Angolan Conflict Analysis: A Lesson for Africa’s Emerging Leaders

Jeremiah Bvirindi – July 2019 Page No.: 01-05

After 15 years of liberation struggle, Angola attained independence from Portugal in 1975. Almost immediately, the country descended into a civil war as power struggle ensued between the three former Liberation Movements namely, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) (which took over state rule after independence), the National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), and the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA).The civil war attracted the intervention of conflict entrepreneurs. Angola became a cold war zone with superpowers like United States of America, Union of Soviet Socialist Republic and France gaining ground for testing their weapons among other economic interests. South Africa’s drive for regional hegemony, and Zaire’s desire to establish influence in the area were examples of how seriously the rivalries and peace spoilers were bargaining for power at the expense of peace and sustainable development in Angola. The civil war was being funded by sales of diamonds and oil to United States of America, United Kingdom, France, Russia and Cuba in exchange for weapons and military personnel (mercenaries).Findings from research, indicated that fundamental issues underpinning the civil war ranged from power politics and control of resources. Deep ideological and strong ethnic differences, low literacy in the society, poor economic policies and corruption were also causes of the protracted conflict, making peace initiatives impossible. The Angolan civil war period can be divided as 1975-1991, 1992-1994, 1998-2002 with each period characterised by break-down of a fragile peace (Ferreira 2006). About 8 peace agreements were signed without success with the civil war escalating each time an agreement is signed, resulting in about 1.5 million people dying and more than 4 million people internally displaced (Amnesty International 2001).The death of the UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi in a battle in 2002 and the surrender of UNITA, signalled the signing of a memorandum of understanding between Armed Forces of Angola (FAA) and UNITA which brought the Angolan civil war to an end. The ceasefire and peace agreement, which outlawed any hostile interventions, triggered the demise of all external actors and peace spoilers as well as bringing to light a massive humanitarian crisis in which over 18 million people needed food assistance, more than 4 million displaced families needed repatriation, and over 85000 UNITA soldiers demobilized and more than 43000 family members became dependent on government and the international community (Kibble and Steve 2003). The focus on new Angola is now on post-conflict reconstruction, peace-building, respect for human rights and sustainable development.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 July 2019

 Jeremiah Bvirindi
PhD Student, College of Business Peace, Leadership and Governance Africa University, Mutare Zimbabwe

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Jeremiah Bvirindi “Angolan Conflict Analysis: A Lesson for Africa’s Emerging Leaders” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.01-05 July 2019  URL:

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Perception of Stakeholders on the Implementation of Accrual Basis IPSAS Financial Reporting in Southwestern Nigeria

Dr. D.G. Adebisi, Dr. T.G. Oyewole, O. Wright – July 2019 Page No.: 06-10

International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS) is gradually being implemented in the public sector of the Nigerian economy. This is to cater for the need to achieve transparency, uniformity, consistency and comparability in the preparation of financial statements by the public sector entities in Nigeria, as it is the case around the world. This study assesses the perception of stakeholders (Accountants, Auditors and Chief Executive Officers) in Government Ministries, Departments, Agencies and Public Educational Institutions on whether or not the implementation of IPSAS has achieved its desired objectives in Southwestern Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are therefore to: categorize the perceptions of the stakeholders on the implementation exercise, identify the possible challenges yet to be addressed and draw up an inference on the extent to which implementation had been achieved.
In order to achieve the objectives stated above, the survey method was adopted using questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussions. 150 respondents were purposively selected from stakeholder groups consisting of: Accountants, Auditors and Chief Executive Officers from government Ministries, Departments, Agencies and public Educational institutions for the administration of the questionnaire. 118 valid copies of the questionnaire were retrieved for which both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze using Statistical Product for Scientific Solution (SPSS), version 22.From the study, it was found out that the level of implementation achieved was still below 40%and the following challenges were yet to be addressed: low level of awareness, inadequate training, high cost of training and re-training, poor record keeping, apathy on the part of implementers, low motivation of staff, inadequate supervision and high risk of irrelevance of current practitioners due to the fact that implementation of IPSAS is IT-based.The study concludes that implementation of IPSAS in Southwestern Nigeria was still below expectation in government Ministries, Departments, Agencies and public Educational institutions as far as preparation and presentation of was concerned. Substantial conscious efforts were therefore needed to spur the stakeholders into action to ensure that the objectives of Accrual basis IPSAS Financial Reporting achieved in southwestern Nigeria.

Page(s): 06-10                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2019

 Dr. D.G. Adebisi
Accounting Department, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.

 Dr. T.G. Oyewole
Accounting Department, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.

 O. Wright
Accounting Department, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.

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Dr. D.G. Adebisi, Dr. T.G. Oyewole, O. Wright ” Perception of Stakeholders on the Implementation of Accrual Basis IPSAS Financial Reporting in Southwestern Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.06-10 July 2019  URL:

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Employee and Financial Factors as Impediments to Curriculum Implementation among Schools in Marakwet West Sub-County, Elgeiyo Marakwet County
Dr. Andrew Kimutai Kimwolo, Biwott Kipkemoi Michael – July 2019 – Page No.: 11-17

Purpose- This paper aimed to determine the employee and financial factors affecting curriculum implementation in Marakwet West Sub-county, Egeiyo Marakwet County.
Design/ Methodology/ Approach- descriptive statistics were used to analyze data involving 2400 school managers, teachers and parents among the schools in Marakwet West Sub-County.
Findings- The study findings showed a positive effect of employee and financial factors on curriculum implementation among schools in the sub-county.
Research Limitations/Implications- The cross-sectional nature of collection of data weakens the author’s claim of causality between the variables in focus. Similarly, the descriptive analysis done couldn’t provide the real effects as the variability and causality of the variables couldn’t be determined with such statistics. School managers need to uphold employee and financial factors which would improve curriculum implementation in those schools.
Practical implications- schools must focus on staff and financial factors while delivering their curriculum in order to be assured of effective curriculum implementation.
Social implications- employee and financial factors have an impact on effective curriculum implementation among schools, hence the society benefits from such implementation. The school stakeholders should strive to improve on them for societal benefits.
Originality/ Value- This is the first study to investigate a linear relationship between employee and financial factors on curriculum implementation among schools in Marakwet West sub-county, Elgeiyo Marakwet County.

Page(s): 11-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2019

 Dr. Andrew Kimutai Kimwolo
Department of Management Science, School of Business and Economics, Moi University, Kenya

 Biwott Kipkemoi Michael
Department of Educational Curriculum, Faculty of Education, Kisii University, Kenya

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Dr. Andrew Kimutai Kimwolo, Biwott Kipkemoi Michael “Employee and Financial Factors as Impediments to Curriculum Implementation among Schools in Marakwet West Sub-County, Elgeiyo Marakwet County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.11-17 July 2019 URL:

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Historiography of Sierra Leone Conflict and How It Was Resolved

Robert Gichangi Kabage – July 2019 Page No.: 18-25

Developing countries are awash with protracted conflicts, intriguing narratives of belligerent groups fighting incumbent government. The quest for stability and sustainable governance strikes at the root of inquiry whether Sierra Leone has moved on since the war ended. This paper is retrospective and prescriptive in nature. Retrospective in the sense that, it attempts to analyze the historiography of Sierra Leone conflict, methods and tools as well as the actors who were involved in one of the prolonged conflicts in Africa. It is also prescriptive in the sense that it looks beyond the Sierra Leone crisis and appreciates the efforts put in place to end the Sierra Leone stalemate. This paper, therefore, seeks to examine the causes of the Sierra Leone conflict and the various interventions employed by the international community to secure a peaceful and durable solution to the conflict. The paper starts with a background account of the conflict, discusses the key factors that contributed to the conflict and concludes with the various measures employed by the international community to resolve the conflict

Page(s): 18-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2019

 Robert Gichangi Kabage
Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Masinde Muliro University, P.O Box 190-50100, Kenya

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Robert Gichangi Kabage “Historiography of Sierra Leone Conflict and How It Was Resolved” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.18-25 July 2019  URL:

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Social Exclusion of Nigerian Elderly Population and the Strategies & Innovative Tools to Include All

Atumah, OSCAR N & Ekele, PETER E. – July 2019 Page No.: 26-30

The population of the older adults in Nigeria and indeed globally, has continued to rise with increasing life expectancy. In Nigeria, the elderly population are disproportionately affected by poverty and diseases, and are at higher risk for social exclusion. With the absent of a defined social security benefit, the need for social inclusion for the elderly has become greater because family support for the elderly is gradually fading and may become a thing of the past in the near future. The 2030 agenda for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is emphatic on the mantra “No one left behind,” with particular focus on the vulnerable including the elderly. In this paper, pieces of literature on social exclusion experienced by the Nigeria elderly were reviewed to identify the key areas where social exclusion are concentrated and to suggest innovative tools to ensure that people of all ages are socially integrated. Findings revealed that Nigerian elderly are excluded from health care access, education and information technology, financial services, economic resources, as well as civic and societal participation. The author suggested that the stakeholders involvement in formulation and implementation of viable social security policy for the Nigerian elderly; age – oriented education for all Nigerians; the need for government to provide support to family members who have elderly persons to care for, and need for a policy that promotes adult education and economic empowerment for the elderly, are all needed for members of all ages to be socially integrated.

Page(s): 26-30                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2019

 Atumah, OSCAR N
Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Abuja Nigeria

 Ekele, PETER E.
Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Abuja Nigeria

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Atumah, OSCAR N & Ekele, PETER E. “Social Exclusion of Nigerian Elderly Population and the Strategies & Innovative Tools to Include All” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.26-30 July 2019  URL:

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Secondary School Experiences: Methods Used in Teaching History and Government

John Wenje Nyongesa – July 2019 Page No.: 31-34

Methods of teaching can be explained as a way of causing a learner to acquire knowledge or a skill as well as imparting of necessary incidental information to achieve certain desired goalsthe teacher in this case has to plan instructional activities that will ensure learning has to take place. The purpose of the study was to identify methods used by teachers in the teaching of History and Government at secondary school in Webuye Division, Bungoma County, Kenya. The study was modeled by Systems theory developed by the Biologist, Ludwig von Bertalanffy. The study was carried out in selected secondary schools in Webuye Division, Bungoma County. Questionnaireswere used as tools for collecting data which was analyzed quantitatively. The study found that, teachers in Webuye Division, Bungoma County regularly used methods like, lecture, discussion and question and answer while field trip was less often used. The study recommends that Learner-centered methods of teaching History and government like field trips, role play, dramatization, and project should be encouraged in secondary Education.

Page(s): 31-34                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 July 2019

 John Wenje Nyongesa
School of Education, Moi University, Eldoret, P.O Box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya

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John Wenje Nyongesa “Secondary School Experiences: Methods Used in Teaching History and Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.31-34 July 2019  URL:

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Private Security Companies (PSCs) and the Regulatory Agency in Nigeria: Evidence from Ekiti State

Idowu, Olusegun Oladele- July 2019 Page No.: 35-44

The complementary roles being played by the Private Security Companies in mitigating the security challenges confronting the nation have been seen by many security scholars as a welcome development. The deteriorating security situation and ever-increasing economic activities is likely to ensure a continued and expanding role for Private Security Companies in Nigeria, thus the study examine Private Security Companies (PSCs) and the Regulatory Agency in Nigeria: Evidence from Ekiti State, considering the importance of security governance on economic and sustainable development. The complementary role played by the activities of PSCs cannot be over emphasized hence the need for adequate regulatory and legal framework guiding the operations of PSCs for effective service delivery and public confidence on their operations. The study is a field survey research, both primary and secondary data were sourced.
Findings from the study revealed that licensing, regulation, monitoring and supervision of the activities of the PSCs are carried out by Nigeria Security and Civil Defense Corp (NSCDC). However the study revealed that PSCs are not effectively supervised with 42% respondents agreed that NSCDC supervised PSCs monthly. The regulation of PSCs should be all encompassing, and not limited to licensing which is an aspect of revenue generation to the government. The perception of PSCs services by their clients/users/beneficiaries are adjudged effective in Ekiti State.

Page(s): 35-44                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 July 2019

 Idowu, Olusegun Oladele
PhD Candidate, Institute of Peace, Security and Governance, Ekiti State University, Ekiti State, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

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Idowu, Olusegun Oladele, “Private Security Companies (PSCs) and the Regulatory Agency in Nigeria: Evidence from Ekiti State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.35-44 July 2019  URL:

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Convicted to Share; the Need for A Theological Reflection

Ven. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen – July 2019 Page No.: 45-49

Sharing among believers is an expression of adherence and response to the truths shared in the Bible. This article aims to encourage believers to do a soul searching exercise before engaging in the practice of sharing among themselves. A thorough biblical reflection will provide the foundation which Christian giving is based. What believers should understand is that giving is part of the Christian act of mercy and as such it needs to be encouraged among them. Within the Christendom sharing increases unity, love for each other, and meeting of each other’s needs and priory focus of what eternity is likely mirrored. Convinced of this truth, this paper is a follow up of what I wrote about, “will Christians ever balance – the urban rich and poor?”

Page(s): 45-49                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2019

 Ven. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen
Alupe University College, Kenya

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Ven. Dr. Manya Wandefu Stephen, “Convicted to Share; the Need for A Theological Reflection” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.45-49 July 2019  URL:

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Historical and Contemporary Perspective of Christian-Muslim Dialogue: A Response to Historical Injustices and De-Radicalization in Kenya

Rev. Dr. Peter Mamuli Nyongesa- July 2019 Page No.: 50-55


The Ancient Christianity in Africa was packed in North Africa, Nubia (the valley of the Blue Nile) and Axum (exhibit day Ethiopia). According to Frederiks (2010:3) the primary Christian-Muslim experience on the African soil was tranquil in nature. Islamic displaced people who fled from oppression discovered haven in Africa. This accommodation and inter-religious acknowledgment is still much of the time alluded to as the African network for interfaith experiences. Be that as it may, with the Umayyad intrusion of North Africa, brutal characteristics and inevitable subjection of Christians to peon unfavorably spoiled the African lattice for interfaith experiences. Step by step, holy places in North Africa vanished as quittance from jizya through islamization outweighed everything else (Sanneh, 1983: 15-17). Ryan (2002: 189) takes note of that Islam had turned into the religion of the decision class. Muslim nearness in North Africa and ensuing transformation of Berbers from the tenth century brought about the decision class tolerating the Islamic confidence. For example, Kings of Gao (985 AD), Tekrur (1040 AD) and of old Ghana and Mali changed over to Islam (Clarke, 1983:10; Trimingham, 1992:28).

Page(s): 50-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2019

 Rev. Dr. Peter Mamuli Nyongesa
Chairman, Department of Social Science, Kaimosi Friends University College, Kenya

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Rev. Dr. Peter Mamuli Nyongesa” Historical and Contemporary Perspective of Christian-Muslim Dialogue: A Response to Historical Injustices and De-Radicalization in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.50-55 July 2019  URL:

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Politics of Budget Appropriation and Development in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic, 1999 – 2017

Asoka, Godknows, Ekekwe, Eme N., Ph.D., Ukachikara, Ucheoma O. – July 2019 Page No.: 56-68

Nigeria’s transition from military to civil rule on 29th May, 1999 was greeted with great optimism by the people. However, after about two decades into Nigeria’s Fourth Republic, politics and the Nigerian brand of democracy have become very expensive. While there is mass poverty, unemployment, phenomenal inequality and looming insecurity, the Nigerian ruling class in charge of budget appropriation (in the executive and the National Assembly)are more interested in having their salaries and allowances increased in total disregard of the people whose mandate put them in office. The paper is essentially a descriptive and analytical one, focusing on the relationship between politics, budget appropriation and the outcome for development from 1999 to 2017. The theoretical framework adopted is historical materialism. In a democracy, budgeting is a social contract between the people and their elected representatives. As is an authoritative decision on the priorities and policies of government, the budget is both a political and an economic tool. However, a disproportionate component of political factors renders its economic and developmental value worthless. With lack of plan-budget link and the nature of budget politics, budget appropriation in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic has not been able to reduce poverty, inequality and deliverdemocratic dividends. Budgeting has been hijacked by the Nigerian ruling class to under-develop the country at the expense of democracy and development.In spite of operating constitutional federalism, the absence of enabling conditions for democratic participation at the grassroots is the greatest obstacle to democracy and development in Nigeria. Thus, since the power of the purse in a democracy belongs to the people, and politics is mainly about decision-making process for the common good of all members of society, an adapted participatory budgeting process is fundamental.

Page(s): 56-68                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2019

 Asoka, Godknows
Department of Political & Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Ekekwe, Eme N., Ph.D.
Department of Political & Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Ukachikara, Ucheoma O.
Department of Political & Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Asoka, Godknows, Ekekwe, Eme N., Ph.D., Ukachikara, Ucheoma O. “Politics of Budget Appropriation and Development in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic, 1999 – 2017” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.56-68 July 2019  URL:

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Christians Schools: Challenge of Integrating Faith in Learning

Rev. Dr. Peter Mamuli Nyongesa – July 2019 Page No.: 69-71

Private Christian schools are not just helping the Government of Kenya to provide quality education to its citizens. They have to ensure that they also fulfill their primary purpose as Christian learning institutions. Christian schools exist to produce holistic learners who will be cherished by all the stakeholders in the Kenyan community and beyond. They should also prepare learners to be leaders who possess Christian integrity and who actively engage in fulfilling mission Dei.This can be achieved by integrating faith in learning and in core-curricular activities. The purpose of this paper is to challenge Christian educators concerning the need and process of integrating faith in learning so that Christian schools can achieve the goals of Christian education.

Page(s): 69-71                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2019

 Rev. Dr. Peter Mamuli Nyongesa
Chairman, Department of Social Science, Kaimosi Friends University College, Kenya

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Rev. Dr. Peter Mamuli Nyongesa “Christians Schools: Challenge of Integrating Faith in Learning” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.69-71 July 2019  URL:

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Influence of Leadership Inclusive Vision on Provision of Holistic Training on Student-Teachers in Public Primary Teachers Training Colleges

Lydiah N. Kamamia, Dr. Ruth W. Thinguri, Dr. Mary M. Chui – July 2019 Page No.: 72-78

The greater demand for well-trained teachers in a society justifies the need for more effective, life-changing training under leadership inclusive vision practice. In relation to this, we conducted a study on the influence of leadership inclusive vision on provision of holistic training on the student-teachers in public Primary Teachers Training Colleges (PTTC), which was guided by the influence of defined vision and mission, stakeholders’ needs and inclusive curriculum on provision of holistic training. The study adopted a mixed methodology and an explanatory design, as well as leadership theory and holistic education theory. From a population of 2061 respondents, a sample size of 633 respondents was taken using stratified random sampling as 30% of student-teachers and lecturers while principals, BOM chairmen, deputy principals, deans of students, deans of curriculum and student leaders were taken as whole independent units. The study found leadership in the colleges lacked inclusive vision to encourage inclusivity and holistic training on student-teachers. The study recommended the student-teachers be trained holistically and an inclusive curriculum be designed to cater for an all-round training and provide sufficient funding. It was recommended that further studies on PTTCs in other regions in Kenya be conducted to confirm these results.

Page(s): 72-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 July 2019

 Lydiah N. Kamamia
School of Education, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya

 Dr. Ruth W. Thinguri
School of Education, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya

 Dr. Mary M. Chui
School of Education, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya

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Lydiah N. Kamamia, Dr. Ruth W. Thinguri, Dr. Mary M. Chui “Influence of Leadership Inclusive Vision on Provision of Holistic Training on Student-Teachers in Public Primary Teachers Training Colleges” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.72-78 July 2019  URL:

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Peculiarities of Adolescence Development Stage

Dr (Mrs) Funmilola Bosede Alokan – July 2019 Page No.: 79-83

Adolescence period is a very important period in which an individual develops the ability to choose and determine self. This is the hallmark of maturity. It is believed that heredity interacts with environmental influences to determine individual’s development. It is also believed that this adolescence period is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings. These views have implications for the social development and education of the adolescents. It is on this premise that this researcher takes a look at the early history of adolescence, the twentieth century contribution of Stanley Hall, who was labeled the father of the scientific study of adolescence; and Margaret Mead’s sociocultural view of adolescence. This paper also looks at the issue of stereotyping adolescents, the current status of adolescents, the nature of development and different theories of adolescent development. In conclusion, every adolescent needs a personal relationship with a caring adult to counsel him or her. The children and adolescents who successfully cope with stress consistently have someone in their lives whose actions say “you count, I love you and will care for you”. Parents traditionally should be the source of this long-term trusting and supportive relationship. However, as the society becomes more complex and demanding, more and more parents depend on school counsellors.

Page(s): 79-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 July 2019

 Dr (Mrs) Funmilola Bosede Alokan
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

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Dr (Mrs) Funmilola Bosede Alokan “Peculiarities of Adolescence Development Stage ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.79-83 July 2019  URL:

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The Dynamics of Communication Networking on Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Entrepreneurial Economies: (Evidence from Nigeria)

John Joseph Etim, Ushie Michael Adadu, Otiala Boniface Paul – July 2019 Page No.: 84-93

This study is designed to investigate the survival strategies for small and medium enterprises in Africa with particular reference to Nigeria. A total of 90 SME’s were randomly selected from business industrial cluster in Lagos (South West) Nigeria and used for the study. Secondary data were used for data collection. Analysis was conducted via descriptive statistics; frequency tables were used for summarizing the data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 2.0 was used, being relatively recent and advance version of SPSS, a multivariate regression model was used to measure the variables of communication networking models on SME’s growth. The result reveals that the variables of communication networking models (knowledge spillover, technological innovation, and interactions within clusters) have significant positive influence on SME’s growth. Both regression and correlation results indicated communication network model variables had positive influence on SME’s growth. Knowledge spillover was the most significant with correlation relationship of 43.3% combined strategies to influence the profitability and growth of SME’s. The study recommended that SME’s owners should explore the dynamic changes occasioned by communication networking models in other to improve on information linkages behaviour, and networking characterization that can improve SME’s existence in the business ecosystem.

Page(s): 84-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2019

 John Joseph Etim
Department of Business Administration, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar– Nigeria

 Ushie Michael Adadu
Department of Business Administration, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar– Nigeria

 Otiala Boniface Paul
Department of Business Administration, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar– Nigeria

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John Joseph Etim, Ushie Michael Adadu, Otiala Boniface Paul “The Dynamics of Communication Networking on Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Entrepreneurial Economies: (Evidence from Nigeria)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.84-93 July 2019  URL:

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Challenges and Strategies in the Implementation of Civic Entrepreneurship in the Governance of the University of Zambia

Sydney Mupeta, Gistered Muleya – July 2019 Page No.: 94-100

This paper is an extract from the master’s study which was investigating the implementation of civic entrepreneurship in the governance of public universities with a focus on the University of Zambia. Therefore, this paper focuses on exploring the challenges encountered in the implementation process of civic entrepreneurship and suggests strategies that could address such challenges. The study followed a qualitative case study design. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from 56 respondents who were sampled using snowball and convenient sampling. Document analysis was equally employed in the collection of data. Data analysis was done on the basis of themes that emerged from the study. The findings of this study indicated that lack of financial resources and strong financial framework for funding public universities was a major challenge in the implementation of civic entrepreneurship in the university governance system. The study further indicated that there was a lot of bureaucracy in the governance of the University of Zambia. The study therefore recommends that there was need to re-engineer the governance system at the University of Zambia. The university management should devise and adopt less bureaucratic systems of governing the university. The government is implored to devise a financial framework for funding public universities in order to enhance effective delivery of education services and good governance of public universities in Zambia.

Page(s): 94-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2019

 Sydney Mupeta
Chreso University

 Gistered Muleya
University of Zambia, Zambia

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Sydney Mupeta, Gistered Muleya “Challenges and Strategies in the Implementation of Civic Entrepreneurship in the Governance of the University of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.94-100 July 2019  URL:

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Factors Determining Demand, Supply and Price Changes in the Bujumbura Charcoal Market. Modeling of Possible Changes in the Long-Term Horizon

Jean Baptiste Aboyitungiye- July 2019 Page No.: 101-105

The article presents the challenges faced by the trading and consumption of charcoal in Bujumbura city. The biggest challenge results from an increase in its price, which was triggered mainly by government politics, including the environmental condition standards and decrease in the efficiency of generating its production. The establishment of an autonomous and non-governmental structure or a Charcoal Marketing Company in charge of all activities of the energy sector based on the woodhave been proposed. This allows for determining the marginal price of a given product for a given generating unit in the system and the optimal production of charcoal to meet its demand. Disturbances in the charcoal market (oversupply or shortage situations) are reflected in the energy sector, for which the price and the main cost factors of charcoal should be on the head of this company. It is assumed that all charcoal activities must be preceded by the regulation works. In other words, investment expenditures in the charcoal sector have a high meaning and benefit to consumers. It has been shown that the distribution of charcoal capacities is not enough because of its transportation which meets different problems. Based on the presented arguments it can be concluded that a system of regulation that takes care of all the activities related to the production, transport, marketing of charcoal is the only one that will fight against this upheaval of prices at any time.

Page(s): 101-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2019

  Jean Baptiste Aboyitungiye
Economics Program and Development Studies, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Jean Baptiste Aboyitungiye, “Factors Determining Demand, Supply and Price Changes in the Bujumbura Charcoal Market. Modeling of Possible Changes in the Long-Term Horizon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.101-105 July 2019  URL:

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Street Harassment Experiences of Female Undergraduate Students at a State University in Zimbabwe

Mawere D., Moyo A. – July 2019 Page No.: 106-113

The study examined street harassment experiences of female undergraduate students at a university in Gweru, Zimbabwe. Socio-cultural and socio-control theories informed the study. The research adopted a constructivist, qualitative approach. Interviews were carried out with 18 undergraduate female students between the ages of 19 to 24 years to find out the nature of street harassment they experienced, how they responded to the harassment as well as what could be done to make them move in the city without fear of harassment. The study found out that street harassment was prevalent in public transport and in the streets. Street harassment was attributed to how female students dressed as well as a general negative attitude towards them. The street harassment issue was attributed to male domination of the public space with the intention of keeping females in a subordinate position. What emerges from this study is that street harassment is a matter of concern to the female undergraduate students who feel that their freedom of movement is restricted due to consistent and persistent street harassment by men. Reporting to police does not seem to yield any positive results. If anything it brings further harassment of the participants. There is need to induct the police into the issue of street harassment by educating and empowering them about respecting girls especially those who come to report that they have been harassed. Furthermore, the participants believe that public education is a vital piece of the battle to eliminate street harassment.

Page(s): 106-113                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2019

 Mawere D.
Gender Institute Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

 Moyo A.
Gender Institute Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

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Mawere D., Moyo A. “Street Harassment Experiences of Female Undergraduate Students at a State University in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.106-113 July 2019  URL:

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Democracy, Fiscal Federalism and Challenge of Development in Nigeria

Ukachikara, Ucheoma O. – July 2019 Page No.: 114-123

Wheare’s classic definition of federalism as the method of dividing powers (political and economic) in such a way that the general and regional governments are each within its sphere co-ordinate and independent seems to anticipate that development, which is the raison d’etre of governments, can better be facilitated by the people on whom the development will directly impact. By implication, the powers divided among the federating units as extrapolated from Wheare’s description are powers to engage in such multidimensional processes geared towards the improvement of the living standards of the people, achieved by paying immense attention to the people’s needs and interests. This paper investigated the relationship between democracy, federalism and development, and adopted the Overlapping Model of Wright’s Theory of Intergovernmental Relations which focuses attention on the relationship between and among federating units in a federation in respect of power and jurisdictional scope determined by the units’ income and expenditure capabilities, as the theoretical framework. The work is largely a desk study. Specifically, data was mainly collected from secondary sources, while content analysis was adopted as the method of data analysis. The paper argues that development is more likely to occur when the necessary powers are directly domiciled with the people, and the surest way to bring these powers closer to the people is essentially through the judicious implementation of democratic federal principles. It also argues that essentially, for heterogeneous democratic states like Nigeria to attain development, they must review their federal systems to be suited to the historical and existential realities of their societies. This is because the role of the modern federal state in development is mainly dependent on the form of federalism obtainable in that federation.

Page(s): 114-123                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2019

 Ukachikara, Ucheoma O.
Department of Political & Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Ukachikara, Ucheoma O. “Democracy, Fiscal Federalism and Challenge of Development in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.114-123 July 2019  URL:

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Availability and Utilization of Textbooks on Students’ Academic Achievement in Public Day Secondary Schools

Malach Mogire Mogaka, Samson Ikinya Kariuki (PhD) and Norbert Ogeta (PhD)- July 2019 Page No.: 124-127

The study intended to investigate availability and utilization of textbooks on students’ academic achievement in Public day secondary schools in Kisii County, Kenya. The concern was why the decline in students’ academic achievement in public day secondary schools in Kisii County when the government of Kenya is funding all public secondary schools through the Free Day Secondary Education(FDSE) program.The study was guided by the production function model of education. The study adopted a correlational research design which involved students and teachers from the 246 public day secondary schools in Kisii County. The target population was 24266 participants comprising of 21843 form four students and 2,423 teachers in public day secondary schools in Kisii County. The sample size of this study was selected using on-proportionate sampling, systematic random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Non-proportionate sampling technique was used to sample schools, systematic random sampling technique was used to sample students while teachers were sampled using purposive sampling technique. The Yamane simplified formula was used to calculate the sample size. The sample size was therefore 401 students and 25 teachers totaling to 426 subjects. Data collection was done by use of student questionnaire (SQ) and Teachers Interview Schedule (TIS). The data collected were both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data were analyzed using inferential statistics, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlational Coefficient analysis and multiple regression. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and were reported as direct quotations. Findings from the analyzed data were presented as tables, figures and graphs. The study found out that school resources needed for teaching and learning were available in public day secondary school in Kisii County. The study revealed that availability and utilization of textbooks,had a relationship with students’ academic achievement.

Page(s): 124-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 July 2019

 Malach Mogire Mogaka
Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Samson Ikinya Kariuki (PhD)
Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Norbert Ogeta (PhD)
Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Malach Mogire Mogaka, Samson Ikinya Kariuki (PhD) and Norbert Ogeta (PhD), “Availability and Utilization of Textbooks on Students’ Academic Achievement in Public Day Secondary Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.124-127 July 2019  URL:

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Enhancing Customer Loyalty of Banks through Corporate Social Responsibility: A Conceptual Framework

Konalingam Kajenthiran and Nilakshi W K Galahitiyawe – July 2019 Page No.: 128-136

Corporate social responsible engagements are the one of the increasing popular marketing strategy to create customer loyalty particularly in the retail banking industry. Hence, in this study researchers present a conceptual framework which aims to enhance the customer loyalty through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the context of retail banking industry in Sri Lanka. Further the research model presents the mediating effect of customer satisfaction in between CSR and customer loyalty. The proposed model is an extension of the study conducted by Ellen, Webb, and Mohr (2006). The model comprises Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as an upstream variable, Customer Loyalty (CUL) as a downstream variable, and Customer Satisfaction (CUS) as a mediating variable. Relationships between these constructs are discussed, together withresearch hypothesis. Further, this study is much needed to empirically test to get the new cues on the subject of CSR of the Sri Lankan Consumers’ perspective. Researchimplications of the conceptual model are presented, as directions for future research,which would be of use to researchers and practitioners in the societal marketing field.

Page(s): 128-136                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 July 2019

 MKonalingam Kajenthiran
Lecturer, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce, University of Jaffna.

 Nilakshi W K Galahitiyawe
Senior Lecturer, Department of Decision Sciences, Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce, University of Sri Jayewardenepura

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Konalingam Kajenthiran and Nilakshi W K Galahitiyawe “Enhancing Customer Loyalty of Banks through Corporate Social Responsibility: A Conceptual Framework” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.128-136 July 2019  URL:

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Islam and Multi-Sectoral Partnership in National Cohesion and Integration in Kenya

Dr. Michael G. Mwangi, Dr. Janet N. Kassilly and Dr. Nicholas K. Ombachi- July 2019 Page No.: 137-146

This paper was on the study of Islam and her partnership with other players in promotion of national cohesion and integration in Kenya. Social divisions have remained a key challenge in the Country and various players have come in to address the problem. Ethnic tensions which are mostly politically fueled have remained real even on the aftermath of the 2007 Post Election Violence. National cohesion and integration have since therefore become an area of interest both at government and civic levels. Yet owing to the complexity of the task, partnership between various players is critical. From the study it was established that some level of partnership exists between Islam and other actors, including the church and the state organs such as the Provincial Administration. However, this partnership was discovered to be very limited in addition to only being active during crisis.

Page(s): 137-146                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 July 2019

 Dr. Michael G. Mwangi
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Dr. Janet N. Kassilly
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Dr. Nicholas K. Ombachi
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

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Dr. Michael G. Mwangi, Dr. Janet N. Kassilly and Dr. Nicholas K. Ombachi “Islam and Multi-Sectoral Partnership in National Cohesion and Integration in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.137-146 July 2019  URL:

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Local Knowledge Adaptation Measures in Responding to Climate Change, for Sustainable Development, in Southern Africa

Tshuma Doreen Taurai, Kaino Luckson, Jerie Steven – July 2019 Page No.: 147-155

The study sought to examine local knowledge adaptation measures in response to climate change in Southern Africa, with specific reference to Chivi District in Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach, informed by the interpretative paradigm was adopted. Data was collected using focus group discussions comprised of elderly community members. This was augmented by interviews that included Meteorological Officers and Environmental Management Agency Officer and observations made by the researcher. The results revealed that adaptation measures were adopted for crop farming, livestock agriculture and other livelihood adaptations. Crop farming adaptation included use of infiltration pits, crop diversification, staggering planting dates, mulching, rain-making ceremonies, collective farming and Zunde RaMambo. Livestock adaptations include livestock diversification, relocation, food preservation and alternative water sources. Other methods of adapting to climate change include food diversification, selling wild fruits and establishment of woodlots. Some of the adaptation measures were now losing relevance, for instance, rain making ceremonies as people shifted from the traditional regard of spiritual matters. This has adversely impacted on the adaptation measures to contribute towards the community’s sustainable development. Poverty and hunger in the Chivi community continues to be a humanitarian issue worth of consideration by the government.

Page(s): 147-155                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 July 2019

 Tshuma Doreen Taurai
Great Zimbabwe University, Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe.

 Kaino Luckson
Tumaini University, Josiah Kibira University College, P.O. Box 1023, Bukoba, Tanzania.

 Jerie Steven
Midlands State University. P. Bag 9055, Gweru.

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Tshuma Doreen Taurai, Kaino Luckson, Jerie Steven “Local Knowledge Adaptation Measures in Responding to Climate Change, for Sustainable Development, in Southern Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.147-155 July 2019  URL:

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Single Parenthood and Its Effect on the Nigerian Child: A Case Study of Amassoma Community in Bayelsa State

EKPENYONG, AS (PhD) – July 2019 Page No.: 156-162

The study examines the effect of single parenthood on the Nigerian child, using Amassoma community as a case study. All children between the ages of twelve to seven (12-17) who are living in single parent homes and dual parent homes constituted the population of the study. The study adopted a survey and co-relational study design. A total sample of 220 children was selected using the purposive and snowball sampling techniques. A well-structured questionnaire was the main source of primary data collection. The descriptive statistics of percentages, frequency, mean and standard deviation were the basic analytical tool used for the analysis of socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents while, the inferential statistics of binary regression logistics and spearman correlation coefficient served as the tool for determining the relationship between variables. The findings of the study showed that single parenting has a negative effect on children, that is, children in single parent families face significantly greater problems than children raised in dual parent families. Based on the findings, the study recommended amongst other things that parent stay together with children to ensure that their welfare is properly catered for; that public enlightenment on issue if parent skills, family planning, family values and child discipline should be done regularly as this will strengthen and integrate families.

Page(s): 156-162                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 July 2019

Department of Sociology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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EKPENYONG, AS (PhD) “Single Parenthood and Its Effect on the Nigerian Child: A Case Study of Amassoma Community in Bayelsa State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.156-162 July 2019  URL:

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The Contributions of Justice Umar Ibrahim in Contending the Social Depression in Nigeria

Dr. Ahmad Liman, Dr. Muhammad Umar Musa – July 2019 Page No.: 163-164

This paper titled: The contributions of Justice Umar Ibrahim in contending the social depression is trying to highlight the role played by Justice Umar Ibrahim in eradicating social depression which dominate some people in Nigerian society, more especially some Muslims who claims asceticism saying that working hard for making money or rising and developing economy is a kind of verity and pride and the decoration of this world, they think that making many keep back the servant from his God almighty and it will prevent them from interring Faradize, the orations without any doubt explains the misconceived by some people in developing economy.

Page(s): 163-164                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 July 2019

 Dr. Ahmad Liman
Department of Arabic, Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Dr. Muhammad Umar Musa
Department of Arabic, Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

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Dr. Ahmad Liman, Dr. Muhammad Umar Musa “The Contributions of Justice Umar Ibrahim in Contending the Social Depression in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.163-164 July 2019  URL:

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Determinants of Internal Audit Effectiveness in Selected Hospitals within the Kumasi Metropolis

Armstrong Ephraim Awinbugri, Yidana Daniel – July 2019 Page No.: 165-168

The study examined the Determinants of Internal Audit Effectiveness in Selected Hospitals within the Kumasi Metropolis using qualitative study. Primary data in the form of administration of questionnaire to (60) respondents was used.
The discovered that internal audit units of the four selected hospitals were effective in the discharge of their duties and further observed that, the determinants of Internal Audit effectiveness included amongst others(arranged chronologically): Higher salaries and incentives of internal auditors (motivation) with a mean score of 2.10, Organizational Independence also had an average score of 1.77, Effective internal controls scored 1.71 as a third variable of internal audit effectiveness determinant, Adequate internal audit charter and frequent internal audit meetings both came fourth and fifth scoring an average of 1.61 respectively, Competent internal audit staff came sixth with a mean score of 1.35, with last but not least being management support which also scored an average mark of 1.29.
Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that there should be separation of powers between the appointing authority of internal auditors and those in charge of determining their incentives and remuneration so as to ensure total independence of internal auditors.

Page(s): 165-168                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 July 2019

 Armstrong Ephraim Awinbugri
Exams Officer, Department of Business Studies, Kessben University College-Ghana

 Yidana Daniel
Senior Audit Assistant, PKF-Accountants and Business Advisers, Kumasi-Ghana

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[4]. Asare, (2008). The Relationship between Audit Committee Characteristics, Audit Firm Quality and Companies’ Profitability. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, 7(2), 215-225
[5]. Cohen, J., Moorthy, G., Wright, A., (2002). Corporate governance and the audit process.
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[7]. George Tackie, Edward MarfoYiadom and Sampson.S.A(2016). Determinants of internal audit effectiveness in selected Decentralized Local Government Systems in Ashanti Region. International Journal of Management and Business.
[8]. Institute of Internal Auditors(2001). Approved Internal Audit Charter.
[9]. Ittonen, K., Miettinen, J. and Vähämaa, S. (2010) ‘Does Female Representation in Audit Committees Affect Audit Fees ?’, Quarterly Journal of Finance and Accounting, 49(3–4), pp. 113–139. doi: 10.2307/23074633.
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Armstrong Ephraim Awinbugri, Yidana Daniel “Determinants of Internal Audit Effectiveness in Selected Hospitals within the Kumasi Metropolis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.165-168 July 2019  URL:

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The Reforms of Ghana’s Voter Registration from 1992 to Date, The Case of Tolon/Kumbungu District

Dominic Alimbey Dery (PhD) – July 2019 Page No.: 169-177

The success and failure and the acceptance or rejection of the outcome of any election results, rest by and large on the kind of electoral roll used in the said elections. In Ghana, since the inception of the fourth republic, the issue of maintaining a credible voters’ register has always remained a challenge to the Electoral Commission of Ghana.This paper looks at reforms introduced by the Electoral Commission of Ghana to improve on Voter Registration exercises. The research was a mix of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. Both purposive sampling and systematic sampling techniques were used. Again, both questionnaire and interviews were used to gather the data needed.The findings made suggest several important conclusions. It was apparent from the findings that, the voters’ register used in the 2008 general elections was bloated withdeceased persons’ names, minors, multiple registrants and non-Ghanaians.This study had established that, the Biometric Voter Register Technology (BVR) had been able to reduce multiple registrants drastically. Over 90 percent of the respondents had the opinion that the BVR technology should be maintained.

Page(s): 169-177                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 July 2019

 Dominic Alimbey Dery (PhD)
Department: Languages and Liberal Studies, Tamale Technical University (Ghana)

[1]. Election System, chapter 2 “Voter Registration,” August 2001, available at http://www.tcf. org/Publications/ElectionReform/99.
[2]. Rafael LópezPintor and Maria Gratschew; Voter Registration and Inclusive Democracy: Analysing Registration Practices Worldwide
[3]. Administration and Cost of Elections Project (ACE). 1999. International IDEA, IFES, UN-DESA, www.ace-
[4]. Bartolini, S. 2000. Franchise Expansion. In International Encyclopedia of Elections, edited by R. Rose. London: Macmillan.
[5]. Dr.KwadwoAfari-Gyan, (Saturday, 17 November 2012)
[6]. The Carter Center International Election Observation Mission to Cote d’Ivoire; Report on Voter Verification, Claims, and Objections of Provisional Voters List November-December 2009.
[7]. Evrensel , Astrid ;Voter Registration in Africa A Comparative Analysis
[8]. Alina Rocha Menocal; Why electoral systems matter: an analysis of their incentives and effects on key areas of governance
[9]. Jean, Laponce and Bernard Saint-Jacques; For Contrasting Political Institutions special issue of the International Political Science Review Vol 18(3) July 1997: 297-312.
[10]. The Carter Center; Observation Mission to Ghana’s 2008 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections; December 2008 – January 2009;Final Report
[11]. A, KWASI ;The Ghana 2008 Elections Growing Pains Of A Budding Democracy
[12]. D. A Kangah and K. Sarfo-Kantanka Deputy Chairmen, Electoral Commission, Ghana, -Getting The Register Right: The Ghana Experience
[13]. Australian Electoral Commission. Continuous Roll Update (CRU) Procedures Manual. 2002.
[14]. Australian National Audit Office. Australian Electoral Commission: Integrity of the Electoral Roll. Report of the Australian National Audit Office. Canberra, 2002.
[15]. Bakary, Tessy, and Susan L. Palmer. May 17, 1997 Legislative Elections in Cameroon. Washington, D.C.: IFES, 1997.
[16]. Bayer, Thomas C. The Ivory Coast, Voters Registry Revision and Elections Preparation: A Technical Assessment. Washington, D.C.: IFES, 1994.
[17]. Black, Jerome H. “From Enumeration to the National Register of Electors: An Account and an Evaluation.” Choices Vol. 9, no. 7 (August 2003).
[18]. ———. “The National Register of Electors: Raising Questions About the New Approach to Voter Registration in Canada.” Policy Matters Vol. 1, No. 10. Montréal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, December 2000.
[19]. Butler, David. “The Case for an Electoral Commission: Keeping election law up-to-date,” King-Hall Paper No. 5. London, U.K.: Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government, 1998.
[20]. Butler, Vic, and Joe Baxter. Report on Issues in Preparation for the 1999 General Elections in Malawi. Washington, D.C.: IFES, 1998.
[21]. Caltech–MIT Voting Technology Project. Voting: What Is, What Could Be. California Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation, 2001,
[22]. Chief Electoral Officer of Canada. Canada’s Electoral System: Strengthening the Foundation. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1996,
[23]. Modernizing the Electoral Process: Recommendations from the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada following the 37thgeneral election. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 2001,
[24]. Carroll, David, et al. Civil and Voter Registration and Identification System: Proposed Implementation System. Washington, D.C.: IFES, 1995.
[25]. Carty, R. Kenneth. “Citizens, Electors, Voters and Parties in Canada, or the Case of the Missing Voters’ List.” Registering Voters: Comparative Perspectives, ed. John C. Courtney. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1991.
[26]. Choe, Yonhyok. How to Manage Free and Fair Elections: A Comparison of Korea, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Göteborg, Sweden: Göteborg University, 1997.
[27]. Chowdhury, Jafar Ahmed. Voter Registration and Identity Cards in South Asian Countries. Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1997.
[28]. Courtney, John C., ed. Registering Voters: Comparative Perspectives. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 1991.
[29]. Courtney, John C., and David Smith. “Registering Voters: Canada in Comparative Context.” Democratic Rights and Electoral Reform in Canada, Research Studies of the Royal
[30]. J. Shola OmotolaElections and Democratic Transition in Nigeria Under the Fourth Republic
[31]. MashakaLewela and Emmanuel Kisiangani, Research Intern and Senior Researcher, Conflict Prevention and Risk Analysis Division, ISS Nairobi
[32]. Nwokeke P. Osinakachukwu. The Electoral Process and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria
[33]. Astrid Evrensel; Voter Registration in Africa: A Comparative Analysis,( , EISA )
[34]. Michael Yard; Civil and Voter Registries: Lessons Learned from Global Experiences,( , IFES)
[35]. The Ace Electoral Network And The: Electoral Integrity
[36]. Hirst v the United Kingdom (No 2), [2005] ECHR 681, [2006] 42 EHHR 41
[37]. U.K., Prevention of Electoral Fraud Act (Northern Ireland), 2002 Chapter 13
[38]. Elections New Zealand, Everything You Need to Know About Enrolling to Vote
[39]. Royce Crocker , Specialist in American National Government ;The National Voter Registration Act of 1993: History, Implementation, and Effects -September 18, 2013
[40]. Politics of Wednesday, 21 November 2012 Source: GNA Blame Party Agents for registration of minors-EC
[41]. Carter and Ford: National Election Commission, Report of the Task Force on the Federal Election System, chapter 2 “Voter Registration,” August 2001, available at http://www.tcf. org/Publications/ElectionReform/99_full_report.pdf.
[42]. Report of the Commonwealth Observer Group, GHANA PRESIDENTIAL AND PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS ,7 December 2012.
[43]. R. Michael Alvarez ,( Professor of Political Science, Co-Director, Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project, June 17, 2005) Voter Registration: Past, Present and Future ,Written Testimony Prepared for the Commission on Federal Election Reform
[44]. Rafael LópezPintor and Maria Gratschew, Voter Registration and Inclusive Democracy: Analysing Registration Practices Worldwide.
[45]. Voters register is bloated – CDD-Thursday 30th November, 2006
[46]. Wendy Weiser, Michael Waldman, and Renée Paradis- Universal Voter Registration Policy Summary -Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law.
[47]. James G. Gimpel, Joshua J. Dyck and Daron R. Shaw; Election-Year Stimuli And The Timing Of Voter Registration.
[48]. Jacob R. Neiheisel1 and Barry C. Burden; The Impact of Election Day Registration on Voter Turnout and Election Outcomes.
[49]. RANDALL D. LLOYD Eastern Kentucky University; Voter Registration Reconsidered Putting First Things First Is Not Enough.
[50]. ROBERT RICHIE; Leave No Voter Behind: Seeking 100 Percent Voter Registration and Effective Civic Education.
[51]. Robert A. Pastor, Robert Santos, Alison Prevost, and VassiaStoilov; Voting and ID Requirements: A Survey of Registered Voters in Three States
[52]. Harder and Jon A. Krosnick- Stanford Universi- Why Do People Vote? A Psychological Analysis of the Causes of Voter Turnout Joshua Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2008, pp. 525—549
[53]. Anamika Ajay and Unna V. Govindarajan; Revisiting the Urban Electoral Processes A Case for Electoral System Index in Bangalore; Environment and Urbanization ASIA 2(1) 109–128 © 2011 National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) SAGE Publications Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC DOI: 10.1177/097542531000200108
[54]. Barry C. Burden and Jacob R. Neiheisel; Election Administration and the Pure Effect of Voter Registration on Turnout Political Research Quarterly 66(1) 77 –90 © 2013 University of Utah Reprints and permission: DOI: 10.1177/1065912911430671
[55]. James G. Gimpel, Joshua J. Dyck and Daron R. Shaw; Election-Year Stimuli And The Timing Of Voter Registration.
[56]. Elizabeth A. Bennion and David W. Nickerson; The Cost of Convenience: An Experiment Showing E-Mail Outreach Decreases Voter Registration;Political Research Quarterly 64(4) 858 –869 © 2011 University of Utah Reprints and permission:
[57]. Electoral Commission of Ghana; Biometric Voter Registration; Registration Officials Manual.
[58]. Electoral Commission of Ghana; C. I. 72 Public Elections (Registration of Voters) Regulations 2012
[59]. An excellent recent examination of the history of voter registration in the United States is by AlexnaderKeyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States, New York: Basic Books, 2001

Dominic Alimbey Dery (PhD) “The Reforms of Ghana’s Voter Registration from 1992 to Date, The Case of Tolon/Kumbungu District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.169-177 July 2019  URL:

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Challenges of National Security in Nigeria

Mofolorunsho Taiye B., Idah A. Florence, Abu-Saeed Muslimat – July 2019 Page No.: 178-184

National Security is critical for National Development and intra societal co-existence. It entails the protection of a Nation and its people from Internal and External aggression and other matters of geographical, social and economic interest. Nigeria as a nation continues to witness internal insecurity issues such as terrorism, religious conflicts, militancy, communal clashes, Fulani herdsmen/Farmers clashes, kidnappings and armed robbery. These have not only hindered the speedy development of the country but have continued to retrogress the pace of its growth and development, thereby threatening her national unity. This paper review while highlighting the various facets of insecurities ravaging the country, it examines the challenges of providing adequate security to solving these problems. Among the recommendations made is the advocacy for effective collaboration between all existing security bodies, dialogue between religious leaders, Capacity improvement in training/technology for securities and the inclusion of basic security studies in our educational curriculum as a mandatory subject for tiers of our educational system.

Page(s): 178-184                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 July 2019

 Mofolorunsho Taiye B.
Department of Arts and Social Sciences, Kogi State Polytechnic, P.M.B 1101 Lokoja, Nigeria.

 Idah A. Florence
Department of Arts and Social Sciences, Kogi State Polytechnic, P.M.B 1101 Lokoja, Nigeria.

 Abu-Saeed Muslimat
Department of Arts and Social Sciences, Kogi State Polytechnic, P.M.B 1101 Lokoja, Nigeria.

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Mofolorunsho Taiye B., Idah A. Florence, Abu-Saeed Muslimat “Challenges of National Security in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.178-184 July 2019  URL:

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Family Negligence and Social Exclusion: A Study of the Children with ASD in Gopalganj, Bangladesh

Shimon Rahman, Md. Noman Amin, Md. Anisur Rahaman, Md Abdur Rashid, Abdullah Abusayed Khan – July 2019 Page No.: 185-193

Since the introduction of joint account Zaria local government could not get access to its allocation from federation account as a resultmiscellaneous deductions from it allocations by Kaduna state government in the name of state and local government joint account, the situation lead to the inability of the Zaria local government for consistent payment of workers salary, gratuity and pensioners of retired local government civil servants and relegating the activities within the local government. Therefore the study attempt to identify the responses of the people on the administrative challenge fusses in Zaria local government. A phenomenological approach was used and data were obtained from purposively selected informants using semi structure interviews. Thus, thematic analysis, informal discussion and observation were employed in data analysis. The study recommends that only the abolishing of state and local government joint account Zaria local government will over power its administrative challenge.

Page(s): 185-193                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2019

 Shimon Rahman
Department of Sociology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

 Md. Noman Amin
Department of Sociology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

 Md. Anisur Rahaman
Department of Sociology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

 Md Abdur Rashid
Department of Sociology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

 Abdullah Abusayed Khan
Sociology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.

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Shimon Rahman, Md. Noman Amin, Md. Anisur Rahaman, Md Abdur Rashid, Abdullah Abusayed Khan “Family Negligence and Social Exclusion: A Study of the Children with ASD in Gopalganj, Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.185-193 July 2019  URL:

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Restructuring in Nigeria: An Exploration of the Seismic Analysis of Social Formations

Paul A. Onuh, Chinedu C. Ike – July 2019 Page No.: 194-200

The myriads of the seemingly endless, now passive and now active, political haemorrhage in Nigeria has revitalized the calls and demands for the restructuring of the polity from different quatres. The effects of the amalgamation of different nations driven by colonial prerogatives and formalized in 1914 by Lord Fredrick Lugard has continued to reverberate over a century later. The character of ethnic politics played in the struggle for the control of the centre since the first republic has further amplified differences, leading to military coups, civil war, and the evolution of an increasingly centralized and top-heavy political system. This study re-examines the debate on restructuring, highlighting the issues and the prospects for Nigeria. We explored the seismic theory of social formations. We applied data gotten from secondary sources for the study. We also used the content analysis. The study found that maintaining the current political structure is not sustainable. It feeds unhealthy competition for the control of the centre, stunts socio-political and economic development, breeds mutual suspicions amongst the different ethnic members of the polity, and leads to violent armed confrontation and avoidable loss of lives. It is a significant threat to the continued corporate existence of the Nigerian state.

Page(s): 194-200                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2019

 Paul A. Onuh
Department of Political Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Chinedu C. Ike
Department of Political Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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Paul A. Onuh, Chinedu C. Ike “Restructuring in Nigeria: An Exploration of the Seismic Analysis of Social Formations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.194-200 July 2019  URL:

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Utilization of Play Resources in the Teaching Numeracy Skills: A Case of Pre-Primary Schools in Bungoma South, Bungoma County, Kenya

Otinga P. Wokila, Dr. Ong’ang’a H. M. Ouko – July 2019 Page No.: 201-205

Play is essential tool for pre-school program curriculum that provides opportunities to establish knowledge, comprehension and skills through a range of contexts covering all subjects in the curriculum. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to identify the forms of play materials employed in the teaching of numeracy skills in pre-primacy school centres in Bungoma Sub-County. The study used both quantitative and qualitative research design. The target population comprised of all pre-primary children and pre-primary school teachers. Questionnaires and observation schedules were used for data collection. The research instruments were piloted in two public and one private institution that were not included in the sample study. The collected data was cleaned, edited and coded as per the themes that emanated for the study objective. The quantitative data was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages. Qualitative data derived from open-ended responses were presented in narrative form. The study established that majority of teachers reported that their schools had play corners, bottle tops and balls. However, such play materials as beanbags, swings and sand play areas were not sufficient in schools yet they were crucial in teaching early numeracy skills. The study concluded that factors such as availability of play materials was statistically significant (p-value<0.05). The null hypothesis (H1) was rejected. The study recommended that school management should create adequate learning environment for the children, which should be made conducive environment for learning. Every pre-school should be provided with a numeracy skills laboratory equipped with all necessary materials for teaching and learning numeracy skills. The study is of significant to the Ministry of Education, Kenya Institute f Curriculum Development (KICD), publishers and developers of early childhood education materials and teachers as well as ECDE institutions’ sponsors.

Page(s): 201-205                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2019

 Otinga P. Wokila
Kenyatta University, P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi Kenya

 Dr. Ong’ang’a H. M. Ouko
Kenyatta University, P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi Kenya

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[18]. Waithaka, E. N. (2009). Children’s involvement in informal play activities in Kenya: A case study, Kiambu East and West districts. (Unpublished Ph. D Thesis) Kenyatta University.
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Otinga P. Wokila, Dr. Ong’ang’a H. M. Ouko “Utilization of Play Resources in the Teaching Numeracy Skills: A Case of Pre-Primary Schools in Bungoma South, Bungoma County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.201-205 July 2019  URL:

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The Role of Islamic Work Ethics on the Relationship between Board of Directors and Performance of Islamic Financial Institutions in Nigeria: A Proposed Framework

Sa’adatu Balarabe Adam – July 2019 Page No.: 206-211

Even though, Islamic banks are considered instrumental to financial inclusion and economic growth, yet the input of Islamic banks in Nigeria displays an unimpressive performance. Furthermore, the practice of Islamic Finance is globally being regarded as not only existing as alternative for Muslims but fundamental financial practices around the world. Previous studies reveal limited theoretical contributions in the area in Nigerian context. As such, the need for more studies on the performance of Islamic banks in the context of Board of Directors, especially in Nigeria, where Islamic banks are viewd as appropriate financial institutions to the Muslims. In addition, studies in Nigeria revealed weak supervisory framework for the Islamic bank industry. Against this backdrop, poor Islamic Work Ethics occupies a fundamental position for the low performance of Nigerian Islamic banks. The paper presents a theoretical framework on the moderating role of Islamic Work Ethics on the relationship between Board of Directorsand the performance of Islamic banks in Nigeria. If validated, the model would have policy implications to Islamic banks and other stakeholders in decision making.

Page(s): 206-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2019

 Sa’adatu Balarabe Adam
PhD Scholar, Islamic Business School, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia

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Sa’adatu Balarabe Adam “The Role of Islamic Work Ethics on the Relationship between Board of Directors and Performance of Islamic Financial Institutions in Nigeria: A Proposed Framework” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.206-211 July 2019  URL:

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Impact of Van Hieles’ Geometric Model on Pedagogical Abilities of Nigeria Certificate in Education Mathematics Students

Dr. A.A. Hassan, Prof. Y.K. Kajuru, Abari, M.T. – July 2019 Page No.: 212-216

The purpose of this study “The Impact of Van Hieles’ Geometric Model on the pedagogical Abilities of Nigeria Certificate in Education Mathematics Students in Niger State Nigeria is an intervention programme oriented towards Mathematics Teacher preparation and professional development in colleges of education. Sixty subjects (30 male and 30 female) were both purposively and randomly sampled from two colleges of education. Two instruments were used for the study, a Geometry Achievement Test (GAT ‘A’) and Geometry Teaching Practice Assessment with reliability coefficients r = 0.72 and 0.78 respectively. About 300 Junior Secondary School students were involved. Two null hypotheses were formulated and t- test was used to analyze the data. The study revealed that significant difference exists between NCE II mathematics students with geometric pedagogical Abilities and those without. Also, significant difference exists in Geometry performance between JSS III students taught by the Experimental group and Control group. It is recommended that there should be an increased emphasis on continual training of NCE mathematics students on geometry pedagogy even after graduation to keep them abreast of the currents research in geometry teaching and learning practices.

Page(s): 212-216                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2019

 Dr. A.A. Hassan
Science Education Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 Prof. Y.K. Kajuru
Department of Science Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

 Abari, M.T.
Mathematics Education Department, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

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[7]. Odili, G. A. (2006). Mathematics in Nigerian Secondary Schools. A Teaching perspective Ikeja. Anachuna Educational Books.
[8]. Ohakwe, E.E. (2006). Adequate Preparation of Mathematics Preservice Teachers for Successful Implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual National Conference of the Mathematical Association of Nigeria, Bauchi. .188-194.
[9]. Orton, A. (Ed)). (1992). Learning Mathematics Issues: Theory and Classroom Practice, London, Cassel Vithers House 41/42 Stand.
[10]. Pollard, A; Collius, J; Mandu, M; Simco, N; Swaffield, S; Warin, J and Warinck, P (2006). Reflective Teaching. 2nd Ed. London. Continuem. The Tower Building. II Your Road.
[11]. Tahir, G. (2006). The challenges of Universal Basic Education Commission: The Role of Mathematics Education. A keynote Address presented at the Annual National Conference of the Mathematical Association of Nigeria at Bauchi, 28th August – 1st September.
[12]. Tahir, G. (2006). Teacher Education in the 21st Century and Beyond: Issues, Problems and Strategies for Improvement. A keynote Address on the occasion of 2006 National Conference of the Faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 10th – 14th July.
[13]. Unal, H. (2005). The Influence of Curiosity and Spatial Ability on Pre-service Middle and Secondary Mathematics Teachers Understanding of Geometry. Unpublished Ph. D Thesis. Florida State University.
[14]. West African Examination Council, (1995, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2005). May/June Chief Examiner’s Report.
[15]. Van-Hiele, P.M. (1986). Structure and insight: A theory of Mathematics education. Orlando: Academic Press.

Dr. A.A. Hassan, Prof. Y.K. Kajuru, Abari, M.T. “Impact of Van Hieles’ Geometric Model on Pedagogical Abilities of Nigeria Certificate in Education Mathematics Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.212-216 July 2019  URL:

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Equity Research Using Technical Analysis

Varshini Venu, Dr. Bhavya Vikas, Charithra C M – July 2019 Page No.: 217-225

Technical analysis is a financial market technique that claim the ability to forecast the future direction of stock through the study past market data, price movement patterns, price and volume correlation; these data are widely used by traders. Technical analysis also considers the actual price and volume behaviour of the market or instruments on the assumption that price and volume are two most relevant factors in determining the future direction and behaviour of a particular stock or market. The investor will have the question in mind that in trading period which stock should be buy, how much to be buy and when to sell or to hold for future date to gain the maximum profit. So this research helps in making appropriate discussion for short term traders. This study aims to analyse the trends of stock price movement of twelve companies from three different sectors during the year 2018-19.

Page(s): 217-225                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2019

 Varshini Venu
MBA 2nd year, BNM Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

 Dr. Bhavya Vikas
Associate Professor, BNM Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

 Charithra C M
Assistant Professor, BNM Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

[1]. Neely, C. J.,”Technical analysis and the profitability of U.S. foreign exchange intervention”. Review – Federal Reserve Bank of St.Louis, 80(4), 3-17. (2002).
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[11]. RajatSingla “technical analysis used to predicted the markets” IJCSMC, Vol. 5, Issue. 6, (2014).
[12]. MohdNaved “Profitability of Oscillators used in Technical Analysis for Financial Market” ISSN: 2394-1553; Volume 2, Number 9(2012).
[13]. Archana Mishra” Fundamental Vs Technical Analysis” (IJCBM), ISSN: 2319–2828Vol. 2, No.5, (2012)
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[17]. ShahanaJabeen, AfshanJabeen Technical Study of Pharmaceutical StocksListed In NSE ( SSRG – IJEMS ) – Volume 4 Issue 3(2017).
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Varshini Venu, Dr. Bhavya Vikas, Charithra C M “Equity Research Using Technical Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.217-225 July 2019  URL:

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Appropriateness of Balanced Scorecard of Objective (BSCO) or Staff Performance Appraisal and Development (SPADEV) Reporting System as a Performance Appraisal Method in the Civil Service of Lagos State, Nigeria

Dr. Gift Okorie – July 2019 Page No.: 226-235

Conducting performance appraisal with the Staff Performance Appraisal and Development (SPADEV) reporting system in the Lagos State Civil Service is replete with several difficulties. This has made the original motive for the replacement of Annual Performance Evaluation Review (APER) with SPADEV to appear defeated. The replacement of APER with SPADEV was intended to provide effective and efficient solution to appraisal exercises. The study examined the viability of BSCO appraisal system as an alternative to the SPADEV system.
Descriptive survey design was adopted for this study with Key Informant Interviews (KII). The population comprised fourteen Ministries, the Civil Service Commission (CSC), and the Office of Transformation, Creativity and Innovation (OTCI) with total staff strength of 7,555 in the Lagos State Civil Service. Utilizing Taro Yamane’s sampling technique, a sample size of 380 participants was arrived at, with a thirty percent (30%) addition (to enhance the confidence level and response rate). A self-developed structured questionnaire was used to collect information about variables that formed the basis for assessing the appraisal instruments, BSCO and SPADEV; from the perspective of the level of appropriateness (App). The questionnaire was validated, yielding a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.830. A total of 494 copies of the questionnaire documents were distributed, with a response rate of about 75%. In addition, two Commissioners and a Director General were interviewed, using interview-guide. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential analyses (p=0.05) while data from the interview were content-analyzed.
Findings revealed that there was significant difference (p<0.003) between BSCO (App:×=20.95); and SPADEV (App: x̅ = 9.60) for criterion variables assessing the appraisal instruments. Furthermore, analysis of KII revealed BSCO appraisal method to be superior to SPADEV method of appraisal.
The study concluded that BSCO is more viable than SPADEV with consistently significant difference for all variables used in assessing the appraisal instruments. It is therefore clear from the study that BSCO appraisal method is an alternative instrument to SPADEV. It therefore recommended that BSCO should be used as an alternative performance appraisal instrument in the Lagos State Civil Service.

Page(s): 226-235                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 July 2019

 Dr. Gift Okorie
Nato Resources West-Africa Limited

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[2]. Thompson, W.(1905), Electrical units of measurement and published in Popular Lectures and Addresses I, (1), 73-75)
[3]. OTCI (2013), Office of Transformation (OOT, 2007) Lagos state government operational guide for the implementation of revised SPADEV reporting system’2007, Government Press.1(1), 45-49.
[4]. Atta-Quartey, J.E. (2015), An evaluation of the annual performance appraisal system at the University of cape coast. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3 (7), 247-260
[5]. Ijewereme, O. B. & Benson, K. S., (2013) Factors influencing performance appraisal system in the Nigerian civil service: a comparative study of Edo and Ondo states civil services of Nigeria. Public Policy and Administration Research, 3(12), 130-138 Vanguard, 2016, vol. 27
[6]. Fitz-Enz, R., (2010), The new HR Analytics: Predicting the Economic Value of Your Company’s Human Capital Investments. American Management Association; New York, Kent Publishers, 1st Edition.
[7]. Howell, K. E. (2013) Introduction to the philosophy of methodology. London: Sage Publications, 1st Edition.
[8]. Holy Bible, New King James Version.(1982), Mathew Chapter 25:14-30, NKJV Nashville: Nelson. 1982, 1st Edition.

Dr. Gift Okorie “Appropriateness of Balanced Scorecard of Objective (BSCO) or Staff Performance Appraisal and Development (SPADEV) Reporting System as a Performance Appraisal Method in the Civil Service of Lagos State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.226-235 July 2019  URL:

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An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Zimbabwean Government Maize Production Support Programmes in Ensuring Food Security

Blessing Dhokotera, Cinderella Dube – July 2019 Page No.: 236-253

The study looked on the effectiveness of Government maize support programmes in ensuring food security in Zimbabwe over the period 1980 to 2017. The main objective was to establish quantitative impact of Government maize production support programmes in ensuring food security and analyse if the programmes are having any significant impact on raising food security through increased maize production. Guided by literature, the study hypothesised that Government maize support programs lead to increased maize output and therefore food security. The study based its theoretical framework from the theory of production function and the sustainable livelihoods model. Secondary data obtained from various Government publications was used to solve the research problem and analysis was centred on the Gittinger Model which gives a structure to perform financial analysis of agricultural projects. The findings show that maize production respond positively to its previous output price, Government maize support price, favourable weather, major Government policy support and availability of cheap fertilisers. Output of the crop respond negatively to increase in average fertiliser price. The elasticity estimates show inelastic responses to maize output price, Government maize support price, fertiliser price and Government major policy support. The inelastic response for most of the variables show that a comprehensive policy combining both price and non-price incentives is required to raise maize output in Zimbabwe. Further the elastic responses to rainfall show that a volatile climatic environment would be devastative to food security in the country. Construction of more dams and expanding farmland under irrigation will help farmers cushion the devastating effect of adverse weather. Farmers should aim to plan ahead and purchase part of their inputs as they wait for Government inputs support. More attention should be on irrigation infrastructure to limit the effects of adverse weather. The study suggested a similar study to be conducted using same methodology on a two or more country comparison to see whether the results will be the same as a potential area for future studies.

Page(s): 236-253                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 July 2019

 Blessing Dhokotera
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

 Cinderella Dube
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

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[29] Matutu, V. (2014).Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZIMASSET 2013-2018) A Pipeline Dream or Reality. A Reflective Analysis of The Prospects of The Economic Blue Print. Research Journal of Public Policy, 1(1), pp. 1-10.
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Blessing Dhokotera, Cinderella Dube “An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Zimbabwean Government Maize Production Support Programmes in Ensuring Food Security” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.236-253 July 2019  URL:

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Utilization of Teaching/Learning Resources in Teaching Literacy Skills: A Case of Pre-Primary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

Dorice Wanyonyi Nasumbwa, Ong’ang’a HM Ouko – July 2019 Page No.: 254-258

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pre-school teachers’ utilization of teaching/learning resources to develop literacy skills among preschoolers in Bungoma County. The researcher used a cross-sectional survey approach. The study targeted a population of 290 schools from both private and public schools. Stratified sampling strategy was used to proportionally select a total of 29 ECD centres, a representation of 10% of the targeted schools. Two (2) teachers were picked from each of the fourteen schools selected to participate in the study leading to a total of 58 ECDE teachers. Purposive sampling procedure was used in the study to select all the 14 head teachers from the selected schools. Questionnaires comprising of both open-ended and closed ended inquiries and semi structured interview schedules were used to collect primary data. Qualitative and quantitative data analyses were used throughout the survey. Information was collected through open-ended questions in the questionnaires. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version was used for data organization. Findings revealed that teaching and learning materials were not sufficient in most primary schools under study. The study concluded that majority of schools did not have resources for teaching and learning literacy skills. However, among the schools which were reported to have such teaching/learning resources did not have sufficient resources for teaching and learning. The overall mean of below 3.0 (mean<3.0) implied that teaching and learning resources were not adequately utilized by teaching in instruction of languages in primary schools under study. The study recommended that the school administration need to push the language department should form departmental guidance and counselling committee composed of HoD language and two teachers. It is recommended that that all stakeholders should be involved in implementation of ECD programmes. These include government, local councils, traditional leaders, political leaders, private sector as well as parents.

Page(s): 254-258                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2019

 Dorice Wanyonyi Nasumbwa
Kenyatta University, P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

 Ong’ang’a HM Ouko
Kenyatta University, P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

[1]. Amollo, P.O. (2005). “The impact of instructional methods of learners’ achievement in Business Studies in Kenya’s Secondary Schools.” UoN: unpublished.
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[3]. Clark, C. & Douglas, J. (2011). Young people’s reading and writing: An in-depth study focusing on enjoyment, behaviour, attitudes and attainment. National Literacy Trust. http://www.literacy
[4]. Gichuba, C., Opatsa, R., & Nguchu, R. (2009). General methods of teaching young children and material development. Nairobi: Longhorn.
[5]. Githuthwa, H.W.(2011). “An investigation into the problems faced in the development of early childhood education in Kenya: A case of Lari, Bungoma County.” Unpublished M.Ed.thesis. Kenyatta University.
[6]. Howes C, & Ritchie S. (2002). A Matter of Trust: Connecting Teachers and Learners in the Early Childhood Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press.
[7]. Kweyu, J.S.(2012). School determinants of Curriculum implementation in Public Early childhood development and education centres in Mumias District. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[8]. Mbiti, D.M. (2007). Foundations of School Administration. East Africa Ltd: Kenya.
[9]. Narayan, S. (2000). Audio Visual Aids for Pre-School and Primary School Children. Paris: UNESCO Press.
[10]. Ng’asike, J. T. (2012). Training of Science Teachers for Early Childhood and Primary Grades in Kenya. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 9 (1), 36-49.
[11]. Ngware, M & Abuya, B. (2010). Classroom Observation Study: A Report on the Quality and Learning in Primary Schools in Kenya. Nairobi: African Population and Health Research Center.
[12]. Okudo, A.R & Omotuyole, C.(2013). Utilization of Locally Made Resources in Early Childhood Education to Promote Effective Learning and Communicative Competence.
[13]. Read on Get on (2014). A mission to ensure ALL children in Scotland are reading well by 11: Helping children escape poverty. Save the Children Fund.
[14]. Strategic Marketing and Research (2013). Factors affecting reading ability in school age children. _Reading_Ability_White_Paper.pdf
[15]. Uwezo Kenya. (2011). Are Our Children Learning? Annual Learning Assessment Report. Nairobi, Uwezo.
[16]. VanderVen, K.(2008). Promoting Positive Development in Early Childhood: An Ecological Framework. New York: Springer.
[17]. Wairimu, E.M. (2014). A Survey of Approaches Used In Teaching of Reading in Early Childhood Grades in Dagoretti and Westlands Divisions, Nairobi County, Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Kenyatta University.

Dorice Wanyonyi Nasumbwa, Ong’ang’a HM Ouko “Utilization of Teaching/Learning Resources in Teaching Literacy Skills: A Case of Pre-Primary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.254-258 July 2019  URL:

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Ecological Studies of Phytoplankton Distribution and Abundance in River Shasha, Southwestern Nigeria

Adesakin, T.A., Adedeji, A. A. Oyewale, A.T., Oni, T.M., Oyebamiji, S.P. and Olowogboyega, V.T. – July 2019 Page No.: 259-269

This study was undertaken to investigate the phytoplankton species composition, distribution, abundance and diversity in River Shasha, Ife North, Southwest Nigeria. The river was studies between February 2006 and February 2008 with the aim to captured 10 months duration. A total number of 121 species belonging to 13 taxonomic groups were recorded during the study and bacillariophyta was represented by 53 species and contributing 43.80% of the total phytoplankton groups recorded. Followed by chlorophyta with 29 species consisting 23.97%, charophyta and cyanophyta (8 species) both consisting 6.61%, euglenophyta (6 species) consisting 4.96%, ochrophyta (5 species) consisting 4.13%, chrysophyta and cryptophyta (3 species) both contributing 2.48%, dinophyta (2 species) consisting 1.65% while coelochaetophyta, haptophyte, rhodophyta and xanthophyta were represented by 1 species each and contributing 0.83%. High phytoplankton abundance and diversity observed in this study could be due to the level of pollution nature through the anthropogenic activities (containing high nutrients) that caused algal bloom. However, the Saprobic coefficient is 1.5 fall within 1.0-1.5 indicating a phase value saprobic water is located in the β-phase that means the water is mesosaprobic still contaminated organic materials in the lightweight polluted. The results are significant for the adequate management, monitoring and to conserved biodiversity of River Shasha.

Page(s): 259-269                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 July 2019

 Adesakin, T.A.
Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

 Adedeji, A. A.
Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

 Oyewale, A.T.
Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

 Oni, T.M.
Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

 Oyebamiji, S.P.
Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

 Olowogboyega, V.T.
Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

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Adesakin, T.A., Adedeji, A. A. Oyewale, A.T., Oni, T.M., Oyebamiji, S.P. and Olowogboyega, V.T. “Ecological Studies of Phytoplankton Distribution and Abundance in River Shasha, Southwestern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.259-269 July 2019  URL:

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Impact Assessment of Marketing Activities on Faith Based Organization

Musari, Akeem A., Idowu-Agida, Oladayo O. – July 2019 Page No.: 270-275

This project work examined the effect of marketing activities on faith based organization in Nigeria using the Redeemed Christian Church of God case study. Prior to the research, textbooks and articles from journals written from scholars in the field of business management, entrepreneurship and general management were explored and reviewed. This research was a survey research and it made use of both primary and secondary sources lo f both a gather the needed data for the study. Questionnaire was used to gather data from the employees of The Redeemed Christian Church of God. The data retrieved were analyzed on different tables using simple percentage. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The hypothesis raised was tested with Chi-square method and the result to the findings at the calculated value is greater than the Chi-square tabulated. The null Ho is rejected and the positive Hi is accepted. Therefore there are significant relationships between the marketing activities and the faith based organization in Nigeria. It is believed that this work will be of benefit to marketers, researchers, sales administrative and students. In conclusion, it was found out that there is significant relationship between marketing activities and faith based organization. Recommendations were made to faith based organization on marketing activities of their organization.

Page(s): 270-275                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 July 2019

  Musari, Akeem A.
Department of Marketing, Gateway Polytechnic Saapade, P.M.B 2004 Ode Remo, Nigeria

  Idowu-Agida, Oladayo O.
National Horticultural Research Institute P.M.B.5432 Dugbe, Ibadan, Nigeria

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Musari, Akeem A., Idowu-Agida, Oladayo O. “Impact Assessment of Marketing Activities on Faith Based Organization” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.270-275 July 2019  URL:

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Variations in Factors Responsible for Pre-operative Anxiety among Black and White Surgical Patients: Considerations for Diversity Interventions

Sabo Saleh Dagona (PhD), Uduak Archibong – July 2019 Page No.: 276-284

Introduction: Surgery is stressful and anxiety provoking. Different factors have been reported as causing anxiety prior to surgery. Studies have found that, fears of anaesthesia, death; surgical errors and concerns about the outcome of the surgery are responsible for preoperative anxiety. These factors were reported in studies conducted with white surgical patients. There is paucity of information about factors causing preoperative anxiety among black surgical patients.
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the differences in the factors responsible for preoperative anxiety among black and white surgical patients and to describe the difference(s) if any with a view to recommending culture competent preoperative anxiety reduction interventions.
Participants: A convenience sampling approach was used to recruit a sample of thirty patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery at federal medical centre Nguru, Yobe state, Nigeria.
Data Collection: Interview method was used to collect data on factors responsible for preoperative anxiety among black surgical patients in Nigeria.
Data Analysis: Inductive content analysis was used to analyse interview data collected from black patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery in Nigeria.
Findings: This study found that in white surgical patients, anxiety is precipitated by fear of medication errors, concerns about the success of the surgery, hospital acquired infections and lack of control of the situation. Conversely, the manner in which black patients receive information about the need to have surgery, the information received from other sources, catastrophic negative thinking about surgery and the layout of the hospital ward are responsible for preoperative anxiety.
Conclusion: Cultural differences underpin factors responsible for preoperative anxiety among black and white surgical patients. This speaks to the need for cultural competence in clinicians dealing with preoperative anxiety in black surgical patients.

Page(s): 276-284                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 July 2019

 Sabo Saleh Dagona (PhD)
Department of Sociology, Yobe State University, PMB 1144, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Uduak Archibong
Department of Sociology, Yobe State University, PMB 1144, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria

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Sabo Saleh Dagona (PhD), Uduak Archibong “Variations in Factors Responsible for Pre-operative Anxiety among Black and White Surgical Patients: Considerations for Diversity Interventions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.276-284 July 2019  URL:

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Business Ethics and the Nigerian Oil Industry: A Study of the Niger Delta

Enuoh, Rebecca Oliver – July 2019 Page No.: 285-292

The oil industry in Nigeria is considered the fastest growing industry due to the dependent of the economy on oil and gas resources. Several ethical considerations have been neglected either due to lack of effective monitoring by the appropriate authorities or the absence of such regulations. There are several practices that are observed in Nigeria which are viewed to be at variance with what is applicable in other parts of the world where such companies equally operate. This paper critically examines the oil extractive activities of the multinational oil companies operating in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria and the environmental hazards caused by such activities. In relation to business ethics, the issues of gas flaring and oil spillage are considered to be deliberate and unethical activities. This is a theoretical paper based on review of related literature. The paper suggests that the federal government of Nigeria has a major role to play in ensuring that wrong practices by oil multinational corporations (MNCs) are stopped for the benefit of the citizens. It concludes that business ethics should be taken seriously in order for the MNCs to secure the licence to operate in the host communities and peaceful coexistence of both parties.

Page(s): 285-292                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2019

 Enuoh, Rebecca Oliver
Department of Business Management, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

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Enuoh, Rebecca Oliver “Business Ethics and the Nigerian Oil Industry: A Study of the Niger Delta” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.285-292 July 2019  URL:

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The Effects of Antipsychotic Medication in Pregnancy and Outcomes for Mothers and their Babies. A Review

Sabo Saleh Dagona (PhD) – July 2019 Page No.: 293-300

Objectives: To review studies examining whether the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy would have effects on the outcomes of the pregnancy for the mothers and their babies.
Method: Results of four journal articles published between 2008 and 2018 that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from Medline and PubMed databases were summarised and analysed.
Results: Mentally ill pregnant women on antipsychotic medications and their babies are at higher risk of obstetric and gynaecological outcomes such as gestational diabetes, hypertension, premature delivery, babies small for gestational age and low birth weight. Other problems include congenital anomalies like arterial defects, cleft lip/palate and hydrocephalus and abnormal renal collecting tubule.
Conclusion: Further research is needed to gain knowledge of the relative risk of antipsychotics on pregnant mother and their babies so that clinicians would provide mentally ill pregnant patients with adequate information on the effects of these drugs on their body systems and their developing babies. Adequate knowledge of the effects of antipsychotics will limit clinicians to administer such medications only to those patients more at risk of relapse if not administered such drugs than the current practice of administering them to those with mild or moderate mental illness.

Page(s): 293-300                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2019

 Sabo Saleh Dagona (PhD)
Department of Sociology, Yobe State University, PMB 1144, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria

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Sabo Saleh Dagona (PhD) “The Effects of Antipsychotic Medication in Pregnancy and Outcomes for Mothers and their Babies. A Review ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.293-300 July 2019  URL:

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Effect of Teachers’ Competencies in the Teaching and Learning English Language in Senior Secondary Schools in Sokoto South Local Government, Sokoto State, Nigeria

Usman Mohammed, Abubakar Sadiq Lawal, Buhari Marafa, Aminu Hussaini – July 2019 Page No.: 301-307

The study investigated the effect of teachers’ competencies in teaching and learning of English languagein selected secondary schools in Sokoto south local government, Sokoto state Nigeria. The study covered ten schools in Sokoto south local government. A cross-sectionalsurvey was used in order together information from various respondents from the ten secondary schools in Sokoto south local government, Sokoto state, Nigeria. The population of study comprised of the Principals, Vice Principals, HOD, English language Teachers, and Student leaders. The study was conducted using a Cross-Sectional Survey because the researcher intended to collect data from various persons in 17 schools in Sokoto south local government. The Quantitative and Qualitative research approaches was triangulated. A sample size of use 90 in the study.They comprised of 5 HODs, 20 English language teachers, and fivestudents leadersand 270 students from the selected secondary schools in Sokoto south local government. Purposive sampling and simple random sampling techniques was used for selecting the respondent’s.The findings shows that the English language teachers in secondary schools in Sokoto south local government did not use teaching method while teaching, schools do not have the required instructional materials in most of the secondary schools in Sokoto south local government, Classroom management was not effectively managed by the teachers because their discipline made the teaching process difficult. The research recommended that government and schools administrators should provide various teaching aids to schools to improve teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Sokoto south local government. The challenges faced are high numbers of students, inadequate teaching materials, unqualified teachers, lack of teaching method to English language teachers and improper class room management in some selected schools in Sokoto south local government. Finally, the interventions identified are the need for the government and schools administrators to provide teaching aids to the secondary schools in Sokoto south local government. The conclusions arrived at the government that is the Federal education, and State ministry of education should provide teaching aids like textbooks to improve the standard of teaching the English language in secondary schools in Sokoto south local government in Sokoto state Nigeria.

Page(s): 301-307                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2019

 Usman Mohammed
Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Abubakar Sadiq Lawal
Department of Business Education, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Buhari Marafa
Department of Social Studies, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Aminu Hussaini
Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria

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Usman Mohammed, Abubakar Sadiq Lawal, Buhari Marafa, Aminu Hussaini “Effect of Teachers’ Competencies in the Teaching and Learning English Language in Senior Secondary Schools in Sokoto South Local Government, Sokoto State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.301-307 July 2019  URL:

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Gender Identity Construction, Community Environmental Education and Ecofeminism: Untapped Interconnections

Dr Manuku Mukoni – July 2019 Page No.: 308-317

Research literature on gender identity construction is replete with theories that have been proffered to study gender identities; however, there is a paucity of studies that focus on construction of gender identities in community environmental education as well as those that uses ecofeminism as a theoretical framework, despite its power to elicit the subjective enactment of gender identity. A conspicuous gap in literature this paper contributes to. This paper therefore advances the body of theory around the construction of gender identities, by announcing a point of departure with other identity theories pinning down on Karren Warren’s ecofeminist theory as a suitable theoretical framework for understanding the construction of gender identity.Borrowing examples from a study conducted in Zimbabwe between 2013 and 2016, the paper illustrates how this theory can be used to understand the construction of gender identities among women participants in community environmental education.

Page(s): 308-317                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2019

 Dr Manuku Mukoni
Midlands State University Gender Institute, Gweru, Zimbabwe

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Dr Manuku Mukoni “Gender Identity Construction, Community Environmental Education and Ecofeminism: Untapped Interconnections” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.308-317 July 2019  URL:

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Commercial Motorbikes and Intra-Urban Transport in Mbouda Town -West Region of Cameroon

Sop Sop Maturin Desiré, Abossolo Samuel Aimé, Mofo Tiogoung Jonathan – July 2019 Page No.: 318-329

In Cameroon, before the civil unrest of the early 1990s that retarded economic activities and development in the whole country, urban transport was an absolute monopoly of township taxis. During the unrest, circulation of vehicles was prohibited by protesters and only bikes were permitted to circulate in towns. That was probably the unnoticed spark that developed into a new urban transport system. In Mbouda town, after the unrest, taxis resurfaced and functioned together with the motorbikes. As time went on, the competition became stiff and by the year 2000, taxis were very scarce in Mbouda. In 2010, the taxis had completely disappeared from the urban transport sector in Mbouda and gave way to commercial motobikes. This study, therefore calls for the need to understand the stages of the evolution of the transport system in Mbouda. Equally, there is the need to understand the socio-economic impacts of the activity in the area. Primary and secondary data were used in the study and it was found out that the intra-urban transport sector in Mbouda slumbers in informality. The commercial motorbike riders function like outlaw citizens. The town thus needs a complete re-organisation of the sector, as well as the proper implementation of the laws and texts governing the activity.

Page(s): 318-329                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2019

 Sop Sop Maturin Desiré
University of Bamenda

 Abossolo Samuel Aimé
University of Yaoundé I

 Mofo Tiogoung Jonathan
University of Bamenda

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Sop Sop Maturin Desiré, Abossolo Samuel Aimé, Mofo Tiogoung Jonathan “Commercial Motorbikes and Intra-Urban Transport in Mbouda Town -West Region of Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.318-329 July 2019  URL:

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Girl Child Attitude towards the Study of Science and Technical Education in Bauchi Local Government of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Jamila T. S., Yunusa Abubakar – July 2019 Page No.: 330-334

Science and technical education is a discipline of concern for decades and has gained a lot of misconceptions and attitudes across gender which leads to gender disparity and low participation of women in science and technology. The objective of this study was to explore the attitude of Girl Child towards the study of Science and Technical Education in Bauchi Local Government, Bauchi State, Nigeria. Attitude Assessment Questionnaire (AAQ) was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey among Girl Child in senior secondary schools. The questionnaire comprised of 23 items with modified four-point Likert scale and response mode of Very High Extent (VHE), High Extent (HE), Low Extent (LE) and Very Low Extent (VLE) respectively. The results show that home and school have positive influence on the attitude of girl child while societal and personal factors were of adverse effects on their attitude. It is concluded that girl child attitude towards science and technical education is a multi-factorial parameter and it changes in relation to the extent of the factors.

Page(s): 330-334                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2019

 Jamila T. S.
Department of Biology, Gombe State University of Science and Technology, Kumo, Nigeria

 Yunusa Abubakar
Department of Education, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Nigeria

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Jamila T. S., Yunusa Abubakar “Girl Child Attitude towards the Study of Science and Technical Education in Bauchi Local Government of Bauchi State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.330-334 July 2019  URL:

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Provisions of Maintenance of Wife under Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956 And It’s Application by the Courts

Dr. Shwetta Bajaj – July 2019 Page No.: 335-339

The concept of maintenance of the wife is based on the matrimonial tie and obligates the husband to maintain his wife during his life time. This moral and social obligation of the husband has its roots in the Classical Hindu Law and later the same has been incorporated as a legal liability in various statutes. Despite the provision of maintenance of wife in the Cr. P. C and Hindu Marriage Act 1955, the provision for maintenance of wife had been incorporated in Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956, shows that through Section 18 of the Act , the specific provision was made for maintenance of wife taking note of our social values and that a non-earning wife without any means is considered to be dependent on the husband and the question of her maintenance consequential to the dependence cannot be left at the sweet will of the husband. The paper deals with analysis of the provision in depth, the judicial trend while applying the law and the lacuna persisting in the law highlighting the desirable amendment too.

Page(s): 335-339                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2019

 Dr. Shwetta Bajaj
Institute of Law and Research Faridabad, Haryana, India

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Dr. Shwetta Bajaj “Provisions of Maintenance of Wife under Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956 And It’s Application by the Courts” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.335-339 July 2019  URL:

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Conceptualization of Perceived Experience in a Hiker’s Trail Consumption Context

Abeykoon.A.M.S.J.P – July 2019 Page No.: 340-348

This research focuses on the Conceptualization of Perceived Experience in a Hiker’s Trail Consumption Context. visitor experiences are essential if recreationatravel managers are to facilitate beneficial results for both individuals and society. Most of the research done in Sri Lanka is based on customer value and their respective influenceaon satisfaction in the particularly under-researchedaarea of adventure tourism with reference to the Sri Lankan domestic context. However, the psychological effects of hikers on hiking have not been studied. Therefore, there is a lack in the knowledge domain in terms of conceptualization and construct development for further imperial studies in the field. The field of recreation travel management has not developed empirical tools to measure the “perceived experience” with a particular concern in the Sri Lankan context. Therefore, this research fills the gap in terms of measurement Perceived Experience in a Hiker’s Trail Consumption Context. The qualitative approach has been taken with thematic analysis method to answer the research question which along with the main objective. The content of each carefully selected 20 journal articles were coded based on the themes to identify the latent idea of the phenomenon. It has been used content and constructs validity method to confirm the item related to the factors. It was 13 items which were above the value of content validity of individual items (I-CVI) than 0.8 out of 10 items originally developed. Only 10 items were agreed by raters which were at a level of 1 in terms of I-CVI. Any researchers who have an interest in the field of outdoor recreation, they can use the conceptualized model which has 12 factors to measure the “Perceived Experience” in a Hiker’s Trail Consumption Context with empirical validation.

Page(s): 340-348                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2019

Assistant Lecturer, Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Srilanka

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[8]. Flink, H., Tegelberg, Å., Arnetz, J., & Birkhed, D. (2013). Correlation between perceived experience of caries disease and recorded caries activity among adult patients at a Swedish Public Dental Clinic: A longitudinal study. Acta OdontologicaScandinavica, 71(6), 1486–1492.
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[16]. Marx, K. (2019). “He’s so Fluffy I’m Gonna Die!” Cute Responses by Hikers to Autonomous Animals on the Appalachian Trail. Anthrozoos, 32(1), 89–101.
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Abeykoon.A.M.S.J.P “Conceptualization of Perceived Experience in a Hiker’s Trail Consumption Context” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.340-348 July 2019  URL:

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Agricultural Extension Staff Perceptions Concerning Training Needs in Helping the Potato Producers in The Mwaghavul Cheifdom, Plateau State, Nigeria

Samuel D. Mutfwang – July 2019 Page No.: 349-354

A total of 70 questionnaires were developed and used for the collection of data from 70 selected farmers from the seven districts of the Mwaghavul land. Seven other questionnaires were specifically developed and used for the Agricultural Extension staff serving in the same area. The Agricultural Extension staff are the government workers sent to work with farmers to improve methods, techniques, and production capacities. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency distributions, percentages, rank order, and calculated arithmetic means). All farmers showed they had problems requiring the Extension staff to help. It was, therefore, concluded that the farmers feel it is important to have help from the Extension staff. It was observed that farmers considered future training even more important than present. Also, since the Extension staff considered storage facilities as the most important area for the present training, and keeping of seedlings as most important for the future training. It was concluded that at present, more training is required for storage facilities while in the future, training is needed for keeping of seedlings. It was revealed that both the Irish potato producers and the Agricultural Extension staff chose use of credit source, fertilizer application and storage facilities as very important areas for present training needs. The study showed that farmers from the selected districts put into practice recommendations made by the Agricultural Extension agents with Mangu farmers taking the lead. The study showed that farmers of Ampang West also received the most frequent visits by the Agricultural Extension staff. As for attendance at educational meetings, the study revealed that farmers at Ampang West attended the most meetings. Since all farmers indicated that they contacted the Extension staff when faced with problems, and most of them pointed out that the Extension staff response was unfriendly.

Page(s): 349-354                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2019

 Samuel D. Mutfwang
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria.

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[13]. Ojo, E. A. (2012). Factors Motivating Young Oklahomans to Choose Farming as a Career, With Implications for the Choice of Farming (especially by young school leavers) as a Career in Nigeria.” (Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Oklahoma State University.
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Samuel D. Mutfwang “Agricultural Extension Staff Perceptions Concerning Training Needs in Helping the Potato Producers in The Mwaghavul Cheifdom, Plateau State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.349-354 July 2019  URL:

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Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Secondary School Students’ Social Adjustment in Anambra State

Ada Anyamene, Esther Chinyere Ejichukwu, Ifeanyi Mathew Azuji – July 2019 Page No.: 355-359

Within the school settings, students are constantly faced with numerous challenges which have been recognized as having some bearing on the way students adjust in schools socially. This study in essence investigated self-efficacy as predictor of secondary school students’ social adjustment in Anambra state. Three research questions guided the study while one null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Correlational research design was used for this study. The population of the study comprise 40,161 SS1 and SS2 students’ from which a sample of 2,400 students was selected using simple random sampling and disproportionate stratified random sampling techniques. Two sets of instruments, namely General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Social Adjustment Scale (SAS) were used for the study. The instruments are standardized questionnaires which have been previously validated by experts and used in conducting studies in Nigeria. The reliability of the instruments are as follows: The coefficient alpha is 0.87 for General Self-efficacy while the reliability coefficient for Social Adjustment Questionnaire (SAQ) is 0.93. Data collected were analyzed using range of aggregate scores and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that self-efficacy significantly predicted the social adjustment of the secondary school students. It was recommended among others that school guidance counsellors should be equipped with necessary tools both material and intellectual to enable them render useful counselling services that would go a long way in helping to build the self-efficacy of students to make up in areas where they need help to adjust socially.

Page(s): 355-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2019

 Ada Anyamene
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Esther Chinyere Ejichukwu
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Ifeanyi Mathew Azuji
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa, Anambra State, Nigeria

[1]. Abel, O. O., &Moyosola, J. A. (2013).Academic self-efficacy, locus of control and academic performance of secondary school students in Ondo State, Nigeria.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 11(4), 570.Doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n11p570
[2]. Adeoye, H. &Emeke, E. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy as determinant of academic achievement in English language among students in Oyo state senior secondary schools. Ife Psychologia, 18(1), 252-269.
[3]. Akpama, E.G. (2013).The influence of mothering style on the social adjustment of female adolescents in the Central Education Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(17), 30-35. Retrieved from
[4]. Azuji, I.M. (2015).Social adjustment of secondary school students in Enugu State. A paper presented Annual International Conference of Counselling Association of Nigeria held on the 17th – 21st August, 2015 at FCT Education Resource Centre, Wuse Zone 7, Abuja.
[5]. Baanu, T.F., Oyelekan, O.S., &Olorundare, A.S. (2016).Self-efficacy and chemistry students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools in North-Central, Nigeria. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Science, 4(1), 43-52.
[6]. Bhagat, P., &Baliya, J.N. (2016). Self-efficacy and adjustment of secondary school students in relation to their gender and academic Achievement.International Journal of Allied Practice, Research and Review, 8(3), 9-17.
[7]. Bita, S. &Parisa, K. (2016). Role of self-efficacy and perfectionism in predict of social adjustment. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR), 2(7), 1313-1319. Retrieved from
[8]. Burgoon, J. M., Meece, J. L., & Granger, N. A. (2012).Self-efficacy’s influence on student academic achievement in the medical anatomy curriculum.Anatomical Sciences Education, 5, 249–255. doi:10.1002/ase.1283
[9]. Farmer, T. W., Irvin, M. J., Thompson, J. H., Hutchins, B. C., & Leung, M. C. (2006).School adjustment and the academic success of rural African American early adolescents in the Deep South.Journal of Research in Rural Education, 21(3), 1–14.
[10]. Habibah, E., Nooreen, N. &Rahil, H.M. (2010).Achievement Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Relation to Adjustment among University Students. Journal of Social Sciences 6 (3), 333-339.
[11]. Igbo, J.N., Nwaka, R.N., Mbagwu, F., &Mezieobi, D. (2016). Emotional intelligence as a correlate of social and academic adjustment of first year university students in South East geo–political zone of Nigeria. ABC Journal of Advanced Research, 5(1),9-20.
[12]. Kaljahi, N.E. (2016). The effects of academic adjustment, social adjustment and personal-emotional adjustment of students on their academic performance in universities of Northern Cyprus (Master Thesis, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Eastern Mediterranean University).
[13]. Nirmala, D. (2011). A study of adjustment of students in relation to personality and achievement motivation.Bhartiyam International Journal of Education & Research, 1(1), 1-21.
[14]. Olugbode, A. (2014). Effect of social problems on the academic performance and social adjustment of senior secondary students in Shomolu Education District II of Lagos State.(Masters’ Thesis).Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
[15]. Rienties B., Grohnert T., Kommers P., Niemantsverdriet S., &Nijhuis J. (2011) academic and social integration of international and local students at five business schools, a cross-institutional comparison. In: Van den Bossche P., Gijselaers W., Milter R. (eds) Building Learning Experiences in a Changing World. Advances in Business Education and Training,3, 121-137. DOI
[16]. Wentzel, K.R. (2013). School adjustment. In W. Reynolds & G. Miller (Eds.), Educational Psychology, volume 7 of the Handbook of Psychology, pp 213-231. Editors in Chief L.B. Weiser, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Ada Anyamene, Esther Chinyere Ejichukwu, Ifeanyi Mathew Azuji “Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Secondary School Students’ Social Adjustment in Anambra State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.355-359 July 2019  URL:

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Elections and Electoral Malpractice: Effects on Nigeria’s Democratic Stability

Ukachikara, Ucheoma O., Elechi, Chizoba A. – July 2019 Page No.: 360-367

There is an increasing number of sovereign states in the world today claiming to be democratic which gives credence to the claim that democracy is probably the most desirable form of government, as it grants individuals the right to take part in the government of their country directly or through freely chosen representatives. This paper examines the irregularities of elections in Nigeria and its devastating effects on democratic stability in Nigeria. In conducting this investigation, the system theory approach was adopted as the theoretical framework, relying on qualitative approach, using mainly secondary data that were analysed by the use of content and historical analysis. Electoral malpractice has dealt an enormous blow on Nigerian’s nascent democracy which has inevitably denied the country of a credible free and fair election in her polity. Electoral irregularities have not just marred democratic stability in Nigeria but have also brought about the violation of fundamental human rights (right to life) of so many Nigerians. The benchmark reviewed in this paper is electoral malpractices since independence. Findings in the study revealed that electoral malpractice in Nigeria have resulted in the imposition of illegitimate and corrupt leaders, with absolute zero regard to the principles of democracy which negate good governance, fundamental human rights, rule of law and constitutionalism. This paper makes recommendations that would serve as panacea to the problems of electoral malpractice and these procedures can help compel a democratic environment which is a prerequisite for free and fair elections.

Page(s): 360-367                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2019

 Ukachikara, Ucheoma O.
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Elechi, Chizoba A.
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[5]. Ake, Claude (2000).The Feasibility of Democracy in Africa, Dakar: CODESRIA
[6]. Akinola O. (2004).Federalist Deliberative Democratic in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects: In Democratic Deliberation in Deeply Divided Societies. Palgrave Macmillan, London.
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[9]. Brennan G. (2013).Democracy and Decision: The Pure Theory of Electoral Preference. Cambridge University Press.
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Ukachikara, Ucheoma O., Elechi, Chizoba A. “Elections and Electoral Malpractice: Effects on Nigeria’s Democratic Stability” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.360-367 July 2019  URL:

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Influence of School Plant Maintenance on the Administration of Colleges of Education in the North Central Nigeria

HEMEN Luper Ephraim, Agbe J.I, Odeh R.C, Olukunle O.O – July 2019 Page No.: 368-374

The study investigated Influence of School Plant Maintenance on the Administration of Colleges of Education in the North Central Nigeria. Six research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The study employed survey design. The sample for the study was 309 administrative, academic and non-academic staff in thirteen Colleges of Education in North Central Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to the select sample. A self-structured questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.88 was used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using Descriptive statistics of Mean score and standard deviation to answer the six research questions while inferential statistic of ANOVA was used to test the six null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the studyrevealed that preventive, routine, emergency, structural, predictive andcorrective maintenance strategies have influence onadministration of Colleges of Education in North Central Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that school administrators should employ the various maintenance strategies for effective school administration, so as to achieve educational goals.

Page(s): 368-374                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2019

 HEMEN Luper Ephraim
M.Ed Management, BSU Makurdi, Nigeria

 Agbe J.I
BSU Makurdi, Nigeria

 Odeh R.C
BSU Makurdi, Nigeria

 Olukunle O.O
BSU Makurdi, Nigeria

[1]. Asiyai, R.I. (2012). Assessing school facilities in public secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. African Research Review, 6(2), 192-205
[2]. Alimi, O.S, Ehinola, G.B &Alabi, F.O. (2012). “School types and academic performance of students in Ondo State, Nigeria”. School Administration and Management,,2012, pp19-41.
[3]. Carter, S.P. & Carter, S.L. (2001). Planning for Safer Schools. USA: Primedia Business Magazines and Media.
[4]. Enya, O. (2008). Improving the aesthetics of the school through maintenance of School Plant. A paper presented at the conference of Head Teachers of Primary Schools in Nigeria. Journal of Empirical Studies in Psychology and Education. 1(2), 60-64.
[5]. Ekundayo, H.T. (2010). Principal’s leadership behaviour as a determinant of effectiveness of secondary schools in Nigeria. European Journal of Education Studies, 2(1): 25-30.
[6]. Ihuoma, P.A. (2008). The need for Effective Facility Management in Schools in Nigeria. New York Science Journal
[7]. Isaac, A.A. &Musibau, A. (2010). School plants planning and student learning outcome in South-West Nigeria Secondary Schools. Ado EkitiKamla Raj.
[8]. National Commission for Colleges of Education (2002). Minimum standard for Nigeria certificate in education, 3rd Edition. Abuja: NCCE Press.
[9]. Nwokike, S.C. (2012). Management of school plant by principals in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. Unpublished M.Ed thesis University of Nigeria Nsukka.
[10]. Odeh, R.C. (2014). The fundamentals of Educational Management and Planning in Nigeria. Makurdi, Impact communications.
[11]. Ogie, L. I. (2015). Influence of Principals’ Management Styles on Secondary SchoolFacilities in Rivers State Nigeria. The International Journal Of humanities& SocialStudies, 3(11), 26 – 30.
[12]. Okeke, B.S. (2014). Introduction to educational administration. Owerri: Klet-Ken Publishers Ltd.
[13]. Okereke, C. (2008).Quality assurance in teacher selection among private secondary schools in Owerri municipal, Imo State for effective implementation of the UBE. Journal of Curriculum Organization for Nigeria., 37–44.

HEMEN Luper Ephraim, Agbe J.I, Odeh R.C, Olukunle O.O “Influence of School Plant Maintenance on the Administration of Colleges of Education in the North Central Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.368-374 July 2019  URL:

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Counselling Implication of Women Reproductive Health Needs in Minna, Niger State Nigeria

Halima Sadiya Abubakar (Ph.D) – July 2019 Page No.: 375-380

This study focuses on women reproductive health needs in Minna, Niger state with implications for counselling. This paper conceptualizes women reproductive health needs and counselling. It discusses Reproductive health needs, such as family planning, sexually transmitted diseases, and infertility. It also look into challenges of women reproductive health needs, like resources, burden of disease, impact on reproductive system and human right dimension. The paper listed some remedies to women reproductive health needs such as: women should be given access to appropriate safe, effective, affordable, accepted methods of family planning and satisfying safe sexual life as well as eliminating violence against women. Counselling implications include: provision of counselling services at public hospitals in Niger state. Such services should address issues such as negotiation with husbands in terms of improving health related behaviours of women reproductive health needs.

Page(s): 375-380                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2019

 Halima Sadiya Abubakar (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Adegbenga, M.S., Morenike, D., Sunday, B.& Adebayo, D.(2002). Women’s health and action research centre.Journal of Reproductive Health, 6(3), 5-8.
[2]. Murray, C.& Lopez, A. (1996). The health dimensions of sex and reproduction: the globalburden of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV, maternal conditions, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health.

[3]. Niger State Ministry of Health (2013) Assessment report of the women’s reproductive healthneeds in Niger state, Nigeria. Niger: Government press ltd
[4]. United Nations (2012). International conference on population and development. Draft Programme of the Conference in Nigeria, 5-13 September, 2012.
[5]. United Nations (2013). World fertility report 2013. New York: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. Retrieved, August 12th 2016.
[6]. World Bank Report (1993). Investing in HealthWorld Development Report. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
[7]. World Bank Report (2013). World development report investing in health. New York: Oxford University Press.
[8]. World Health Organization (2012). Reproductive health strategy. WHO, Geneva.
[9]. World Health Organization (1978). Primary Health Care. Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978. WorldHealth Organization. “Health for All” Series, No. 1
[10]. World Health Organization (1987). Infections, pregnancies and infertility: Perspectives onprevention. Fertility and Sterility, 47:964-968.

Halima Sadiya Abubakar (Ph.D) “Counselling Implication of Women Reproductive Health Needs in Minna, Niger State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.375-380 July 2019  URL:

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Causes of Examination Failure among the Students of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: A Review

N.G. Hayatu and B.B. Abubakar – July 2019 Page No.: 381-384

Nowadays, the academic of performance of students in most Nigerian tertiary institution has become an object of inquiry. In view of the above statement, a literature review study was conducted to identify, highlight and summarize the major causes of examination failure among the students of tertiary institution in Nigeria. From the findings of the study, failure in examination could be attributed to two variables, which are internal and external factors. The internal factors are basically student-related, whereas the external factors are teacher-related, parent-related, school-related and government-related, but the bulk of blame was shifted to teachers and students even though some researches indicated contrary view. The paper highlighted critically the role and extent of each factor in causing examination failure. It also buttressed some of the flimsy excuses student should do away with as they indication of failing individual. Example of these excuses were, I cannot manage my time, I cannot work on my lecture notes except in the class, I don’t have a caring friend etc. However, it is therefore recommended that, each stakeholder should study their role in this regard and work on them in order to avert huge academic failure of students in our tertiary institutions.

Page(s): 381-384                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2019

 N.G. Hayatu
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 B.B. Abubakar
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Ajayi, I.A. and F.M. Osalusi (2013). Mass failure of students in WASSCE in Nigeria: the teachers’ perspective. Case Studies Journal, 2(4): 1-5.
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[5]. Okafor, F.C. (1990). The changing complex of educational values: a case for qualitative scientific culture. Journal of Education, 3(4): 14-17.
[6]. Omemu, F. (2015). Causes of examination malpractice in Nigeria schools. British Journal of Education, 3(7): 34-41.
[7]. Onder, E. (2016). Causes of school failure from teacher and students’ perspective. International Journal on New Trends in Education and their Implication, 7(2): 9-22.

N.G. Hayatu and B.B. Abubakar “Causes of Examination Failure among the Students of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: A Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.381-384 July 2019  URL:

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Educational Reforms in the Recent Past in the Light of Functional Development – The Education Ghana Requires for Take-Off

Daniel Amofa, Ibrahim Musah – July 2019 Page No.: 385-390

The development of every country largely thrives on the quality of her human resource capital. This requires a robust and sustained quality education accessible to all. Empirical and statistical evidence suggest countries that have most of their citizens attaining satisfactory levels of education have experienced an appreciable level of economic growth and low unemployment rates. This has spiralled the need for countries to continuously reform and structure their education system to meet the changing needs of their countries. Since independence, Ghana’s education system has gone through many reforms in the light of ensuring quality and equitable access to education. This among others is to ensure the country has a well-educated and trained human resource base to steer her development agenda. In spite of the many reforms the country’s educational system has witnessed, there is widespread criticism that calls for curriculum restructuring. Many have argued and stressed the need for Ghana to draw inspiration from global best practices. Therefore, this study examines best practices from some of the top-ranked countries with a quality education system globally. The Singaporean, Finnish and Republic of Korea educational systems were studied as they are among the top-ranked globally. One thing worthy of notice in these educational systems is their flexibility and how they have been aligned to their national development agenda. This has played a major role in their development transformation over the years. Therefore, as part of the calls for new educational reforms in Ghana, many have proposed a curriculum change that focuses on pragmatism deviating from the highly theoretical nature of the education system. This is believed to set the country on a path of development realism that gives the country a sense of focus in the development transformation envisaged for.

Page(s): 385-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2019

 Daniel Amofa
National Development Planning Commission, Cantonments-Accra, Ghana

 Ibrahim Musah
National Development Planning Commission, Cantonments-Accra, Ghana

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Daniel Amofa, Ibrahim Musah “Educational Reforms in the Recent Past in the Light of Functional Development – The Education Ghana Requires for Take-Off” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.385-390 July 2019  URL:

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Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Manufacturing Industries Bumiputera Entrepreneurs (MIBE) in East Coast Malaysia

M. S. Hamid, S. B. Mohamed, A. A. Abdullah – July 2019 Page No.: 391-396

The Manufacturing Industries in Malaysia were the fastest-growth industry over the past few years. In doing so, involvement of Bumiputera Entrepreneurs in this area was competitive. After the support gave from the government to the entrepreneur, the government still doesn’t have any apparatus for analyzing Manufacturing Industries Bumiputera Entrepreneur (MIBE) performance. The development of the MIBE performance index will give the government, agencies and other stakeholders a clear picture of the success achieved so far, the efficacy of strategies used, failures if any, areas that needed to be polished, so as to achieve optimum utilization of resources towards the entrepreneurship development. Similarly, the government will be able to use this performance index in order to have a stand on whether to continue with the support or make necessary adjustments. However, there are limited published studies on the evaluation of the sustainability performance of the MIBE sector. Thus, this paper aims to formulate a list of key performance index (KPI) for the MIBE. First, a literature study on the Bumiputera Entrepreneur development carried out. This study continued with study of KPI from various industries. Finally, a set of KPI which can be used for measuring performance index in MIBE was identified. These KPI was used to design a question which will be distributed to some agencies to strengthen the list of performance index .

Page(s): 391-396                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2019

 M. S. Hamid
Faculty of Inovative Design and Technology, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu,21300, Malaysia

 S. B. Mohamed
Faculty of Inovative Design and Technology, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu,21300, Malaysia

 A. A. Abdullah
Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu,21300, Malaysia

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M. S. Hamid, S. B. Mohamed, A. A. Abdullah “Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Manufacturing Industries Bumiputera Entrepreneurs (MIBE) in East Coast Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.391-396 July 2019  URL:

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A Feminist Interpretation and Reconstruction of John 7:53-8:11 in the Light Violence against Women and Its Implications Today

Ubong E. Eyo, Ph.D – July 2019 Page No.: 397-401

This paper investigates “A Feminist Interpretation and Reconstruction of John 7:53-8:11 in the light violence Against Women and its Implications Today.” This comes on the heels of the fact that violence against women is not only a fact of the contemporary times but was there in the days of Jesus Christ. The paper using two major theories of Feminist hermeneutics, especially the Hermeneutics of Recounting Tales of Terror in Memoriam and the Hermeneutic of Documenting Cases Against Women in the Bible and social feminism theories of Radical Feminism and Liberal Feminism. This work brought to the fore that in most interpretation of John 7:53-8:11, the emphasis has been on forgiveness of sin and the issue of ὁ ἀναμάρτητος (that is one without sin) without any note about the andriarchal system of which the ‘adulterous’ woman was a victim of. This paper which used the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) as its preferred translation because of its gender sensitivity arrived at the conclusion that, the whole episode was male orchestrated; the Scribes and Pharisees bringing the woman to be judged by Jesus without the man in the alleged “adultery” case tantamount to judging the female fold different from the male fold; and that, there was no actual committing of adultery by the woman who was brought to Jesus, but she was brought to Jesus because of the inferiority, weak and vulnerable place of women in Jesus’ andriarchal community. Hence, Jesus setting the woman free typified the role of religion as the vanguard in ending violence against women.

Page(s): 397-401                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 August 2019

 Ubong E. Eyo, Ph.D.
Department of Religious and Cultural Studies, University of Calabar, Nigeria

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Ubong E. Eyo, Ph.D “A Feminist Interpretation and Reconstruction of John 7:53-8:11 in the Light Violence against Women and Its Implications Today
” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.397-401 July 2019  URL:

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Impact of Instructional Strategies: A Research-Based Pedagogy for Teaching Physics in Secondary Schools in Ekiti Nigeria

Opeyemi Vincent Omole, Caroline Olufunke Komolafe – July 2019 Page No.: 402-407

This paper examined the various spiritual values of unhu reflected in Patrick Chakaipa and Charles Mungoshi’s novels Pfumo Reropa and Kunyarara Hakusi Kutaura? respectively. It mainly focused on the extent to which Shona literature, novels, in particular, can be used to promote in learners the religious beliefs and practices which have succumbed to acculturation. This qualitative study employed textual analysis by researchers and teachers and interviews with teachers. Afrocentricity and unhu conceptualisation informed the study. It was established that the two novels which fall into the old and new world respectively, contain important lessons with regard to cultural values that characterise the Shona religious life. Virtues established include respect for spirits and God, deep respect for religious beliefs and practices, participation in religious practices and application of moral lessons learnt from those practices. Findings indicated that not only novels on pre-colonial life experiences portray the traditional religious values but those set in the neo-colonial are also custodians of the community ideals. The study, therefore, concluded Shona novels can be used in the promotion of unhu spiritual values among Shona learners. It, however, recommends careful selection of novels into the syllabus so that the religious aspect of life is fully taken care of.

Page(s): 402-407                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 August 2019

 Opeyemi Vincent Omole
Department of Physics College of Education P.M.B 250, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Caroline Olufunke Komolafe
Department of Science Education Ekiti State University Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

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[25]. Adumola, O; (2011). The Impact of teachers teaching methods o the Academic Prformance of Primary School Pupils in Ijebu Igbo local Government area of Ogun State. Ego Booster books Publisher
[26]. Ganyaupa, EM.(2013). Teaching Methods and Students’ Academic Performance. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention. 2(9) 29-35
[27]. Oludipe, D.(2012) Gender Difference in Nigerian Junior Secondary Students’ Academic Achievement in Basic Science Journal of Educational and Social Research 2 (1) 94-99
[28]. Alokan, B. and Arijesuyo, E. (2013) Rural and Urban Differential in Student’s Academic Performance among Secondary School Students In Ondo State Journal of Educational and Social Research Rome-Italy 3(3) .212-217
[29]. Olasehinde, K and Olatoye, R A(2014) Comparison of Male and Female Senior Secondary School Students’ Learning Outcomes in Science in Katsina State, Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5 ( 2), 517-523
[30]. Abdu Raheem, B. O. (2012) The Influence of Gender on Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance in South-West, Nigeria. Journal of social sciences 31 (1) 93-98
[31]. Okwo, F. and Otunba, S. (2007). Influence of Gender and Cognitive Styles in Science Achievement in Physics Essay Test. . Journal of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria. 42 (172), 85-88.

Opeyemi Vincent Omole, Caroline Olufunke Komolafe “Impact of Instructional Strategies: A Research-Based Pedagogy for Teaching Physics in Secondary Schools in Ekiti Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.402-407 July 2019  URL:

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Psychological, Family and Environmental Factors Influencing Suicide among Secondary School Students: A Case of Schools in Gusii Land, Kenya

Callen Nyamwange – July 2019 Page No.: 408-412

Suicidal thoughts have many causes. Most often, suicidal thoughts are the result of feeling like you can’t cope when you’re faced with what seems to be an overwhelming life situation. If you don’t have hope for the future, you may mistakenly think suicide is a solution. Worryingly, suicide is the second leading cause of death in 15-29 year olds globally. Suicide has become a menace in Kenya with rates going high by the day. This study was carried out among the Gusii people of Kenya which targeted secondary school students. The purpose of this study is to establish if students of secondary school have social interactions, friends, peers, relationships and feel burdensome to parents by secondary school students as this are predictors of suicide. The study utilized a qualitative research design and data was collected by use of questionnaires and data was analyzed by use of simple percentages The study revealed that majority of the students 70% of the respondents said that they spend time with friends at home and at school and 21% do not enjoy spending time with family or even with friends whereas 9% remained neutral. On how they feel with their peers 40 (26%) feel comfortable majority 99 (66%) do not like the idea of being with peers. . The study gave recommendations based on the findings of what needs to be done to reduce the predictors of suicide.

Page(s): 408-412                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 August 2019

 Callen Nyamwange
Kisii University, Kenya

[1]. Bertolote J.M (2000) preventing suicide a resource for primary health care workers: Mental and Behavioral Disorders Department of Mental Health World Health Organization Geneva 2000
[2]. CDE (2015) Suicide Policy Brief: Preventing Suicide in Rural America, USA, CDC Stacks
[3]. Gregory.C. (2019) Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Understanding the risk factors, prevention, and what we can do to help, USA
[5]. Lynda Monk. L MSW, RSW Samra. J & RPsych (2018) Working With the Client Who is Suicidal: A Tool for Adult Mental Health and Addiction Services
[6]. MHA (2018) Suicide; No suicide attempt should be dismissed or treated lightly! , Why Do People Attempt Suicide? USA
[7]. NCH (2019) Study finds narrowing gender gap in youth suicides; JAMA Network Open
[8]. Schimelpfening. N( 2019) Suicide Risk Factors and Warning Signs
[9]. Stremming. E. (2017) suicide prevention: For Those Who Think ‘The World Would Be Better Off Without Me’, University of Central Florida Apr 11, 2017
[10]. Sheikhmoonesi. F& Zarghami. M, ( 2014) Prevention of Physicians’ Suicide: Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2014 Summer; 8(2): 1–3.
[11]. Standard digital (2019) Five suicide deaths reported in Central Kenya every day; Mt Kenya Star 13th May 2019 10:00:41 GMT +0300
[12]. WHO ( 2018)UN NEWS: Global Perspective; Human Stories,
[13]. WHO (2012) public health action for the prevention of suicide; WHO Library Cataloguing-in-2019
[14]. WHO (2018) National suicide prevention strategies Progress, examples and indicators: ISBN 978-92-4-151501-6

Callen Nyamwange “Psychological, Family and Environmental Factors Influencing Suicide among Secondary School Students: A Case of Schools in Gusii Land, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.408-412 July 2019  URL:

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Transformation of Political Configuration of Antitrust and Business Competition Law in Indonesia (Study in The New Order Era to The Era of Reform)

Apectriyas Zihaningrum – July 2019 Page No.: 413-418

This research aims to find out about the transformation in the political configuration of antitrust and business competition during the new order era and the influences it brought to the current political configuration in Indonesia. The methods used in this research is the doctrinal law or normative perspective. The data source in this research consists of document studies or literature studies with the analysis of deductible legal materials. From the results of this research, it is known that the changes of legal political configuration in the era of new order to the era of reform has a big influence in making the legal position of business competition become democratic responsive. The transformation in political configuration gives an impact to the legal product it yields due to reflection of the political configuration itself.

Page(s): 413-418                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 August 2019

 Apectriyas Zihaningrum
Master Program of Law, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

[1]. Republic of Indonesia. Act Number 5 of 1999 about The Monopoly and Unfair Business Competition Practice Prohibition.
[2]. CliveNapier. Africa’s Constitutional Renaissance ?: Stocktaking in the ’90s, Africa Dialogue. SatyaArinanto, Political Law 3. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia, 2018.
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[12]. MariaVagliasindi. “Across Competition Transition Economies: an Enterprise-level the analysis of The Main Policy and Structural Determinants.”IneMinara S. Ruky, “Competition Policy Implementation Through Competition Law and Trade Liberalization”. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia, 2004.
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[14]. Satrio Dwicahyo. “Review: Economic Growth in the Era of New Order”. Pages of History Vol. 10 No. 2, October 2003.

Apectriyas Zihaningrum “Transformation of Political Configuration of Antitrust and Business Competition Law in Indonesia (Study in The New Order Era to The Era of Reform)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.413-418 July 2019  URL:

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A Comparative Study on Level of Competency Required By Lecturers and Students in the Use of Computer Aided Design for Pattern Drafting in Tertiary Institutions Nasarawa State

Nasara, E .S., Agbo, D.A. – July 2019 Page No.: 419-423

This study was a comparative study on the level of competency required by Lecturers and students in the use of Computer Aided Design for Pattern Drafting. The sample size for the study was 123 respondent, these include Lecturers and students of the department of Home Science and Management, Nasarawa State University. Two research questions were answered. The instrument used for data collection was Lecturers and Students Questionnaire. Data collected was analysed using mean and standard deviation. Independent T-test was used to test the hypotheses. Responses from both Lecturer and Students indicatedthat competencies of lecturers and students on basic CAD knowledge were to a low extent whereas competencies on basic educational knowledge of lecturers and students were to a moderate extent. The study concluded that both lecturers and students have low competency level in teaching and learning of pattern drafting using Computer Aided Design for pattern drafting. Based on this findings, recommendations were made that school management should provide appropriate staff development policy to enhance training in Computer Aided Design for pattern drafting in tertiary institution in Nasarawa State.

Page(s): 419-423                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2019

 Nasara, E .S.
Department of Home Science and Management, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Agbo, D.A.
Department of Home Science and Management, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

[1]. Aduwa-ogiebean and Iyamu (2005), Using information and communication technology in Secondary Schools. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. 1(2): 65-69
[2]. Aldrich, W. (2006). Metric Pattern Cutting for Men’s Wear, 4th edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[3]. Antiaye E. (2013). Evaluating the benefits of Computer Aided-design in Fashion Education. Journal of Education and Practice. 1(6): 167-172
[4]. Beazley, A. and Bond, T. (2000).Computer- Aided Pattern Design and Product Development. Blackwell publishing, Oxford. Pp. 92-98
[5]. Fozzard G.J (2005). Computer Aided Designers; A Study of Garment Designers Attitude towards Computer Aided Design. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology. UK. 3(17): 381-385
[6]. Fraser, S. and Goldstein, H. (1999). Training for work in the Computer Age: Policy Implications Washington, DC. USA. Pp. 82
[7]. Gillespie, R.G. (2007). Computing and Higher Education:An Accidental Revolution: Washington D.C. USA America: University of Washington Press. pp. 83
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[9]. Heale, J. (2005). ArredomentoTekstill Guide. Boyut Publications Istanbul. Pp. 73
[10]. Igbo, C. A. andIloeje, C. I. (2003). The Basics of Dress Pattern Drafting. Enugu: Inselberg (Nigeria) Ltd.
[11]. Istook, C.L. (2000). Rapid Prototyping in Textile and Apparel Industry: A Pilot Project: Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management. Leicester UK: MCP University Press Ltd. 4(2): 73-80
[12]. Kamua, V. (2007). Assessment of Apparel Computer Aided Design Technology Training. Unpublished Msc. Thesis. Kenya University. Pp. 172
[13]. Leach, A. J. (2002). “AutoCAD 2002 Instructor”, McGraw-Hill Publishing, New York, USA. Pp. 37
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[16]. Talib, F. (2013). Efficacy of Pattern Making Software in Product Development. International Journal of Advance Quality Management. 6(6): 123-127

Nasara, E .S., Agbo, D.A. ” A Comparative Study on Level of Competency Required By Lecturers and Students in the Use of Computer Aided Design for Pattern Drafting in Tertiary Institutions Nasarawa State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 7, pp.419-423 July 2019  URL:

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The Efficacy of Multimodal Counseling to Manage Overal Stress

Esy Suraeni, K, Kustyarini – July 2019 Page No.: 424-429

Generically speaking, an overall understanding of the perspective allows humans to develop more effective lifestyles to deal with stress, by overcoming irregularities in every field summarized in BASIC ID (behavior, affective, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationship, drugs, biology, nutrition, exercise) with real action by himself. This research is in the form of pre-experimental using the one-group pretest-posttest design. The main characteristics of the study design were: (1) the subjects of the study were only one group that is: the experimental group, (2) giving the pre-test and post test for the research subjects, (3) limited control of internal and external validity. The results of the post-test given after the students were given the application of the seven modalities showed that there were differences in the score scores between pretest and post-test. The value of the post-test score is greater than the value of the pretest score. This difference shows that after students are given training as referred to in the Guidelines for Application of Multimodal Counseling (PPKM) there is an increase in all modalities being trained. And there was a change in score scores which showed a reduction in symptoms of stress experienced by students. This means that Multimodal Counseling (KM) is effective for managing student stress as a whole, not just partially.

Page(s): 424-429                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2019

 Esy Suraeni
Wisnuwardhana University Malang

 K, Kustyarini
Wisnuwardhana University Malang

[1]. Arnett, J. J. 1999. Adolescent Stomi and Stress. American Psychologist, 54 (5), 317-326.
[2]. Azwar, S. 1996. Reabilitas dan Validitas. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
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[7]. Greenberg, I S. 2002. Comprehensive Stress Management. New York: Mc Grawh ill
[8]. Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. 2001. Pubertal Transition, Stressfull Live Events, and The Emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive strn ptoms. Developmental PychoIogy. Vol 37 (3), 404-417.
[9]. Gunarsa, S. 1996. Konseling dan Psikoterapi. Jakarta: PT BPK Gunung Mulia.
[10]. Hewit, P. L., & Flett, G.L. 1993. Dimension of Perfectionism, Daily Stress, and Depression: A Test of The Specific Vulnerability Hypotesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 102. (1) 58-65.
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[13]. Kanters, Bristol,M. A., David, G., Attarian, & Aram. 2002. Effects of Outdoor Experiental Training On Perceptions of CoBege Stress. Journal of Experiental Education. (JO). http://www. DiaksesTanggal 01 Maret 2006.
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[15]. Kiselica, M. S. Stanley, B., Ronald, N. T., S Susan, R. 1994. Effect of Stress Inoculation Training on Anxiety, Stress, and Academic Performances Among Adolesencet. Journal of Counseling