Ministry of Education, 1-5.
[8]. Adeyemi, T.O. (2007). Teacher Preparation and Availability for Achieving Basic Education in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal Social Science 2(2): 159 – 168 7th May 2013 10:00am
[9]. Adeyemi, T.O. (2007). Teacher Preparation and Availability for Achieving Basic Education in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal Social Science 2(2): 159 – 168 7th May 2013 10:00am
[10]. Akpakwu, S.O. (2007). Management in education: A manuscript. Kogi State University, Makurdi.
[11]. Aluede, R.O.A (2006). Universal Basic Education in Nigeria Matters Arising in Human Economic. 20. (2).
[12]. Apeinumbu, S. (2012). Monitoring and the implementation of universal basic education in primary schools in Zone B senatorial district of Kogi State. An unpublished M.Ed Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Kogi State University,
[13]. Awua, J. (2003). An introduction to educational supervision in Nigeria. Onitsha: Etikokwu Publishers.
[14]. Dike, V. (2005). Lack of resources threatens UBE: News from Africa, Lagos, Nigeria. From http://vvww.newsfromafrica.org/newsfromafrica/article/art-9114.html. retrieved April 17th, 2014 11:07am
[15]. Dina, E.A. (2001). School learning resource materials as a factor for attainment of high education standard in Nigerian Schools. Teachers Education Today, 1, 79-86.
[16]. Ejieh, M.U. (2009). The Universal Basic Education as an Effective Strategy for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria. Nebula, 2(5), 112-121.
[17]. El-Yakub, S.U. (2001). Universal basic education: A second chance for Zaria Local Government Area. Being a paper presented at the 3r National Association for the Advancement of Knowledge. Osiele Abeokuta. 5-10
[18]. Emaikwu, S.O. (2013). Fundamentals of Educational Research Methods and Statistics. Deray Prints Ltd Kaduna.
[19]. Emeh, J.U. Umoinyang I.E. & Oden, N. (2002). Dimensions of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria. Theoretical and Practical Issues. Calabar: Institute of Education, University of Calabar.
[20]. Ezekwesili, O. (2007). Reinventing Education: Vanguard New paper. Jan 4, 2007. P. 47.
[21]. Federal Ministry of Education (2000). Comprehensive education analysis project: Secondary report. FGN/UNICEF/UNESCO/UNDP.
[22]. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2000). Education today for UBE Abuja: Government Printing Press.
[23]. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education. Lagos: Government Printing Press.
[24]. Mataga, D.A & Abdullahi, MJ.A (2002). Life-long Education through university Basic Education the Teacher’s Role. Book of Readings in Business Education, 1(2), 1-5.
[25]. Mkpa, M.A. (2000). Teachers’ preparation for a successful basic education (TJBE) in Nigeria. A paper presented at the All Nigeria Conference of Principals of Secondary School (ANCOPSS) Umuahia, Abia State. 14th -16th August.
[26]. Mkpa, M.A. (2000). Teachers’ preparation for a successful basic education (TJBE) in Nigeria. A paper presented at the All Nigeria Conference of Principals of Secondary School (ANCOPSS) Umuahia, Abia State. 14th -16th August.
[27]. Mobolaji, A.P. (2002). Primary education and the problem of qualified teachers in planning and implementation of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria. Ibadan: Education Industries Nigeria Ltd.
[28]. Nakpodia (2011). Teacher factors in the implementation of universal basic education programme in junior secondary schools in the South Senatorial District of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research 3(10,) 144-151.
[29]. Obasanjo, O. (1999). Address delivered on the occasion of the re¬launching of the UBE programme is Sokoto 30th September,
[30]. Obioma, G. (2006). The role of teachers in the implementation of UBE in Nigeria:Paper presented at the 47l Annual Conference of STAN in Calabar.
[31]. Obiunu, J.J. (2011). Teachers Perception of the Universal Basic Education Programme as an Educational Reform Policy. The Social Sciences, 6(2), 150-154.
[32]. Ogbonnaya N.O. (2003). Principle and application of educational policies onNigeria Nsukka: University Trust Publishers. University of Nigeria
[33]. Oguche, O. (2006). Sustaining the UBE programme. Onitsha: Africana First Publishers Ltd.
[34]. Ohwojero, P.O. (2010). Integrative funding and effective implementation of universal basic education programme in Delta State. Masters dissertation, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
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[38]. Universal Basic Education Commission (2013). Universal basic education. Retrieved from http://www.ubeconline.com/index.2.html, 3/12/2013..12:02 AM.

Shaba Iyogbele, Shaibu Leonard Phd “Teachers’ Perception of Effective Training and Adequacy of Qualified Teachers for the Implementation of UBE Programme in Ankpa Education Zone of Kogi State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.26-37 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/26-37.pdf

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Action Research Writing: Outliving its Pedagogical Essencein Colleges of Education in Ghana

Ruby Jecty, Dr. Nana Kwaku Asiedu – June 2019 Page No.: 38-47

The study used an adaptation of Susman’s Action Research Cycle model to evaluate action research writing in selected excellence award winning initial teacher education institution in Ghana. The study involved comparing performance data of the action research writing perceived by students and tutor supervisors to standards expected from Susman’s cycle design. Performance data was obtained by administering two survey instruments to a random sample of students and tutor supervisors. Discrepancies between performance and standards were reported. The study concluded that although action research standards expect that students report on perceived classroom learning needs per their reflective log and design innovative strategies to address them, they copy from already prepared reports, called “grandfather” thereby affecting professional and academic performance of a large number of both teachers and learners in the public schools in Ghana.The authors recommend that sp.

Page(s): 38-47                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 June 2019

 Ruby Jecty
Tutor, Foso College of Education, Assin Foso, Central Region, Ghana

 Dr. Nana Kwaku Asiedu
Principal, Foso College of Education, Assin Foso, Central Region, Ghana

[1]. Gerald J. (2008). Teacher Action Research: Building Knowledge Democracies, Sage Publications.
[2]. Denscombe M. 2010. Good Research Guide :For Small-Scale Social Research Projects (4th Edition). Open University Press.Berkshire, GBR. ISBN 978-0-3352-4138-5
[3]. Kurt Lewin(1958). Group Decision AndSocial Change. New York: Holt, Rinehart AndWinston. P. 201.
[4]. Mcniff, J. &Whitehead, J. (2006) All You Need To Know About Action Research, London; Sage.
[5]. Greenwood, D. J. &Levin, M., (2007) Introduction To Action Research. Second Edition, Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
[6]. Atkins, L &Wallace, S. (2012). Qualitative Research InEducation. London: Sage Publications.
[7]. Burns, D. 2007. Systemic Action Research: A Strategy For Whole System Change. Bristol: Policy Press.
[8]. Noffke, S. &Somekh, B. (Ed.) (2009) The SAGE Handbook of Educational Action Research. London: SAGE. ISBN 978-1-4129-4708-4.Pine/ Human Inquiry. London: Sage.
[9]. Susman G.I. And Evered R.D., 1978.Administrative Science Quarterly, An Assessment Of The Scientific Merits Of Action Research. Vol. 23, No. 4, Pp. 582–603 JSTOR 2392581

Ruby Jecty, Dr. Nana Kwaku Asiedu “Action Research Writing: Outliving its Pedagogical Essencein Colleges of Education in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.38-47 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/38-47.pdf

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Examining Performance and Challenges of Private Universities in Malawi

Samson C. R. Kajawo- June 2019 Page No.: 48-58

Private higher education has been extensively accepted by many countries in the world, including Malawi. Are the private universities performing effectively? This study sought to examine the performance and challenges of the private universities in Malawi. The study was guided by three research questions which examined the performance of private universities and how universities’ accreditation policies and resources such as financial, human and physical were contributing or affecting their performance. Guided by the systems theory by Bertalanffy, this study was conducted at six private universities located in the Blantyre City in Malawi using a mixed methods research approach; utilizing the descriptive convergent parallel design. It involved a total of 152 respondents using questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Documentary review and observations were also used for collecting data. The key finding of this study was that private universities were extending higher education opportunities to a lot of Malawians left out by public universities with relevant study programs. However, the study revealed that the quality of higher education offered in these universities left a lot to be desired due to numerous challenges starting from insufficient finances due to their over dependency on students’ fees, of which their enrolments were beyond minimum levels. This led to challenges of inadequacy of qualified teachers and physical resources such as infrastructures and equipment. As a result of all these hiccups, education quality was compromised. The study therefore recommended that government should strengthen its monitoring and control efforts as well as support financially these institutions, and that private universities should come up with other ways of fund raising, as well as considering merging.

Page(s): 48-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2019

 Samson C. R. Kajawo
International Center for Teacher Education – East China Normal University

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Samson C. R. Kajawo, “Examining Performance and Challenges of Private Universities in Malawi” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.48-58 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/48-58.pdf

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Knowledge Diplomacy and the Digital World: The Role of International Tertiary Education towards Equitable Access to Education

Vincent Ado Tenebe (PhD), Amuche Christian Igomu (PhD) – June 2019 Page No.: 59-69

The digital world every second continues to transform our tertiary education through technology and platforms. International tertiary education as a global knowledge producer and developer of high skills needs to change its role towards knowledge diplomacy. The very nature of Higher Education, how it is delivered and the role of universities in society and the economy is changing, and will continue to change significantly in the next decade. Universities are competing globally for students, academics and funding, and only those that stay relevant and leverage new digital capabilities will benefit in this digital age. Many universities are developing specific digital strategies in reaction to the massive shift towards using new technology, yet lack the vision, capability or commitment to implement them effectively. New technologies and platforms are revolutionizing the way that knowledge is produced, accessed and used globally. Solutions to many of the world’s greatest challenges are increasingly within reach. The speed and scale of change is also disrupting labour markets and business models, radically changing the nature of jobs and the skills required. While technologies are creating huge opportunities, International Tertiary Education (ITE) has a unique and indispensable role to play in preventing and countering polarization in the society. In a rapidly globalizing world, many are concerned about climate change, the economy and technological developments. Against this background, social polarization is challenging democracies and terrorism, and spreading violence and terror. Society at large (including the pillars and institutions of democracy) need to step up to these challenges.This paper explored the role of international tertiary education towards ensuring equitable access to education with examples of Higher Education practice geared towards contributing to addressing inequalities in access to HE in Nigeria.

Page(s): 59-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2019

 Vincent Ado Tenebe (PhD)
Taraba State University, Jalingo Taraba State, Nigeria

 Amuche Christian Igomu (PhD)
Faculty of Education, Taraba State University, Jalingo Taraba State Nigeria

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Vincent Ado Tenebe (PhD), Amuche Christian Igomu (PhD), “Knowledge Diplomacy and the Digital World: The Role of International Tertiary Education towards Equitable Access to Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.59-69 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/59-69.pdf

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Credit Risk Management and Profitability: Challenges and Insight of Commercial Banks

Dankwa, Ernest Akwasi Adom- June 2019 Page No.: 70-76

The present article aimed to determine the impact of credit risk management on bank profitability performance using the Ecobank group covering the period 2013 to 2017. Based on research conducted abroad on bank and profitability indicators, in order to obtain research results the author evaluated return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) indicators of the Ecobank Group. This research interrogated the macro and micro implications of credit risk management on the profitability performance on the Ecobank Group by applying key credit risks tools and techniques. Based on the obtained results, the author have concluded that there is a statistical significance in profitability and default rate (i.e. a borrower’s default negatively affect banks profitability-ROA &ROE); a finding in line as posited in earlier studies by Opoku (2016); Gizaw et al (2015) & Mendoza et al (2017).Based on the study outcome, the author concluded that commercial banks must adhered to facility granting protocols to avoid giving bad loans as its impact on investor returns is detrimental and could affect their share prices in medium to long term.

Page(s): 70-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2019

 Dankwa, Ernest Akwasi Adom
Business School, Garden City University College, P.O. Box 12775 Kumasi-Ghana

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Dankwa, Ernest Akwasi Adom” Credit Risk Management and Profitability: Challenges and Insight of Commercial Banks” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.70-76 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/70-76.pdf

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Information Communication Technology (ICT) Use for Postgraduate Studies by Students in Universities in Kenya

Emily Nyabisi – June 2019 Page No.: 77-84

Higher education, especially postgraduate training, plays a critical role in developing a highly skilled workforce for a competitive global economy and sustainable development. However, postgraduate training in most African countries, Kenya included, faces several challenges; key among them the long periods of time taken to complete the training. This is despite advancement in technology that should be utilized for timely completion of postgraduate studies. This study sought to assess the use of ICT by post graduate students in Universities in Kenya; by exploring the areas of use, proficiency in use, effect of use on progression and the challenges of using ICT. The data for the study was collected from a small, representative group of postgraduate students from six randomly selected universities in Kenya. The data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules; in a mixed methods approach. The quantitative data was analyzed by use of both descriptive and inferential statistics; whereas the qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The findings of this study were used to make recommendations for enhancing the use of ICT in postgraduate training.

Page(s): 77-84                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2019

 Emily Nyabisi
Department of Educational Management and Curriculum Studies, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

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Emily Nyabisi “Information Communication Technology (ICT) Use for Postgraduate Studies by Students in Universities in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.77-84 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/77-84.pdf

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The Role of Entrepreneurship in Rural Development in Cross River State, Nigeria

Ihejiamaizu, Grace Chinonye – June 2019 Page No.: 85-91

This paper examined the role played by entrepreneurship in rural development in Cross River State, Nigeria. The paper was anchored on the Keynesian Classical Theory. Survey research design was employed for the study. The study employed cluster and simple random sampling technique. Primary data were gathered using a self-administered 4-point Likert Scale questionnaire ranging from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree. The data collected were analyzed descriptively using mean rating. The study found that entrepreneurship plays a critical role in rural economic development such as improvement in the standard of living, creation of employment opportunities, alleviation of poverty, utilization of local resources and reduction of rural-urban migration. The major recommendation was that rural entrepreneurship be encouraged and promoted through the provision of incentives to rural entrepreneurs in the form of tax relief and concession for at least 10 years to encourage them to plough back earnings for scaling and expansion. It also recommended that the government pay attention to infrastructure development and maintenance in rural areas as it goes a long way to encourage trade and business transaction within rural communities, improve the socio-economic wellbeing of rural dwellers and serve as stimuli in boosting the rural economy.

Page(s): 85-91                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2019

 Ihejiamaizu, Grace Chinonye
Department of Social Work, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

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Ihejiamaizu, Grace Chinonye “The Role of Entrepreneurship in Rural Development in Cross River State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.85-91 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/85-91.pdf

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Nigeria’s Foreign Policy and OIC Membership: The Constitutional Legality for Membership

Yusuf Ibrahim Gamawa Ph.D – June 2019 Page No.: 92-95

Nigeria’s membership into the Organization of Islamic Conference has remained controversial over several years. Many have expressed doubts regarding the legality of Nigeria’s since the country is not an Islamic Republic and its constitution is secular in nature. Many have gone to the extent of declaring Nigeria’s membership to the organization unconstitutional, citing Section 10 of the Nigerian 1999 Constitution which states that ‘the Government of the Federation or the State shall not adopt any Religion as State Religion’, to justify their claims. It is not clear if the Supreme Court of Nigeria or any other Court had given interpretation to that section of the 1999 Constitution. However, a closer observation to what is contained in the section will show that it only prohibits the adoption by the Government of Nigeria of any religion as the religion of the State or government, or official religion of choice that will be recognized by government. And if that is what it means, then Nigeria’s membership to the OIC is entirely a different issue that needs to be looked at from another angle, not seen before. This paper argues that Nigeria’s membership must be looked at from IR perspective and specifically from the perspective of Nigeria’s foreign policy objectives and the question of the national interest.

Page(s): 92-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2019

 Yusuf Ibrahim Gamawa Ph.D
Olusegun Obasanjo Center for African Studies [OOCAS]
National Open University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

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Yusuf Ibrahim Gamawa Ph.D “Nigeria’s Foreign Policy and OIC Membership: The Constitutional Legality for Membership” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.92-95 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/92-95.pdf

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Re-Structuring the Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Accelerated National Development

Dr. Ogunbote Shefiu, Njoku Chiso Anslem, Ajuluchi Chika, E. & Okwume Georgina Ukamaka – June 2019 Page No.: 96-99

This paper discussed the need to re-structure the implementation of TVET in Nigeria for accelerated national development. This is because the novel changes in the world of work have been fueled by myriad competitiveness in industry and also the fact that TVET plays a key role in poverty alleviation of a country. This has presented a need for policy makers and administrators to equip the TVET schools with the right equipment and also the students with the right skills. This paper also x-rays the history of TVET in Nigeria, Employment and workplace pressure for change, problems of TVET in Nigeria as well as the need to Re-structure TVET for National Development. A number of recommendations were made which includes the need for a strong linkage and collaboration between training institutions and the industry and also thatthe initial TVET curriculum should be adjusted to the current and future skills needs of the industry.

Page(s): 96-99                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2019

 Dr. Ogunbote Shefiu
School of Vocational and Technical Education Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education Otto-Ijanikin Lagos, Nigeria

 Njoku Chiso Anslem
School of Postgraduate Studies Department of Industrial Technical Education

 Ajuluchi Chika, E.
Department of Home Economics Federal College of Education Okene Kogi State, Nigeria

 Okwume Georgina Ukamaka
Department of Home Economics and Hospitality Management Education. University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

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Dr. Ogunbote Shefiu, Njoku Chiso Anslem, Ajuluchi Chika, E. & Okwume Georgina Ukamaka “Re-Structuring the Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Accelerated National Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.96-99 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/96-99.pdf

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The Perceptions of Secondary School Students towards Vocational Education: A Case Study of Kampala District

Kizza James, Damba Andrew, Kasule Wilson – June 2019 Page No.: 100-112

The call for more relevant education is increasing given the concerns of visible skills mismatch among school graduates in relation to the available job opportunities. Despite government efforts to popularize vocational education, many youths are shunning vocational education in preference to general academic programs. This study set out to establish the perceptions of secondary school students towards vocational education in selected secondary schools in Kampala district.The study was guided by the theory of constructivism which is based on the belief that learning occurs when learners are actively involved in the learning process. The study objectives were: 1) to establish the perceptions of secondary school students towards vocational education and 2) to establish the channels through which students access vocational education information. The study adopted an exploratory research design and used a mixed method approach for purposes of improving reliability of study findings through triangulation. The study’s target population consisted of 194 senior 3 students conveniently selectedfrom schools in Kampala District. Both primary and secondary data sources were used. A questionnaire designed by the researcher was used to collect information from the students. The self reporting survey instrument used in data collection was validated by a panel of vocational educational managers from schools with high curriculum content in vocational education and the pilot test results obtained a cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.72 indicating that the study instrument was reliable. The data collected using the questionnaire was analyzed using the excel sheet to generate descriptive statistics in form of frequencies, percentages and means. The study findings indicate thatmuch as the students’ perceptions of vocational education as opposed to general education are not negative per se, they still have apathy towards vocational education and, there is a general perception among students that schools are not offering sufficient information on vocational education making students rely mostly on social media. Its is concluded that: students perception towards vocational education is still negative due to lack of adequate information and the students perceive the existing channels through which secondary schools transmit vocational education to be inadequate. It is recommended that: a policy framework that clearly shows how a student can transit from the path of vocation education to further education be developed and if it exists be popularized among all stakeholders and, the function of career masters in schools be supported and strengthened.

Page(s): 100-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2019

 Kizza James
UNIVERSITY of Kisubi, Faculty of Business and ICT

 Damba Andrew
UNIVERSITY of Kisubi, Faculty of Education

 Kasule Wilson
KYAMBOGO UNIVERSITY, Department of Educational Planning and Management

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Kizza James, Damba Andrew, Kasule Wilson “The Perceptions of Secondary School Students towards Vocational Education: A Case Study of Kampala District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.100-112 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/100-112.pdf

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Trans-Generational Family Counselling and Management of Home Financial Constraints: A Case Study of Kampala Capital City Authority (Uganda)

Ankwansiize Evarist, Kiyingi Frank Pio – June 2019 Page No.: 113-122

The study assessed the Trans-generational Family Counselling and Management of Home Financial Constraints guided by Exploratory and Case study design with a Study population of 450 (sample size 217) family members. Interviews, focus group discussions, structured questionnaires, observation as well as documentary analysis were used. Results showed in table.2 (17.79%) that Trans-generational Family interlocking concepts are used to manage home financial constraint. Table.3 (47%) revealed that the home financial abuses highly constrain home finances. Table.5 (51.6%) exposed that the Trans-generational Family therapy techniques are used to manage home financial constraints. The study concluded that the Trans-generational family therapy is effective in managing home financial constraints.

Page(s): 113-122                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2019

 Ankwansiize Evarist
Dean of Faculty of Social Sciences and Psychology-University of Kisubi

 Kiyingi Frank Pio
Head Department of Social Sciences –University of Kisubi

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Ankwansiize Evarist, Kiyingi Frank Pio “Trans-Generational Family Counselling and Management of Home Financial Constraints: A Case Study of Kampala Capital City Authority (Uganda)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.113-122 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/113-122.pdf

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Evaluation of Content in Physics Teacher Education in Relation to Pedagogic Skills of Student Teachers in Public Universities in Kenya

Stellah Mutiembu Mukekhe- June 2019 Page No.: 123-128

Public universities in Kenya have been training physics teachers using the adapted Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) Science programmes that have been passed over from the founding universities. Growing disparities in the key content areas of the training among the universities has been witnesses, and yet, secondary school instruction to be conducted by the teachers is common. Moreover, poor performance of 38.27% in physics has been recorded in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examinations (KCSE) in the last 10 years and blamed on the training of teachers at the universities. These raise questions on whether content in physics teacher education equips student teachers with the requisite pedagogic skills. This study employed descriptive survey research design and participants consisted of 420 physics student teachers, 277 heads of physics subjects and 130 physics teacher trainers. It was revealed that content in physics teacher education should be enhanced to address key areas in secondary school physics, employ a variety of teaching and assessment strategies and focus on equipping student teachers with 21st century skills. The findings may be useful to public universities in Kenya to align content in B.Ed (Science) in physics programmes to acquisition of pedagogic skills necessary for effective secondary school physics instruction.

Page(s): 123-128                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2019

  Stellah Mutiembu Mukekhe
Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Kibabii University, Kenya.

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Stellah Mutiembu Mukekhe, “Evaluation of Content in Physics Teacher Education in Relation to Pedagogic Skills of Student Teachers in Public Universities in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.123-128 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/123-128.pdf

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Promoting Social Skill Learning Through Sport Socialization Intervention among Children with Intellectual Disability (ID) in Kenya: A Single Subject Experimental Research

Roselyne Odiango, Bukhala Peter, Gordon Nguka – June 2019 Page No.: 129-139

This study evaluated the effect of sport socialization intervention programme on social skill learning levels in Seven (7) children with intellectual disability (ID) in Kakamega, Kenya. The intervention involved instructing, prompting, Individualized Educational Programme (IEP) and cueing child with ID into action.
Methodology: Single Subject (SSD) quasi-experimental research design was used. Data was collected at three weeks interval during baseline, Treatment and reversal treatment Fourteen (14) weeks later. Data collection instruments: a 3-5-miute Video capture, Peer Social Task Rating Scale (PSTRS) observation checklists.
Data analysis: Data was analyzed by visual analysis, video coding and Null hypotheses tested by Statistical Process Control (SPC). Level of significance was set at -+3SD above UCL in SPC.
Results: The overall findings of this study showed all children had lower social skill functioning at pretest compared to posttest. Skills learnt were generalizable. Each Child in the programme recorded significant improvements after intervention with YAMY 3 at 56.7%, YAKS 4 at 60%, YAKS 5 at 63.3%, YAKS 6 at 51.6%, YARO 7 at 56.7%, YARO 8 at 48.3% and YARO 9 at 50% magnitude of improvement respectively Null hypothesis that expected no significant difference on child learning after intervention was rejected with Results from the data analysis also indicated that all the Children recorded Nine (9) consecutive point runs above the Upper Control Limit (UCL): YAMY3 standard deviation of MR score at 3.17, 2.53 for YAKS 4, 2.28 for YAKS 5, 2.59 for YAKS 6, 3.17 for YARO 7, 2.34 for YARO8 and 2.34 for YARO 9.esults demonstrating .
Conclusion: The intervention programme was effective in enhancing social skill learning of Children with ID and should be availed to all children with ID at school level. The study recommends that the study be replicated on Children with Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was significant in contributing to the attainment of UN general assembly’s sustainable Development goal (SDG4) on inclusion.

Page(s): 129-139                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2019

 Roselyne Odiango
Department of Health promotion &Sport Science, School of Public Health, Biomedical Sciences and Laboratory Technology. Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Bukhala Peter
Department of Health promotion &Sport Science, School of Public Health, Biomedical Sciences and Laboratory Technology. Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Gordon Nguka
Department of Nutritional sciences, School of Public Health, Biomedical Sciences and Laboratory Technology. Masinde Muliro, University of Science and Technology Kakamega, Kenya

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Roselyne Odiango, Bukhala Peter, Gordon Nguka “Promoting Social Skill Learning Through Sport Socialization Intervention among Children with Intellectual Disability (ID) in Kenya: A Single Subject Experimental Research” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.129-139 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/129-139.pdf

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Occupational Safety and Health Management in the Production of Electricity Transformers at Zesa Enterprises, Harare

Steven Jerie and Naison Mandebere – June 2019 Page No.: 140-146

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of occupational safety and health management systems in accident prevention at ZESA enterprises in Zimbabwe. Questionnaires, interviews, observations and document review were used as data collection tools. The most common hazards identified at ZESA included improper work organization, poor hygiene, ergonomic hazards, fire, and electric hazards. Since the introduction of the occupational safety and health management system in 2009, the work environment became safer and there was a decline in the number of accidents recorded each year thereafter. The existing occupational health and safety management system at ZESA enterprises met the majority of the requirements outlined in the OHSAS 18001 specification. It was concluded that implementation of the occupational safety and health management system whether or not following international standards always yielded positive results in improving occupational safety and health performance.

Page(s): 140-146                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2019

 Steven Jerie
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe

 Naison Mandebere
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe

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[3]. Awwad, J. D. (2001). Effective Occupational Safety and Health Management System: Integration of OHSAS 18001, ILO-OSH 2001, and OR-OSHA. University of Jordan.
[4]. Bakri, A. (2006). Occupational Safety and Health (OHS) management systems: towards development of safety and health culture. Universiti Teknologi: Malaysia.
[5]. Benjamin, O. (2001). Fundamental Principles of Occupational Health and Safety. ILO: GENEVA.
[6]. Bennett, D. (2002). Health and Safety Management Systems: Liability or Asset. Public Healthcare Institute: USA.
[7]. Bernhard, Z. and Gabriele, E. (2012). Occupational Health and Safety Management. Ruhr University Bochum: Germany.
[8]. Caborn, J. (2005). News from the ILO: ILO World Day for Safety and Health at Work 2005.
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[11]. IDRIS, B. (2008). Application occupational Safety and Health in Industry Case Study: CCM Fertilizers SDN BHD. University Malaysia Pahang: Malaysia.
[12]. ILO. (2009).Occupational health and Safety Conventions. www.ilo.org/conventions IOHA
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[15]. Maruta, T. T. (2005). Occupational health services legislation and standards Zimbabwe.
[16]. NSSA, (2010). Occupational injuries in sectors of Zimbabwe. On Guard Harare: Zimbabwe.
[17]. NSSA, (2012), Safe healthy working conditions: Responsibility for employers and employees. Newsday 12 August 2012:www.newsday.co.zw
[18]. Thomas, W. (2012). Technical Talk on OHSAS 18001: An introduction and Experience sharing. SGS Hong Kong: China

Steven Jerie and Naison Mandebere “Occupational Safety and Health Management in the Production of Electricity Transformers at Zesa Enterprises, Harare” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.140-146 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/140-146.pdf

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Determinants of Interest Rate Spread among Commercial Banks in Kenya

Silas Kiprono Samoei, Edward Kitum Toroitich- June 2019 Page No.: 147-152

The study intended to find out the determinants of interest rate spread among commercial banks in Kenya; to establish the effect of statutory reserve requirements oninterest rate spread among commercial banks in Kenya; to determine the effect of inflation rate on interest rate spread among commercial banks in Kenya; to examine the effect of exchange rate volatility on interest rate spread among commercial banks in Kenya; and to determine the effect of Treasury Bill Rate on interest rate spread among commercial banks in Kenya.The study used quarterly time series data for the period 2005 to 2014 which was obtained from the Central Bank of Kenya’s published economic reviews.It was revealed that exchange rate volatility and inflation rate is statistically significant in explaining interest rate spreads implying that volatility of the exchange rate does have a significant impact on the banking sector interest rate spreads in Kenya. The Treasury bill rate, the reserves and gross domestic product were also found to significantly affect interest rate spread in the Kenya’s banking sector. It is thus recommended that there is need for policies to deal with reserve requirements as well as putting in place measures to stabilize the exchange rate volatility in Kenya.

Page(s): 147-152                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2019

 Silas Kiprono Samoei
Moi University, Kenya

 Edward Kitum Toroitich
Moi University, Kenya

[1]. Ahokpossi, C. (2013) Determinants of Bank Interest Margins in Sub-Saharan Africa, IMF Working Paper WP/13/34.Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
[2]. Al Shubiri, F. N., & Jamil, S. A. (2017). Assessing the determinants of interest rate spread of commercial banks in Oman: an empirical investigation. European Research Studies, 20(2), 90.
[3]. Bennaceur, S., & Goaied, M. (2008). The determinants of commercial bank interest margin and profitability: Evidence from Tunisia. Frontiers in Finance and Economics, 5 (1), 106-130. Berkowitz, J. & White, M. (2004). Bankruptcy and small rms access to credit. RAND. Journal of Economics, 35(1), 6984.
[4]. Brock, P. & Franken, H. (2003) Measuring the Determinants of Average and Marginal Bank Interest Rate Spreads in Chile, 1994-2001, Working Papers UWEC- 2003-25, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
[5]. Chirwa, E. W., & Mlachila, M. (2004). Financial reforms and interest rate spreads in the commercial banking system in Malawi. IMF Staff papers, 51(1), 96-122.
[6]. Crowley, J. (2007) Interest Rate Spreads in English-Speaking Africa. IMF Working Paper. April 2007, 123 -45.
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[8]. Demirguc-Kunt, A. & Huizinga, H. (1998) Determinants of Commercial Bank Interest Margins and Profitability: Some International Evidence, World Bank EconomicReview, 13 (2), 379-408.
[9]. Emmanuelle, N.Y.S. (2003) A European Study of Bank Interest Margins: Is Net Fees Revenue a Determinant. Doctoral Thesis. United Kingdom, U.K: University of Birmingham.
[10]. Folawewo, A.O. and Tennant, D. (2008) Determinants of Interest Rate Spreads in Sub- Saharan African Countries: A Dynamic Panel Analysis-A paper prepared for the 13th Annual African Econometrics Society Conference, 9 – 11 July, 2008, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa.
[11]. Gambacorta, L. (2004). How do banks set interest rates? V. NBER, Working paper, 10295.
[12]. Jayaraman, T.K. & Sharma, R. (2003) why is Interest Rate Spread High in Fiji? Results from a preliminary Study. Fijian Studies, 1(1), 45-67.
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[17]. Sologoub, D. (2006, April). The determinants of bank interest margins and profitability: Case of Ukraine. In Workshop on transition economics, Helsinki.
[18]. Were, M., & Wambua, J. (2013). Assessing the determinants of interest rate spread of commercial banks in Kenya: An empirical investigation. KBA Centre for Research on Financial Markets and Policy Working Paper 01, 13

Silas Kiprono Samoei, Edward Kitum Toroitich, “Determinants of Interest Rate Spread among Commercial Banks in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.147-152 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/147-152.pdf

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Influence of Digital Financial Information Services on Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kisumu County, Kenya

Martin Okode Opiyo, Dr. Charles Ondoro, Dr. Johnmark Obura – June 2019 Page No.: 153-156

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Digital Financial Information Services (DFIS) on financial performance of commercial banks in Kisumu County, Kenya. It analysed four constructs of financial information service namely transaction alerts, online trading, digital market research and financial information dissemination. Findings revealed R2= 0.704, F cal(181.783, p=0.000); regression coefficients: financial information disemmination (β1=0.170, p=0.000<0.05), transaction alert (β2 =-1.376, p=0.000<0.05); online trading (β3 =0.728, p=0.001<0.05) and digital market research (β4 =0.947, p=0.000<0.05). The study concluded DFIS significantly influebce financial prrformance of commercial banks in Kisumu County, Kenya.

Page(s): 153-156                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2019

 Martin Okode Opiyo
Department of Business Administration, Maseno University, Kenya

 Dr. Charles Ondoro
Department of Business Administration, Maseno University, Kenya

 Dr. Johnmark Obura
Department of Management Science, Maseno University, Kenya

AFI. (2016). Digital financial services basic terminology. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: AFI.
[2]. Anson, S., Berthaud, T., Klapper, W., & Singer, R. (2013). Financial Inclusion and the Role of the Post Office. The World Bank, Development Research Group, Finance and Private Sector Development Team, October .
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[4]. Bank, E. (2001). e-Finance: The electronic revolution (1st ed.). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
[5]. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ; CBK ; FSD Kenya. (2014). FinAccess geospatial mapping 2013. Nairobi: Gate Foundation.
[6]. Błach, J. (2011). Financial Innovations and their Role in the Modern Financial System – Identification and Systematization of the Problem. Financial Internet Quarterly – e-Finanse, 7(3), 13-26.
[7]. Buckley, P. ,., & Malady, L. (2015). Building Consumer Demand for Digital Financial Services–The New Regulator Frontier. The Journal of Financial Perspective, 3(3), 1-35.
[8]. Cooper, R. ,., & Schindler, S. ,. (2008). Business Research Methods. (10th, Ed.) New York: McGraw Hill.
[9]. Dawson, J. F., & Ritcher, A. W. (2006). Probimh three-way interaction in moderated multiple regression: Development and application of a slope difference test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 917 – 926.
[10]. Digital Finance Institute. (2016). Innovation: Innovation matters. Retrieved Jan 20, 2017, from http://digifin.org/digital-financeinnovation
[11]. European Investment Bank. (2014). Digital Financial Services in Africa: Beyond the Kenyan Success Story. EU: European Investment Bank.
[12]. Hannig, A., & Jansen, S. (2010). Financial Inclusion and Financial Stability: Current Policy Issues. ADBI Working Paper 259, Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute.
[13]. Hemmadi, M. (2015). FinTech is Both Friend and Foe. Canadian Business, 88(6), 10-11.
[14]. Kothari, R. (2010). Research Methods and Methodology. (10th, Ed.) New Delhi: Sage.
[15]. Lee, M. (2015). The fintech entrepreneurs aiming to reinvent finance. Euromoney, 46(552), 42–48.
[16]. Mbutor, O. M., & Uba, I. ‘. (2013). The Impact of Financial Inclusion on Monetary Policy in Nigeria. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 5(8), 318-326.
[17]. Mugo, M., & Kilonzo, E. (2017). Community – level impacts of financial inclusion in Kenya with particular focus on poverty eradication and employment creation. Retrieved September 2, 2017, from www.cbk.ac.ke
[18]. Muiruri, J. ,., & Ngari, J. ,. (2014). Effects of Financial Innovations on the Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(7), 51 – 57.
[19]. Nyambariga, H. ,. (2013). The Effect of Financial Innovation on the Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. Unpublished MSc. Project, University of Nairobi .
[20]. Peake, C. (2012). New Frontiers: Launching Digital Financial Services in Rural Areas. 2012 Brookings Blum Roundtable Policy Briefs. Mercy Corps.
[21]. Radcliffe, D., & Voorhies, R. (2012). A Digital Pathway to Financial Inclusion. copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2186926.
[22]. UN DESA. (2017). Inclusive Finance. Retrieved September 23, 2017, from United Nations: http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/topics/inclusive-finance.html
[23]. World Bank. (2017). Financial Inclusion. Retrieved September 12, 2017, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/financialinclusion/overview

Martin Okode Opiyo, Dr. Charles Ondoro, Dr. Johnmark Obura “Influence of Digital Financial Information Services on Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kisumu County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.153-156 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/153-156.pdf

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Interaction between Type and Frequency of Parental Conflict and Level of Social Adjustment of Adolescents in Murang’a County

Muriithi Joel Kiambi- June 2019 Page No.: 157-163

Social adjustment problems are emerging problems among the adolescents across the globe. Despite evidence of parental conflicts in Kenyan families, there is scarce literature on the interaction between type and frequency of parental conflict and level of social adjustment of adolescents in Murang’a County. The first specific objective of the study was to establish the type and frequency of parental conflicts among adolescents in Murang’a County. The third objective was to establish the interactions between type and frequency of parental conflict and level of social adjustment of adolescents in Murang’a County. The study was guided by attachment theory. This study employed a descriptive survey design with a quantitative approach. The study target population was 108,774 secondary school students in Murang’a County. A sample size of 400 students was selected. Frequency of parental conflict and type of parental conflict was assessed using the Children’s Perception of Inter-parental Conflict Scale (CPIC) while social adjustment among the students was measured using Social Adjustment Scale. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 was used for data analysis. On type of parental conflicts, the students reported perceiving both constructive and destructive parental conflicts with majority perceiving constructive conflicts. The study showed that 55.8% reported low frequency of parental conflicts while 24.8% reported high frequency. The study revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between type of parental conflicts perceived and social adjustment of the students. The Pearson (r) correlation coefficient between parental conflicts and both offensive and delinquent behaviours were positive and significant at (r(257) = 0.241, P< 0.05) and (r(260) = 0.171, P< 0.05) respectively. However, the relationship between parental conflicts and pro-social was negative but not significant. The study recommended premarital education and counseling, couples counseling and community awareness creation on the harm of destructive parental conflicts to their entire family.

Page(s): 157-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2019

 Muriithi Joel Kiambi
PhD Postgraduate Student, Department of Psychology, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1]. Akande, J. A., & Ikediashi, N. N. (2017). Level of Emotional Adjustment of Secondary School Students In The Federal Capital Territory. Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science, 6(8), 50–55.
[2]. Bolze, S. D. A., Schmidt, B., Böing, E., & Crepaldi, M. A. (2017). Marital and parental conflicts in families with children: Characteristics and resolution strategies. Paideia, 27, 457–465.
[3]. Dar, I. A., & Scholar, P. D. (2014). Adjustment Problems among Kashmiri Adolescents. International Journal of English Language, Literature and Humanities, 1(5), 99–107.
[4]. Deka, S. (2017). Adjustment Problems among Adolescent Girl Students of Secondary Schools. International Journal for Innovative Research in Multidisciplinary Field, 3(8), 191–195.
[5]. Ernest-Ehibudu, Ijeoma, R., Obikoya, & Oluwatoyin, G. (2017). Family Conflict and Attachment Patterns as Correlates of School Adjustment Among Public Senior Secondary School Students In Rivers State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 22(10), 10–21.
[6]. George, J., Nair, D., Premkumar, N. R., Saravanan, N., Chinnakali, P., & Roy, G. (2016). The prevalence of domestic violence and its associated factors among married women in a rural area of Puducherry, South India. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 5(3), 672–676.
[7]. Jayachandran, P. (2017). Social Adjustment of Higher Secondary Students – an Analysis. Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Science & English Langauage, 4, 4276–4284.
[8]. Kariuki, S., & Aloka, P. J. O. (2015). Relationship between Perceptions of Inter-parental Conflicts and Involvement in Delinquent Behaviours among Selected Kenyan Adolescent Students. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 5(1), 25–34.
[9]. Lee, Y. (2016). Interparental Conflict, Toddler Emotional Security, Parental Emotion Socialization, and Toddler Socio-Emotional Outcomes: Testing Dyadic Dynamics Using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models. Unpublished Doctor of Philosophy Thesis in Human Development and Family Studies: Michigan State University.
[10]. Lindblom, J., Vänskä, M., Flykt, M., Tolvanen, A., Tiitinen, A., Tulppala, M., & Punamäki, R.-L. (2017). From Early Family Systems to Internalizing Symptoms. Journal of Family Psychology, 31(3), 316–326.
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[13]. Nan, Z., Hongjian, C., & Esther, M. L. (2017). Interparental conflict and infants’ behavior problems: The mediating role of maternal sensitivity. Journal of Family Psychology, 31(4), 464–474.
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[15]. Ngozi, O., Peter, N., & Stella, A. (2013). The Impact of Marital Conflicts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents in Lagos Metropolis , Nigeria Corresponding Author : Osarenren Ngozi. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 4(2), 320–326.
[16]. Nyaga, M. N. (2015). Contributions of Selected Microsystems to Antisocial Behaviours Among Adolescents in Secondary Schools in Manyatta Sub- County, Embu. Unpublished Master Thesis: Kenyatta University.
[17]. Onoh, R., Umeora, O., Ezeon, P., Onyebuchi, A., Lawani, O., & Agwu, U. (2013). Prevalence, pattern and consequences of intimate partner violence during pregnancy at abakaliki southeast Nigeria. Unpublished Master of Arts Thesis: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health.
[18]. Onyango, E., Odhiambo, S., & Maito, T. L. (2017). Social Dimensions of Marital Conflict in Kenya. Journal of Power, Politics & Governance, 1(1), 34–45.
[19]. Orpin, J., Papadopoulos, C., & Puthussery, S. (2017). The Prevalence of Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women in Nigeria: A Systematic Review. Unpublished Master Thesis: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health.
[20]. Özmete, E., & Bayoglu, A. S. (2013). Parent-Young Adult Conflict: A Measurement on Frequency and Intensity of Conflict Issues. The Journal of International Social Research, 2(8).
[21]. Parsa, N., Yaacob, S. N., Redzuan, M., Parsa, P., & Esmaeili, N. S. (2014). Parental attachment, inter-parental conflict and late adolescent’s self-efficacy. Asian Social Science, 10(8), 123–131.
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[25]. Wu, S. T., Wong, H. T., Yu, K. F., Fok, K. W., Yeung, S. M., Lam, C. H., & Liu, K. M. (2016). Parenting Approaches, Family Functionality, and Internet Addiction Among Hong Kong Adolescents. BMC Pediatrics, 16(1), 1–10.

Muriithi Joel Kiambi “Interaction between Type and Frequency of Parental Conflict and Level of Social Adjustment of Adolescents in Murang’a County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.157-163 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/157-163.pdf

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Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Work Life Balance and Organizational Justice (A Study of Guaranty Trust Bank)

Georgina Oluwayemisi Messigah, John Olufemi Adeogun – June 2019 Page No.: 164-167

Banking industries are important and one of the most valued organizations of public services. Emotional intelligence is one facet that has been acclaimed as mediating functioning in a number of life dimensions and has received attention due to the possibility that emotions may moderate intelligence behavior by influencing an individual’s reaction at work, home, etc. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence, work-life balance, and organizational justice in Guaranty Trust Bank in Lagos. The population for the study comprised of a staff of ten selected Guaranty Trust Bank branches located in Lagos State. The purposive sampling technique was used in selecting a total of one hundred and fifty (150) participants aged 25-55 (years) for the study. The Emotional Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), Work-Related Quality of Life Scale (WRQoL) via pen and paper, Chester & Todd Organisational Questionnaires (CTOQ) were used for data collection while descriptive statistics, regression and Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis of variance were used for data analysis and presentation. Findings of the descriptive intercorrelations showed significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the variables of organisational justice (r=0.27; p<0.001), and work-life balance at (r= 0.14; p < 0.05) while regression results of organisational justice (WRQol) was not significant (B = 0.564, >.05). It was, therefore, recommended relevant department should be trained on emotional intelligence, communication skills to promote adequate and smooth communication, good relationship, and provide free and fair justice with employees.

Page(s): 164-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2019

 Georgina Oluwayemisi Messigah
Department of Psychology, University of South Africa

 John Olufemi Adeogun
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Lagos State University

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Georgina Oluwayemisi Messigah, John Olufemi Adeogun “Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Work Life Balance and Organizational Justice (A Study of Guaranty Trust Bank)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.164-167 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/164-167.pdf

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Principal Leadership Challenges in Schools and Colleges in Bangladesh: A Case Study

Mohammed Zaber Hossain – June 2019 Page No.: 168-170

Principal leadership being the single most important factor for school effectiveness and academic performance is a much talked about issue in the world perspective. But, in Bangladesh, the field is yet to be explored. In this article, a study was carried out to identify principal leadership challenges in schools and colleges in Bangladesh. A qualitative study represented by a case study revealed the leadership challenges principals in schools and colleges in Bangladesh are facing. Ten principals were selected for an interview to prepare this case study. The principals were selected on the merit of eight years’ Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSC) and Higher Secondary School Certificate Examination (HSC) results from a total of 1226 combined schools and colleges in Bangladesh. Moreover, this was a part of a bigger study where two quantitative surveys were conducted. In addition to that, the author’s personal experience working as a principal for last seven years in two renowned Public School and College gave an insight into this study. The findings of the study showed that principals in schools and colleges in Bangladesh have limited training, understanding and scope of practicing leadership. The challenges they face mostly emanated from the top-down authoritarian attitude and practice in educational administration that curved their leadership and pushed them to settle in management. In the national and global context, educational requirements have been changed. In the face of the growing demands, principals are fighting at both the end. On one hand, their leadership is not acknowledged. On the other hand, they are asked to fulfill the educational demands of the stakeholders. At this backdrop, principals’ predicaments coupled with the traditional educational and administrative challenges cause education in Bangladesh, especially in schools and colleges, suffer.

Page(s): 168-170                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2019

 Mohammed Zaber Hossain
Principal, Nirjhor Cantonment Public School & College, Dhaka Cantonment, Bangladesh

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[4]. Salahuddin, A. N. M. (2010). Distributed leadership in secondary schools: Possibilities and impediments in Bangladesh, The Arts Faculty Journal of Dhaka University, 4(6).
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Mohammed Zaber Hossain “Principal Leadership Challenges in Schools and Colleges in Bangladesh: A Case Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.168-170 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/168-170.pdf

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Trends in Research and Teaching of Development Studies in Kenya (2000 – 2019)

Milton Utwolo Alwanga – June 2019 Page No.: 171-182

The role of development studies in the developing world and Kenya in particular, cannot be gainsaid. Teaching and research in development studies is meant to unearth and understand development challenges and thereby inform policies for posterity of the developing world through paradigm shifts in management process. However, despite several years of research and teaching development studies in Kenya, it is unclear on whether development study is still relevant both as an academic discipline and as a practice, and how the discipline has contributed to solutions of development challenges. This study sought to investigate the trends in research and teaching of development studies in the Kenyan universities. The study applied cluster analysis on secondary data from government statutes and policy documents, published books, articles, journals and university websites and repositories. Findings indicate a widespread diversity in teaching development studies across the Kenyan universities. In addition, the study holds that teaching of development studies does not demonstrate commitment to national development goals.

Page(s): 171-182                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2019

 Milton Utwolo Alwanga
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

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Milton Utwolo Alwanga “Trends in Research and Teaching of Development Studies in Kenya (2000 – 2019)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.171-182 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/171-182.pdf

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The Effect of Leader Display Emotion on Work Performance

Parisa Ehsan Kashani – June 2019 Page No.: 183-184

Leadership is an important function of management that helps maximizing organizational performance. Leaders use emotions to manage the meaning of job in the eye of the followers. The emotions a leader display influence leader’s effectiveness (Choudhary et al., 2017). Emotion is a leadership tool that influence leadership effectiveness. Positive emotion of a leader can improve employee satisfaction with leadership. Satisfaction with leadership improves performance and turnover intention (Rosete and Ciarrochi, 2005). Research about the influence of leader’s display emotion on followers’ performance is still limited and only few studies found the outcomes of leader’s display emotions in the organizational context (Lewis, 2000).

Page(s): 183-184                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2019

 Parisa Ehsan Kashani
Department of Management and Marketing, Faculty of Economics and Management, University Putra Malaysia (UPM)

[1]. Purwaningrum, EK. (2016) The Effect of Leader’s Emotional Displays on Employee Work Performance, Psychology Forum UMM, pp.790-795, Available from http://mpsi.umm.ac.id/files/file/790%20-%20795%20Evi%20Kurniasari%20Purwaningrum.pdf
[2]. Emelia Amoako-Asiedu, Theresa Obuobisa-Darko (2017) Leadership, Employee Engagement and Employee Performance in the Public Sector of Ghana. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 5(2), pp 27-34. Available from http://pubs.sciepub.com/jbms/5/2/1
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[5]. Liu, X., Zhang, Y., & Liu, C.-H. (Sam). (2017) How Does Leader Other-Emotion Appraisal Influence Employees? The Multilevel Dual Affective Mechanisms. Small Group Research, 48(1), 93–114, DOI:10.1177/1046496416678663
[6]. Moin, M.F., (2018) The link between perceptions of leader emotion regulation and followers’ organizational commitment”, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 37 Issue: 2, pp.178-187, DOI: 10.1108/JMD-01-2017-0014
[7]. Kafetsios, K., Nezlek, J. B., & Vassilakou, T. (2012). Relationships Between Leaders’ and Subordinates’ Emotion Regulation and Satisfaction and Affect at Work. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152(4), pp. 436–457, DOI:10.1080/00224545.2011.632788
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[11]. Rosete, D., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(5), 388–399.doi:10.1108/01437730510607871

Parisa Ehsan Kashani “The Effect of Leader Display Emotion on Work Performance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.183-184 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/183-184.pdf

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Implementation of E-learning Using Schoology to Improving the Interest Learning Physics at DeBritto High School

Maria Theresia Nanik Ismarjiati, Muhammad Epi Rusdin, Rosa Herawati, Eka Nurulia, Dwi Sulisworo, Suritno Fayanto – June 2019 Page No.: 185-189

The goal of this investigation was to define the increase in student interest in schoology-based E-learning in straight-motion material for middle school students at De Britto High School.This research is an action research classroom. The research design or design used is planning, action/implementation, and reflection. This study uses descriptive analysis techniques, namely by the method of calculating the percentage value of the results of student interest and student responses using questionnaire instruments. The questionnaire results from 75% interest in the first cycle and by 80% in the second cycle. Students respond to schoology-based e-learning by 81%. There is an increase between the first cycle and the second cycle using e-learning so that school-based e-learning in straight-motion material can otherwise increase student interest.

Page(s): 185-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2019

 Maria Theresia Nanik Ismarjiati
Department of Master in Physics Education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Physics Teacher at Kolese DeBrito High School, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

 Muhammad Epi Rusdin
Department of Master in Physics Education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

 Rosa Herawati
Department of Master in Physics Education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

 Eka Nurulia
Department of Master in Physics Education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

 Dwi Sulisworo
Department of Master in Physics Education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

 Suritno Fayanto
Department of Master in Physics Education, University of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Maria Theresia Nanik Ismarjiati, Muhammad Epi Rusdin, Rosa Herawati, Eka Nurulia, Dwi Sulisworo, Suritno Fayanto “Implementation of E-learning Using Schoology to Improving the Interest Learning Physics at DeBritto High School” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.185-189 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/185-189.pdf

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IFRS Adoption and Earnings Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa

Armstrong Ephraim Awinbugri, Prince Gyimah, Edem Wotortsi – June 2019 Page No.: 190-196

This study perused the correlation between IFRS adoption and earnings quality of listed firms in Sub-Saharan Africa country, Ghana. The study used secondary data collected from sixteen non-financial listed firms over pre-adoption periods of IFRS (2005 and 2006) and immediate post-adoption periods of IFRS (2007 and 2008). The study usedlogistic regression toexamine the impact of pre-and-post adoptionof IFRS’s on earnings quality. The results showed that firms managed to manipulate earnings toward a positive target more frequently in the pre-IFRS adoption period than the post-adoption period, andfirms recognized large losses more frequently in the post-IFRS adoption period when they occurred as compared to the pre-IFRS adoption period.The study reinforces that adoption of IFRS prevents manipulation of earnings, limits possible flexibilities and accounting choices, and provide clearer rules that signal high quality accounting information and transparency.

Page(s): 190-196                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2019

 Armstrong Ephraim Awinbugri
Assistant Lecturer, Kessben University College, Adum-Ghana, Box Ks 4868

 Prince Gyimah
Assistant Lecturer, University of Education, Winneba-Kumasi, Ghana

 Edem Wotortsi
Senior Accounting Assistant, Agogo Presbyterian Women College of Education, Ghana

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Armstrong Ephraim Awinbugri, Prince Gyimah, Edem Wotortsi “IFRS Adoption and Earnings Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.190-196 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/190-196.pdf

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Assessing the Administrative Challenges the Use of State and Local Government Joint Account in Zaria Local Government

Usman Bashir, Muhammad Mahdi Ismail, Ku Hasnita Ku Samso – June 2019 Page No.: 197-202

Since the introduction of joint account Zaria local government could not get access to its allocation from federation account as a resultmiscellaneous deductions from it allocations by Kaduna state government in the name of state and local government joint account, the situation lead to the inability of the Zaria local government for consistent payment of workers salary, gratuity and pensioners of retired local government civil servants and relegating the activities within the local government. Therefore the study attempt to identify the responses of the people on the administrative challenge fusses in Zaria local government. A phenomenological approach was used and data were obtained from purposively selected informants using semi structure interviews. Thus, thematic analysis, informal discussion and observation were employed in data analysis. The study recommends that only the abolishing of state and local government joint account Zaria local government will over power its administrative challenge.

Page(s): 197-202                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2019

 Usman Bashir
Department of Public Administration, Bauchi State University Gadau, Nigeria

 Muhammad Mahdi Ismail
Department of Government and Civilization Study, University Putra Malaysia

 Ku Hasnita Ku Samso
Department of Government and Civilization Study, University Putra Malaysia

Boris, O. H. (2015). Challenges Confronting Local Government Administration in Efficient and Effective Social Service Delivery : The Nigerian Experience, 2(5), 12–22.
[2]. Ehigiamusoe Uyi Kizito & Jumare Fadila. (2015). The Challenge of State and Local Government Joint Account and Its Impact on Rural Development In Nigeria. National Institute for Legislative Studies, National Assembly, Abuja, Nigeria Ehiuyikizexcel @yahoo.com, 1, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
[3]. Eme, O. I., Izueke, E., & Ewuim, N. (2013). Local Government and Fiscal Autonomy for Local Government In Nigeria. The Review of Public Administration and Management, 7, 112–120. Retrieved from http://omicsonline.com/open-access/2315-7844/2315-7844-1-125.pdf
[4]. Eshenake, S. J. (2013). Fiscal Federalism and Economic Welfare in Nigeria : an Econometric Analysis.,2, 65–76. https://doi.org/10.14207/ejsd.2013.v2n3p65
[5]. Federation Account Allocation Committee ( FAAC ). (2018). Federation Account Allocation Committee ( FAAC ).
[6]. Ibietan, J., & Ndukwe, P. (2014). Local Government Administration in Nigeria and Community Development : The Efficiency Services Interrogation, 3(10), 751–764.
[7]. James, O. (2014). The joint account system in Nigeria: Problem and prospect. Jurnal of Policy and Development Studies., 9(1), 292–300.
[8]. Lamidi, O. K., & Fagbohun, F. O. (2013). Advocating for direct revenue allocation to Nigerian Local Governments: A catalyst for national development. Journal of Public Administration, 5(6), 133–140. https://doi.org/10.5897/JPAPR2013.0249
[9]. Nwogwugwu, N. (2015). Operation of state-local governments joint account and financial autonomy of local governments in Nigeria ’ s fourth Republic, 4(11), 85–91.
[10]. Okafor, C. Chukwuemeka, E.O.Udenta, J. O. (2015). Developmental Local Government as a Model for Grassroots Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria. International Journal of Art and Humanities, 4(14), 42–61.
[11]. Okafor, J. (2010). Local government financial autonomy in Nigeria : The State Joint Local Government Account.
[12]. Philip, K. U. and D. (2010). Re positioning local government for effective service delivery at the grassroots level in Nigeria. Abuja Journal of Admininstration and Managament, 7(2), 185/201.

Usman Bashir, Muhammad Mahdi Ismail, Ku Hasnita Ku Samso “Assessing the Administrative Challenges the Use of State and Local Government Joint Account in Zaria Local Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.197-202 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/197-202.pdf

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The Pre Buddhist Religious Beliefs in Ancient Sri Lanka

Dr. Geethani Amratunga, Dr. Nadeesha Gunawardana – June 2019 Page No.: 203-206

There was evidently no national or state religion systematically organized in the island before Buddhism introduce to Sri Lanka in the third century B.C.E. The Hiuen Tsiang says the kingdom of Sinhala formerly was addicted to immoral religious worship. Divyāvadana shed light to prove the visit of traders during the time of Lord Buddha. The worshiping of ancestors, worshiping of Yakśas, worshiping of gods or Dēvās, Nigaṇṭas, Ṡaivaism can be identified. Paribbājakas and Ājīvakas, Pāsaṇḍas and Pabbajitās and many other ascetics, known as Samaṇas seem to have been found in fair numbers in the island. Almost all the important deities who survived after the introduction of Buddhism became Buddhist sooner or later. This paper proposes to discuss the significance of all these above mentioned factors. Before Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the third century B.C.E, there was evidently no national or state religion systematically organized in the island (Rahula Walpola, 1956: 34). We can categorized the pre Buddhist beliefs in ancient Sri Lanka as follows:The worship of yakśas, the worship of yakśanis (female yakśas), the worship of Nāgās, the Ancestor worship, the worship of deities, the worship of female deities, the worship of trees, Brahmanism, Nigaṇthas. Śaivisam, Paribbrājakas and Ᾱjīvakas andBuddhism.

Page(s): 203-206                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2019

 Dr. Geethani Amratunga
Department of Sociology, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

 Dr. Nadeesha Gunawardana
Department of History, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

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Dr. Geethani Amratunga, Dr. Nadeesha Gunawardana “The Pre Buddhist Religious Beliefs in Ancient Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.203-206 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/203-206.pdf

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Environmental Protection System between the Antarctic Treaty System and the Arctic Regime: An Insight

Onwurah Okwudili – June 2019 Page No.: 207-216

Antarctica and the Arctic often regarded as polar regions located at the south and north poles respectively plays an important role of sunlight reflection in the climatic system. Such geo-metrological function of the polar regions ensures the maintenance of balance on planet earth hence the need for protection of the regions as global commons. Thus, the focus of this paper is to x-ray the rationale behind the differential approach in environmental protection of both regions by adopting an interdisciplinary approach which will give insight in the politico-legal regimes governing the regions. It will equally highlight why the Antarctic mechanism seems more systematic in relation to the Arctic regimes on environmental protection. It will conclude by advancing a proposition that will favour the desirability for more sustainable commitments on the part of state parties especially the Arctic States and the need for more state participation in governance of the regions.

Page(s): 207-216                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2019

 Onwurah Okwudili
The House of Laws, Ocean University, Nigeria

Textbooks
[1]. Christine Chinkin, Freya Baetens (eds.), Sovereignty, Statehood and State Responsibility, (Cambridge University Press, 2015)
[2]. Donald Rothwell, The Polar Regions and the Development of International Law, (Cambridge University Press, 1996)
[3]. James Crawford, Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law (8th ed., Oxford University Press, 2012)
[4]. Lakshman D. Guruswamy, International Environmental Law in a Nutshell (4th ed., West Nutshell Series, 2012)
[5]. Lal Kurukulasuriya & Nicholas A. Robinson, Training Manual on International Environmental Law, United Nations Environment Programme Publication (2006)
[6]. Malcolm N. Shaw, International Law (7th ed., Cambridge University Press, 2014)
[7]. Philippe Sands et al, Principles of International Environmental Law (3rd ed. , Cambridge University Press, 2014)
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[8]. Alexander N. Vylegzhanin, The Contemporary Legal Framework Of The Arctic Ocean: Are there Impacts Of Diminishing Sea Ice? Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali, Nuova Serie, Vol. 78, No. 3 (311) (LUGLIO-SETTEMBRE 2011)
[9]. Andrew Jenks, Canada-Denmark-Finland-Iceland-Norway-Russian Federation-Sweden-United States: Joint Communique and Declaration on the Establishment of the Arctic Council, International Legal Materials, Vol. 35, No. 6 (NOVEMBER 1996)
[10]. Balch, Thomas Willing, The Arctic and Antarctic Regions and the Law of Nations, The American Journal of International Law, vol. 4, no. 2, (1910)
[11]. Catherine Redgwell, Antarctica, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Apr., 1990)
[12]. Charles K. Ebinger and Evie Zambetakis, The Geopolitics of Arctic Melt, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 85, No.6, Tackling Resource Challenges in the 21st Century: Avoiding Worst Case Scenarios (Nov. 2009)
[13]. Donald R. Rothwell, International Law and the Protection of the Arctic Environment, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1995)
[14]. Donald R. Rothwell, Polar Territorial and Maritime Sovereignty in the Twenty-First Century, inChristine Chinkin, Freya Baetens (eds.), Sovereignty, Statehood and State Responsibility, (Cambridge University Press, 2015)
[15]. Donald R. Rothwell, The Antarctic Treaty System: Resource Development, Environmental Protection or Disintegration? Arctic, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Sep., 1990)
[16]. Donald R. Rothwell, The Law of the Sea and Arctic Governance, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law), Vol. 107, International Law in a Multipolar World (2013)
[17]. Donald Rothwell, The Arctic in International Affairs: Time for a New Regime? The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol. 15, No. 1 (FALL / WINTER 2008)
[18]. Elliot L. Richardson et al, Legal Regimes of the Arctic, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law), Vol. 82 (APRIL 20-23, 1988)
[19]. Francis M. Auburn, Dispute Settlement under the Antarctic System, Archiv des Völkerrechts, 30. Bd., No. 2 (1992)
[20]. Gerald S. Schatz, International Environmental Law: Lessons from the Antarctic Protection Protocol, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law), Vol. 92, The Challenge of Non-State Actors (APRIL 1-4, 1998)
[21]. James Simsarian, Inspection Experience Under the Antarctic Treaty and the International Atomic Energy Agency, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Jul., 1966)
[22]. Joan E. Moore, The Polar Regions and the Law of the Sea, 8 Case W. Res. J. Int’l L. 204 (1976)
[23]. John Turner et al, Antarctic Climate Change and the Environment, A Contribution to the International Polar Year (2007-2008)
[24]. Karen Scott, Institutional Developments within the Antarctic Treaty System, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2003)
[25]. Klaus Dodds, Environment, Resources, and Sovereignty in the Arctic Region: The Arctic Council as Regional Body, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Summer/Fall 2013)
[26]. Koivurova, Timo, Environmental Protection in the Arctic and Antarctic: Can the Polar Regimes learn from each Other? International Journal of Legal Information: Vol. 33: Iss. 2, Article 5 (2005)
[27]. Lakhtine, W., Rights over the Arctic, The American Journal of International Law, vol. 24, no. 4, (1930)
[28]. Linda Nowlan, Arctic Legal Regime for Environmental Protection, IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 44 (2001)
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[34]. Robert D. Hayton, The Antarctic Settlement of 1959, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 54, No. 2 (Apr., 1960)
[35]. S. K. N. Blay, New Trends in the Protection of the Antarctic Environment: The 1991 Madrid Protocol, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 86, No. 2 (Apr., 1992)
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[42]. http://moderndiplomacy.eu/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=351:arctic-antarctic-geo-economic-opportunity-geopolitical-dilemma

Onwurah Okwudili “Environmental Protection System between the Antarctic Treaty System and the Arctic Regime: An Insight” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.207-216 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/207-216.pdf

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Spatial Typology and Cause-effect Analysis of Recurrent Agro-pastoral Conflicts in Menchum, North West Cameroon

Fabian C. Ntangti, Evaristus T. Angwafo, Augustine T. Gam, Reeves M. Fokeng – June 2019 Page No.: 217-226

Livestock keeping and crop cultivation are amongst the activities that sustain the lives of the majority of rural people. Wide across, the two systems have never been in harmony. Farming groups and herdsmen in the North West Region in general and Menchum Division in particular have been drawn into schism of varied nature which have weakened and paralysed the socio-economic, political and cultural livelihoods in the rural world. This paper attempts to spatialise the typology of recurrent agro-pastoral conflicts in Menchum. Field visits, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) alongside the administration of 400 semi-structured questionnaires aided to collect the required data. The results revealed that agro-pastoral conflict typology in Menchum Division takes the form of farmer-grazier (71.9%), farmer-farmer (16.6%), and grazier-grazier (11.5%). A cartographic visualisation and representation of the most recurrent land use conflict (farmer-grazier conflicts) within the four subdivisions of Menchum for the period covering 1990 to 2017 revealed that Fungum and Wum Subdivisions occupied the top positions(187 and 127) cases recorded respectively. The main drivers of conflicts as identified were; no clear demarcation of farm and grazing lands, conflicting administrative decisions with successive administrators, stray cattle and teenage herdsmen, rising human and cattle population and pressure on land resources, and frequent farmer-grazier barbarism. The cause-effect analyses of this recurrent conflict revealed increasing threats on food security linked to crop damage and loss of animal and human lives, retardnes of economic activities, loss of mutual understanding, intimidation and mistrust. There is however increasing tendencies towards harmony of the two agricultural systems within the study area though much is still left to be done as conflicts of farmer-grazier origin remains unabated in some parts of the zone.

Page(s): 217-226                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2019

 Fabian C. Ntangti
Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Sociology, Faculty of Agronomy & Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Evaristus T. Angwafo
Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Sociology, Faculty of Agronomy & Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Augustine T. Gam
Department of Geography & Planning, Faculty of Arts, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

 Reeves M. Fokeng
Department of Geography & Planning, Faculty of Arts, University of Bamenda, Cameroon

[1]. WISP. (2014).Pastoralism and the Green Economy – A Natural Nexus?Briefing Note, 1
[2]. Davies, J., Ouedraogo, R.,Hagelberg, N., Niamir-Fuller, M. ( 2015). Sustainable pastoralism for the post 2015 agenda: Brief GSDR, 1-4.
[3]. Jamsranjav, C. (2015). Effects of Grazing and Community-Based Management onRangelands of Mongolia, a dissertation in the department of forestry and rangeland stewardship, Colorado State University, 42-73
[4]. C2A. (2017). Pastoralism: A Resilient Lifestyle Faced With Many Challenges.Issue n°25;1-2
[5]. Turner, M.D.,Ayantunde, A.A., Patterson, E.D., Patterson K.P.(2004). Farmer-herder relations and conflict management in agro-pastoral zone of Niger
[6]. Schilling, J., Locham R., Weinzierl,T., Vivekananda, J., Scheffran, J.(2015). The Nexus of Oil, Conflict, and Climate Change Vulnerability of Pastoral Communities in Northwest Kenya.Earth systems Dynamics, 703.
[7]. Dongmo, L.A., Vall, E., Diallo, A.M., Dugue, P.,Njoya, A.,Lossouarn A. (2012).Herding Territories in Northern Cameroon andWestern Burkina Faso: Spatial Arrangements and Herd management; 2-21
[8]. Nchinda V. P. (undated).“In search of common ground” for farmer-grazer conflict in the North West region of Cameroon.
[9]. MBOSCUDA. (2014).Pastoralism and Alliance Farming: Case study North West Region of Cameroon; 1-4.
[10]. Sone, M.P. (2012). Conflict over land ownership: the case of farmers and cattle grazers in the Northwest Region of Cameroon.
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[12]. Awuhnwih, B. (2017). Making rangelands more secured in Cameroon; a review of good practice, 19/
[13]. Ngwoh, K.V. (2017). Cameroon: Endemic Agro-Pastoral Conflicts in MenchumConflict Studies QuarterlyIssue 19; 23-42.
[14]. Tellen, A.V., Anchang, A.J., Shu, M. (2016). Conflict over land and pasture in the Northwest Cameroon: Listening to the voices of farmers and graziers
[15]. Fonchingong, C.C., Vobu, Y.E., Beseng, U.M. (2008). Traditions of Women’s Social ProtestMovements and Collective Mobilisation:Lessons from Aghem and Kedjom Women; 129-137
[16]. Angwafo, T.P. (2014). Contesting Land and Identity: the case of Women Cultivators and Fulani Cattle Herders in Wum, Northwest Region of Cameroon.
[17]. Grassfield Participatory and Decentralised Rural Development Project-GP-DERUDEP. (2006).Baseline Study of the North West Province.
[18]. Fokeng M.R. (2015). Transhumance or sedentarization of nomadic herders: what future for a sustainable livestocking in the Tubah Uplands, North West Cameroon,International Journal of Advancement in Remote Sensing, GIS and Geography, 4(1):42-52.
[19]. Gam, T.A., Tohnain N.L., Fokeng M.R. (2018). Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge and theSustenance of Local Livelihood Strategies in BuabuaandKimbi ─ the Lake Nyos Gas Disaster Resettlement Camps, NWR of Cameroon.International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume II, Issue X, 128-139.
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[21]. Kimengsi J.N. (2017). Developing a Tri-Phase Model for Land Conflict Resolution in Some Conflict-Ridden Parts of the North West Region of Cameroon. In: Land Reforms and Natural Resource Conflicts in Africa: New Development Paradigms in the Era of Global Liberalization. Tukumbi L-K (eds), 1st edition, Routledge African Studies, 160-190

Fabian C. Ntangti, Evaristus T. Angwafo, Augustine T. Gam, Reeves M. Fokeng “Spatial Typology and Cause-effect Analysis of Recurrent Agro-pastoral Conflicts in Menchum, North West Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.217-226 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/217-226.pdf

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Auditing Quality and Earnings Persistence in Nigerian Quoted Manufacturing Companies

Adegbie F.F, Salawu R.O, Usifoh O.O – June 2019 Page No.: 227-237

Accounting process is set to achieve objectivity in order to ensure high financial reporting quality which is reflected through the quality of earnings. Earnings persistence is an essential feature of the accounting information which provide useful information to investors for assessing future cashflows and earnings. External audit play a strong role in supporting transparent financial reporting but the quality of an audit has been a disputed matter in recent times and indications show that absence of audit quality is one of the major reasons for corporate scandals. The study investigated the effect of audit quality on earnings persistence of Nigerian listed manufacturing firms between 2008 and 2017. The study employed secondary data. The population of the study was 53 manufacturing firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange as at 31stDecember 2017. A sample of 30 firms was purposively selected. Data were sourced from the audited annual reports of the sampled firms and publications of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Data were analyzed using mean, percentages, pooled OLS, random effect, fixed effect and generalized least square method. The results showed that audit firm size, audit tenure and audit committee expertise had an insignificant positive influence on earnings persistence, sector based specialization had a significant negative effect on earnings persistence, audit firm independence had insignificant negative effect on earnings persistence while age and size exerted a significant negative and positive influence on earnings persistence respectively. This study concluded that audit firm size, audit tenure, sector based specialization, audit firm engaged, audit firm independence, audit committee expertise after being controlled by size and age of the firms bring about earnings persistence. The study recommended that in order to achieve financial report of better quality, consideration should be given to the proxies of audit quality jointly since all the factors are important and need to be critically considered in taking decision by the shareholders and management towards the achievement of a qualitative financial report.

Page(s): 227-237                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2019

 Adegbie F.F
Accounting Department, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Salawu R.O
Accounting Department, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Usifoh O.O
Accounting Department, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

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[3]. Asbaugh, H., & Warfield, T., D., (2003). Audits as a corporate governance mechanism: Evidence from the German market. Journal of International Accounting Research, 2(1), 1-21.
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[5]. Beaver, W. (1989). Financial Reporting: An Accounting Revolution. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Int., Inc.
[6]. Biddle, G., & Hilary, G. (2006). Accounting quality and firm-level capital investment. The Accounting Review 81(1), 963– 982.
[7]. Bing, J., J, Huang, C., X, Li, A., L. & Zhu, X., L., (2014). Audit quality research report. A report prepared by the summer interns in the Research School of Accounting and Business Information Systems ,Australian National Centre for Audit and Assurance Research.
[8]. Bugshan, T. (2005). Corporate governance, earnings management, and the information content of accounting earnings: Theoretical model and Empirical Tests. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Bond University Queensland, Australia
[9]. Chadegani, A., A., (2011). Review of studies on audit quality. International Conference on Humanities, Society and Culture Singapore, 20 (1), 312-317.
[10]. Chalmers, K., & Godfrey, J., M, (2004). Reputation costs; the impetus for voluntary derivate financial reporting. Accounting Organization and Society, 29 (1), 95-125.
[11]. Chinga, C., P, Tehb, B., H., Sanc, O., T., & Hoed, H., Y., (2015). The relationship among audit quality, earnings management, and financial performance of Malaysian public listed companies. International Journal of Economics and Management 9 (1), 211 – 229.
[12]. Dang, L., (2004). Assessing actual audit quality. Unpublished doctoral disertation. Drexel University, Philadelphia.
[13]. DeAngelo, L., E., (1981). Auditor size and audit quality. Journal of Accounting and Economics.3 (3): 183-199.
[14]. Dechow, P., &Schrand, C. (2004). Earnings quality, working paper. The Research Foundation of CFA Institute.
[15]. DeFond, M., &Zhang, J., (2014). A review of archival auditing research. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 58(2),275-326.
[16]. Devos, E., & Sarkar, S., (2015). Read the footnotes! Auditor quality, earning persistence, and the of footnotes in 10k Retrieved on 18/08/18 http://www.sec.gov/investor/pubs/begfinstmtguide.htm
[17]. Eguasa, B., E., &UrhoghideR.,.O., (2017). Audit market concentration and audit quality in Nigeria. Journal of Business and Management, 19 (9) 1-9
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[44]. Onadapo, A., A, Ajulo, O., B. &Onifade H., O., (2017). Effect of audit fee on audit quality: Evience from cement manufacturing companies in Nigeria. 5(1), 6-17.
[45]. Rajizadeh, S., &Rajizadeh, S., (2013). Examining the factors affecting earnings persistency among the listed firms in Tehran stock exchange. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences 2(3), 2073-2079.
[46]. Rostami , V. (2009): Audit expectation gap: International Evidence. International Journal of academic Research, 1(1),1 40-14.
[47]. Wallace, W., (2004). The economic role of the audit in free and regulated markets: a look back and a look forward. Research in Accounting Regulation, 17(1), 267–298.
[48]. Zgarni I., Hlioui K. &Zehri F. (2012). Audit quality and earnings management in the Tunisian context .International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, 2(2), 17-33.

Adegbie F.F, Salawu R.O, Usifoh O.O “Auditing Quality and Earnings Persistence in Nigerian Quoted Manufacturing Companies” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.227-237 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/227-237.pdf

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Comparative Analysis of Zero-Based Budgeting and Incremental Budgeting Techniques of Government Performance in Nigeria

Sunny B. Beredugo, Joseph. U. B. Azubike & Emmanuel E.Okon – June 2019 Page No.: 238-243

The study revolves on the comparative analysis of zero-based budgeting and incremental budgeting techniques of government performance in Nigeria. The incremental budgeting applications in Nigeria have witnessed several frivolous expenditures in the budget that does not stand any reasoning or logic.The arrays of unjustifiable expenses on the incremental budgeting are quite devastating, zero-based budgeting is also costly.The study evaluated if there is a significant difference between the applications of zero-based budgeting and incremental budgeting techniques of time consumed, allocation of resources among others. The study was conducted within the budget units of selected federal government’s Ministries, Department and Agencies (MDGs) in Cross River and Akwa-Ibom States. The MDGs chosen include University of Calabar, and its teaching hospital; the University of Uyo and its teaching hospital; Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria in Calabar, Federal Metrological Agency, Uyo. A sample size of 239 staff members was used. Two hypotheses were tested using the analysis of variance and the independent t-test and it was discovered that there is a significant difference between them except of the innovative means of reducing cost that is associated with the budget; whereas, there is no significant differences between Zero-based and incremental budgeting technique government performances. It was therefore recommended that budgeting staff should be adequately trained in order to save time and cost in the future budgetary process. Cost incurred on the zero-based techniques should be curtailed and reduced to barest minimal and possibly used for economic development rather than for budget procedure.

Page(s): 238-243                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2019

 Sunny B. Beredugo
Department of Accounting, College of Management Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

 Joseph. U. B. Azubike
Department of Accounting, College of Management Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

 Emmanuel E.Okon
Department of Business Management, University of Calabar Cross River State, Nigeria

[1]. Abdullahi, A. A. (2007). Public sector accounting: Theory and practice (1st ed). Zaria: Sa’ad-Deen Press
[2]. Abdullahi, S. R. (2011). Mastering cost and management accounting (1st ed). Kano-Nigeria: GidanDabino Publishers
[3]. Adams, R. A. (2009). Public sector accounting and finance: Made simple, Revised edition 2, Yaba-Nigeria: Corporate Publishers Ventures.
[4]. Beredugo, S. B., Igbeng, E. I. &Eze, F. J. (2013). The Significance of International Corporate Governance Disclosures on Financial Reporting in Nigeria, International Journal of Business and Management, 8(8), 1833-8119.
[5]. Blocher, E. J., Chen, K. H., Cokins, G. & Lin, T. W. (2005).Cost management: A strategic emphasis (3rd ed), Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
[6]. Dandago, K. I. &Tijjani, B. (2005).Cost and Management Accounting(2nd ed). Kano – Nigeria: GidanDabinoPublishers.
[7]. Deloitte (2015). Zero-Based Budgeting: Zero or Hero? Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Member of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited.
[8]. Effiong, S. A. &Beredugo, S. B. (2015).Balanced Scorecard and Strategic Cost Management: Recipes for Productivity Rating of Nigerian Manufacturing Company. Open Journal of Finance.
[9]. Fisher, M. (2008). Budgeting. Microsoft Encarta (DVD) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
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[11]. Horgren, C. Datar, M. Foster, G. Rajan, M. &Ittner, C. (2008). Cost Accounting: Managerial Emphasis, (vol. 13). India: Prentice-Hall of India Private limited.
[12]. Hunger, D., &Wheelan, T. (1997).Strategic management.ReadingMassahustts: Addision Wesley.
[13]. Idio, U. S. (2011). The Budget as a Management Tool: Review of Implementation in Nigeria. Global Journal of Social Sciences 11(1), 1-7.
[14]. Igbeng, E. I., Beredugo, S. B. &Adu, V. A. (2015). Evaluation of Public Accountability and Tax Culture among Tax Payers in Nigeria. International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration, 1(9), 7 – 13
[15]. Iloani, F. A. (March, 2 2015). 2015 budget contains N304.57bn wasteful expenditure. Daily trust newspaper. Retrieved from https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/business/-2015-budget-contains…/70121.html
[16]. Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) (2006).Introduction to public sector accounting and finance. Lagos: ICAN.
[17]. Walden, U. (2007). Budegting. Retrieved from:http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifehack/what-is-performanace.htn Ellis-Christensen

Sunny B. Beredugo, Joseph. U. B. Azubike & Emmanuel E.Okon “Comparative Analysis of Zero-Based Budgeting and Incremental Budgeting Techniques of Government Performance in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.238-243 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/238-243.pdf

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Commercial Banks’ Credit and Agricultural Output in Nigeria: 1980 -2018

Papka Z. Medugu, Innocent Musa, Enam Pagiel Abalis – June 2019 Page No.: 244-251

This study empirically examined the impact of Commercial Banks’ credit on Agricultural output in Nigeria, covering the period 1980 to 2018. Annual time series data was employed, which was sourced from Central Bank (CBN) publications such as Statistical Bulletins and Bullions, and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) publications. Stationary test was conducted on variables to ascertain whether they have unit roots. It was discovered that they were all stationary at first difference. Co integration test however, revealed that long run relationship exists among the variables, also ECM model result showed that the model returns to short run equilibrium after an exogenous shock, with speed of adjustment of negative one (-1), this implies that 100% of all the deviations in the past will adjust to equilibrium. Ordinary least square Method was employed to estimate the relationships among the variables and the result showed positive and significant relationship exists between commercial banks’ credit and Agricultural output in Nigeria, the same relationship also exists between Expenditure made on Agriculture by Government and Agricultural output in Nigeria. Interest rate was negatively related to Agricultural output in Nigeria, the results are all according to a priori expectations. However, commercial banks’ credit performs better than Government Expenditure on Agricultural output in Nigeria. R2=0.98, which means 98% of the variations in agricultural output is explained by the explanatory variables, while high F-statistic of 868 with probability value of 0.0000000 means the model is statistically significant at 5% level. The study based on the findings, recommends that; (i) Government should as a matter of policy through the Central Bank make credits from Commercial Banks available and affordable by lowering interest rate and (ii) Government should increase its expenditure on Agriculture, and ensure proper monitoring to enforce judicious utilization of fund.

Page(s): 244-251                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2019

 Papka Z. Medugu
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.

 Innocent Musa
Adamawa State Collage of Education, Hong, Nigeria.

 Enam Pagiel Abalis
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.

[1]. Adebayo, O. O., &Adeola, R. G. (2008). Sources and Uses of Agricultural Credit bySmall-scale Farmers in Surulere, Oyo – Nigeria. Anthropologist 10(4), 313-314. Retrieved From http://krepublishers.com/02-Journals/T-Anth/Anth-10-0-000-08-Web/Anth-10-4-000-08- \
[2]. Ayeba, O., &Ikan, D.I. (2013). An Impact Assessment of Agricultural Credit on Rural Farmers In Nigeria. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting 4(18), 80-89.
[3]. Agunuwa, E. V, Inaya, L., &Proso, T. (2013). Impact of Commercial Banks’ Credit on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria (Time Series Analysis 1980 – 2013). International Journal of AcademicResearch in Business and Social Sciences 5(11), 337-350.
[4]. Ahungwa, G.T, Haruna U. &Abdulsalam, Y. R. (2014). Trend Analysis of the contribution of Agriculture to the Gross Domestic Product of Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary sciences. 7(1), 50-55.
[5]. Bank Credit (n.d)www.investopedia.com/terms/b/bank -credit.asp Retrieved 10/06/2017.
[6]. Choong, C.,& Chan, S. (2011). Financial Development and Economic growth: A review. African Journal of Business Management 5(6), 2017-2027 Doi:10.5897/AJBM10.772
[7]. Chris, U., Mbat, D. O.,& Duke, B.S. (2016). The effect of commercial Banks’ Credit on Production in Nigeria. Journal of finance and accounting 4(1), 1-10. Doi:10.12691/ijfa-4-1/research article.
[8]. Daneji, M. I. (2011). Agricultural Development Intervention Programmes in Nigeria (1960 to Date): A Review. Savannah Journal of Agriculture 6(1); 101-107
[9]. Dori, N. A. S. (2016). The impact of Central Bank of Nigeria’s Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund on agricultural and Economic Development of Nigeria. International Journal of Political Science and Development 4(3), 63-74.
[10]. Essien, E. A. (2005). A Consistent Macroeconomic Frameworkforthe Agricultural Sector, underthe National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy, CN Bullion 29(4), 1
[11]. Gujarati, N. D. (2004). Basic Econometrics, (4th ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill New York
[12]. John, E. E., &Terhemba, P. I. (2016). Commercial Bank credit and Manufacturing Sector Output in Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 7(16), 189-196.
[13]. Kareem, R. O., Osisanya, S.O.,&Isiaq, T.S. (2017). Commercial Bank Financing and Agricultural Output in Nigeria (1980-2014). Journal of Research in Business Economics andManagement8(1), 1302-1310
[14]. Lamont, K. B., & Richard, J. R. (2007). How the credit channel works: Differentiating the bank lending channel and the balance sheet channel, Federal Reserve Bank Chicago U.S.A.
[15]. Lemeshhev, I. A. M. (2010 ed.). Gross output of Agriculture. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979) http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Gross+Output+of+Agriculture
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[17]. Nnamocha, P.N., & Charles, N.E. (2015). Bank credit and Agricultural output in Nigeria (1970-2013): An Error Correction Model approach. British journal of Economics,Management and Trade 10(2), 1-12
[18]. Obansa, S.A. J., &Maduekwe, I. M. (2013). Agricultural financing and economic growth in Nigeria. European scientific journal 9(1), 168-204.
[19]. Olusegun, J.A., Akintoye, R. I., & Dada O.S. (2014). Commercial Bank and sectoral Growth in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies3(9),423-431.
[20]. Oni, T. O. (2013). Challenges and Prospects of Agriculture in Nigeria: Way Forward. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development4(16)
[21]. Reis, J. (2016). The Gross Agricultural Output of Portugal: A Quantitative, Unified Perspective, 1500–1850. EHES working papers in Economic History (98) http://www.ehes.org/EHES_98.pdf
[22]. Sunny, O.I. (2013). The impact of commercial banks’ credit to agriculture on Agricultural development in Nigeria: econometric analysis. International Journal of business,humanities and technology 3(1), 85-94.
[23]. The Agricultural Promotion Policy (2016-2020). Building on success of the ATA, closing Key Gaps. Policy and strategy document. http://fscluster.org/sites/default/files/documents

Papka Z. Medugu, Innocent Musa, Enam Pagiel Abalis “Commercial Banks’ Credit and Agricultural Output in Nigeria: 1980 -2018” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.244-251 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/244-251.pdf

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Cross Border Human Trafficking and Its Effect on Nigeria’s National Image

Chinemerem Winifred Ojiego – June 2019 Page No.: 252-255

Human trafficking is regarded as modern day slavery. The phenomenon has generated a lot of attention among local and international communities. The menace has become a lucrative criminal business and Nigeria has acquired a reputation for being one of the leading African countries in human trafficking with cross-border and internal trafficking. This study examined the effects of human trafficking on Nigeria’s national image. The study adopted political economy theory as enunciated by Karl Marx as its theoretical framework, given the fact that the approach stated that while crime increase in the society is because of the unjust conditions in the society. This research adopted ex-post-facto research design and data was generated through secondary sources. At the end of the investigation, it was discovered that human trafficking has flourished due to the lackluster attitude of law enforcement and a weak legal framework thus, creates bad image for Nigeria. The researcher recommended that the government should provide employment opportunities for youths, and create an encouraging environment for the private sectors to invest.

Page(s): 252-255                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2019

 Chinemerem Winifred Ojiego
Department of History, International Studies and Diplomacy, Godfrey Okoye University, Ugwuomu-Nike, Enugu State, Nigeria.

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[4]. Maduagwu, C. (2004) “Human Trafficking: Nigeria’s efforts, not good enough”, Daily Champion, Thursday, July 29, p34.
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[7]. Njoku A. O. (2005) Contemporary Public Issues in Social Studies Education in Nigeria,Enugu: Redeemed Printing and Publishing Co.
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[12]. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2006), Human Trafficking in Nigeria: Root Causes and Recommendations. Retrieved on 30/5/2019 from www.unesco.org/shs/humantrafficking

Chinemerem Winifred Ojiego “Cross Border Human Trafficking and Its Effect on Nigeria’s National Image” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.252-255 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/252-255.pdf

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The Mediating Effect of Acceptance of Using AIS on the Relationship between the Accounting Information Systems and Financial Performance in Jordanian Companies

Baker Akram Falah Jarah, Takiah Binti Mohd Iskandar – June 2019 Page No.: 256-263

The study aimed to establish the role acceptance of using AIS in the relationship between the timeliness and reliability in the AIS and financial performance in Jordanian companies. The study sample consisted of 85 from these Jordanian companies. This study analyzes the data using (SPSS) program. The results revealed a statistically significant relationship at the significance level (P≤0.05) between the acceptance of using AIS as mediating and timeliness and reliability AIS and financial performance in these Jordanian companies. Where the accounting information system used in our organization provides the reports requested by the external and internal parties in a timely manner and provides the information that the company needs in a timely manner, and stores and retrieves data easily without loss of time. Also, the accounting information system used in our organization helps maintain data integrity. Also, the accounting information system used provides reliable data and provides reliable financial reporting which is in compliance with laws and regulations.

Page(s): 256-263                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 July 2019

 Baker Akram Falah Jarah
Student Doctor of Philosophy in Accounting Faculty of Finance & Administrative Sciences, Al-Madinah International University/ Malaysia
 Takiah Binti Mohd Iskandar
Al-Madinah International University/ Malaysia

[1]. Abu Mahadi, A. S. T. A. (2017). The Effect of Reliability of Electronic Accounting Information Systems on Banking Performance Indicators. “Empirical Study on Local Banks in Palestine”, this paper presented the completion of the requirements for obtaining a master’s degree in accounting and finance program at the Faculty of Commerce at the Islamic University of Gaza.
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[7]. Al-Kassar, T. A., & Abed, I. A. (2014). An Investigation of the Accounting Information and Its Role for Capital Expenditure Decisions in the Industrial Companies Listed in Amman Stock Exchange. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, Vol.5, No.16.
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[10]. Al-Saraireh, S. I. (2013). The role of investment in information technology on the performance of industrial companies listed on Amman financial market. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4 (12).
[11]. Amiri, M. A., &Salari, M. H. (2013).Effect of Accounting Information System (AIS) on Software qualitative. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2 (4), 6-11.
[12]. Awosejo, P. P., Ajala, E. B., &Agunbiade, O. Y. (2014).Adoption of Accounting Information Systems in an Organization in South Africa.African Journal of Computing & ICT, 7 (1).
[13]. Aziz, A. K. (2006). The media content of financial lists in the light of international accounting standards, a master’s degree, University of Aleppo, Syria.
[14]. Bukenya, M. O. S. E. S. (2014). Quality of accounting information and financial performance of Uganda’s public sector. American Journal of Research Communication, 2 (5), 183-203.
[15]. Esmeray, A. (2016). The Impact of Accounting Information Systems (AIS) on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence in Turkish Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6 (2), 233-236.
[16]. FASB (2010).Financial Accounting Standards Board of the Financial Accounting Foundation.
[17]. Hamdan, M. N. M. (2013). Improving the performance of accounting information systems of commercial banks in Jordan by using the balanced scorecard approach (Doctoral dissertation, Curtin University).
[18]. Harash, E., Al-Timimi, S., &Radhi, A. H. (2014).The influence of accounting information systems (AIS) on performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Iraq. Journal of Business & Management, 3 (4), 48-57.
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[20]. Hosni, A. R. (2017). Determinants of the Effectiveness of Accounting Information Systems and their Impact on Financial Performance, Thesis prepared to supplement the requirements of the Master’s degree in Economics – Accounting, Tishreen University, Syria.
[21]. Jan, O. (2016), relevance and reliability principle definition and examples, Vol, 29.
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[24]. Matovu, B. H. (2005). Perceived quality of accounting information and performance of small and medium enterprises, a research dissertation submitted to Makerere university business school in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of MSC. Accounting and finance Makerere University.
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[26]. Mushtaha, S. M., Hamdan, A. M. & Shaker, T. H. (2011). The Extent of Reliability of Accounting Information Systems and their Impact on Improving Banking Performance Indicators, Studies, Administrative Sciences, Vol, 38, Issue,1.
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[28]. Odero, A. (2014). The Effect of Accounting Information System Quality on Financial Performance of Smes in Nairobi County.Unpublished MBA Report of the University of Nairobi.
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[33]. Soudani, S. N. (2012). The usefulness of an accounting information system for effective organizational performance.International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4 (5), 136.
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Baker Akram Falah Jarah, Takiah Binti Mohd Iskandar “The Mediating Effect of Acceptance of Using AIS on the Relationship between the Accounting Information Systems and Financial Performance in Jordanian Companies” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.256-263 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/256-263.pdf

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Institutional Resources as a Predisposing Factor of Academic Attainments of Female University Students in Masvingo, Zimbabwe

Lilian Manwa – June 2019 Page No.: 264-270

The aim of this study was to establish the influence of institutional resources as a predisposing factor of academic attainments of female university students in Masvingo, Zimbabwe. A qualitative paradigm which adopted a case study design was used to elicit data from thirty female university students. The sample of the thirty participants was conveniently selected from a population of five hundred female students in second to forth year. Data were collected using focus group discussions and open-ended questionnaires. The findings revealed that the institution lacks most of the important equipment and those available equipment are mostly outdated and broken down. The female students were the worst affected since most of their parents were failing to subsidise the available institutional resources due to economic challenges. The study also established that shortage and non availability of most basic resources was negatively influencing the academic attainments of female university students. The institution was seen to be failing to provide adequate material and human resources. It is recommended that the government of Zimbabwe retake its responsibility of educating its citizens since the families are failing to subsidise the scanty and unsuitable resources at the institution. Fundraising projects should be given the priority at institutional level in order to supplement the shortage of funds.

Page(s): 264-270                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 July 2019

 Lilian Manwa
Lecturer, School of Education, Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

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Lilian Manwa “Institutional Resources as a Predisposing Factor of Academic Attainments of Female University Students in Masvingo, Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.264-270 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/264-270.pdf

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Curriculum Interpretation and Learners’ Attainment of Reading Skills in Uganda a Case of Selected Districts in Acholi Sub-Region

Sammy Godfrey Poro, Dr. Marus Eton, Professor Andrew Peter Yiga, Associate Professor Julius Caesar Enon, Fabian Mwosi – June 2019 Page No.: 271-277

The study sought to assess the influence of curriculum interpretation on learners’ attainment of reading skills in Acholi Sub region, Uganda. The finding indicated a significant relationship between curriculum interpretation and attainment of learners’ reading skills. The study recommended a more coordinated approach to language policy implementation so that all learners can have the opportunity to learn to read first in their mother tongue and for reading to be beneficial and meaningful for them. Emphasizing instruction in local languages in government primary schools disadvantages learners when it comes to preparation for Primary Leaving Examinations. The government needs to streamline policy on thematic curriculum implementation so that all learners in Uganda are given equal opportunities when it comes to primary leaving examinations.

Page(s): 271-277                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 July 2019

  Sammy Godfrey Poro
Nkumba University, Entebbe, Uganda

  Dr. Marus Eton
Kabale University, Kabale, Uganda

  Professor Andrew Peter Yiga
Nkumba University, Entebbe, Uganda

  Associate Professor Julius Caesar Enon
Lira University, Lira Uganda

  Fabian Mwosi
Barham University College, Kabale, Uganda

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Sammy Godfrey Poro, Dr. Marus Eton, Professor Andrew Peter Yiga, Associate Professor Julius Caesar Enon, Fabian Mwosi “Curriculum Interpretation and Learners’ Attainment of Reading Skills in Uganda a Case of Selected Districts in Acholi Sub-Region” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.271-277 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/271-277.pdf

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Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Environmental Management and Poverty Reduction in Western Uganda

Dr. Marus Eton, Professor Natal Ayiga, Moses Agaba, Fabian Mwosi, Dr. Benard Patrick, Ogwel – June 2019 Page No.: 278-286

The study aimed at assessing the role of SMEs and environment management in poverty reduction in Western Uganda. The study a descriptive and correlation study design. The data was collected by use of structured and closed ended questionnaires. The findings revealed a strong association between (SMES and environmental management) and poverty reduction (r =.644; sig. <.05). The study found out that SMEs lack access to innovative technologies, which are essential in buttressing SME roles in poverty reduction. The study revealed that very little financial resources are directly channeled to SMEs amidst ever increasing interest rates on loans. Government policies on SMEs are deficient in terms of technical, technological, financial, and managerial and infrastructures needed for effective contribution to economic growth and poverty reduction. The study further suggest that SMEs can resolve problems of poverty and unemployment if they can access cheap capital. The study therefore recommends that government should prioritize SME sector in budgets to enhance its contribution to economic growth and poverty reduction.

Page(s): 278-286                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 July 2019

 Dr. Marus Eton
Kabale University-Kabale Uganda

 Professor Natal Ayiga
Kabale University-Kabale Uganda

 Moses Agaba
Kabale University-Kabale Uganda

 Fabian Mwosi
Bishop Barham University College Kabale Uganda

 Dr. Benard Patrick, Ogwel
Kampala International University-Kampala Uganda

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Dr. Marus Eton, Professor Natal Ayiga, Moses Agaba, Fabian Mwosi, Dr. Benard Patrick, Ogwel “Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Environmental Management and Poverty Reduction in Western Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.278-286 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/278-286.pdf

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The Role of Vertical Openness Communication in Enhancing Fiscal Decentralisation in Uganda

Kato Hussein Munuulo, Kagambirwe Karyeija Gerald – June 2019 Page No.: 287-291

Fiscal decentralisation has become a central concern globally. This has prompted developing countries to turn to fiscal decentralisation in various forms as an escape from inefficient and ineffective governance. Therefore this study is occasioned by the fact that there is scarcity of empirical studies in developing countries such as Uganda that investigate the interactions between vertical openness communications enhancing fiscal decentralisation at institutional levels. The major objective of this study is to establish the relationship between vertical openness and fiscal decentralisation in Busoga sub region Government Aided Primary Schools in Eastern Uganda. This study adopted a cross sectional design under a quantitative domain and a sample of 314 respondents was used. The data was analysed using spss software version 20. The finding of the study indicated that the association between vertical openness and fiscal decentralization is positive and significant which implies that vertical openness supportive communication improves fiscal decentralisation. The study recommends that Central Governments should streamline communication to ensure that the Lowest Accounting Officers especially Head teachers are able to obtain information on new guidelines for funds use promptly through circulars, setup public information centres in local and urban areas, use modern social media platform among others.

Page(s): 287-291                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2019

 Kato Hussein Munuulo
Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda

 Kagambirwe Karyeija Gerald
Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda

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Kato Hussein Munuulo, Kagambirwe Karyeija Gerald “The Role of Vertical Openness Communication in Enhancing Fiscal Decentralisation in Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.287-291 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/287-291.pdf

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Influence of Counsellor’s Professionalism Power on Counselling Outcomes of Learners with Behavioural Problems in Public Primary Schools in Embu County Kenya

Dr. Wanjiru Jane J. Mugai, Prof. Veronica K. Nyaga, Dr. Beatrice M. Mburugu – June 2019 Page No.: 292-306

Despite the massive influence of counsellor’s professionalism power on counselling and outcomes, professional training of counsellors generally disregards the question of power, except as it is mentioned in ethics and counselling classes under the mandate those counsellors. Counsellors should not abuse their hypothetically superior power over their clients. Counselling outcomes are changes or impact or end results in a client’s life. These outcomes may be positive or negative. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of counsellor’s professionalism power on counselling outcomes of learners with behavioural problems in inclusive primary schools, Embu County. This study adopted a mixed methods, concurrent triangulation design and correlational research. Purposive sampling and a census method were adopted. The study population comprised of; 34 counsellors, 34 special teachers and 52 learners making a total of 120 respondents. Research instruments applied were questionnaires and focus group discussion. Validity was ensured through expert judgment. Cronbach’s alpha test was used to test reliability. Research hypotheses were tested by use of one way ANOVA. Descriptive and inferential statistics analyzed quantitative data. Regression analysis showed the nature and strength of the relationships between the variables while in qualitative data thematic analysis was applied. Data was analyzed by use of (SPSS) version 23 and were presented using tables, graphs and charts. Findings were that professional power had a negative influence on counselling outcome with a coefficient of -0.080, which means that an increase in professional power by one unit, would lead to a decrease in counselling outcome by 0.080 units. Counsellor’s professionalism power if well applied has a critical role to play in supporting the management of behaviour problems in learners so as to avoid school exclusion which has negative implications. Recommendations: Counsellors attend seminars to learn how to integrate their personal professionalism powers with cultural powers. Conduct another study in another county to compare the results. Counsellors learn how to empower their clients to connect the idea that their emotional power drives help in management of their emotional power. Counsellors to be belong to a given officially registered body of counsellors and also must be renewing their licensure every given set time as per the government policy as professionals.

Page(s): 292-306                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2019

 Dr. Wanjiru Jane J. Mugai
Chuka University- Box 109, Chuka, Kenya

 Prof. Veronica K. Nyaga
Chuka University- Box 109, Chuka, Kenya

 Dr. Beatrice M. Mburugu
Chuka University- Box 109, Chuka, Kenya

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Dr. Wanjiru Jane J. Mugai, Prof. Veronica K. Nyaga, Dr. Beatrice M. Mburugu “Influence of Counsellor’s Professionalism Power on Counselling Outcomes of Learners with Behavioural Problems in Public Primary Schools in Embu County Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.292-306 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/292-306.pdf

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A Critique on the Durkheimian Concept of Solidarity

K.A.A.N. Thilakarathna – June 2019 Page No.: 307-313

The concept of solidarity as advanced by Durkheim in the 18thcentury concerns about the totality of a given society in which it tries to work together as a cohesive unit. Durkheim observed that at the initial stages, that is to say in the primitive societies people bonded together because of their similarities. As most of the people in a tribe or a clan in those periods were self-sufficient and their needs and wants being limited in nature, they were capable of surviving on their own and hence they formed alliances with one another out of their similarities. This was termed as mechanical solidarity. Durkheim observed that, during these periods’ laws were stringently applied and that any deviant behaviors were heavily condemned and retributive justice was considered to be the norm. However, as the societies grew in numbers, the similarities which existed among the people in a tribe or a clan soon started to disappear and more and dissimilarities and differences among them began to arise. With these latter developments, the unity of the society was protected by a different kind of solidarity, which is termed as organic solidarity. Under this particular system social unity is based on a division of labor that results in people depending on each other. As one person became dependent on another the relationships which existed prior to such change of circumstances were not able to provide for the rather complex relationships which started to develop with the division of labor, where each person was somehow or the other produced a commodity which was to be exchanged with other commodities in which the exchange of ones capabilities with another became the norm of a society. Durkheim explained that, even with these differences people had to work together under an organic solidarity to make sure of their future existence. Durkheim observed that, during these periods, the laws are made not so with a retributive aim but with a rehabilitative aim, in which offenders or deviants are rehabilitated so that they can be re-released to a given society where once again they can become productive individuals. Using a black letter approach, this paper tries to evaluate the theory of solidarity as advanced by Durkheim in a conceptual manner with the prevalent realities of the modern society. In doing so this paper looks at the contemporary arguments which have been put forward both for and against the ides presented by Durkheim with regard to his idea of solidarity. From these contemporary writings it has been found that, though not in its entirety, the Durkheimian concept of solidarity still holds true with regard to the working of or keeping a society together admits all of its differences.

Page(s): 307-313                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2019

 K.A.A.N. Thilakarathna
Institute of Human Resource Advancement, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

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K.A.A.N. Thilakarathna “A Critique on the Durkheimian Concept of Solidarity ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.307-313 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/307-313.pdf

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Privatization and Financial Performance (Return on Capital Employed) on Selected Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (1980-2015)

R.W. Oladiran – June 2019 Page No.: 314-323

The performance of these public dominated enterprises had not achieved the desired impact in the economy as a result of government inefficiencies. Economic reforms that facilitate efficient macroeconomic economic management such as privatization, commercialization and liberalization had been mentioned to address this issue. Hence, this study investigated the impact of privatization on financial performance (return on capital employed) of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria 1980-2015. The study employed ex-post facto research design. Three banks were chosen from the target population of nine privatized deposit money banks, namely, FBN Plc, UBA Plc and UBN Plc. Secondary data were used and were subjected to pre and post diagnostic tests. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and panel regression analysis. The findings revealed that privatization components have significant impact on financial performance (return on capital employed) (ROCE) (Adj. R2 = 0.463, F= 7.048, p<0.05 of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria after privatization. The study recommended that the current privatization programme should be pursued with robustness and zeal it deserves. For further studies the researcher suggested extending the research to other sectors of the economy and /or the state-owned privatized money deposit banks.

Page(s): 314-323                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2019

 R.W. Oladiran
PhD Student of Department of Business Administration and Marketing, Babcock University, Nigeria

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[27]. Majumdar, S. K. (1997).The impact of size and age on the firm-level performance: Some evidence from India. Review of Industrial Organization, 12:231-241. Retrieved on February 10, 2017 from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1007766324749
[28]. Megginson, N. L., & Netter, J. M. (2001). From state to market: A survey of empirical studies on privatization. Journal of Economic Literature, 39(2), 321-389.
[29]. Morris, G. D., Jean, L. H., & David, R. S. (2008). Shareholder theory – How opponents and proponents both get it wrong. SSRN Electronics Journal, 18(2), 62-66.
[30]. Muritala, T. A. (2012). An empirical analysis of capital structure on firm’s performance in Nigeria. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 1(5), 116 -124.
[31]. Odekunle, T. (2006). Essentials of banking and monetary system in Nigeria. Jaytees Publisher: Lagos, Nigeria.
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[33]. Oloye, M., & Osuma, G. (2015), Impact of merger and acquisition on the performance of Nigerian banks (A case study of selected banks). Pyrex Journal of Business and Finance, 1(4), 023-040.
[34]. Omolumo, I. G. (2005). Elements of banking in Nigeria 4th edition. Omolumo Consult: Lagos, Nigeria.
[35]. Pandey, I. M. (2008). Financial management, ninth edition. Vikas Publishing: India.
[36]. Saul, E., & Adeline, P. (2018). Privatization in developing countries: What are the lessons of recent experience? The World Bank Research Observer, 33(1), 65-102.
[37]. Staikouras, C., Mamatzakis, E., & Koutsomanoli-Filippaki, A. (2007). Operating performance of the banking industry: An empirical investigation of South Eastern European Region. Southern – Eastern European Journal of Economics, 2, 205-266.
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R.W. Oladiran “Privatization and Financial Performance (Return on Capital Employed) on Selected Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria (1980-2015)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.314-323 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/314-323.pdf

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Tea Production in Malaysia: Culture versus Challenges and Prospect to Malaysian Economics

Kasim Mansur – June 2019 Page No.: 324-328

Tea has been grown in Malaysia (than Malaya) for over 500 years, but commercial success has, until recently, eluded a succession of plantation entrepreneurs despite the favorable climate setting. The labor-intensive nature of tea cultivation and processing, combined with high costs of fertilizer prices, required a daunting creativity. The Malaysian market is dominated by three brands namely BOH tea, Sabah Tea and Lipton. From economic perspectives, there is a growing market demand for herbal and fruit teas. In spite of the challenges of tea production in Malaysia, the nation tea industry still holds a great potential in significantly contributing to not only the nation’s economy, but also the lifestyle and enjoyment of its people.Since most Malaysians nowadays has become increasingly health awareness this in turn altering consumer behavior and tastes. New lifestyle is due to increasing health conscious factor that leads consumers to drink more tea, as tea helps to boost the immune system and to reduce cholesterol and blood pressure.

Page(s): 324-328                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2019

 Kasim Mansur
Universiti Malaysia Sabah

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[2]. Alastair Hicks. 2001. Review of Global Tea Productionand the Impact on Industry of the Asian Economic Situation. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand
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[10]. World Tea News. 2013. Discovering Tea in Malaysia. November 4, 2013

Kasim Mansur “Tea Production in Malaysia: Culture versus Challenges and Prospect to Malaysian Economics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.324-328 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/324-328.pdf

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University Library Literary Week: A Tool for Quality Reading Habit among Undergraduates in Nigeria

SOLANKE, Oluwayinka Esther (CLN) – June 2019 Page No.: 329-333

The purpose of this study is to advocate for university library literary week in promoting quality reading habit among undergraduates in Nigeria. The study is a conceptual paper that employed the review of literature approach to collect, analyse and synthesize information majorly from primary and secondary sources taking the specific research objective into cognizance.
The paper found out that although there are pockets of activities being organised in this direction by academic departments and literary associations, the magnitude becomes more enhanced when university libraries are directly involved. It also found out that universities libraries, besides their statutory functions as repository and facilitator of access to educational and information resources, must in addition engender undergraduates’ reading culture through promotional exercises such as the quarterly library literary reading week. The study further revealed that the method of achieving this will have to include organised forum for interactive sessions with undergraduates and literary celebrities; literary quizzes, read-a book- per week, competitions that attract prizes, etc. It has implication for university library stakeholders in promoting good reading habit among undergraduates which make them to be globally competitive, and stand at par with their colleagues in other part of the world. The study fills an existing dearth in literatures on how university libraries can promote good readinghabit in Nigeria via Literary Week.

Page(s): 329-333                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2019

 SOLANKE, Oluwayinka Esther (CLN)
University of Medical Science, Ondo State, Nigeria

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[26]. Okebukola, F. O. (2004). “Reading: key to lifelong development”. A key note address delivered at the workshop on readership promotion campaign organized by the National Library of Nigeria.
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[28]. Olalokun, S. A. (1999). Strategy for Effective Reading Environment for the Nigerian Society. Gate way Library Journal 2:1-8.
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[32]. Rubin, D. (2002). Diagnosis and correction in reading and guiding readinginstruction. 4th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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SOLANKE, Oluwayinka Esther (CLN) “University Library Literary Week: A Tool for Quality Reading Habit among Undergraduates in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.329-333 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/329-333.pdf

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The Relationship between Exports and Economic Growth: The Case Study of Gambia

Musa Sawaneh – June 2019 Page No.: 334-343

Every country’s desire is sustainable economic development through economic growth. For most countries, the consistency of its gross domestic product is of huge concern for its government and policymakers. Either a developed or developing country, economic growth has been seen to promote export; similarly, export is viewed to be an essential determinant of economic growth. But the debate of what causes economic development is heated among researchers and economists as there is yet to be any consensus on the topic. This paper contributes to the investigation of the relationship between export and economic growth for the Gambia from 1990 to 2017. Using annual time series economic data, we applied the econometric techniques of ADF test to prove stationarity, acceptance of the null hypothesis of Granger causality and Johansen’s cointegration test. The Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model was conducted and the findings indicate a positive relationship between export and economic growth. The R-squared of 77.67% from the vector autoregressive test results made us accept the export-led growth hypothesis for the Gambia. Thus, we recommended policymakers to create judicious and strategic policies that would promote export to boost the economic growth of the Gambia.

Page(s): 334-343                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2019

 Musa Sawaneh
Department of Economic Development and International Economics, Kocaeli University, Turkey

[1]. Abdullah, Diana N. C. and Shaari, Mohd S (2017). “Investigating the Causal Relationship between Export and Economic Growth: A Malaysian Perspective, 1984-2014”, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 2017, Vol. 7, No. 7 ISSN: 2222-6990.
[2]. Abu-Bader, Suleiman and Abu-Qarn, Aamer. (2004). “The Validity of the ELG Hypothesis in the MENA Region: Cointegration and Error Correction Model Analysis”, Applied Economics. 36. 1685-1695. 10.1080/0003684042000266865.
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[5]. Chen, Shyh-Wei, (2007) “Exactly what is the link between export and growth in Taiwan? new evidence from the Granger causality test”, Economics Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 7 pp. 1-10.
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[14]. Pandhi, Dhriti (2007). “ The Relationship between Exports and Growth in Select African Nations 1981-2003”, The Ohio State University.
[15]. Razmi, Arslan (2008). “Is the Chinese Investment- and Export-Led Growth Model Sustainable? Some Rising Concerns”, Economics Department Working Paper Series. 22.
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[21]. Yee Ee, Chia (2015). “Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Empirical Evidence from Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1985-2014”, Procedia Economics and Finance 35 ( 2016) pp. 232 – 240.

Musa Sawaneh “The Relationship between Exports and Economic Growth: The Case Study of Gambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.334-343 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/334-343.pdf

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Political Entrepreneurization and the Challenges of Institutionalizing Democracy: The Nigerian Experience

Yakubu Yahaya, Muhammad Alamin Mahmud – June 2019 Page No.: 344-347

The underlying literary endeavor set out to investigate the existence of a plausible theoretical interplay between political entrepreneurization and the challenges of democratic institutionalization (consolidation). Hinging on the pedestals of the elite theory the study claims the persistence of career politicians and their do or die political ideology has grievous implications for institutionalizing democracy in Nigeria. The monopolization of political authority by a selected crop of permanent political class has largely undermined the capacity of democratic institutions to effectively carry out their functions without interference. In lieu, the study proposes the urgent need for constitutional overhaul, as the 1999 constitution as amended is near obsolete considering it was borrowed from the colonial powers upon independence. Hence, it particularly remains unsuccessful in its bid to strengthen institutions of liberal democracy. Furthermore, the study also suggest the need for a fiscal driven federalism, as this it thought will not only further accountability and responsiveness but will also bring governance closer to the majority as opposed to what is currently in play.

Page(s): 344-347                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2019

 Yakubu Yahaya
Political Science & International Relations Department, Nile University of Nigeria

 Muhammad Alamin Mahmud
Political Science & International Relations Department, Nile University of Nigeria

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[19]. McCaffrey, J. T. (2011). A Theory of Political Entreprenership . Modern Economy , Vo. 2, Pp. 552-560.
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Yakubu Yahaya, Muhammad Alamin Mahmud “Political Entrepreneurization and the Challenges of Institutionalizing Democracy: The Nigerian Experience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.344-347 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/344-347.pdf

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In The Pursuit of Love, Then and Now

Nicole Cullinan – June 2019 Page No.: 348-350

Love is patient, love is kind, it does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud… (The Holy Bible, 1986). The condition of love and all its romantic imaginings, a normative narrative for life being complete, we all desire love. Let us focus on the genesis of love, defined by its beginning, the meeting, and the unlimited possibilities. Looking through the lens of the me and I to regard individualisation in the pursuit of love. Discovering the generational difference and sameness between a girl born in the 1970s, me; and a girl born in the 1990s, her, my daughter. Investigating the role of reflexivity, symbolic interactionism and Cooley’s looking glass self with specific examples about love. Looking at Zygmunt Bauman’s concept of ‘Liquid Love’ in relation to freedom and love. Discovering the intersection between agency and society and where truth and love reside in post modernity.

Page(s): 348-350                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2019

 Nicole Cullinan
The University of Melbourne World University Ranking 32, Melbourne, Australia

[1]. Anon, Relationships Australia. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.relationships.org.au/
[2]. Anon, American Bible Society. (1986). The Holy Bible (Corinthians). New York.
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[8]. Fowler, A. (2007). Love and Marriage: Through the lens of sociological theories. Human Architecture: Journal of The Sociology of Self Knowledge, 5(2), pp.65-67.
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Nicole Cullinan “In The Pursuit of Love, Then and Now” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.348-350 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/348-350.pdf

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Leadership Dynamics in the Zimbabwe Open University Regional Campuses: A Case Study of Tagutswa Regional Campus

Sharayi Chakanyuka – June 2019 Page No.: 351-359

The study sought to find out the leadership dynamics that make one Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) regional campus different from others. It was a case study of Tagutswa Regional Campus. The objectives of the study were to explore the leadership characteristics of the Regional campus director with regards to teaching and learning, research and community service; establish subordinates’ perceptions of and assess effect of the Regional director’s leadership on subordinates. The research adopted the qualitative paradigm and the social constructivism philosophical perspective. Data was collected from the Regional director and academic staff through semi-structured interviews and from non-academic staff through focus group discussion. Preliminary results show that the regional campus director (RCD) is a visionary who leads by example. In teaching and learning, the RCD encourages tutorial workshops for tutors to improve the quality of tutoring; keeps abreast of developments in relevant ministries to keep the regional campus staff updated on developments which affect the regional campus. He also monitors tutorials, assignment marking and student support through learner and peer evaluations. He is a renowned scholar, prolific researcher and author who has influenced academic staff to research and publish articles to the extent that most of them are associate or full professors. He adopts a collective approach to decision making and holds regular staff meetings to resolve regional campus issues. He also works harmoniously with the local community and stakeholders. The RCD has motivated academic and non-academic staff to improve their academic and professional qualifications so that all members of the academic staff hold or are studying towards doctoral degrees and members of the non-academic staff are first or Master’s degree holders. The study recommends that the ZOU National Centre should award prizes to outstanding RCD’s to encourage excellent performance in the regional campuses where the actual teaching and learning takes place. Further studies should be carried out to assess the effectiveness of other ZOU regional campuses.

Page(s): 351-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2019

 Sharayi Chakanyuka
Zimbabwe Open University, Masvingo Regional Campus, 68 Hellet Street, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

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Sharayi Chakanyuka “Leadership Dynamics in the Zimbabwe Open University Regional Campuses: A Case Study of Tagutswa Regional Campus” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.351-359 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/351-359.pdf

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An Overview of Effects of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy on Agricultural and Rural Development

Unongo, E. A., Biam, C.K. and Tena, M.B. – June 2019 Page No.: 360-363

The paper assessed copiously the effects of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy on agricultural and rural development in Nigeria. Specifically, it assessed the effects on agricultural development in rural areas in aspects of technology demonstration and adoption as well as capacity building, also on effects of rural infrastructural development in the rural areas in the aspects of rural infrastructural development network of farm access road, rural energy, rural water and sanitation in Nigeria. It considered the eligibility criteria for beneficiary participants and project objectives. It concludes that National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy has impacted positively to some extent in some rural areas in Nigeria but has not made significant positive impact to some extent in some rural areas in Nigeria therefore, poverty remain at alarming rate and people in rural areas are still locked in vicious circle of poverty. It recommended that: majority of the people in the rural areas should be accessed education to be more enlightened to embrace developmental programmes; leadership at all cadres should be truly committed to the agricultural and economic reform agenda; ensure improved health care among the rural people; programmes should be generated and designed within the country to cover all rural areas rather than foreign based to prevent the shock from financial and human resources withdrawal experienced from foreign donor agencies.

Page(s): 360-363                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2019

 Unongo, E. A.
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

 Biam, C.K.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

 Tena, M.B.
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

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Unongo, E. A., Biam, C.K. and Tena, M.B. “An Overview of Effects of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy on Agricultural and Rural Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.360-363 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/360-363.pdf

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Examination of the Roles of Cooperative Society on the Promotion of Small Scale Enterprises in Osun State, Nigeria

Rafiu A. Olaore, Kamila O. Alao – June 2019 Page No.: 364-369

This study aims to examine the roles of cooperative society on the promotion of small and medium scale enterprises in Osun State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study is to investigate the operation of cooperative society, its business environment and socio-economic impact on the promotion of small enterprises. Co-operatives societies contribute to the socio-economic development of their communities through the creation of product/service, enterprise financing, employment opportunity and social responsibility. The survey was done between early December 2018 and late March 2019 while the technique of simple random sampling is used to select the sample of 30 respondents from each cooperative society making a total sample size of 90. The study recommends that the government, at all level, should support the development of cooperative society as it promotes the economic well-being of the people through the spread of small businesses.

Page(s): 364-369                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2019

 Rafiu A. Olaore
Osun State, Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria

 Kamila O. Alao
Osun State, Polytechnic, Iree, Nigeria

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Rafiu A. Olaore, Kamila O. Alao “Examination of the Roles of Cooperative Society on the Promotion of Small Scale Enterprises in Osun State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.364-369 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/364-369.pdf

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Endless Conflicts: Source of Unsustainabile Development in Africa

NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim – June 2019 Page No.: 370-380

“The colonialists care nothing for Africa for her own sake. They are attracted by African riches and their actions are guided by the desire to preserve their interests in Africa against the wishes of the African people. For the colonialists all means are good if they help them to possess these riches”. Speech at the All-African Conference in Leopoldville August 1960. Patrice Lumumba, A Pan-Africanist and iconic revolutionary, Lumumba
In my free time, I read books, publish articles, read national, regional and international journals, and found that, there is a common image that is attributed to Africa continent, “Africa is a continent of the most disputed regions of the globe”. My questions were: Why Africa? How Africa can sustain its own social, economic and political development? What Africa is lacking (Politically and Economically? And when Africa will be mature enough? These questions motivated me to research and share my findings to all concerned while I contributing to my continent development. It is therefore worth it to note that Africa has no monopoly of conflict. In every corner of other regions of the world are also affected and associate with considerable forms of mass atrocities, violence’s and conflicts. For matter of facts, Libya, South Sudan and Sudan, RCA, Afghanistan, Syrian, Iraq, India-Pakistan, Palestine-Israel… to mention but a few, are among the trouble parts of non-African continent.
It has been experienced with an instable in various sectors including Politico-social economic, a number of civil wars, armed conflicts, racial, ethnics disputes, recently genocide perpetrated against Tutsi in 1994 in Rwanda, religious radicalism where in it catches the attention of most developed nations as well as both regional organisations, Humanitarians organisations and UN for their own strategic interest over the region other ways. All these issues would ended years and years ago if there was a good intention to Africa but first of all, good will, commitment and vision of leaders. Accordingly, this paper attempted to identify and critically analyse the due reasons for an endless aforementioned challenges throughout the region.
The secondary data from different reliable and verifiable sources have been collected and the data were analysed with a combination of both constructivism and interpretivism to guide the quality of qualitative method of this research. Hence, the unification of African continent is far, though one continent, but diversified intra-state and inter-state conflict among the neighbouring countries. A big number of them were rooting to conflicts, racial, ethnic and religious polarization towards boarder and territorial. Thus, identity based on racial, ethnics, civil war, conflicts, and clan or religious are the instruments of politicians to remain on power through their political parties which provoking the peaceful society to get in to violence for their personal interests at the expense of the community which result, here then is the source of both dictatorial, unsustainable development, corruption, Inept Leadership, illegal migration of Africans and bad governance which drives multifaceted dispute with in a African Community due to mainly of lack of willingness and vision of our African Leaders, own interests rather than people’s interests, lack of self-confidence and self-reliance.
Though the continent of Africa has been highly susceptible to intra and inter- state wars and conflicts which, has prompted the insinuation that Africa is the home of wars and instability but there is hope that, Africa can manage at own their issues against stable and sustainable peace and it has power and capacity to prevent the above mentioned issues while anticipating possible conflicts to early warn them, strategic intervention and necessary action by the African Organisations such as EAC, AU, SADC, ECOWAS, IGAD…or partnering with other Africa regional and international organizations. It is worth it, to use cultural conflict resolution, management and transformation methods by initiating Africanism or Pan Africanism approach as case of Rwanda to hamper conflicts escalations.
To end, let me share with readers, the H.E Paul Kagame’s inspirational quote “Transformational leadership that will lead to Africa’s prosperity must be confident, assertive, innovative”

Page(s): 370-380                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2019

 NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim
Doctoral Candidate, Governance and Leadership, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

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[18]. UN (2004). Progress report of the Secretary-General, Implementation of the recommendations contained in the report of the Secretary-General on the causes of conflict and promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa, August 2004

NDAGIJIMANA Ibrahim “Endless Conflicts: Source of Unsustainabile Development in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.370-380 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/370-380.pdf

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An Investigation of the Influence of Christian Religious Education on Student’s Ethical Formation in Secondary Schools in Thika West Sub-County, Kenya

Raphael Wanjau – June 2019 Page No.: 381-390

There are many ethical problems affecting the students today in many Secondary schools in Kenya which can be attributed to lack of ethical and character formation imparted by C.R.E. These problems are reported in print and electronic media daily. The objectives of the study were; to examine the relevance of C.R.E to student’s ethical formation in Secondary Schools, to explore the extent to which C.R.E influences the ethical formation of students in Secondary Schools, to assess the role of CRE teachers in imparting ethical values among students in Secondary schools, to suggest ways and means of enhancing ethical formation through the teaching of CRE in secondary schools in Kenya. The study used a descriptive research design. The target population of the study was 744. This comprised of 65 Secondary Schools, 65 School principals, 112 CRE teachers, 500 CRE students, Sub-County Director of Education and an official from the Ministry of Education. The researcher sampled seven secondary schools; One public National School, One County Secondary school, three Sub-County Secondary schools because they are the majority category of schools in the Sub-County, One Church Sponsored Secondary School and One Private Individual Secondary School. The researcher purposely targeted the above schools because of their diversity. The researcher used both purposive and simple random sampling. The schools were selected using Purposive sampling to achieve the desired objectives and the students were selected using random sampling to ensure partiality. The study used primary data collection method using questionnaires; the questionnaires included both open and closed ended questions. The study gave the results of the findings, conclusions and recommendations. This study would be used by the ministry of education and other stake holders to underline the importance of CRE in the Ethical formation of the students in secondary schools and make it relevant to influence the ethical formation of students. This would consequently make the students morally upright and less corrupt citizens in public and private sector in Kenya in future. The study found that CRE is practical than any other subject since there are real life applications of what is studied in CRE. The study concluded that Christian religious education significantly and positively influences the student’s ethical formation in secondary schools in Thika west sub-county, Kenya.

Page(s): 381-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2019

 Raphael Wanjau
Phd. Candidate of Philosophy in Religious Studies of Mount Kenya University

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[11]. Kothari, C.R. (2010). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International.
[12]. Kombo, D. K. and Tromp, L. A. (2006). Proposal and Thesis Writing: An introduction. Nairobi: Pauline’s Publication of Africa, p.77
[13]. Lauretta, M. “Teaching as a Vocation, Mission and Profession”, in https://pressreader.com, accessed on 10th October, 2018.
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[15]. Mbiti, D.M. (1969). African Religion and Philosophy. London: Heinman Publications.
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[17]. Ominde, S. (1964). Kenya Education Commission Report, Nairobi: Government Printer.
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[19]. Orchard, B. (2008). The Teaching of Morals. London: Union of Educational Professionals.
[20]. Sifuna, D.N. and Otiende, J.E (1994). An Introductory History of Education. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.
[21]. Wanjohi, A,M (2011). Development of Education systems in Kenya since independence. www.kenpro,org/papers. Retrieved on 20th March 2019.

Raphael Wanjau “An Investigation of the Influence of Christian Religious Education on Student’s Ethical Formation in Secondary Schools in Thika West Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.381-390 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/381-390.pdf

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Administrative Climate, Burnout and Productivity of Teachers: A Three-Wave Study in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

Catherine Meddiatrix Wanyonyi, James Bill Ouda – June 2019 Page No.: 391-398

Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a conducive administrative climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Burnout affects teachers in schools hence a serious problem since it cannot coexist with teaching engagement. Burnout behavior in teachers is exhibited through high absenteeism, ineffectiveness, interpersonal conflicts, lower level of productivity, lack of commitment, dissatisfaction with job, and an inability to take work seriously. Conducive administrative climate in secondary schools play a critical role to teachers’ productivity. Using Grand theory of burnout and the Persistent burnout theory the study examined how the administrative climate and burnout behaviour affect productivity of teachers in Bungoma South Sub-County, Kenya. The study whose population comprised of 1 Sub-County Director of Education, 41 secondary schools having 41 principals and 606 teachers used cross-sectional survey research design. The sample size was 1 Sub-County Director of Education, 12 principals and 121 teachers. Purposive sampling was used to select the Sub-County Director of Education and the Principals whereas stratified random sampling was used to select the teachers. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire and interview schedules while secondary data was collected through document analysis. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages and means and inferential statistics (ANOVA) was used to analyze data. Results indicate that administrative climate and burnout behavior affected productivity of teachers. Therefore, there is need for the Principals and the Deputy Principals to be trained so as to improve their administrative skills that will in the long run ensure a conducive working environment and hence reduced incidence of teacher burnout. This positively affects teacher productivity in schools.

Page(s): 391-398                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2019

 Catherine Meddiatrix Wanyonyi
Masinde Muliro University of Science & Technology, Kenya

 James Bill Ouda
Masinde Muliro University of Science & Technology, Kenya

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Catherine Meddiatrix Wanyonyi, James Bill Ouda “Administrative Climate, Burnout and Productivity of Teachers: A Three-Wave Study in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.391-398 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/391-398.pdf

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The Role of CRE Teachers in Imparting Ethical Values among Students in Secondary Schools

Raphael Wanjau – June 2019 Page No.: 399-406

Teaching is a process or an act of imparting knowledge or skills so that information may be acquired by the learners. There are many ethical problems affecting the students today in many Secondary schools in Kenya which can be attributed to lack of ethical and character formation imparted by C.R.E. These problems are reported in print and electronic media daily. The objective of the study was to assess the role of CRE teachers in imparting ethical values among students in Secondary schools. The study used a descriptive research design. The target population of the study was 744. This comprised of 65 Secondary Schools, 65 School principals, 112 CRE teachers, 500 CRE students, Sub-County Director of Education and an official from the Ministry of Education. The researcher sampled seven secondary schools; One public National School, One County Secondary school, three Sub-County Secondary schools because they are the majority category of schools in the Sub-County, One Church Sponsored Secondary School and One Private Individual Secondary School. The researcher purposely targeted the above schools because of their diversity. The researcher used both purposive and simple random sampling. The schools were selected using Purposive sampling to achieve the desired objectives and the students were selected using random sampling to ensure partiality. The study used primary data collection method using questionnaires; the questionnaires included both open and closed ended questions. The study gave the results of the findings, conclusions and recommendations. This study would be used by the ministry of education and other stake holders to underline the importance of CRE in the Ethical formation of the students in secondary schools and make it relevant to influence the ethical formation of students. This would consequently make the students morally upright and less corrupt citizens in public and private sector in Kenya in future. The study found that CRE is practical than any other subject since there are real life applications of what is studied in CRE.

Page(s): 399-406                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2019

 Raphael Wanjau
Phd Candidate of Philosophy In Religious Studies of Mount Kenya University

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Raphael Wanjau “The Role of CRE Teachers in Imparting Ethical Values among Students in Secondary Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.399-406 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/399-406.pdf

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National Interest and Nigeria’s Foreign Policy: An Evaluation of Goodluck Jonathan’s Administration, 2011-2015

Sam Ugwuozor, Ejike Sylvester Nnaji – June 2019 Page No.: 407-411

Foreign policy is a projection of a nation’s national interest and domestic demands. Premised on the fact that the world has become a global village and that no nation can survive in isolation, Nigeria as a country has and must continue to interact with other countries of the world. Consequently, Nigeria as a sovereign nation must ascertain the goal(s) it desires to achieve in the course of its interaction with other nations of the world. This desire(s) must revolve around its domestic demands also known as national interest which include national security and the welfare of its citizens. The study was therefore tasked with a critical appraisal of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration (2011-2015) in line with the nation’s national interest. The study examined the link between Nigeria’s foreign policy and her national interest under Goodluck Jonathan’s administration; to find out if Nigeria’s foreign policy engendered national development in Nigeria under his administration; and finally, to ascertain if Nigeria’s domestic politics influenced Nigeria’s foreign policy within the period under review. The study made use of documentary method of data collection while relying on secondary sources of data collection. The study was guided by the systems theory as a framework of analysis. In the light of the research findings, the researcher recommended among others: Nigeria should reposition its Afrocentric foreign policy from the standpoint of prestige and status to reflect its national interest. In other words, they should continue to invest in African countries but in a way that will guarantee the return of investment; economically and otherwise.

Page(s): 407-411                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2019

 Sam Ugwuozor
Department of Political Science, Godfrey Okoye University, Ugwuomu-Nike Enugu, Nigeria

 Ejike Sylvester Nnaji
Department of Political Science Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu, Nigeria

[1]. Adeola, G. and Ogunnoiki, A. (2015). The Pursuance of Nigeria’s Domestic and Foreign Policy in the Fourth Republic: Complementarity or Contradiction. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1 (4).
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[30]. Ude-Umanta, V.C (2011). National Interest and Conduct of Nigeria’s Foreign policy under General Ibrahim Babangida’s Administration”. Department of Political Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka.

Sam Ugwuozor, Ejike Sylvester Nnaji “National Interest and Nigeria’s Foreign Policy: An Evaluation of Goodluck Jonathan’s Administration, 2011-2015
” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.407-411 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/407-411.pdf

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Imparting Unhu/Ubuntu and Spirituality through Shona Novels: A Case for Masvingo Urban Schools

Viriri E & Marashe J – June 2019 Page No.: 412-419

This paper examined the various spiritual values of unhu reflected in Patrick Chakaipa and Charles Mungoshi’s novels Pfumo Reropa and Kunyarara Hakusi Kutaura? respectively. It mainly focused on the extent to which Shona literature, novels, in particular, can be used to promote in learners the religious beliefs and practices which have succumbed to acculturation. This qualitative study employed textual analysis by researchers and teachers and interviews with teachers. Afrocentricity and unhu conceptualisation informed the study. It was established that the two novels which fall into the old and new world respectively, contain important lessons with regard to cultural values that characterise the Shona religious life. Virtues established include respect for spirits and God, deep respect for religious beliefs and practices, participation in religious practices and application of moral lessons learnt from those practices. Findings indicated that not only novels on pre-colonial life experiences portray the traditional religious values but those set in the neo-colonial are also custodians of the community ideals. The study, therefore, concluded Shona novels can be used in the promotion of unhu spiritual values among Shona learners. It, however, recommends careful selection of novels into the syllabus so that the religious aspect of life is fully taken care of.

Page(s): 412-419                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2019

 Viriri E
Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

 Marashe J
Great Zimbabwe University, Zimbabwe

[1]. Chakaipa, P. 1961. Pfumo Reropa. Salisbury: Longman
[2]. Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1956. Nuer Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[3]. Gelfand, M. 1992. The Genuine Shona Survival Values of an African Culture. Gweru: Mambo Press.
[4]. Hapanyengwi-Chemhuru,O., Makuvaza, N and Mutasa J. 2016. Hunhu: Making Human Rights Education Discourse Relevant. Africology: The Journal of African Studies. Volume 9 Number 2, pp 100-115.
[5]. Kahari, G. 1990. The Rise of the Shona Novel: A Study in Development, 1890 – 1984. Gweru: Mambo Press.
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[7]. Makaudze, G. 1998. A Comparative Analysis of selected Cultural Values Celebrated among African Societies with Special Reference to Kunene’s Emperor Shaka the Great: A Zulu Epic and Niane’s Sundiata: An Epic of Old MALI. Unpublished Masters Dissertation. University of Zimbabwe.
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[11]. Mungoshi, C. 1983. Kunyarara Hakusi Kutaura? Harare: Publishing House.
[12]. Nafukho, F. M. 2006. Ubuntu Worldview: A Traditional African View of Adult Learning in the Workplace. London: Sage Publications.
[13]. Ndlovu, L., and Ngwenya, T. 2010. Taboos and the Prenatal Period among the Ndebele: An Africana Womanist Approach. NAWA: Journal of Language and Communication. Volume 4 Issue Number 2 pp104-114
[14]. Oladipo, O. 2004. Religion in African Culture: Some Conceptual Issues. In Wiredu, K. (ed) 2004.A Companion to African Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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[17]. Sibanda, P. 2014. The Dimensions of “Hunhu/Ubuntu” (Humanism in the African Sense): The Zimbabwean Conception. IOSR Journal of Engineering. Volume. 04, Issue. 1, pp 26-29.
[18]. Sigauke, J., Chivaura, H. and Mawere, M. 2014. Connoisseurs of Traditional Medicine: The use and Efficacy of Traditional Medicine in Pregnant Women’s Health Care. In Mawere, M.A and Mubaya, T. R. (Ed) 2014.African Cultures, Memory and Space: Living the Past Presence in Zimbabwean Heritage. Mankon, Bamenda: Langa Research and Publishing. pp 111-134.
[19]. Ulvestad, A. A. 2012. Ubuntu in African Traditional Religion. Unpublished M. A. Thesis. University of Oslo.

Viriri E & Marashe J “Imparting Unhu/Ubuntu and Spirituality through Shona Novels: A Case for Masvingo Urban Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.412-419 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/412-419.pdf

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Understanding Police Use of Force and its Effect on Individuals Fundamental Rights in Ghana

Peter Twumhene – June 2019 Page No.: 420-427

This study aims at exploring and understanding the Ghana Police Service’s mode of operations with particular attention to the use of force and its effect on individuals’ fundamental rights.The Ghana Police Service (GPS) is mandated by article 200 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana to enforce democratic policing principles. Act 200 (3) stipulates that the Service shall be equipped to perform its traditional role of maintaining law and order.The study critically examines the current procedures use by the GPS to minimize the use of force, determine whether police officers who use force or excessive force are held accountable and identify the challenges faced by the institution during an encounter. Therefore, the study adopted qualitative approach, using interviews, journal articles and local newspapers to widely understand both police and citizens perspective and lived experience of the issues surrounding police use of force. Purposive and snowballing technique were used to select participants and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Findings drawn from the study indicated a new insight into the phenomenon, bringing a lasting solution to minimize police use of force while contributing to the existing knowledge of literature to address the relative absence of data in this study area in Ghana.

Page(s): 420-427                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2019

 Peter Twumhene
Department of Politics & International Relations, Nottingham Trent University– United Kingdom

[1]. Alpert, G.P., & Smith, W.C. (1994), How Reasonable is the Reasonable Man: Police and Excessive Use of Force, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 85, (2) 481-492, doi:10.2307/1144107
[2]. Aning, E. K. (2002). A Historical Overview of the Ghana Police Service’, in K. Kariakri (ed.), The Face and Phrases of the Ghana Police, pp. 7–53. Accra: Media Foundation for West Africa.
[3]. Aning, E. K. (2007). An Overview of the Ghana Police Service. Journal of Security Sector Management, 4, 1-37
[4]. Appiagyei-Atua K. (2002) Minority Rights Democracy and Development: The African Experience; University of Ghana.
[5]. Atuguba, A. R. (2003). Monitoring Police Performance in Ghana. Paper Presented at “Roundtable on Police and Policing” organized by the African Security Dialogue and Research at the British Council Hall, Accra, Ghana. Available at: africansecuritynetwork.org
[6]. Bayley H. D. (2001) Democratizing the Police Abroad: What to Do and How to Do it. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs – Washington DC.
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Viriri E & Marashe J “Understanding Police Use of Force and its Effect on Individuals Fundamental Rights in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.420-427 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/420-427.pdf

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Home Environment and Adolescents’ Substance Abuse: Implications for their Educational Achievement

Dr. Sunday Aja Nwambam and Daniel Igba Igba (PhD) – June 2019 Page No.: 428-434

This paper reviewed the influence of home environment on adolescents’ substance abuse and how it affects their educational prospects. The paper identified those substances adolescents usually abuse to include: Indian hemp (marijuana), cocaine, morphine, heroin, tobacco, ephedrine, volume five, Chinese capsules, kola nuts, coffee, Viagra and alcohol. The review noted that substance abuse had been linked to the rising cases of promiscuity, rape, maladjustment, school dropout, examination misconducts and health hazards with the attendant poor academic achievement of students involved in substance abuse. The review showed that home environment represented by the family influences substance abuse among young people. Finally, the review explores and appraises interventions aimed at using the family to control substance abuse among young people. These include direct prevention, early identification and timely treatment which could be facilitated through developing positive family functioning, improved parent-child relationships and expanding/increasing family encouragement to adolescents’ resilience to substance abuse.

Page(s): 428-434                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2019

 Dr. Sunday Aja Nwambam
Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria

 Daniel Igba Igba (PhD)
Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria

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Dr. Sunday Aja Nwambam and Daniel Igba Igba (PhD) “Home Environment and Adolescents’ Substance Abuse: Implications for their Educational Achievement” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.428-434 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/428-434.pdf

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Financial Sustainability in Micro Finance Institutions in Central Uganda

Ssendagi Muhamad, Mabonga Eric – June 2019 Page No.: 435-438

The purpose of the study was to establish the level of financial sustainability of Microfinance institutions in Central Uganda. We employed descriptive survey design with a sample of 287 obtained statistically from the population. The study found that there is high level of financial sustainability among the Microfinance institutions considered for the study. The study found several factors at institutional level threaten the level of financial sustainability. If microfinance institutions do not change and improve the way they do their business soon or later some of them will be out of business.

Page(s): 435-438                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2019

 Ssendagi Muhamad
Department of Finance, Kigali Independent University, Rwanda

 Mabonga Eric
Department of Accounting, Kigali, Independent University, Rwanda

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Ssendagi Muhamad, Mabonga Eric ” Financial Sustainability in Micro Finance Institutions in Central Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.435-438 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/435-438.pdf

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Factors Influencing Food Security Status among Rural Households in Uganda

Nuwatuhaire Benard, Andrew Ainomugisha – June 2019 Page No.: 439-454

The study was carried out to determine the factors influencing food security status among rural households in Uganda. The data was collected from 206 respondents in rural households of Western and Northern Uganda. Quantitative and Qualitative data collection methods were used to deduct critical information for this study. Specifically survey method (questionnaires and interviews) was used. Secondary data helped to collect information from field work. SPSS was used in data analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed using general content analysis. The study revealed that the key factors that influenced food security were: Land Shortage with infertile soils because of over cultivation, use of hand hoes by majority of household, dominance of cash crops than food crops, big family size of seven and above people, lack of food storage as well as food preservation facilities, low prices of agricultural products, Socio-cultural beliefs such as gender as well as government promoting the growing of cash crops than food crops. The study recommended that there is need for Ugandan government to promote food crops more than cash crops(famine crops),establishing a crop seed multiplication unit to every district and sub-county, manufacturing low cost farm inputs especially agricultural tools and inputs, any government land which is underutilized should be identified and utilized for food production, establishment of research centers at lower local governments, law to ensure every household possess a food store/granary as well establishment of national food reserves, serious trainings through seminars, workshops and conferences on food utilization, food processing plants to produce processed food, infrastructure development, legalizing a number of children to be produced.

Page(s): 439-454                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2019

 Nuwatuhaire Benard
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Andrew Ainomugisha
Kampala International University, Uganda

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Nuwatuhaire Benard, Andrew Ainomugisha “Factors Influencing Food Security Status among Rural Households in Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 6, pp.439-454 June 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-6/439-454.pdf