The Intension of Students on Strengthening Rule of Law through Education: A Study on Tertiary Level

Md Arman Hossain – November 2019 Page No.: 01-05

The concept of rule of law is that the state is governed by the law, not by any particular government. This paper displays the present condition of the rule of law in curriculum and students’ intention in getting a course or a training program on the rule of law in their curriculum. In this study, 23 in-depth interviews with different university going students of different disciplines—science, social science, medical and engineering, 2 key-informant interviews, and 3 focus group discussions (FGDs), along with intensive studies from various secondary sources, were conducted.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 November 2019

 Md Arman Hossain
University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

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Md Arman Hossain “The Intension of Students on Strengthening Rule of Law through Education: A Study on Tertiary Level” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.01-05 November 2019  URL:

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Effects of Boko Haram on Farm Output in Biu Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria

Abdullahi Usman – November 2019 Page No.: 06-11

The study deals with the effects of Boko Haram activities on Farm Output in Biu local government area, Borno state, Nigeria. A sample size of 380 Household heads served as respondents, selected from four wards in Biu LGA.
Questionnaire was the instrument used in data collection. Purposive sampling procedure was used in selecting Biu LGA. Descriptive statistics was used in analysing the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents in Biu area.
T-test Statistics was used to measure the difference between level of output before and during the peak period of Boko Haram’s activities in Biu local government. The result revealed significant difference between the output before and during the peak period of the Boko Haram activities, which revealed that Boko Haram activity had a significant effect on the farm output of the farmers in the study area. The t-value for all the outputs were very high with 11.71 for maize, 10.97 for groundnuts, 12.38 for cowpea, 12.34 for sorghum and 11.15 for rice. P-value obtained for all the outputs were less than .05, that was .000 for each output which indicated that Boko Haram activities in the area has significantly affected the production of these crops in the area. The researcher therefore, rejected the null hypothesis which stated that Activities of Boko Haram does not significantly effects farm output in Biu and accepted the alternative hypothesis.
The study recommends that; Federal government should make sure farms and farm labourers in the rural areas especially in Biu L.G.A are adequately secured to encourage farmers go back to their farm without fear of attack by the Boko Haram. Agricultural Extension workers should be mobilised and motivated to go and train farmers on modern farming techniques in the affected area. This effort will encourage crop production in the area.

Page(s): 06-11                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 November 2019

 Abdullahi Usman
Federal Government College Maiduguri, PMB 1102, Borno State, Nigeria

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[19]. UNICEF, (2015) A Report on effect of Boko Haram: Boko Haram violence keeping million children out of school. Tuesday 22 December 2015 by Global Development supported by Bills and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2-18.
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Abdullahi Usman “Effects of Boko Haram on Farm Output in Biu Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.06-11 November 2019  URL:

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Perception of Counselling Services and Social Adjustment among Primary School Pupils in Calabar, Cross River State

Jennifer Uzoamaka Duruamaku-Dim – November 2019 – Page No.: 12-17

The study investigated perception of counselling services among primary school pupils in Calabar, Cross River State and how it influences their social adjustment in the school. The study adopted ex-post fact research design and a sample of 366 primary six pupils was randomly selected from a population of 3,659 primary six pupils in the area for the study. Data for the study was collected using a questionnaire titled “Perception of Counselling Services and School Social Adjustment Scale” (PCSSSAS). The reliability of the PCSSSAS was determined using Cronbach Alpha method. Data collected were analyzed using Population t-test and One-way Analysis of Variance tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that the pupils’ perception of school counselling services was significantly low. The result further revealed that pupils’ perception of school counselling services had a significant influence on their social adjustment in the school. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that pupils should be encouraged to appreciate the counselling services in the school and always seek for the assistance of the counsellor about their problems.

Page(s): 12-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 November 2019

 Jennifer Uzoamaka Duruamaku-Dim
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

 Willy Arafah
Professor of Marketing Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia

[1]. Al-Mseidin, K. I., Omar-Fauzee, M. S., & Kaur, A. (2017). The relationship between social and academic adjustment among secondary female students in Jordan. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(2), 333-346.
[2]. Boro, B. (2017). Adjustment problems of secondary school students of Gorkha community with respect to gender – A study. International Journal of Applied Research, 3(8), 341-344.
[3]. Denga, D. I. (2001). Guidance and counselling in schools in non school settings. Port-Harcourt: Double Diamond publications.
[4]. Dhingra, R., Manhas, S., & Thakur, N. (2005). Establishing connectivity of emotional quotient (EQ), spiritual quotient (SQ) with social adjustment: A study of Kashmiri migrant women. Journal of Human Ecology, 18(4), 313-317.
[5]. Gatua, D. M., Sindabi, A. M., & Chepchieng, M. C. (2015). Impact of Guidance and Counselling services on students’ behaviour modification between selected public urban and rural secondary schools in Rift Valley Province, Kenya. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(19), 28-40.
[6]. Hartup, W.W., & Rubin, Z. (2013). Relationships and Development. Psychology Press.
[7]. Izuchi, M. N., & Obed. O. O. (2017). Influence of Guidance and Counselling on development of entrepreneurial skills among technical college students in Rivers State. British Journal of Education, 5(2), 21-32.
[8]. Menon, M. E. (2010). The effect of career counsellors on the decision to pursue higher education: a mixed-methods investigation. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 34(4), 519-536
[9]. Packiaselvi, P. P., & Malathi, V. A. (2017). A study on social adjustment among higher secondary school students and its impact on their academic achievement in Coimbatore District. International Journal of Research – Granthaalayah, 5(6), 458-463.
[10]. Raju, M. V. R., & Rahamtulla, T. K. (2007). Adjustment problems among school students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 33(1), 73-79.
[11]. Searle, W., & Ward, C. (1990). The prediction of psychological and socio-cultural adjustment during crosscultural transitions. International Journal of lntercitltural Relations, 14, 449-464.
[12]. Srivastava, P. S. (2018). Social adjustment problems of school going academic achievers. International Journal of Academic Research and Development, 3(1), 164-166.
[13]. Ukpogu, J. O. (2017). Perception of counselling services and academic performance in Social Studies among secondary school students in Anambra East Local Government Area, Anambra State. PGDE Thesis submitted to Graduate School, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State.

Jennifer Uzoamaka Duruamaku-Dim “Perception of Counselling Services and Social Adjustment among Primary School Pupils in Calabar, Cross River State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.12-17 November 2019 URL:

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Affective Variables and Tendency towards Sorting among University Undergraduates in Cross River State

Chukwuemeka Ifeanyi Offiah – November 2019 Page No.: 18-22

This study investigated affective variables and tendency towards sorting among university undergraduates in Cross River State. The study adopted correlational research design. The sample for the study was 472 year three students out of a population of about 4,721 students. Data was collected using Affective Variables and Tendency Towards Sorting Questionnaire” (AVTTSQ). Data collected was analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression tested at .05 level of significance. The results revealed that affective variables had significant relationship with tendency towards sorting among the students and the affective variables collectively predicted tendency towards sorting. It was recommended that the students should be counselled on the need to manage their anxiety so as to boost their emotional intelligence and reduce their tendency towards sorting.

Page(s): 18-22                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 November 2019

 BChukwuemeka Ifeanyi Offiah
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

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Chukwuemeka Ifeanyi Offiah “Affective Variables and Tendency towards Sorting among University Undergraduates in Cross River State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.18-22 November 2019  URL:

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Enhancing Food Security Through Result-Oriented Policies in Kenya’s Drylands: A Case of Kikumbulyu North Ward, Makueni County

Charles Ikutwa, Elijah Siringi, Geofrey Magani – November 2019 Page No.: 23-29

Food security and economic growth in Kenya’s Drylands is undermined by lack of adequate application of policy interventions. This paper examines insights on how food policy interventions influence on food security in Kikumbulyu North Ward of Makueni County. Specifically, the research established the extent in which policy intervention affect food security, assessed to what degree them strategies deployed achieved food security and established to what extent policy strategies were adequate in achieving food security in Kikumbulyu North Ward of Makueni County. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive research design. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire and an interview guide to key informants. A sample size of 138 households in Kikumbulyu North Ward were interviewed. A stratified sampling method was used to administer the 138 questionnaires to the sample. Data analysis was further performed using descriptive methods and inferential analysis methods where frequencies, mean, standard deviation were used to summarise the collected data and the results were presented in form of tables and charts. The response rate was 97.1% and the findings showed that food policies have not been successful in improving food security. Therefore, to improve on policy interventions of food security, it was recommended of the need to strengthen the monitoring and evaluating of food security issues in Kenya Drylands by periodically reviewing our policy implementation results so as to adopt result-oriented policies. This will focus on improving the previous period of policy implementation as a baseline in formulating and implementation of new period policy. This, therefore, will ensure connectivity of policy implementation and guide on how the food stakeholders can do business geared towards achieving the zero hunger agenda.

Page(s): 23-29                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 November 2019

 Charles Ikutwa
School of Management & Leadership, The Management University of Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

 Elijah Siringi
School of Management & Leadership, The Management University of Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

 Geofrey Magani
School of Management & Leadership, The Management University of Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

[1]. Dorothy A. Amwata, Dickson M. Nyariki And Nashon R.K. Musimba (2016). Factors Influencing Pastoral And Agropastoral Household Vulnerability To Food Insecurity In The Drylands Of Kenya: A Case Study Of Kajiado And Makueni Counties. Journal of International Development
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[4]. KFSSG (2011). The 2011 short rains season Assessment Report. Kenya Food Security Steering Group. Nairobi, Kenya.
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[8]. Mary Ng’endo, Delia Catacutan, James Kung’u, Jonathan Muriuki, Judy Kariuki and Jeremias Mowo. 2013. The policy environment of conservation agriculture withtrees (CAWT) in Eastern Kenya: Dosmall scale farmers benefit from existing policy incentives. African Journal of Research,
[9]. Mortimore,M., Anderson, S., Cotula, L., Davies, J., Faccer, K., Hesse, C., Morton , J., Nyangena, W., Skinner, J., Walfangel, C. (2009). Dryland opportunities: a new paradigm for people, ecosystem and development. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland: IIED, London, Uk and UNDP/DDC.
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Charles Ikutwa, Elijah Siringi, Geofrey Magani “Enhancing Food Security Through Result-Oriented Policies in Kenya’s Drylands: A Case of Kikumbulyu North Ward, Makueni County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.23-29 November 2019  URL:

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Discussion Forum as an Effective Tool for Knowledge Sharing in Online Learning

Sabari Shankar. R, Naresh K Kumar. S – November 2019 Page No.: 30-32

Learning process has become sophisticated with the advent of technology. Researches are investigating the options of finding out the most efficient online learning models. One of the most predominant objectives is to provide enhanced peer to peer learning experience to the learners and Discussion forum is the tool to achieve it, where knowledge gets transferred. This paper intends to discuss the role of discussion forum in knowledge sharing process in online learning. Research articles from the sources have been viewed and summaries to the relevance.

Page(s): 30-32                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 November 2019

 Sabari Shankar. R
Pedagogical Research Associate , IIMBx Department, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, India

 Naresh K Kumar. S
Academic Associate, Humanities and Liberal Arts for Management Area, Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode, India

[1]. Artino, Anthony R. (2010). Online or face-to-face learning? Exploring the personal factors that predict students’ choice of instructional format. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(4), 272-276.
[2]. Augustsson, Gunnar. (2010). Web 2.0, pedagogical support for reflexive and emotional social interaction among Swedish students. Internet & Higher Education, 13(4), 197-205.
[3]. Benefits of a discussion forum,
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[5]. Dallimore, E. J., Hertenstein, J. H., & Platt, M. B. (2010). Class participation in accounting courses: Factors that affect student comfort and learning. Issues in Accounting Education, 25(4), 613-629.
[6]. Future of Online Education in India by 2021,
[7]. Green, R. A., Farchione, D., Hughes, D. L., & Chan, S. (2014). Participation in asynchronous online discussion forums does improve student learning of gross anatomy. Anatomical Sciences Education, 7(1), 71-76.
[8]. How India’s ed-tech sector can grow and the challenges it must overcome,
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[10]. Kim, J. (2013). Influence of group size on students’ participation in online discussion forums. Computers & Education, 123-129.
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[18]. Sulisworo, D. (2012). Designing the online collaborative learning using the Wikispaces. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Learning, 7(1), 58-61.
[19]. Why Make Discussion Forums Part of Your Online Courses?,

Sabari Shankar. R, Naresh K Kumar. S “Discussion Forum as an Effective Tool for Knowledge Sharing in Online Learning” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.30-32 November 2019  URL:

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Influence of Team Effectiveness, Interpersonal Communication, and Emotional Quotient on the Satisfaction of Nursing Education Preceptors

Rika Endah Nurhidayah, Rosmala Dewi, Paningkat Siburian- November 2019 Page No.: 33-40

Nursing professional education in Indonesia consists of two steps namely the academic step to get a bachelor’s degree in nursing and the professional step or clinical learning step to get a Ners (Ns) degree. Teachers at the professional education step are called preceptors. This study aims to identify the effect of team effectiveness, interpersonal communication, and emotional quotient on satisfaction of preceptors in the Nurses Professional education program in North Sumatera. The research design is pathway analysis. Samples were taken by proportional random sampling technique with 168 preceptors using Slovin’s formula from 291 preceptors in North Sumatera. Before the instrument was used, validity and reliability tests were carried out. Based on the results of the analysis there is a significant influence between the variables of team effectiveness and emotional quotient on preceptor’s satisfaction, but there is no significant effect between interpersonal communications on preceptor’s satisfaction. It is recommended to explore the factors that influence the relationship of interpersonal communication with satisfaction of the preceptors.

Page(s): 33-40                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 November 2019

 Rika Endah Nurhidayah
Nursing Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia

 Rosmala Dewi
Medan State University, Indonesia

 Paningkat Siburian
Medan State University, Indonesia

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Rika Endah Nurhidayah, Rosmala Dewi, Paningkat Siburian, “Influence of Team Effectiveness, Interpersonal Communication, and Emotional Quotient on the Satisfaction of Nursing Education Preceptors” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.33-40 November 2019  URL:

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Impact of Employee Fraud on Business Entities in Nigeria

Rasaq Alabi Olanrewaju, Samuel Johnson-Rokosu – November 2019 Page No.: 41-50

The aim of every business is profitability of going concern. However, no matter the profit and injection of fresh capital to a business, the going concern will be threatened, if fraud is allowed to creep into it. The study intends to determine how employee fraud affects the operation and success of business enterprise in Nigeria.Combinations of qualitative research design and survey research techniques were used in this study. Questionnaires were administered to collect data relating to fraudulent practices by employees in private and public sector.

Page(s): 41-50                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 November 2019

 Rasaq Alabi Olanrewaju
Department of Accountancy, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

 Samuel Johnson-Rokosu
Johnson Rokosu & Co (Chartered Accountants)

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Rasaq Alabi Olanrewaju, Samuel Johnson-Rokosu, “Impact of Employee Fraud on Business Entities in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.41-50 November 2019  URL:

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Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy (Vestibular & Proprioception Input) on Gross Motor Functioning in Developmental Delayed and Spastic Diplegic CP Children

Nighat Tahir, Syed Imran Ahmed, Farhan Ishaque, Syeda Jawaria, Areeba Amir, Abid Kamal- November 2019 Page No.: 51-55

These clinical trials were aimed to study the effectiveness of specific vestibular and proprioceptive stimulation to improve gross motor function in cerebral palsy (CP) spastic diplegic children.
Methodology: A sample of Twenty six cerebral palsy children was selected in this study. All children were evaluated with GMFM-88, QUEST and Modified Ashworth Scale before and after the intervention. The Sensory Integration Therapy (SIT) was applied for 50 min, 4 days per week for 48 sessions .The experimental SIT therapy was divided into 3 phases of 16 sessions each .i.e. proprioceptive phase, vestibular phase and mixed phase in which tactile stimulation is constant. The activities were selected to give proprioceptive input in phase one, vestibular input in phase two and mixed input of Proprioception and vestibular in phase three along with tactile input.
Results: Results indicated marked improvement in gross motor functioning in the enrolled children with p=0.00. Modified Ashworth Scale also showed improvement with p=0.00.Occupational Therapist follows different strategies and approaches in the treatment of Cerebral Palsy. SIT techniques gives the child opportunity to experience not only its body in different positions but also in relation to its environment which they does not do due to their restricted body movements. Conclusion: This study shows beneficial effect of sensory integration therapy on cerebral palsy spastic diplegic and developmental delay children. SIT intervention had a significantly positive effect on gross motor function in the children with CP spastic diplegic.

Page(s): 51-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 November 2019

 Nighat Tahir
Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Pakistan

 Syed Imran Ahmed
Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Pakistan

 Farhan Ishaque
Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Pakistan

 Syeda Jawaria
Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Pakistan

 Areeba Amir
Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Pakistan

 Abid Kamal
College of Physiotherapy, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, JPMC

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Nighat Tahir, Syed Imran Ahmed, Farhan Ishaque, Syeda Jawaria, Areeba Amir, Abid Kamal “Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy (Vestibular & Proprioception Input) on Gross Motor Functioning in Developmental Delayed and Spastic Diplegic CP Children” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.51-55 November 2019  URL:

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The Role of the School Committee in Education Management of Vocational High School in Indonesia

Riyo Nur Buana, Riswanti Rini, Sowiyah – November 2019 Page No.: 56-58

The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the role of the school committee as consideration, support, control and liaison in the education management. The method used in this study is qualitative with a phenomenological design. The results obtained showed that as a giver considerations was embodied in approving policies and educational programs, as a support was embodied in active role in raising public funds in education, as a controller was embodied in advising unproper decision, as a liaison was embodied in cooperation with the community.

Page(s): 56-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 November 2019

 Riyo Nur Buana
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Riswanti Rini
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

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[7]. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia. Nomor 75 Tahun 2016. Komite Sekolah.
[8]. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia. Nomor 19 Tahun 2007. Standar Pengelolaan Pendidikan.
[9]. Sagala. 2008. Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah dan Masyarakat, Nimas Multima: Jakarta.
[10]. Undang Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional
[11]. Zajda, J. I., & Gamage, D. T, 2009, Decentralisation, school-based management, and quality. Springer. Dordrecht.

Riyo Nur Buana, Riswanti Rini, Sowiyah “The Role of the School Committee in Education Management of Vocational High School in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.56-58 November 2019  URL:

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Social Support of School Management & Stakeholders and Wellbeing of Students in Sri Lankan Schools: Special Reference to Government Schools in the Hambantota District

Chandana Kasturiarachchi – November 2019 Page No.: 59-70

This study explored the experiences of principals, teachers, students and parents on social support of school management & stakeholders and wellbeing of students with special reference to government schools in the Hambantota district in Sri Lanka. This study employed a mixed method, and case study and survey approaches were also used in studying the research problem. The main research question was: what are the experiences of the principals, teachers, parents, and students on the social support provided by school management and stakeholders for student wellbeing? Purposive and random sampling techniques were employed in order to select the participants in this study. Data gathered in administering semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, informal observations and informal discussions. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistical tools. It was revealed that: Students are suffering due to their poor family background, and they are not provided required minimum emotional support from school management and teachers. The school attendance is very poor of some students since they usually engage with agricultural activities. The majority of children show poor performance. The majority of students do not have sufficient minimum resources for their academic activities. The schools are also not rich enough in providing such facilities to their students. The poor physical environment and lack of resources impact badly on students’ wellbeing. The majority of parents of the students are not well educated, and So, they do not seem to have the confidence to provide necessary advises and instructions about their children’s education. The students face challenges in finding good quality instructions and advises in developing their educational background, attitudes, values, self-confidence, soft skills and also hard skills. The student counselors in some schools do not have sufficient training, qualifications as counselors. The education authorities must pay immediate attention to these schools since the students are being faced with a difficult time in those schools. The schools need to be given sufficient number of quality resources and staff members. The staff members need to be motivated to provide a better service to these students.

Page(s): 59-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 November 2019

 Chandana Kasturiarachchi
Department of Social Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

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Chandana Kasturiarachchi “Social Support of School Management & Stakeholders and Wellbeing of Students in Sri Lankan Schools: Special Reference to Government Schools in the Hambantota District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.59-70 November 2019  URL:

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Child Mortality and Economic Growth in Bangladesh: Evidence from ARDL Approach

Kazi Mohammed Kamal Uddin, Md. Farhad Hossain, Most. Shiulii Akter – November 2019 Page No.: 71-78

Child mortality rate is the most important indicator of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. The attempt of the paper is to investigate if there any relation between child mortality and economic growth and the direction and magnitude of these relationships in Bangladesh by analyzing data from 1985-2016. For analyzing the time series data Granger Causality test and ARDL model is used. By Granger Causality test it is investigated if there have any relation between the variables and by ARDL model it is analyzed what kind of relation between the variables (child mortality and GDP growth rate) exists. Our empirical evidence reveals that there is a significant and negative relationship between child mortality rate and real GDP growth rate. So, it is concluded that the GDP growth rate increase as child mortality rate decrease.

Page(s): 71-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 November 2019

 Kazi Mohammed Kamal Uddin
Department of Economics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh

 Md. Farhad Hossain
Department of Statistics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh

 Most. Shiulii Akter
Graduate student, Department of Economics, Comilla University, Cumilla, Bangladesh

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Kazi Mohammed Kamal Uddin, Md. Farhad Hossain, Most. Shiulii Akter “Child Mortality and Economic Growth in Bangladesh: Evidence from ARDL Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.71-78 November 2019  URL:

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Effects of Teachers’ Transfer on Students’ Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools Abuja Nigeria

Wahab S. Kolawole – November 2019 Page No.: 79-82

This research work investigated the effects of teachers’ transfer on students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools Abuja Nigeria. The population of the study was limited to all senior secondary school teachers in six Area councils of the FCT. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select 2 schools in each of the six Area councils and 25 teachers were randomly selected in each selected school totalling 300 respondents. Descriptive survey method was adopted. Three research questions were asked and analyzed using frequency counts and mean. The data gathered were further analyzed and interpreted to arrive at findings which showed that high rate of transfer occurs in FCT Senior Secondary Schools; teachers’ transfer affects students’ academic performance; teachers sometimes voluntarily request for transfer and principals sometimes seek transfer of erring staff. Recommendations were suggested that there should inconvenient allowances for the transferred teachers in FCT Secondary Schools and accessible road network as this will reduce rural-urban transfer in FCT secondary schools.

Page(s): 79-82                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 November 2019

 Wahab S. Kolawole
Government Secondary School Hajj Camp Abuja, Nigeria

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Wahab S. Kolawole “Effects of Teachers’ Transfer on Students’ Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools Abuja Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.79-82 November 2019  URL:

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The Impact of the Capital Market on Investment in the Real Sector of the Nigerian Economy

Enaruna, Dubem Victor, Okene, Anthony Jovwo (ACA) – November 2019 Page No.: 83-90

Many efforts have been made towards understanding the relationship between the capital market and investment in the real sector of Nigeria. The objective was set to examine the impact of capital market on investment in Nigeria. The review of theoretical and empirical literature provided a basis for the selection and specification of model which was used to show if and how the capital market impacts investment growth.
The data used in carrying out this research was sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin, 2016. The sample size employed for this study covers a period of 36 years (1981-2016). Preliminary tests were done such as Phillips-Perron unit root test for stationarity of the variables, the Johansen co-integration test was used to ascertain if there’s an equilibrium long run relationship between the variables. This study also uses the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) to determine the impact of market capitalization, aggregate savings, new issues, interest and inflation rates on the gross fixed capital formation in Nigeria.
The result of the study shows that the capital market has a significant impact on capital formation in Nigeria. The potentials of the capital market in fostering investment growth in Nigeria were evaluated by using forecasting techniques and it was seen that investmentwill drastically decline without an active capital market.On the strength of this evidence, one of the proffered recommendations is that government should introduce policies to encourage investors in the capital market.

Page(s): 83-90                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 November 2019

 Enaruna, Dubem Victor
Nigeria Maritime University, Nigeria

 Okene, Anthony Jovwo (ACA)
Nigeria Maritime University, Nigeria

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Enaruna, Dubem Victor, Okene, Anthony Jovwo (ACA) “The Impact of the Capital Market on Investment in the Real Sector of the Nigerian Economy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.83-90 November 2019  URL:

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Perceived Background Music impact on Customer Loyalty Change in Recreational Dining

Abeykoon A.M.S.J.P. – November 2019 Page No.: 91-95

Recreation is an emotional condition within an individual human being that flows from a feeling of well-being and satisfaction. The increasing number of working women nowadays and time-saving, eating healthy foods in a good environment also contributes to eating out habits. Contended eating out at the restaurant with good ambiance and atmosphere not only creates different dining experiences but developed social interaction among the customers. As well as background music that is used by fast-food restaurants is the key component for different purposes. This research explores how perceived background music impact on customer loyalty changes in recreational dining. The current study base on an inductive research approach and based on primary and secondary sources of data. which will be collected through the mixed method: qualitative and quantitative data.The random sampling method used to collect data by using questionnaires. The content analysis method applied to analyze qualitative data. And this research based on the quantitative data analysis method of SPSS Amos (confirmatory factor analysis). This study expects to find out to determine the impact of perceived background music and customer loyalty change through Path Analysis.The perceived background music, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty change pathway were most customer loyalty change intention occur through customer satisfaction through perceived background music. It is the best path to the analysis. Accordingly, this research suggests that further how to do Cognitive Response and behavioral response influences the impact of customer loyalty change on perceived background music.

Page(s): 91-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 November 2019

 Abeykoon A.M.S.J.P.
Assistant Lecturer, Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

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Abeykoon A.M.S.J.P. “Perceived Background Music impact on Customer Loyalty Change in Recreational Dining” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.91-95 November 2019  URL:

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Attitude and Conceptual Knowledge of Senior Secondary School Students towards Mathematics: A Study of Livingstone District

Gesias Phiri, Mulendema Peter- November 2019 Page No.: 96-107

This research investigated attitudes and conceptual knowledge of students towards mathematics and perceptions teachers have about their students towards mathematics in the five schools in Livingstone district. It was not clear how student teachers perceived mathematics and their attitude towards it and what kind of cognitive-metacognitive skills and strategies they possess as they graduate from the colleges. This research employed a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study sample comprised 265 student teachers of mathematics from two colleges of education. Research instruments used in this study were: The 52-item Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) questionnaire was developed by Schraw and Dennison (1994) and the Questionnaire in the Teaching of Mathematics (QTM)”) was developed by Paul Ernest (1996), and the semi-structured interview schedules were used in the focus group discussions. The MAI questionnaire had two factors; knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The questionnaire for the students’ perceptions and attitudes towards mathematics included statements about how they regard or perceive mathematics in their learning processes. The questionnaire also included attitude statements on the way student teachers felt when learning mathematics and how they react when asked to answer questions or solve problems in class. The statistical analysis applied predominantly in the data analysis to investigate and explore differences between groups of independent variables was analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA allows one to compare the effects of each independent variable individually (Ho, 2006, p.57), which is beneficial in the context of study. To validate the findings produced from ANOVA test, the effect size measure Eta-squared (Levein & Hullet, 2002) were reported. The key findings indicated that student teachers had moderately high metacognitive awareness levels in both colleges. According to the results of the analysis, there was not a significant difference among the scores of metacognitive awareness of student teachers (F=0.522; ρ=0.491>0.05) according to means. We accept the null hypothesis that the means in the two colleges of education do not vary since ρ>0.05. Results indicated that student teachers in both colleges of education had higher levels of their perceptions and attitudes towards mathematics. Further, results from the Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) indicated that student teachers perception of their performance is attributed to lecturers’ methods of teaching and lecturers’ attitudes towards them. Results from the focus group with all the years of study indicated that lecturers teach them procedures of solving problem without student teachers’ participation. Hannula (2011), supports the idea that teachers’ positive attitudes and good personal qualities bolster students’ academic performance. In general the study concludes that student teachers in colleges of education have moderately high levels of metacognitive awareness and positive perceptions and attitudes towards mathematics. Therefore, this study recommends that teacher training programmes should include activities through the development and support of metacognitive awareness and affective factors that will be helpful in terms.

Page(s): 96-107                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 November 2019

  Gesias Phiri
Mukuba University, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, P.O Box 20382, Kitwe, Zambia

  Mulendema Peter
Copperbelt University, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, P.O Box 21692, Kitwe, Zambia

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Gesias Phiri, Mulendema Peter, “Attitude and Conceptual Knowledge of Senior Secondary School Students towards Mathematics: A Study of Livingstone District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.96-107 November 2019  URL:

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Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Self Directed Learning (SDL) Strategy and Simulation Technique (ST) on Students Interest in Social Studies at Upper Basic 11 in Kogi East Education Zone

Odoma Lois Onyemowo Ph.D, Prof. Ruth Etakpobunor Utulu – November 2019 Page No.: 108-118

This study investigated the comparative analysis of the effects of self directed learning strategy and simulation technique on students’ interest in social studies at upper basic 11 in Kogi east education zone of Kogi State. The study used gender as a moderating variable to compare the mean interest rating scores, of male and female at Upper Basic II when exposed to the treatment using self directed learning and simulation techniques. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study employed quasi experimental (pre-test, post-test and non equivalent groups) the sample consisted of 442 Upper Basic II Social Studies students, comprising 232 males (52.49%), and 210 females (47.51%) drawn from 6 intact classes of co-educational government public schools in the study area. The instruments for data collection were Social Studies Interest Questionnaires (SSIQ). The SSIQ was computed using cronbach alpha with reliability r= 0.77. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer research questions while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that students that were taught Social Studies using self directed learning exhibited higher positive interest, achievement and retention. That is f (1441) = 75.894; p=0.00 < 0.05 than those who were taught using simulation technique. There is significant difference in the mean interest rating using Self Directed Learning (SDL) and simulation technique in favour of male students. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that, Social Studies Teacher should be encouraged to employ self directed leaning as a strategy in the teaching/ learning of Social Studies. Government (National, State and Local Government Areas), professional bodies, parents, stake holders should encourage capacity building workshops, seminars, conferences, in service training on the use and implementation of self directed learning and simulating techniques in Social Studies.

Page(s): 108-118                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 November 2019

 Odoma Lois Onyemowo Ph.D
Curriculum and Educational, Technology Department, Kogi State College of Education, Ankpa, Nigeria

 Prof. Ruth Etakpobunor Utulu
Department of Curriculum and Teaching, Faculty of Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

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Odoma Lois Onyemowo Ph.D, Prof. Ruth Etakpobunor Utulu “Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Self Directed Learning (SDL) Strategy and Simulation Technique (ST) on Students Interest in Social Studies at Upper Basic 11 in Kogi East Education Zone” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.108-118 November 2019  URL:

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Manipulative of Courtroom Language: Implication on Children In Conflict With the Law, Eldoret Court, Kenya

Odera Josephine – November 2019 Page No.: 119-122

This paper focuses on the the implications of the manipulative nature of courtroom language on children in conflict with the law. The study adopted a descriptive design method because the variables were not manipulated. The study was carried out in the children’s court in Eldoret, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. This is because Eldoret is close to the researcher and also being the major towns in North Rift region, the courts around have cases involving children that they handle. Therefore the research would also benefit the other courts across the country. The main instruments of data collection were audio recordings of the court proceedings and interview schedules of children’s advocate both the prosecution and the defense attorney. The target population was children of 8 to 15 years old. From the analyses it is established. The children in conflict with the law usually find it hard to participate fully in a trial due to the nature of the courtroom language. The study recommends that the government to do a revision on the guidelines on how to do direct examination and cross examination of children in conflict with the law.

Page(s): 119-122                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 November 2019

 Odera Josephine
Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

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Odera Josephine “Manipulative of Courtroom Language: Implication on Children In Conflict With the Law, Eldoret Court, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.119-122 November 2019  URL:

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Effective Management of University Examinations

Emma Darkoa Aikins- November 2019 Page No.: 123-126

Examination is the pivot around which the whole system of education revolves and the success or failure of the system of examination is indeed an indicator of the success or failure of that particular system of education. It is one of the means used to assess and evaluate students’ learning in terms of acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes with the view of taking decision on level of attainment leading to awards of certificates. The paper discusses the effective ways of managing university examinations in order to achieve high standards of academic achievement.

Page(s): 123-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 November 2019

 Emma Darkoa Aikins
College of Technology Education, Kumasi- University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

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Emma Darkoa Aikins, “Effective Management of University Examinations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.123-126 November 2019  URL:

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The Government Need to Employ More Teachers in Public Schools Rather Than Provide Free Education

Simiyu J.T Ambrose – November 2019 Page No.: 127-129

Education is the key to success, these is a relevant and motivational quote that need to be embraced by all players in the education sector for it is a sensitive pillar and a main contributor, determinant and the scale for determining the success of a government, further, these gives the sitting government the jurisdiction to brag and have a solid legacy to be remembered. Embracing education by making the right, professional decisions, that are relevant to the given society means addressing the thorny embedded issues troubling the said society. Making of quality decisions will not yield the desired results, implementation of the decisions by qualified and competent personnel is necessary these will help supervise the implementation process so as to achieve desired quantifiable, and qualitative results beneficial to the projected society. For the above to be satisfactorily achieved, Political goodwill, employment of adequate number of teachers in order to meet the recommended student teacher ratio, provision of a conducive environment for learning, supporting the less fortunate learners by government making the cost of education affordable and several other measures need to be in place. This paper tries to bring out how ineffective the move by the government to employ more teachers in public schools or provision of free education won’t be the solution to the problems facing the education sector.

Page(s): 127-129                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 November 2019

 Simiyu J.T Ambrose
Moi University, Kenya

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Simiyu J.T Ambrose “The Government Need to Employ More Teachers in Public Schools Rather Than Provide Free Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.127-129 November 2019  URL:

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Enhancing Students’ Achievement and Career Success: The Role of Students Engagement in Higher Education

Emma Darkoa Aikins- November 2019 Page No.: 130-134

Studies have shown that effective engagement of higher education students leads to outstanding achievement and career success. From available literature, engagement has been studied from the emotional, behavioural and cognitive dimensions with little attention to students’ engagement with industry through higher education faculties. This article sheds light on the relationship between and among the three dimensions of engagement and how they can be evoked by industrial engagement as the chief driver of students’ achievement. To promote students’ achievement and career success, university faculties are considered the nerve centre in the formulation and operationalisation of student engagement services through active engagement with appropriate industries, involvement of students in programme enrichment and above all, acknowledgement of students’ as partners and bona fide members of a learning community. All of that are considered as incentives for students’ behavioural compliance.

Page(s): 130-134                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 November 2019

 Emma Darkoa Aikins
College of Technology Education, Kumasi- University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

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of the Concept, State of the Evidence. Review of Educational Research 74 (1),
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[14]. Krause, K., & Coates, H. (2008).Students’ Engagement in First-Year University. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33, 493.
[15]. Kuh, G. D. (2003). What we’re learning about Student Engagement from NSSE: Benchmarks for Effective Educational Practices. Change, 35(2), 24-32.
[16]. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J. H., & Whitt, E. J. (2005).Assessing Conditions to Enhance Educational Effectiveness: The Inventory for Student Engagement and Success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
[17]. Li, Y. & Lerner, R. M. (2013).Interrelations of Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive School Engagement in High School Students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 20-32.
[18]. Mann, S. (2001). Alternative Perspectives on the Student Experience: Alienation and Engagement. Studies in Higher Education, 26, 7-19.
[19]. Manning, K., Kinzie, J. & Schuh, J. (2006). One size does not fit all: Traditional and Innovative Models of Student Affairs Practice. New York: Routledge.
[20]. Porter, S. (2006). Institutional Structures and Student Engagement; Research in Higher Education, 47(5) 531–558.
[21]. Schuetz, P. (2008). A Theory-driven Model of Community College Student Engagement. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 32, 305–324.
[22]. Strydom, J.F., Basson, N. & Mentz, M. (2010).Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning: Using Student Engagement Data to establish a Culture of Evidence. Pretoria: Council on Higher Education.
[23]. Trowler, V. (2010). Student engagement Literature Review in the Higher Education Academy. Department of Educational Research. Lancaster University.
[24]. Umbach, P.D., & Wawrzynski, M. R. (2005). Faculty does matter: The Role of College Faculty in Student Learning and Engagement. Research in Higher Education, 46(2), 153–184.
[25]. Van der Meer, J. & Scott, C. (2009). Students’ Experiences and Perceptions of Peer Assisted study sessions: Towards Ongoing Improvement. Journal of Peer Learning, 2, 3-22.
[26]. Willms, J. D. (2003). Student Engagement at School. A Sense of Belonging and Participation. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
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Emma Darkoa Aikins “Enhancing Students’ Achievement and Career Success: The Role of Students Engagement in Higher Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.130-134 November 2019  URL:

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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Learning English as a Second Language (ESL) Among Pre-University Students of Pakistan

Tahir Niazi, Muhammad Zahid – November 2019 Page No.: 134-139

The students are motivated to learn English in an any ESL context. This specifies that there are few reasons which are greatly affecting learning process. These reasons might be awareness about the scope and utility of English language. Some of the researchers are of opinion that the students learn English as a second language for getting jobs, employments and continuation of higher education. All these researchers seem to agree that the students are motivated to learn English. Most of the studies conducted, following Gardner and his colleagues’ Soci-educational Model, based on Motivational Theory, assume that students are instrumentally or integrative motivated to learn English. Some of the researchers, after Guthrie and his colleagues’ Reading Motivation Model, find that students are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to read. However, the investigation in neither instrumental or integrative motivation nor in intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, has been addressed satisfactorily in learning English and reading in English. Based on these assumptions, the researchers have tried to probe into the matter of the role played by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for learning English as a second language (ESL) among the 300 Pre-University students of Government Public Sector Colleges of Punjab, one of the major provinces of Pakistan. These are 155 Female students and 145 are Male students. This study has been conducted through the distribution of a questionnaire among the participants. This questionnaire has been adapted from Komiyama (2009)’s MREQ (Motivation for Reading in English Questionnaire) which actually has been taken from Wigfield and Guthrie (1997) and Wang and Guthrie (2004) from MRQ (Motivation for Reading Questionnaire). The questionnaire items have been modified and elicited for learning English instead of originals reading English to suit the Pakistani context. The findings of this study show that majority of these students are highly extrinsically motivated rather than intrinsically.

Page(s): 134-139                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 November 2019

 Tahir Niazi
Associate Professor of English, Government College (Boys), Model Town, Lahore, Pakistan

 Muhammad Zahid
Assistant Professor of English, Deputy Director (Admn) Colleges, Lahore Division, Lahore
Government of the Punjab, Higher Education Department (HED), Punjab, Pakistan

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Tahir Niazi, Muhammad Zahid “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Learning English as a Second Language (ESL) Among Pre-University Students of Pakistan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.134-139 November 2019  URL:

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Democratic Reversals: Examining the Role of the Armed Forces and Southern African Development Community in Lesotho

Moeketsi Kali – November 2019 Page No.: 140-145

This paper examines the impediments to democratic consolidation and the factors amounting to democratic reversals in Lesotho, especially those which implicate the armed forces. The paper also explores the efforts made by the South African Development Community (SADC) in restoring peace and safeguarding the democratic gains in the country. Drawing from the literature, the paper contends that the government of Lesotho has a tendency of using the state forces to achieve personal gains and by so doing sabotage the national interests. This problem is aggravated by the SADC whose frivolous envoys usually take its mandate for granted. Such tendencies reverse the democratic gains the country has accumulated over the decades. Notwithstanding, the paper posits that the challenges Lesotho is undergoing are but hiccups and are by no means necessarily pointing to democratic erosion and these problems could be addressed by entrusting the army to the King, depoliticising and restructuring the army and capacitating the SADC secretariat.

Page(s): 140-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 November 2019

 Moeketsi Kali
Pan African University, Yaoundé, Cameroon

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[13]. Okafor, Jude and Okafor, Uzodinma (2015). ECOWAS and Democratic Reversal in West Africa: Re-visiting Military Incursion on the State Leadership. International Affairs and Global Strategy. Vol. 37.
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[17]. Thetela, Puleng (2001). Critique discourses and ideology in newspaper reports: a discourse analysis of the South African press reports on the 1998 SADC’s military intervention in Lesotho: Discourse & Society, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 347-370.

Moeketsi Kali “Democratic Reversals: Examining the Role of the Armed Forces and Southern African Development Community in Lesotho” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.140-145 November 2019  URL:

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Professional Development Programmes as Correlates of Instructors’ Task Performance in Police Training Colleges in Southern Nigeria

Nyong, Nelson A., Dr. Onyeike, V. C. and Dr. J.N.D. Meenyinikor – November 2019 Page No.: 146-152

The study investigated professional development programmes as correlates of instructors’ task performance in police training colleges in Southern Nigeria. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a correlational research design. The sample size for the study was 340 instructors in Police Training colleges in Southern Nigeria selected from a population of 378 instructors. The proportionate stratified sampling technique was used to arrive at the sample size representing 90% of the population. Two instruments titled “Professional Development Programme Scale” (PDPS) with 34 items and “Task Performance Scale” with 20 items were used for data collection. The face and content validities were ensured. Internal consistency through Cronbach alpha was used to estimate the reliability indexes of 0.89 and 0.88 for PDPS and TPS respectively. Research questions 1, 2, and 3 were answered with the help of simple regression, while research questions 4, was answered using multiple regression. Hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 were tested with t-test associated with simple regression, while hypotheses 4 were tested using ANOVA associated with multiple regression. It was found that seminar, workshop, and conference significantly predict task performance of instructors in police training colleges in Southern Nigeria. It was recommended among others that promotion of instructors should be tied on the number of professional development programmes attended.

Page(s): 146-152                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 November 2019

 Nyong, Nelson A.
Department of Educational Management, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

 Dr. Onyeike, V. C.
Department of Educational Management, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

 Dr. J.N.D. Meenyinikor
Department of Educational Management, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

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[2]. Asagba, F.O. (2014). Staff services in schools. In F. N. Obasi&. J.D. Asodike (Eds.). Educational resources management. Port Harcourt: Pearl Publisher.
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[4]. Ezechukwu, J.N. (2015). Capacity building programmes for teacher professional development. Journal of Academic Development. 4(2), 23-27.
[5]. Lance, L. (2018). How professional development programmeswork.Retrieved from
[6]. Mark J.O (2006).Emotional intelligence and job performance teachers in Delta State.Unpublished Ph.D project of Delta State University.
[7]. Nwabueze, A. I. (2011). Achieving Mags through usage in secondary in Nigeria: Developing global partnership with secondary schools.Germany, Lambert Academic publishers.
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[13]. Virginia, B., Beth, R. & Pamela, W. (2008).What do we mean by profile development in the early childhood field?Retrieved from

Nyong, Nelson A., Dr. Onyeike, V. C. and Dr. J.N.D. Meenyinikor “Professional Development Programmes as Correlates of Instructors’ Task Performance in Police Training Colleges in Southern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.146-152 November 2019  URL:

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Strange Attractor Factor beyond Performance Art in a Time – Based Media Context

Sergio Patricio Valenzuela Valdés & John David – November 2019 Page No.: 153-164

The article proposes the study of ‘performance art’ or ‘action art’ as a live act of associative composition within a time-space experience in the frame of time-based media art. Moreover, the samples used to analyse the factors involved are summarized as an experience with or in front of an audience. A new factor called ‘strange attractor factor’ will be added to the model Effect/ Affect published in 2012 by Valenzuela to understand the action’s meaning in the frame of performance art. Even more, today the model updates these concepts or parameters in the field of post media by understanding performance as a Time-based media. The ‘strange attractor factor’ could give an explanation about how attention is lost or even how awareness of the multiple variables is lessened where time-space is altered by unexpected and unplanned actions. Those variables rather than what the audience anticipates or the creator had planned, could take control and change the aim of actions. As a basis to critique performance this article uses models from semiotics, linguistics, mathematical grammar, rhizomatic model, aesthetics, architecture, performance studies and paint analysis. Added to those chosen lenses that observe and build critique, specific information is applied into this update with the aim of making a better understanding of what the strange attractor is and where it comes from. This article adds some possible critical uses of ‘fake equations’ presented in this paper in which the components assembled could make possible a different ‘reading’ of the live art and could help understand the idea of ‘time-space experience’ as one observable-detectable phenomena as well. Briefly explained by graphics and reflections, the study and the components are then applied to one concrete example in order to get some answers and final reflections about the use of the ‘Strange Attractor Factor’

Page(s): 153-164                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 November 2019

 Sergio Patricio Valenzuela Valdés

 John David

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[2]. Wikipedia definitions, ‘Attractor’
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Sergio Patricio Valenzuela Valdés & John David “Strange Attractor Factor beyond Performance Art in a Time – Based Media Context” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.153-164 November 2019  URL:

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Urbanization and Its Social Vices in Nigeria

John, Wajim, Adamu, Dauda Garba, Shimfe, Harry Grace – November 2019 Page No.: 165-170

This scholarly paper examined Urbanization and its Social Vices in Nigeria. Urbanization is a population change from rural to urban areas, and the steady increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas. The interplay of both “Push and Pull” factors at the points of origin and destination stimulates migrations. The push factors, which cause migration, include political fear, unemployment, poor medical facilities etc. Similarly, the pull factors are the desire to better life, job opportunities, improved living conditions, desire for qualitative education, better housing, improved medical care and a good network of roads among several others. Majority of others who migrated from rural to urban areas that have no jobs to do became more impoverished to the point of becoming social misfits otherwise known as area boys and girls. Crimes and insecurity; poverty and unemployment; and environmental problems are social vices of urbanization in Nigeria. Secondary sources of data collection were used for this scholarly paper. Amongst other recommendations it is recommended that, government should give more attention to the social plights of rural dwellers in order to reduce their mass exodus from the rural areas to urban areas.

Page(s): 165-170                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 November 2019

 John, Wajim
Department of Sociology, Federal University, Wukari, 200 Katsina-Ala Road, P.M.B 1020 Wukari, Nigeria

 Adamu, Dauda Garba
Department of Sociology, Federal University, Wukari, 200 Katsina-Ala Road, P.M.B 1020 Wukari, Nigeria

 Shimfe, Harry Grace
Department of Sociology, Federal University, Wukari, 200 Katsina-Ala Road, P.M.B 1020 Wukari, Nigeria

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John, Wajim, Adamu, Dauda Garba, Shimfe, Harry Grace “Urbanization and Its Social Vices in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.165-170 November 2019  URL:

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Contributions of Public and Traditional Institutions in Sustainable Eco-Cultural Tourism Development in the Lawra Municipality, Ghana

Issaka Kanton Osumanu, Evelyn Abe-Iyel Guri – November 2019 Page No.: 171-179

The study assessed institutional roles in the development of potential eco-cultural tourism sites in Eremon in the Lawra Municipality of Ghana. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods (i.e. questionnaires administration, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews) were used. A sample of 138 household heads was drawn from five purposively selected communities for the study. In addition, six heads of formal institutions and 10 community (traditional) leaders were selected for in-depth interviews. The findings reveal that traditional authorities play crucial roles in managing and controlling potential tourism attractions in the community but they lack coordination with formal institutions. Their efforts are also challenged by inadequate technical knowledge, financial resources and logistics constraints. As a result, the attractions are currently not developed and promoted to be of benefit to the community. The study recommends strengthening institutional capacities to enhance the development and management of eco-cultural tourist sites.

Page(s): 171-179                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 November 2019

 Issaka Kanton Osumanu
Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University for Development Studies, Ghana

 Evelyn Abe-Iyel Guri
Center for Indigenous Knowledge and Organizational Development, Ghana

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Issaka Kanton Osumanu, Evelyn Abe-Iyel Guri “Contributions of Public and Traditional Institutions in Sustainable Eco-Cultural Tourism Development in the Lawra Municipality, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.171-179 November 2019  URL:

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Towards Achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: Relevance of Innovative Instruction on Performance of Students

Mohammed Garba, Abubakar Garba Ph.D, Nasiru Gambo, Gaddafi Muhammed – November 2019 Page No.: 180-183

This paper attempts to find how to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the 21st Century: through Relevance of Innovative Instruction. The new well established approach of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) empowers learners to take right and informed decision and responsible action for environment integrity, economic viability and society for present and future generations. The following are innovative instructions that will help teachers reinvent their teaching methods and make the classes interesting towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals at 21st century these are: creative teaching, audio-visual tools, real world learning, brainstorm, lesson outside the classroom, role-play, storyboard teaching, stimulating classroom environment etc. based on the findings, it is true that regular poor performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners. The following are some of the research recommendations: teachers should increase their knowledge of their various strategies in order to keep students, teachers good professional quality is basis for teaching innovation in schools, teacher innovation of teaching methods is the ultimate goal of teaching innovation in school. Therefore, government should organize workshop/seminars for teachers.

Page(s): 180-183                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 November 2019

 Mohammed Garba
Department of Educational Psychology, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 Abubakar Garba Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Technology Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

 Nasiru Gambo
Department of Educational Psychology, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 Gaddafi Muhammed
Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

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Mohammed Garba, Abubakar Garba Ph.D, Nasiru Gambo, Gaddafi Muhammed “Towards Achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: Relevance of Innovative Instruction on Performance of Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.180-183 November 2019  URL:

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Credit Policy and Performance of Loan Portfolio at Pride Micro Finance Uganda Ltd

Obadia Kamugisha, Abas Rutaro – November 2019 Page No.: 184-202

The bad effects of performance of loan portfolio are undesirable and the researcher investigated on how the credit policy if properly managed could offer a means of changing this situation. . Poor loan performance exposes high level of credit risks and affects loan interest repayment, principal payment and profitability, which if not checked can result into depletion of the capital base and closure of institutions hence loss of share holders equity. This study will therefore seek to examine the effect of credit policy on performance of loan portfolio at PMF Uganda Ltd in order to generate recommendations that will help micro fiancé institutions attain improved performance of loan portfolio. The researcher used a combination of descriptive, quantitative, cross sectional and survey design. The target population was 100 from where the sample of 80 was sampled using Morgan tables and the study employed both simple random sampling and purposive to collect primary data with use of the questionnaire. Findings indicated that credit terms contribute to better performance of loan portfolio at PMF Uganda as shown by r=0.825 and adjusted R square of 66.9%. Also it revealed that credit standards have a significant influence on performance of loan portfolio at PMF Uganda and finally findings revealed that credit collection procedures affect performance of loan portfolio at PMF Uganda as shown by r=0.776 and Adjusted R square of 58.9%, r=0.65 and Adjusted R square of 40.3% respectively. All this indicate that these findings answer the general objective of assessing the effect of credit policies on performance of loan portfolio of PMF Uganda. The study recommends that PMF should extend the loan repayment period to at least 12 months instead of mandatory 10 months, there should be friendly credit standards and lastly Credit officers should personally make physical visits to customers’ premises.

Page(s): 184-202                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 November 2019

 Obadia Kamugisha
School of Graduate Studies and Research, Team University, Plot 446, Kabaka Anjagara.rd, P.O Box 8128 Kampala-Uganda

 Abas Rutaro
School of Graduate Studies and Research, Team University, Plot 446, Kabaka Anjagara.rd, P.O Box 8128 Kampala-Uganda

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Obadia Kamugisha, Abas Rutaro “Credit Policy and Performance of Loan Portfolio at Pride Micro Finance Uganda Ltd” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.184-202 November 2019  URL:

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Etiology of Crime: An Analysis of How Schooling in Kenya Breeds Offending and Criminal Behavior

Atieno Rose Opiyo, Ouda James Bill & Jared Mudanya – November 2019 Page No.: 203-211

It is impossible to explain predictors of juvenile offending and criminal behavior development using one single theory, but it is possible to recognize possible risk factors that can be directly associated to juvenile offending tendencies among children and young people. Child and youth risk factors to juvenile offending and criminalitylies within five key pillars of a child’s life: family, school, peers, neighborhood and the media. School is the second socializing agent and perhaps, the most important for a child of the 21st century, who spends substantial amount of time in this setting. Popularly known, schools are contexts where children are universally cared for supported and nurtured in tandem with societal ideals. Thus, schools are unanimously eyed as a protective agent for preventing offending and criminal behavior development. Unfortunately, many schools in Kenya have never lived up to the realization that nurturing a criminal free society is one of their critical mandates. More often than not, schools refer to criminality as a society- created problem. In separate instances, societies and schools label each as incompetent in molding morally upright citizens. Meanwhile, compelling evidence ranks schooling and education as one of the greatest criminogenic factors. Based on the sociological theory, this paper review explored school policies, public policies related to education as well as specific flows in curriculum and student management practices that could be precursors to juvenile offending and criminality. Findings revealed that schools are not any longer safe heavens. A lot of violence experienced by children occurs in this setting. The paper documents education related risk factors of antisocial, violent behavior and criminal tendencies. It urges attention in creation of safe schools, change in students discipline and curriculum management practices in order to nurture a criminal free society.

Page(s): 203-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 November 2019

 Atieno Rose Opiyo
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Ouda James Bill
University of Venda, South Africa

 Jared Mudanya
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

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Atieno Rose Opiyo, Ouda James Bill & Jared Mudanya “Etiology of Crime: An Analysis of How Schooling in Kenya Breeds Offending and Criminal Behavior” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.203-211 November 2019  URL:

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Traditional Livelihood Practices among Indigenous Dagomba Women of Ghana: A Study of Women of Sagnarigu

Adam Bawa Yussif Ph.D, Jacob Abudu, Dominic Dery Ph.D – November 2019 Page No.: 212-218

The study is about traditional livelihood practices among indigenous dagomba women with particular reference to women of Sagnarigu, a suburb of Tamale in the northern regional. Using a cross sectional approach, the study explores the various livelihood practices adopted by women of Sagnarigu to sustain the lives of their families. The study found among others that the production and sale of vegetables was one of the main livelihood strategies adopted by the women of Sagnarigu; but this was not enough to sustain the women and their families all year round. As a result, the women-farmers had to engage in other livelihood strategies to complement their farming activities. The study also found that 92% of the women did not have any formal education and this to a large extent, limited their access to higher paying off-farm opportunities. The study concludes that the female indigenous farmers of Sagnarigu, augment their returns from vegetable production with income from other economic activities.

Page(s): 212-218                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 November 2019

 Adam Bawa Yussif Ph.D
Snr Lecturer, Tamale Technical University, Ghana

 Jacob Abudu
Snr Lecturer, Tamale Technical University, Ghana

 Dominic Dery Ph.D
Snr Lecturer, Tamale Technical University, Ghana

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Adam Bawa Yussif Ph.D, Jacob Abudu, Dominic Dery Ph.D “Traditional Livelihood Practices among Indigenous Dagomba Women of Ghana: A Study of Women of Sagnarigu” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.212-218 November 2019  URL:

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Production Constraints, Postharvest Losses and Farmers’ Responses to Innovations in the Cassava Value Chain in Cameroons’ South West Region

Ngoe Fritz Eseokwea, Manu Ibrahim, Fon Dorothy Engwali – November 2019 Page No.: 219-229

This study was carried out in Cameroons’ South West region where farmer produce cassava for household consumption and income generation. Most of the production is undertaken by peasant farmers in rural areas with inadequate infrastructure for production, storage and marketing despite the vulnerability of the staple to postharvest losses. In addition majority of farmers have inadequate access to technologies that reduce food losses and increase farm incomes: while most cassava farmers operate under precarious economic, environmental and financial constraints that grossly affect production and farm incomes. In spite these constraints cassava farmers still depend on rudimentary approaches that increase postharvest losses and reduce farm incomes. It is obvious that cassava products cannot sustain demand without innovations which increase output and reduce food losses. The objective of this study is to examine the various constraints affecting cassava production, methods of storage, and reasons for farmers dependence on rudimentary approaches rather than innovation that increase farm output. A sample population of 406 farmers was selected from twenty villages using Glenn Israel (2009) estimates for determining population samples. According to the study farmers’ choice of innovations are based on how adaptive or beneficial the innovations are in various socioeconomic and cultural environment in which production takes place.

Page(s): 219-229                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 November 2019

 Ngoe Fritz Eseokwea
National Centre for Education, Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovations

 Manu Ibrahim
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Fon Dorothy Engwali
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Dschang, Cameroon

[1]. Anthanase N, Bob M, Paul S, Theodore A.(2016); Postharvest Losses Caused by deterioration and brown streak dieases root necrosis in Rwanda. World Cngress of Root and Tubers Crops., Rome
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[7]. Funji Tanya Folefac, Ajebesone Francis Ngome,CarineTemegne Nono (2017). Quantitative Analysis of Cassava Products and their Impacts on the livelihood of Value Chain Actors: case study of Central Region of Cameroon; Journal of Agriculture policy 5(14): 15:25
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[12]. Ngoe Fritz Eseokwea (2012). Engaging the burden of rural urban migration in a non regulatory system: the case of Cameroon. International Review of Human and Social Sciences(IRHSS) 4(4): 169-195
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[14]. NjukweEmmanuel, O.Onadipe, Damao, R. Hannah, Hirscht, B.Maziyi-Dioxons, A. Mbairanodjou, and T. Ngue-Bassa 2014; Cassava processing among smallholder farmers in Cameroon: challenges and opportunities. International Journal of agricultural policy Research, 2(4):113-124
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Ngoe Fritz Eseokwea, Manu Ibrahim, Fon Dorothy Engwali “Production Constraints, Postharvest Losses and Farmers’ Responses to Innovations in the Cassava Value Chain in Cameroons’ South West Region” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.219-229 November 2019  URL:

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Effect of Working Capital Management on Profitability: A Case of Listed Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria

Dr. Samuel Adebayo OLAOYE, Dr. Abolade Francis AKINTOLA, Adeyemi Samson OGUNDIPE – November 2019 Page No.: 230-238

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of working capital management on profitability of selected quoted Nigeria manufacturing companies from 2006-2015. Secondary data was obtained to investigate relationship between working capital management and profitability. Panel data methodology similar to Sharma and Kumar (2011) was employed in this study. The results showed positive significant relationship between working capital management and profitability. This means that efficient management of working capital will increase profitability.

Page(s): 230-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 November 2019

 Dr. Samuel Adebayo OLAOYE
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun-State, Nigeria

 Dr. Abolade Francis AKINTOLA
Department of Banking and Finance, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun-State, Nigeria

 Adeyemi Samson OGUNDIPE
Department of Banking and Finance, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun-State, Nigeria

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[3]. Ali, A. & Ali, S.A (2012) Working capital management: Is it Really Affects the Profitability? Evidence from Pakistan. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 12(17), 75-78
[4]. Amarjit, G., Nahum, B., & Neil M. (2010). The relationship between working capital management and profitability: Evidence from the United States. Business and Economics Journal, 10 (2).
[5]. Anghar, P.A. &Agbo, A. (2014).Impact of working capital on the profitability of the Nigeria Cement Industry.European Journal of Accounting Auditing and Finance Research 2(7) 17-30.
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[10]. Falope, O.I. &Ajilore, O.T. (2009). Working capital management and corporate profitability; evidence from panel data analysis of selected quoted companies in Nigeria. Research Journal of Business Management, 3(3).
[11]. Garcia-Teruel, P.J. and Martinez-Solano, P. (2007).‘Effect of working capital management on SME profitability’, International Journal of Managerial Finance 3(2); 164-186.
[12]. Gatsi, T.T., Gadzo, S.G., &Akoto, R.K. (2013).Degree of finance leverage and operating leverage and profitability of Insurance firms in Ghana.International business and management 7(2), 57-65.
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[16]. Huynh, P.D. &Jyh-tay, S. (2010).“The relationship between working capital management and profitability; A Vietnam case” International Research Journal of Finance and EconomicsISSN 1450-2887 issues 49.
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[20]. Mathuwa, D.M. (2010). The influence of working capital component on corporate profitability: A survey of Kenya listed firms. Research Journal of Business Management, 4(1), 1-11.
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Dr. Samuel Adebayo OLAOYE, Dr. Abolade Francis AKINTOLA, Adeyemi Samson OGUNDIPE “Effect of Working Capital Management on Profitability: A Case of Listed Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.230-238 November 2019  URL:

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Prevalence of Bullying Behavior on Academic Performance among Students in Integrated Public Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya

Mercy Muli, Dr. Nzoka, Dr. Jessina Muthee – November 2019 Page No.: 239-242

Cases of bullying have been on the rise in public secondary schools in Kenya. Many experience bullying and many other forms of violence on a day-to-day basis within school. Most students in public secondary schools in Kitui County have either been bullied or have known someone who has been bullied. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the prevalence of bullying behavior on academic performance among students in integrated public secondary schools in Kitui County, Kenya. The study was based on Social Identity Theory. This study employed a descriptive research design. This study was carried out in Kitui Central District. The target population was 1302 respondents comprising of 31 principals and 31 Guidance and counselling teachers and 1294 form three students. Stratified random sampling method was used and then simple random sampling method was used to select respondents from various strata. The sample size was 92 respondents comprising of 14 principals, 14 Guidance and counselling teachers and 64 form three students. The data collection tools were questionnaires for the teachers, students and interviews for the principals. Content validity was carried out to ensure that the instruments are valid and the test re-test technique was used to estimate the reliability of the instruments. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation and presented using frequency distribution tables, pie charts and bar graphs for effective communication to the users. Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis technique and presented in narrative form. The study established that a high rate of bullying behavior among students which emenated from monogamous family, being from a broken home vulnerability in the community and some students feeling stronger than others, verbal bullying and indirect bullying were the most types of bullying behavior and students that bullying still happen in their school and every student had been bullied. However, a number of the students indicated that some of these cases are not reported to the school administration. The study concluded that school bullying exists in all schools regardless of them being governmental or private ones. The study also concluded that school bullying affect student’s academic achievement either victims or the bullies. The study recommends that school management and teachers have to take different measures for the purpose of reducing the bullying volume. Moreover, teachers should coordinate with bullied students.

Page(s): 239-242                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 November 2019

 Mercy Muli
Department of Special Needs Education, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Nzoka
Department of Special Needs Education, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Jessina Muthee
Department of Special Needs Education, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1]. Asamu, F. F. (2006). Correlates of bulling among secondary school students in Ibadan, North East Local Government Area of Oyo state. A published M.Ed Thesis of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
[2]. Brown, D. W., Riley, L., Butchart, A. and Kann, L. (2008). Bullying among youth from eight African countries and associations with adverse health behaviors. Pediatric Health, 2(3),289-299
[3]. Carney, A. & Merrell, K. (2010). Bullying in schools: Perspectives on understanding and preventing an intemational problem. School Psychology International, 21: 364-382
[4]. Jones, N., Moore, K., Villar-Marquez, E. & Broadbent, E. (2008). Painful Lessons: The Politics of Preventing Sexual Violence and Bullying at School-Working Paper 295. London: Overseas Development Institute and Plan International. (online).
[5]. Mgalla, Z., Schapink, D. & Boenna, J. T. (2008). Protecting Schoolgirls against Sexual Exploitation: A Guardian Programme in Mwanza, Reproductive Health Matters, 6 (12):19-30
[6]. Moon, B., Hwang, H.W., and McLuskey, J. D. (2008). Causes of school bullying. Crime and delinquency. Vol. XX Number X Sage publication. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from
[7]. Moris, D. (2012). Bullying among secondary school students in Dar-es-Salaam region. Papers in Education and Development, Vol 28: 40-60
[8]. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simmons-Morton, B. and Scheidt, P. N. (2001). Bullying s among US Youth: Prevalence and Association with Psychosocial Adjustiment. JAM, 285, 2094-2110
[9]. Nyasato, R. (2009). Nyambaria Boys expels six Form-four bullies. E.A Standard. Nairobi: SMG p. 26.
[10]. Okwemba, S. (2007). The effects of school climate on changes in aggressive and other behaviors related to bullying. Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention, 187-210
[11]. Olweus, D. (2003). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell
[12]. Olweus, D. and Solberg, C. (2009). Bullying among children and young people. Information and guidance for parents. [translation to English: Caroline Bond] Oslo: Pedagogisk forum
[13]. Omoteso, B. A. (2010). Bullying Behaviour, Its Associated Factors and Psychological Effects among Secondary Students in Nigeria. Journal of International Social Research, 3(10).
[14]. Poipoi, G. (2011). Bullying experiences and compromised academic performance across middle school grades. The Journal of Early Adolescence
[15]. Rigby, Ken (2008). Children and bullying. how parents and educators can reduce bullying at school. USA. Blackwell Publishing
[16]. Saito, M. (2011). Violence in primary schools in Southern and Easter Africa. Evidence from SACMEG. International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP): Nairobi
[17]. Sampson, R. (2002). Bullying in school. Problem-oriented guides for police; Problem- specific guides series. No. 12. U.S Department of Justice. Retrieved October 15, 2009 from
[18]. Sang, D. (2007). Bullying and victimization: Prevalence and relationship to gender, grade level, ethnicity, self-esteem, and depression. Adolescence, 38(152), 735

Mercy Muli, Dr. Nzoka, Dr. Jessina Muthee “Prevalence of Bullying Behavior on Academic Performance among Students in Integrated Public Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.239-242 November 2019  URL:

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The Impacts of Sustainable Banking on Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

Chiefajugwe, Chukwu Alphonsus PhD. – November 2019 Page No.: 243-251

Majority of Banks all over the world are resolute, resilient and consistent in the adoption of sustainable banking as a tool to achieve significant boast in certain banking parameters such as: comparative edge over other banks that are reluctant to adopt and practice sustainable banking, application of positive risk management framework, increase in profitability, and deepening the marketing segments to increase sales etc.
Nevertheless to state that a typical example in Nigeria is Access Bank PLC which has adopted sustainable banking as a core value, making it possible for the bank to consistently posting impressive profits after tax, translated into increase in earnings per share for the benefit of the stakeholders and maintaining a stable capital base. This is due to its consistent growth, triggered by its adoption of sustainable banking.
It is imperative to point out that sustainable banking has positive impacts on the banking industry in particular as noted above and on the economy in general because of its ability to boast the critical sectors of the economy, thereby engineering economic growth and development. In view of the above, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)being on the driver’s seat of formulating Monetary Policy has to propel the banks to adopt and implement sustainable banking through the issue of circle on the Principles of Sustainable Banking in September 2012, which are to be aligned with the goals and objectives of each bank.
The paper will therefore deeply analyze the advantages of Social Responsibility, critically examine the principles of sustainable banking, strategically undertake robust appraisal of the positive and the negative impacts of the sustainable banking on the banking industry and the economy as well and will highlight some important recommendations which will put the principles of the sustainable banking on spotlight for policy formulation and adoption by the banks.

Page(s): 243-251                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 December 2019

 Chiefajugwe, Chukwu Alphonsus PhD.

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Chiefajugwe, Chukwu Alphonsus PhD. “The Impacts of Sustainable Banking on Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.243-251 November 2019  URL:

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Federal Character Principle and the Politics of Recruitment into the Nigerian Civil Service. A Case Study of National Drugs Enforcement Agencies (NDLEA) and the Nigerian Police Service Commission’s Lopsided Recruitment 2019: Implication for Nation Building

ROTKANG, Dimlong Dimang, AJAKAYE, Olabode Felix, OLALEKE, Olateru-olagbegi – November 2019 Page No.: 252-255

This work examines politics behind the implementation of the Federal Character Principle and the appointment into the National Drugs Enforcement Agencies (NDLEA) with a view to discussing the implications for National Unity of Nigeria. Every policy of government is expected to display high sense of indices of acceptable governance such as: transparency, accountability, responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness, popular participation, service delivery and so on. Paradoxically, the reverse has always been the case with Federal Character Principle. The impacts of this have indeed pervaded the political landscape of Nigeria as majority of school leavers are found roaming the streets in search of employment. Verily, every Nigerian is adversely affected by Nigerian factors which are predicated on corruption, greed, selfishness among others. As a corollary, the much expected dividends of democracy is nothing but a ruse.
The work relies on both primary and secondary sources of information. The data sources were complemented with the administration of questionnaires and oral interview with relevant stakeholders and members of the public to elicit more information about the performance of both the Federal Character Principle and NDLEA. Data were also sourced from the internet, governmental organizations and other related agencies with the objective of assessment and comparison. The study raises critical question about the desirability of NDLEA and how it would , as a matter of concern ensure corruption free society via its job creation through Federal Character Principle as far as Nigerian political system is concerned. It noted that the aims of establishing the Federal Character Principle and NDLEA have not been fully realized rather.
The study therefore concludes that for the attainment of good governance, societal development, corruption free society and putting in the round peg in round hole, emphasis should be placed on how both the Commissions operate and to actualize these, there must be conscious efforts on the part of the government to ensure that credible people are employed to work in those Commissions in order to engender promotion of accountability, transparency and probity. This will serve as model for others to be on their toes so as to institute good governance in the land.

Page(s): 252-255                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 December 2019

 ROTKANG, Dimlong Dimang
Department of Political Science, University of Jos, Nigeria

 AJAKAYE, Olabode Felix
Department of Public Administration, Crown Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 OLALEKE, Olateru-olagbegi
Department of Public Administration, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State Nigeria

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[21]. The Punch,(2019), “Recruitment scandal: States kick against lopsided police list” Published October 19,

ROTKANG, Dimlong Dimang, AJAKAYE, Olabode Felix, OLALEKE, Olateru-olagbegi “Federal Character Principle and the Politics of Recruitment into the Nigerian Civil Service. A Case Study of National Drugs Enforcement Agencies (NDLEA) and the Nigerian Police Service Commission’s Lopsided Recruitment 2019: Implication for Nation Building” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.252-255 November 2019  URL:

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Factors Affecting the Use of ICT in Training: A Case Study of the Nigerian Navy

Ogbonnaya, Esther Abosede PhD – November 2019 Page No.: 256-271

Purpose: This study examined the factors affecting the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Nigerian Navy (NN)l training. The purposes of this research were to: ascertain ICT facilities available for naval training programmes in the four training schools, ascertain the naval instructors’ and trainees’ competences in the use of ICT for NN training , identify the factors affecting the use of ICTs in NN training and proffer strategies for more effective use of ICT in NN training.
Methodology: Six research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The descriptive survey research design and inferential statistical method of analyses were adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised 665 respondents consist of 599 trainees and 66 instructors. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire of a four-point rating. On the spot method of data collection was adopted to administer the instrument. Tools used for data analyses of research questions were frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation
Findings: The results revealed that the ICT facilities available are limited, for effective NN training. Five major challenges were identified by respondents in the four training schools as factors affecting the use of ICT in NN training. These are the lack of fully equipped ICT centres and poor power supply among others. The instructors and trainees in the study area proffered six major strategies to mitigate the factors affecting the effective use of ICT in NN training. These are the provision of sufficient ICT facilities, adequate and effective internet service (broad bandwidth) with constant power supply among others.
Implications:- From the findings, for the NN to be efficient and relevant in joint operations with other navies of the world and also achieve operational efficiency locally at sea and ashore, the proffered six strategies should be implemented. The Nigerian Navy, through integrated and coordinated use of the ICT in training, can also improve its responsiveness to security issues and effectiveness in the discharge of its overall duty to the nation, with the increased network capability that ICT offers.
Originality/Value: This research has not been published in any journal before. Its originality lies in its ability to enable the NN to fully embrace the use of ICT for training to become relevant and effective in joint operations with other navies of the world.

Page(s): 256-271                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 December 2019

 Ogbonnaya, Esther Abosede PhD
*Esther Abosede Ogbonnaya holds a BSc in Economics from University of Ife, Postgraduate Diploma in Education from University of Lagos, MLS from University of Ibadan and a PhD in Library and Information Science from University of Nigeria. Currently a Facilitator with National Open University of Nigeria, Mushin Centre, Lagos, Nigeria

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Ogbonnaya, Esther Abosede PhD “Factors Affecting the Use of ICT in Training: A Case Study of the Nigerian Navy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.256-271 November 2019  URL:

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Influence of Students’ Self-Concept on Their Academic Achievement in Secondary School Mathematics

Chika C. Ugwuanyi, Cynthia T. Nnolum, William C. Nwachukwu, Christopher O. Inweregbuh – November 2019 Page No.: 272-277

This study was carried out to investigate the influence of students’ self-concept on their academic achievement in secondary school mathematics. The researchers employed descriptive survey research design. Two (2) research questions and two (2) hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study comprised of two thousand, four hundred and one (2401) SS2 students from the thirty-one (31) secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. A sample of one hundred and fifty (150) students from five (5) schools were selected through random sampling techniques. The instrument for data collection was Students’ Self-Concept Questionnaire (SSQ) structured on a four point Likert scale. The instrument was validated by three (3) experts from University of Nigeria Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha formular was used to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire and a reliability coefficient of 0.908 was obtained. Mean and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions while chi-square (χ 2) and t-test were used to test the null hypothesis 1 and 2 respectively at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the students’ self-concept influences their academic achievement in mathematics with overall mean of 2.6273 and it is statistically significant. Also, students’ gender does not influence their academic achievement in mathematics with overall mean of 2.2660 which isn’t statistically significant. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that classroom teachers should use some teaching strategies that would boost students’ academic self-concept which will in turn promote their academic achievement in mathematics.

Page(s): 272-277                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 December 2019

  Chika C. Ugwuanyi
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

  Cynthia T. Nnolum
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

  William C. Nwachukwu
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

  Christopher O. Inweregbuh
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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Chika C. Ugwuanyi, Cynthia T. Nnolum, William C. Nwachukwu, Christopher O. Inweregbuh “Influence of Students’ Self-Concept on Their Academic Achievement in Secondary School Mathematics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.272-277 November 2019  URL:

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Konkomba Values That Support Girl-Child Betrothal

Dominic Alimbey Dery (Phd), Adam Bawa Yussif (Phd), Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin – November 2019 Page No.: 278-286

The phenomenon of betrothal of the Konkomba girl-child and the resultant early marriage is a very serious cultural issue that the people of Saboba have to grapple with. For instance, records from the Saboba District Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) indicate that up to one hundred cases of girl-child betrothal were recorded between the years 2002 and 2005, and of this number, more than seventy percent are cases from Nalogni. These numbers exclude unreported cases. The case study approach was used for investigating the research problem. Purposive sampling was first used to identify the respondents, after which random sampling approach was used to select respondents for interviews to be administered. The sample size included seventy respondents (70), out of a total population of four hundred and thirty people, representing 16.2% of the entire population. Of the seventy (70) respondents, the breakdown was as follows; girls betrothed (15), girls not betrothed (15), mothers of girls betrothed (10), fathers of betrothed (10), mothers of girls not betrothed (6), fathers of girls not betrothed (6) and key persons (8). The study revealed the following; that the adherence to a number of Konkomba values accounted for the betrothal of the Komkomba girl-child. These included the following; maintenance of family ties, lineage, ensuring girls marry men of good character, solidification of marriage alliances, and the desire to choose the right partners for these girls.

Page(s): 278-286                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 December 2019

 Dominic Alimbey Dery (Phd)
Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Tamale Technical University, Ghana

 Adam Bawa Yussif (Phd)
Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Tamale Technical University, Ghana

 Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin
Mccoy College of Education, Ghana

[1]. Ankomah, A. (2005). The Sexual Behaviour of Young Women in Cape Coast, Ghana: The Pecuniary Considerations. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis.
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Dominic Alimbey Dery (Phd), Adam Bawa Yussif (Phd), Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin “Konkomba Values That Support Girl-Child Betrothal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.278-286 November 2019  URL:

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Identifying the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Administrative and Organizational Structures of the National Health Insurance Scheme, Using Pru and Bawku West Districts

Dominic Alimbey Dery (Phd), Ambrose Baba Salifu A., Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin – November 2019 Page No.: 287-295

The ability of each country’s health insurance to be able to mobilise sufficient funds to finance health care, to allocate these funds and organise health care delivery to produce the much needed health benefits from majority of the people and how to control the cost of health care services depend by and large on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the administrative and organizational structure of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). That is the focus of this paper, to explore the strengths and weaknesses of Ghana’s Health Insurance Scheme and to advice the way forward. Multi-stage sampling was used, the study areas are first divided into identified communities, where the sample of communities were selected from these clusters, from which sampled households were drawn from each identified community through a sample frame. The survey method of data collection was used, with the questionnaire as the principal instrument designed to collect relevant information from 200 respondents. The primary data was collected through interviews from both closed-ended and open-ended questions, and discussions with key informants such as the scheme managers, as well as management of provider facilities from a special questionnaire that was designed for them. The following strengths were identified in the Insurance Scheme, incentives regime through exemptions for the very young and the aged subsidized through government taxes, allowing for continuous payment of premium by instalments and registration phases across the years, identification of vertical linkages to the Regional and National Health Insurance and horizontal linkages with service provides. On the weaknesses threatening the scheme, the staff situation show the need for more skilled training, poor community participation and poor flow of information also threaten the scheme.

Page(s): 287-295                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 December 2019

 Dominic Alimbey Dery (Phd)
Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Tamale Technical University, Ghana

 Ambrose Baba Salifu A.
Department of Planning, North Gonja District Assembly, Ghana

 Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin
Mccoy College of Education, Ghana

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[6]. William C. Hsiao (2001). A framework for assessing Health Financing Strategies and the Role of Health Insurance
[7]. World Health Organization (1997) Health Insurance for People outside Formal Sector employment, guidelines for governments

Dominic Alimbey Dery (Phd), Ambrose Baba Salifu A., Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin “Identifying the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Administrative and Organizational Structures of the National Health Insurance Scheme, Using Pru and Bawku West Districts” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.287-295 November 2019  URL:

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Influence of Resource Management on the Performance of Kenya Medical Supplies Authority in Nairobi City County, Kenya

Nding’uri Daniel Maina, Dr. Abel Anyieni – November 2019 Page No.: 296-299

Kenya Medical Supplies Authority performance is undergoing strategic change management in its operations. Some of these changes include automating its systems, creation of a self-sustaining supply model, providing market and demand driven medical supplies, and getting autonomy from ministry of health in relations to procurement of medical supplies, and distribution of medical supplies. Despite the advantages of the changes being implemented, Kenya Medical Supplies Authority performance has faced diverse challenges in the change. This study aimed at investigating the influence of resource management on the performance of Kenya Medical Supplies Authority In Nairobi City County, Kenya. A case study was utilized in this study. Employees of Kenya Medical Supplies Authority performance who are in senior management, and the supply chain, procurement and finance departments at Kenya Medical Supplies Authority performance formed the target population. These include senior managers, supply chain officials, procurement officials, and finance officials. The study sample size was 70 respondents which was obtained through the use f simple random sampling method. To address particular study objectives, a structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was used for gathering the required data. The pilot survey was carried out on seven Kenya Medical Supplies Authority performance staff and were not included in the final research to test the instrument’s validity and reliability. The alpha coefficient of Cronbach was used to determine internal consistency and construct validity with 0.7 considered adequate for reliability. The study found that resources management had a positive and significant influence on performance of Kenya Medical Supplies Authority performance. The study concluded that utilization of information technology resources was highly rated by the respondents in regard to resources management aspects. The study recommended that enough financial resources should be utilized to improve the performance of the Kenya Medical Supplies Authority in the leadership of strategic change elements.

Page(s): 296-299                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 December 2019

 Nding’uri Daniel Maina
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Abel Anyieni
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Nding’uri Daniel Maina, Dr. Abel Anyieni “Influence of Resource Management on the Performance of Kenya Medical Supplies Authority in Nairobi City County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.296-299 November 2019  URL:

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Influence of Leadership Attributes of Head of Schools on the Student’s Academic Performance in Selected Secondary Schools in Tanzania: A Case of Mbulu District

Chelestino Simbalimile Mofuga, Dr Joseph Magali, Dr Cosmas B Haule – November 2019 Page No.: 300-310

This study assessed the influence of the leadership attributes of the Head of schools on the student academic performance in public and private secondary schools. Explanatory cross-sectional survey design with a concurrent mixed approach using both primary and secondary data were employed. A total of 202 teachers used to provide evidence on heads of schools attributes in influencing students’ academic performance using questionnaires, in-depth interview and focus group discussion. The collected data were analysed using SPSS version 23 for quantitative data and thematic analysis for qualitative data. Significant relationship between integrity and students’ academic performance was revealed. However, inspirational attributes negatively correlated between students’ academic performance. In addition, the results reveal that there was weak, positive and significant relationship between competency and academic performance. The study concluded that integrity and competency attributes significantly influence positively the students’ academic performance while inspirational negatively influences students’ academic performance.
Therefore, the study recommends the government to allocate enough funds for professional development for the aspirant of head of secondary schools and review educational policy on the training and development of teachers before and after appointment into headship post.

Page(s): 300-310                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 December 2019

 Chelestino Simbalimile Mofuga
PhD Student at Open University of Tanzania, P.O.BOX 1 MBULU, Tanzania

 Dr Joseph Magali
Faculty of Business Management, Open University of Tanzania, P.O.BOX 34705, D.S.M, Tanzania

 Dr Cosmas B Haule
Faculty of Business Management, of the Open University of Tanzania, P.O.BOX 34705, D.S.M, Tanzania (Currently Working as Director for Singida Centre)

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Chelestino Simbalimile Mofuga, Dr Joseph Magali, Dr Cosmas B Haule “Influence of Leadership Attributes of Head of Schools on the Student’s Academic Performance in Selected Secondary Schools in Tanzania: A Case of Mbulu District ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.300-310 November 2019  URL:

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Perspectives and Challenges: Review of the Debate on the Integration of E-learning in Education

Talal M. Amara – November 2019 Page No.: 311-317

With the rapid growth of E-Learning programmes in the education sector, many educational institutions integrate E-Learning mode as an option to better serve students’ needs. E-Learning has been growing up in today’s technology generation; therefore, there is a need for evaluating this new learning style across the different educational field. The current review highlights the main factors, issues, and point views of the use E-Learning with students. It attempts to discuss the benefits and challenges of E-Learning with different students and in various contexts. Some valuable suggestions for researchers and the direction of future research in the field of E-Learning have also been discussed.

Page(s): 311-317                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 December 2019

 Talal M. Amara
Assistant Professor & Academic Consultant
Ph.D in English Language and Literacy Education
The General Center for Training and Education Development
Ministry of Education, Tripoli, Libya

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Talal M. Amara “Perspectives and Challenges: Review of the Debate on the Integration of E-learning in Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.311-317 November 2019  URL:

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Reflective Practice as a Tool for Quality Assurance in Professional Development of Primary School Teachers

Likando Mundia (PhD) – November 2019 Page No.: 318-322

The purpose of this article is to advocate for the institutionalisation and implementation of reflective practice in the Zambian education system so that quality assurance among primary school teachers is achieved. Reflective practice is a common phenomenon in successive and effective educational systems and teachers in the world. It has been regarded as one of the characteristics successive and quality educational systems and teachers in the world (Rarieya, 2005). This means that the quality of any educational system and teachers can be measured by their engagement in reflective practice.
From the above it can be said that reflective practice is closely related to quality assurance in that the quality of any educational system and teachers is to a larger extent affected by the presence or absence of reflective practice. Researchers (Stanton, 1990; Braun & Crampler, 2005) have indicated that primary school teachers who do not engage in reflective practice their teaching become haphazardly, accidentally and superficially done. Such primary school teachers are more likely to teach in the same way they were taught and this would result into the repetition of the same ineffective strategies and this automatically affect the quality assurance of the educational system.

Page(s): 318-322                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 December 2019

 Likando Mundia (PhD)
Mongu Catholic College of Education, Mongu, Western-Zambia

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Likando Mundia (PhD) “Reflective Practice as a Tool for Quality Assurance in Professional Development of Primary School Teachers” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.318-322 November 2019  URL:

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Assessing University of Education, Winneba Production Economies of Scale and Scope: A Further Decomposition

Isaac Addai – November 2019 Page No.: 323-327

The study, paper empirically estimates University of Education, Winneba (UEW) multi-product costs using the flexible quadratic cost function. Statistical results suggest that there are both economies of scale and scope in UEW multi-production. Furthermore, there exist product-specific diseconomies of scope for Fulltime output suggesting that it is more costly or cost disadvantage for UEW producing that output in isolation from other outputs. There exist product-specific economies of scope for Distance and Sandwich outputs respectively suggesting cheaper joint production of each output.

Page(s): 323-327                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 December 2019

 Isaac Addai
Department of Accounting Studies, College of Technology Education, University of Education, Winneba, P.O.BOX 1277,
Kumasi, Ghana

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Isaac Addai “Assessing University of Education, Winneba Production Economies of Scale and Scope: A Further Decomposition” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.323-327 November 2019  URL:

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Effect of Rewards and Job Design on Employee Performance at the Kenya Bureau of Standards

Linda Muthoni Nthiga, Dr. Thomas Ngui – November 2019 Page No.: 328-337

The study focused on determining the effect of employee motivation on their performance, using Kenya Bureau of Standards Headquarters, Nairobi as a case study. Motivation is a catalyst of behavior and as such, to cultivate a behavior of success in an organization it is imperative to ensure that employees have the relevant motivating factors in place. The objectives for the study were; to establish the effect of employee reward and recognition and job design on their motivation. The study was supported by the Maslow’s Theory of Motivation and the Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. The research design used for the project was descriptive design. The population consisted of all the employees at KEBS Headquarters, Nairobi which comprises of 220 employees. The study adopted the census approach; therefore, all the 220 employees were included. Primary data was collected with the aid of questionnaires and a descriptive analysis carried out to interpret and analyze the variables. Data analysis was carried out using statistical tools such as SPSS and through Descriptive Analysis. Correlation and regression analysis was conducted to establish the effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. Analyzed data was presented in tables, figures, and charts. From the analysis the co-efficient value for reward was 0.506, which was statistically significant. The co-efficient value for job design was 0.060, which was statistically insignificant.

Page(s): 328-337                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 December 2019

 Linda Muthoni Nthiga
Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi Kenya

 Dr. Thomas Ngui
Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi Kenya

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[5]. De Gieter, S., &Hofmans, J. (2015). How reward satisfaction affects employees’ turnover intentions and performance: an individual differences approach. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(2), 200-216.
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[8]. Herzberg, F. (1968). One More Time: How do you Motivate People? Harvard Business Review.
[9]. Kiruja, E. K., &Mukuru, E. (2018).Effect of motivation on employee performance in public middle level Technical Training Institutions in Kenya. IJAME.
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[11]. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological review, 50(4), 370.
[12]. Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. J., Morrison, J. R., &Kalman, H. K. (2019). Designing effective instruction.Wiley.
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[14]. Omollo, P. A., &Oloko, M. A. (2015). Effect of motivation on employee performance of commercial banks in Kenya: A case study of Kenya Commercial Bank in Migori County. International journal of human resource studies, 5(2), 87-103.
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[16]. Siengthai, S., &Pila-Ngarm, P. (2016, August). The interaction effect of job redesign and job satisfaction on employee performance. In Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship (Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 162-180). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
[17]. Singh, R. (2016). The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators on employee engagement in information organizations. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57(2), 197-206.
[18]. Temminck, E., Mearns, K., &Fruhen, L. (2015).Motivating employees towards sustainable behaviour. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24(6), 402-412.
[19]. Van Wingerden, J., Derks, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2017).The impact of personal resources and job crafting interventions on work engagement and performance. Human Resource Management, 56(1), 51-67.
[20]. White, G. (2009). Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies–Edited by John Shields. Industrial Relations Journal, 40(2), 173-175.
[21]. Wilson, T. B., & Wilson, T. B. (2003).Innovative reward systems for the changing workplace. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Linda Muthoni Nthiga, Dr. Thomas Ngui “Effect of Rewards and Job Design on Employee Performance at the Kenya Bureau of Standards” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.328-337 November 2019  URL:

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The Ghana Living Standards Survey Round Six Household Heads Annual Gender Earnings Gap: An Empirical Analysis

Isaac Addai – November 2019 Page No.: 338-343

The existence of differential earnings between male and female is taken as a universal phenomenon in almost all countries regardless of the nature and structure of the economic system. Research on gender earnings gap in Ghana is relatively a very new area of social research. One is not therefore in a position to tell how acute the gender earnings differential is in the Ghanaian economy. This paper is an attempt to contribute to bringing into the limelight the social phenomena of gender earnings gap in Ghana through empirical evidence by estimating the Household Heads gender earnings gap in Ghana based on data from The Ghana Living Standards Survey Round Six (GLSS6).The paper used a formalized method to analyze the log annual earnings differential between male and female Household Heads to determine what portion of their earnings differential is due to skills and discrimination. The findings suggests that males Household Heads in Ghana from the GLSS 6 data with sample average female characteristics earn 63% more than female Household Heads in Ghana with matching level of characteristics, ceteris paribus.

Page(s): 338-343                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 December 2019

 Isaac Addai
Department of Accounting Studies, College of Technology Education, University of Education, Winneba, P.O.BOX 1277, Kumasi, Ghana

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Isaac Addai “The Ghana Living Standards Survey Round Six Household Heads Annual Gender Earnings Gap: An Empirical Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.338-343 November 2019  URL:

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Expectations of the Student-Supervisor Relationship in Doctoral Studies

Cornelius Kipleting Rugut – November 2019 Page No.: 344-350

Postgraduate supervision and particularly the student-supervisor relationship in doctoral studies has recently become a topic of great discussion in the academic arena. The relationship between the student and the supervisor is central to the successful completion of doctoral studies. As such, the focus of this study was to explore the nature of the student-supervisor relationship in the completion of educational doctoral studies in two African universities, namely, Nelson Mandela University in South Africa and Moi University in Kenya.
Aqualitative approach was used, located within an interpretivist paradigm and positioned as an intrinsic interpretive case study. Convenient and purposive sampling was utilized to select participants who had recently completed their doctoral studies in education within the last five years. An individual semi-structured interview and drawings were used to generate the data with ten participants, five from each of the two Universities. The data was analysed thematically and the model for interpersonal supervisor behaviour of Mainhard, Roeland, Tarkwijk and Wubbels (2009), was used to make meaning of the findings. The conclusions from the findings were used to generate implications which could be helpful to university management in improving postgraduate supervision and in so doing, promote the success rate of doctoral studies in African universities.

Page(s): 344-350                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 December 2019

 Cornelius Kipleting Rugut

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[3]. Adkins, B. (2009). PhD pedagogy and changing knowledge landscape of universities. Higher Education Research and Development Journal, 28(2), 165-177.
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[11]. Bhandari, R. &Mirza, Z. (2016).Scholarships for Students from Developing Countries: Establishing a Global Baseline. Paper commissioned for the Global Education Monitoring Report, Education for people and planet: Creating sustainable futures for all. Washington: Institute of International Education.
[12]. Bista, B. & Cox, D. (2014).Cohort-based doctoral programs. What we have learned over the last 18 years. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 9(1), 1-20.
[13]. Botha, N. (2014). The cohort supervision model. To what extent does it facilitate doctoral success? In Bitzer, A., Albertyn, R., Frick, L., Grant, C., & Kelley, F. (Eds.), Pushing the boundaries in postgraduate supervision (pp. 133-151). Stellenbosch; Sun Press.
[14]. Bourhis, A. (2014) supervisory relationship. Implementation guide for Professors and students: HEC Montreal, Montreal: HEC Montreal Program Office.

Cornelius Kipleting Rugut “Expectations of the Student-Supervisor Relationship in Doctoral Studies” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.344-350 November 2019  URL:

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Development of Animation Video Media Using Flash Player Class XII Department of Boga Vocational School 1 State Vocational School, Bandar Lampung

Rekta Herwina – November 2019 Page No.: 351-354

This study aims to produce the products of class XII students of SMK. This research is a research development of career information services with flash player-based video animation media for readiness to enter the workforce. Subjects taken in this study using a random technique that is 49 students. Methods of data collection using questionnaires, observation and interviews. Analysis of the data used is quantitative descriptive. The results showed that career information services with animated video media have the potential for work readiness at SMK Negeri 1 Bandar Lampung and career information services with animated video media produced effectively assist students in preparing to enter the workforce with the effectiveness of animated video media by 77.84%. Career information services using animated video media can be used as an additional reference for school counselors to make decisions in the selection of students’ careers.

Page(s): 351-354                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 December 2019

 Rekta Herwina
FKIP Unila Jl. Prof. Sumantri Brodjonegoro no. 1 Bandarlampung, Indonesia

[1]. Azhar, Arsyad.2002. Learning Media. Jakarta: PT.Grafindo Persada.
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[3]. Astuti, Dewi, 2006, Professional Animation Making Techniques Using Macromedia Flash, Andi, Bandung.
[4]. GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING. 2007. Signs of Organizing Guidance and Counseling in Formal education pathway (Academic Paper).
[5]. Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2010. Research Procedure A Practical Approach. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
[6]. Dalyono. 2005. Educational Psychology. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
[7]. Eko Putro Widoyoko, S. (2009). Evaluation of Learning Programs. Yogyakarta: Student Library.
[8]. Farozin, Muh. 2008. Understanding Behavior. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
[9]. Heru, Mugiarso 2007. Guidance and Counseling. Semarang: UPT UNNES Press.
[10]. Husaini Usman and Purnomo Setiadi Akbar, Social Research Methodology, Jakarta: Earth Literacy, 1996
[11]. Mugiarso, Heru. 2007. Guidance and Counseling. Semarang: UNNES Press.
[12]. Mutmainah., Siti and Purbo., Onno W., Flash Design and Web Animation, PT.Elex Media Komputindo, Jakarta, 2002.
[13]. Permendikbud Number 111 of 2014 concerning Implementation of Guidance and Counseling at the Elementary and Secondary Education Level.
[14]. Pranowo, Galih. 2011. Interactive Animation Creations with ActionScript 3.0 on Flash CS5. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset
[15]. Prayitno.2004. Guidance for Group Guidance. Padang: Padang University Pres.
[16]. Prayitno and Erman Amti.2004. Fundamentals of Guidance & Counseling. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
[17]. Rudi Susilana and Cepi Riyana.2007. Learning Media. Bandung: CV. Prima Discourse.
[18]. Setiyosari, Punaji.2012. Educational Research and Development Methods. Jakarta: Kencana
[19]. Simamora, Henry. 2011. Human Resource Management. Yogyakarta: YKPN
[20]. Slameto 2010. Learning and Factors That Influence It. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
[21]. Soemanto, Wasty. 2006. Educational Psychology Platform for Educational Leaders. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta
[22]. Suparno 2007. Building Learning Competencies.Jakarta:Directorate General of Higher Education Ministry of National Education.
[23]. Sugiyono, et al. 2010. Educational Research Methods. Bandung: Alfabeta.
[24]. Sugiyono.2011. Utilization of Textbooks in Teaching and Learning Process. CV. Teen Work: Bandung
[25]. Sugiyono.2012. Educational Research Methods (Quantitative, Qualitative and R&D Approaches) .Bandung: Alfabeta
[26]. Stevano, Bayu and Home Agency, 2007, 101 Flash 8 Tips and Tricks, Elex Media Komputindo, Jakarta.
[27]. Suyanto. 2004. Understanding Animation in General. Jakarta: Grasindo.
[28]. Syamsu Yusuf.2009. Guidance and Counseling Programs in Schools. Bandung: Rizqi Press
[29]. Tohirin 2007. Guidance and Counseling Services Techniques. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
[30]. Law No. 20 of 2003. National Education System. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.
[31]. Walgito Bimo.2004. Introduction to General Psychology. Jakarta: Andi Publisher
[32]. Winkel, W.S.2004. Educational Psychology and Learning Evaluation. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia General Library.
[33]. Winkel, W. S & Hastuti, S. 2010. Guidance and Counseling in EducationalInstitutions.Yogyakarta: Eternal Media.
[34]. Yudhi, Munadi. 2008. Learning Media. Jakarta: Gaung Persada press.
[35]. Yudhiantoro, Dhani. 2006. Creating Web Animations with Macromedia Flash Professional 8. Yogyakarta: Andi Publisher.
[36]. Zamzam Zawawi Firdaus. 2012. The Influence of Production Unit, Prakerin and Family Support on the Work Readiness of Vocational Students. Journal of Vocational Education (Number 3 Volume 2). Page 400

Rekta Herwina “Development of Animation Video Media Using Flash Player Class XII Department of Boga Vocational School 1 State Vocational School, Bandar Lampung” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.351-354 November 2019  URL:

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Political Discourse on Southern Cameroons Security Situation, 1959 -1961: A Historical Appraisal

Richard Talla Tanto, Julius Nkeh – November 2019 Page No.: 355-365

This article examines the pre-plebiscite and the post plebiscite discourse that culminated into the creation of a police force in West Cameroon. The discussions which gained added impetus from 1959 was part of Southern Cameroons quest for security guarantees in the context of the struggle for statehood. The paper argues that Southern Cameroons debated her security situation from a disadvantageous standpoint and finally attained independence with a police force that could not adequately address security challenges and so had to be succored by the gendarmes from the Republic of Cameroun. British partial commitment to the task of creating an indigenous police force for Southern Cameroons, lack of cohesiveness amongst West Cameroonian politicians and the influence of President Ahmadou Ahidjo informed the conclusions of Southern Cameroons’ security debate.

Page(s): 355-365                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 December 2019

 Richard Talla Tanto
Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

 Julius Nkeh
Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

Archival Material (National Archives Buea)
[1]. File No. 304/11/37.
[2]. File No. Vc/b/1961)28 : Address to the Summit Conference by Acting Commissionner of the Cameroons.
[3]. Pb1959/1 : Police Force Strength, June 1935.
[4]. Pb1959/1 Letter No. M. 83 Vol. 111/479, 17 July 1935
[5]. Pb1957/2 : Police Force Strength, June 1956
[6]. Press Release No. 686, 1 March 1960
[7]. Press Release No. 733, 24 March 1960
[8]. Press Release No 734, 25 March 1960
[9]. Press Release No773, 20 April 1960
[10]. Press Release No 832, 23 May 1960
[11]. Press Release No 833, 23 May 1960
[12]. Press Release No 982, 19 September 1960
[13]. Press Release No 1002, 30 September 1960
[14]. Press Release No 1305, 25 April 1961
[15]. Press Release No 1330, 11 May 1961
[16]. Press Release No 1416, 27 June 1961
[17]. Press Release No 1414, 27 June 1961
[18]. Press Release No 1428, 1 July 1961
[19]. Press Release No 1453, 13 July 1961
[20]. Press Release No 1477, 2 August 1961
[21]. Press Release No 1488, 5 August 1961
[22]. Press Release No 1492, 8 August 1961
[23]. Press Release No 1498, 10 August 1961
[24]. Press Release No 1546, 5 November 1961 : House of Assembly Debates :Motion toEstablish Cameroon Militia Passed, 24 March 1960.
[25]. Report by Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the General Assembly of the United Nations on the Cameroons Under United Kingdom Administration for the Year 1954. London : Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1955.
News Paper
[26]. London Times, 5 May 1961
Published Works
[27]. Ndi , Anthony. The Golden Age of SouthernCameroons : Vital Lessons for Cameroon.Denver : Spears Media Press, 2016.
[28]. Ngoh, Victor. Julius. Southern Cameroons 1922- 1961 : A Constitutional History.Burlington :Ashgate Publishing Company, 2001.
[29]. Alemika, E.O. Etannibi. ‘’ Colonialism, State and Policing in Nigeria, ‘In Journal of Crime, Law and Social Change.Vol. 20,1993.
[30]. Chukwuma, Innocent. ‘’Police Transformation In Nigeria : Problems and Prospects in Crime and Policing in Transitional societies ‘’Seminar Report No 8. Johannesburg :South Africa Institute of International Affairs, 2001
[31]. Fokum, Vincent. ‘’ The Marriage of Two Families’’InSevir : Review de La Police Camerounaise (Julliet 1988).
Internet Source
[32]. Human Rights Watch. ‘Everyone’s on the Game’ Corruption and Human Rights Abuses by the Nigerian Police Force. Available on on 13 February 2019.

Richard Talla Tanto, Julius Nkeh “Political Discourse on Southern Cameroons Security Situation, 1959 -1961: A Historical Appraisal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.355-365 November 2019  URL:

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National Security and the Imperativeness of State Police in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

Nnaji, Ejike Sylvester, Ojiego, Chinemerem Winifred – November 2019 Page No.: 366-372

More recently, there has been an ongoing clamour for the establishment of state police in Nigeria. This, however, is a sharp reaction to the increased spate of crimes and violence in the country, notably the activities of killer herdsmen, BokoHaram insurgents, banditry, kidnapping and other crimes that has been going on unabated. This paper therefore investigates whether the establishment of state police will enhance Nigeria’s national security. The study is anchored on strategic theory as its framework of analysis. It also made use of documentary method of data collection as well as content analysis. The study discovered that over-centralization of the Nigerian Police Force has led to an increase in crimes and violence in the country. The study strongly recommends among others, a decentralization of the Nigerian Police Force to the level of state police as this will help contain violence at the grassroot/community level before they escalate to threaten the national security of the country.

Page(s): 366-372                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 December 2019

 Nnaji, Ejike Sylvester
Department of Political Science and International Relations, Godfrey Okoye University, Thuinkers Corner, Enugu State, Nigeria

 Ojiego, Chinemerem Winifred
Department of History, International Studies and Diplomacy, Godfrey Okoye University, Thinkers Corner, Enugu State, Nigeria

[1]. Abdullahi H.I (2019). State Police and Police–OperationalEfficiency:Footing for Strengthening National Security in Nigeria:- A Scrutiny of Ojo Lagos State. Global Journal of Arts,Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.7.Nos.5
[2]. Agwanwo, D.E (2014) State Police and Police Efficiency in Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.4, No.25
[3]. Alemika, E. E. O. (1993) “Colonialism, State and Policing in Nigeria.”Crime, Law and Social Change 20: 189 -219.
[4]. Aleyomi M.B (2013) Is State Police a Panacea to Security Threat in Nigeria? Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.4,No.4.2
[5]. Arase S.E (2018) A Critical Analysis of the Pros and Cons of State Policing: To Be or Not to Be. A paper presentation at NBA Benin Branch 2018 Law Week.
[6]. Eme O.I. and Anyadike N.O (2013).Security Challenges and the Imperatives of State Police. Review of Public Administration and Management, Vol.1, No.2
[7]. Fanran A.O (2018). The Proposed State Police and Language: Panacea for Security in Nigeria. European Journal of English Language, Linguistic and Literature.
[8]. Mbaeze N.C and Nnaji E.S (2018) Herders – Farmers Conflict in Nigeria: Implication for National Development. International Journal of Social Scienceand Technology, Vol. 3 No. 4
[9]. Nwogwugwu N. and Kupoluyi A.K (2015) Interrogating the Desirability of State Police in Nigeria. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.20, Issue 5, pp 01-07
[10]. Odeh A.M and Umoh N. (2015) State Policing and National Security in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.6, No.1
[11]. Onyemwinmina C. and Aibieyi S. (2016). Analysis Towards Effective Policing in Nigeria. African Research Review, An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia, Vol.10 (1)
[12]. Osayande P.B (2008) Factors Inhibiting Police Performance in Nigeria. A paper presented at the Occasion of the Retreat with the Theme: “Understanding the Mandate and Operations of the Police Service Commission in Conetext of Rule of Law”.
[13]. Tamuno, T. U. (1970), The Police in Modern Nigeria, Ibadan: University Press.
[14]. Ugwu C.E,.NgigeD., and Ugwuanyi B. (2013) Calls for State Police in Nigeria: Options for Sustainable National Security. International Journal of Research in Arts and Social Sciences, Vol. 5
[15]. Yarger H.R. (2006). Strategic Theory for the 21st Century: The Little Book on Big Strategy.

Nnaji, Ejike Sylvester, Ojiego, Chinemerem Winifred “National Security and the Imperativeness of State Police in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.366-372 November 2019  URL:

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Understanding the Exhibition’s Characteristics of Selected Museums in Malaysia

Norfadilah Kamaruddin – November 2019 Page No.: 373-377

The literature on the museum studies has primarily focused on the study of cultural and heritage memory with a secondary focus on tourism agenda. Given the extraordinary expansion of the museum sector worldwide in the recent decades, the development of museums exhibition has not yet been examined within the broader of interface design perspectives. Thus, it is an appropriate time to expand this range of analytical concerns by looking in depth on the exhibition characteristics of the so-called ‘new look of museum’. This article seeks to review the exhibition’s characteristics that commonly used in Malaysian museums. The goal is not easily to generate a generic survey or typology of museum displays, but to describe the use of different forms of museum exhibition within the specific characteristics.

Page(s): 373-377                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 December 2019

 Norfadilah Kamaruddin
Creative Visual Exchange Group (CREaTE), Faculty of Art & Design, University Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

[1]. Bennett, Tony, (1995) The Birth of the Museum: History, Theory, Politics. New York: Routledge.
[2]. Burcaw, G.E. (1975) Introduction to museum work (Nashville).
[3]. Duncan, C. & A.Wallach (1978) ‘The Museum of Modern Art as late capitalist ritual: an iconographic analysis’, Marxist Perspective 1 (4): 28-51.
[4]. Hall, M. (1987) On display (London).
[5]. Henning, Michelle, (2006) Museums, Media and Cultural Theory, Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
[6]. Hyowon Hyun, Jungkun Park, Tianbao Ren, Hyunjin Kim, (2018) “The role of ambiances and aesthetics on millennials’ museum visiting behavior”, Arts and the Market,
[7]. Kiersten F. Latham, (2012) “Museum object as document: Using Buckland’s information concepts to understand museum experiences”, Journal of Documentation, Vol. 68 Issue: 1, pp.45-71, 11211200329
[8]. Leonard, Marion, (2010) ‘Exhibiting Popular Music: Museum Audiences, Inclusion and Social History’ Journal of New Music Research, 39 (2) 171–181.
[9]. Message, Kylie (2006) ‘The New Museum’ Theory Culture and Society: Explorations in Critical Social Science, 23 (2-3) 603-606
[10]. Michelle Chaotzu Wang, James Quo-Ping Lin, (2018) “The Future Museum shapes the museum future: A progressive strategy of the National Palace Museum adopting new media art exhibitions as a marketing tool”, Arts and the Market,
[11]. Shanks, M. & C.Tilley (1987) Re-constructing archaeology (Cambridge).
[12]. Paola Castellani, Chiara Rossato, (2014) “On the communication value of the company museum and archives”, Journal of Communication Management, Vol. 18 Issue: 3, pp.240-253, JCOM-02-2012-0018
[13]. Paul Capriotti, (2010) “Museums’ communication in small‐ and medium‐sized cities”,Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 15 Issue: 3, pp.281-298,

Norfadilah Kamaruddin “Understanding the Exhibition’s Characteristics of Selected Museums in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.373-377 November 2019  URL:

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Assessing Indigenous and Colonial Forest Conservation Policies on the Kilum-Ijim Forest of the Bamenda Grassland, Precolonial to 1961

Richard Tanto Talla, Canute A. Ngwa, Doreen Binain Mbain – November 2019 Page No.: 378-387

Too often in the past, the contributions of indigenous people to forest conservation have largely been ignored or belittled by the colonial administrators. Yet indigenous people controlled most of the world’s natural forest through their traditional practices, and often strong conservation ethics. The study explores the role of the indigenous groups and the colonial government in the conservation of Kilum-Ijim forests. Based on information collected through oral interviews, archival materials, published and unpublished works, the study contends that the original practices in the conservation of forest by communities of the Kilum-Ijim and Bamenda Grasslands forest as a whole have been diluted over the years, following contact with exogenous forces such as colonialism which introduced colonial laws, encapsulated in Ordinances. The colonial powers believed that their policies were superior to local customs and traditions of Africans, as a result; they imposed forest policies, which over the years have gradually seen the disappearance of the hitherto rich cultural heritage. Hence, their involvement in forest conservation, preservation methods, difficulties encountered and the consequences of modern forest policies on the local forests in the Bamenda grassland, constitute the analysis of this paper.

Page(s): 378-387                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 December 2019

 Richard Tanto Talla
Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

 Canute A. Ngwa
Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

 Doreen Binain Mbain
Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

Primary Sources
Oral Interview
[1]. Chia, Ngwainmbi Simon. Belo. He is an Environmentalist and currently serving as the Director of Belo Area Development Association (BERUDA).
[2]. Chiabi, Lawrence. Njinikom. He is a Forest Conservator and worked with the Ijim Mountain Forest Project from 1994 – 2004). He was a member of the Forest Management Institutions attached to the Ijim forest.
[3]. Kuh, Emmanuel. Njinikejem – Kom, Friday 30 November 2017. He is a Conservator and an Agriculture Expert. He is the General Manager of Mix Farming Common Initiative Group (MIFACIG), based in Njinikijem.
[4]. Mban, Grace. Oku. She is a Conservator of Forest. She was Committee member of the Kilum Mountain Forest Project during the era of Birdlife International. She was in charge of one of the Forest Management Institutions created by Birdlife International.
[5]. Neng, Velma Ful. Belo. Environmentalist and Liaison Officer with Belo Area Development Association (BERUDA).
[6]. Tagha, Nkwambi Samson. Oku. He is the Vice Principal of GTHS Elak Oku. He is a Traditional Council Forest Committee Member. He grew up in Elak Oku, which is closer to the Kilum Ijim Forest.
Archival Materials
National Archives Buea, Cameroon (NAB)
[7]. Q/ha (1916)1, Dr. Uwin’s Report, 1916, Forests.
[8]. Qh/a (1916)2, Forestry Ordinance: Regulations made under the Forestry Ordinance – Nigeria, 1917.
[9]. Q/ha (1917)1, Forests Proclamation, 1917.
[10]. Q/ha (1917)3, Timber: Report on System of Felling – calls for, 1917.
[11]. Q/ha (1928)1, Forestry – Cameroons Province.
[12]. Q/ha (1932)2, Forestry Department Licenses and Permits to General Correspondence (NAB).
[13]. Q/ha (1933)1, Forestry Department: General Correspondence.
[14]. Q/ha (1934)2, File No. 1409, “Sylva” Société des Bois de L’Ouest Africaine Douala Application for Timber License (Area E. 128), (NAB).
[15]. Q/ha (1936)1, File No. V. 634, Taungya System Forestry (NAB).
[16]. Q/ha (1946)2, File No. 21206, Timber Production: Cameroons Province (NAB).
[17]. Q/ha (1950)1, Departmental Annual Report (Forest Department).
North West Regional Archives
[18]. NW/Sa/e (1998)1, The Stories of the Kom People. By Iwoi Daniel Wam.
Unpublished Sources
[19]. Boamah, Daniel Asante. “Akan Indigenous Religio-Cultural Beliefs and Environmental Preservation: The Role of Taboos.” Master’s Essay School of Religion, Queen’s University, 2015.
[20]. Mbatu, Richard Sungkekang. “Forest Policy: Forest Loss and Land use Cover Change in Cameroon.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 2006.
[21]. Nkengla, Lilian. “Community-based Forest Management and Changing Gender Roles in a Patriarchal Society in Cameroon: The Case of Korup and Bechati Forest Areas.” Ph.D Thesis, Brandenburg University of Technology, 2014.
Secondary Sources
[22]. Ingram, Verina J. Win-Wins in Forest Product Value Chains? How Governance Impacts the Sustainability of Livelihoods Based on Non-Timber Forest Products From Cameroon. Leiden: African Studies Centre, 2014.
[23]. Nkwi, P.N. and Warnier, Jean-Paul. Elements for a History of the Western Grassfields. Yaounde, Cameroon Department of Sociology Publication, University of Yaoundé, 1982.
[24]. Nkwi, Walter Gam. Kfaang and its Technologies: Towards a Social History Mobility in Kom, Cameroon, 1928-1998. Leiden: African Studies Centre, 2011.
[25]. Ylhäisi, Jussi. Traditional Protected Forests and Sacred Forests of Zigua and Gweno Ethnic Groups in Tanzania. Finland: Helsinki, 2006.
Articles in Journals and Book Chapters
[26]. Azang, Adig Mathias and Lon, Nfi Joseph. “Chiefs and the Crisis of Transition from German to British Administration in the Bamenda Grassland of Cameroon, 1916 – 1922” 1-6. International Journal of Novel Research in Humanity and Social Sciences, Vol. 4, Issue 5. 2017.
[27]. Kah, H. Kam. “Wuai, Kesiazheh, Nyengui: History and Livelihood Challenges in a Cameroon’s Montane Forest Reserve,” 93-104. Economic – and Eco-history, Vol. XI, No. 11. 2015.
[28]. Kajembe, G.C. and Kessy, J.F. “Joint Forest Management in Urumwa Forest Reserve, Tabora, Tanzania: A Process in the making Paper Presented at a seminar and workshop on Governance, Property Rights and Rules on Woodland and Wildlife Management in Southern Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe.” November 23–24, 1999.
[29]. Lanz, Tobias J. “The Origins, Development and Legacy of Scientific Forestry in Cameroon.” 99-120. Environment and History 5, No. 1: February 2000.
[30]. Mbatu, Richard Sungkekang. “Forest exploitation in Cameroon (1884–1994): an oxymoron of top‐down and bottom‐up forest management policy approaches.” pp. 747-763, in International Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 66, No. 6. 2009.
[31]. Ngwasiri, Clement N., Robinson Djeukam and Michael B. Vabi.“Legislative and Institutional Instruments for the Sustainable Management of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) in Cameroon.” October 2002.
[32]. Rafapa, Lesibana Jacobus. “At the Heart of African Rainmaking,” Southern African Journal for Folklore Studies Vol. 18, 51-62. July 2008.

Richard Tanto Talla, Canute A. Ngwa, Doreen Binain Mbain “Assessing Indigenous and Colonial Forest Conservation Policies on the Kilum-Ijim Forest of the Bamenda Grassland, Precolonial to 1961” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.378-387 November 2019  URL:

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Bank Fraud and Socio-Structural Patterns of Internal Control Measures in Nigeria

Prof. Dagaci Aliyu Manbe, Anthony Abah Ebonyi – November 2019 Page No.: 388-396

The objective of this study is to examine Bank fraud and internal control measures in Nigeria. Bank fraud refers to illegal financial acts perpetrated by both bank staff and outsiders, or bank staff in connivance with outsiders, and intended to deceive, mislead and steal company property – monetary or otherwise – to satisfy personal needs or desires. The study utilised secondary sources of data which contents were anaylsed. The work place deviance and fraud triangle theories were adopted to anchor the study. The results suggest that bank fraud is prevalent and widespread in Nigeria, and therefore, it requires effective and efficient programmes to bring it under control, so as to boost investors’ confidence and protect customers or depositors interests.

Page(s): 388-396                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 December 2019

 Prof. Dagaci Aliyu Manbe
Prof. of Sociology, Criminology/Counter-Terrorism and Insurgency, Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Anthony Abah Ebonyi
Doctoral Candidate in Criminology, Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Nigeria

[1]. Aderemi, O. (2018). “Nigerian banks lost N12.06 billion to fraud and forgery in 6 months”. Business Insider. Retrieved from’s%20analysis%20of,fraudulent%20activities%20account%20for%2043.
[2]. Akinyomi, O. J. (2014). Access publishing platform for Management Research/ Examination of fraud in the Nigerian banking sector and its prevention. Asian Journal of Management Research.
[3]. Chimeocha, G. C. (2018) Internal Audit an Effective tool for Fraud Control in a Manufacturing Organization(A study of Michelle Laboratory Plc). Masters Thesis, Department of Accounting and Finance, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu. Retrieved from › INTERNAL_AUDIT_AN_EFFECTIVE_TOO..
[4]. Dagaci, A.M. (2011). Factors and Effects of Financial Crimes in Nigerian Banks. An Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Sociology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
[5]. “Internal Control” Retrieved from
[6]. Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation [NDIC] (2017). Retrieved from
[7]. Olaoye, C. O., Dada, R. A., & Adebayo A. I., (2014). Analysis of Frauds in Banks: Nigeria’s Experience. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 3(1), 357 – 368. Retrieved from › publication › 322386369_Analysis_of_Fraud…
[8]. Oloidi, G. A. & Ajinaja, O. T. (2014). Bank Frauds and Forgeries in Nigeria: A Study of the Causes, Types, Detection and Prevention. Journal of Economics and Finance, 4 (2), 41-50. Retrieved from › iosr-jef › papers › vol4-issue2
[9]. Robinson, S. L. & Bennett, R. J. (1995). A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling. The Academy of Management Journal, 38 (2), 555-572. Retrieved from
[10]. Sumiullah, A. (2019). The Mediating Role of Negative Affectivity and Moderating Role of Internal Locus of Control. Masters Thesis, Faculty of Management & Social Sciences Department of Management Sciences, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad Retrieved from
[11]. Udeh, S. N., & Ugwu, J. I. (2018). Fraud in Nigerian Banking Sector. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(5), 589–607. Retrieved from

Prof. Dagaci Aliyu Manbe, Anthony Abah Ebonyi “Bank Fraud and Socio-Structural Patterns of Internal Control Measures in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.388-396 November 2019  URL:

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Resource Availability and Provision and Female Students’ Participation in Physical Education and Sport in Tertiary Institutions in Masvingo, Zimbabwe

Dr Jenet Mudekunye – November 2019 Page No.: 397-404

The study intended to establish how resource availability influenced the participation of female students in Physical Education and Sport (PES) in tertiary institutions in Masvingo District, Zimbabwe. The article adopted a qualitative paradigm and the descriptive survey method. The interview and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Data were presented in narrative form and analysed qualitatively in line with the aim of this study. The sample comprised eighteen female students who were studying PES as a specialisation subject and two PES specialist lecturers purposively selected from the two tertiary institutions. The findings revealed that there were imbalances in resource availability and provision in PES between male and female students. Financial sponsors appear to prefer funding males to females. The biased provision and allocation of financial, material and human resources tended to hinder the participation of female students in PES. The research also found that there was absence of female role model and mentors, and this was a militating factor in female students’ participation in PES. The study recommended that tertiary institutions introduce awareness programmes where chief sponsors for PES are sensitised so as to avoid gender bias in resource provision between male and female students. It was also recommended that teacher training colleges and universities create more opportunities to train and upgrade female specialist lecturers and personnel in PES as a way of nurturing possible role models and mentors.

Page(s): 397-404                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 December 2019

 Dr Jenet Mudekunye
Robert Mugabe School of Education, Great Zimbabwe University ,P.O. Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

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Dr Jenet Mudekunye “Resource Availability and Provision and Female Students’ Participation in Physical Education and Sport in Tertiary Institutions in Masvingo, Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.397-404 November 2019  URL:

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Efficacy of Adaptive Devices for Improving ADL’s and Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Conditions

Farzana Ashfaq, Nabila Soomro, Zubia Saleem, Bushra Ejaz, Sagar Pinjani – November 2019 Page No.: 405-408

According to WHO stroke is second leading cause of death while progressive condition gets worse over the time and cause severe weakness and health deteriorations. In both conditions the role of occupational therapy is vital to provide independency in daily lives by provision of adaptive devices.
This study intends to find the effectiveness of adaptive devices on functionality and quality of life of patients with multiple conditions.
Patients with stroke and progressive conditions including RA (rheumatoid arthritis), Parkinsonism disease, multiple sclerosis and other conditions were assessed with FIM SCORING and WHQOL before start ADL TRAINING .22 sessions were conducted by providing Occupational therapy guidelines, suggestions and ADL training with help of ADAPTIVE DEVICES .then they were re assessed with the same tools.
Marked improvement according to the results of FIM scoring and WHQOL showed the importance of adaptive devices and their great role in person’s independence level
Use of adaptive devices is very important to provide independent life as the main goal of Occupational Therapy treatment and to improve the functionality and quality of life as well

Page(s): 405-408                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 December 2019

 Farzana Ashfaq
Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dow University, Pakistan

 Nabila Soomro
Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dow University, Pakistan

 Zubia Saleem
Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dow University, Pakistan

 Bushra Ejaz
Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dow University, Pakistan

 Sagar Pinjani
Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dow University, Pakistan

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Farzana Ashfaq, Nabila Soomro, Zubia Saleem, Bushra Ejaz, Sagar Pinjani “Efficacy of Adaptive Devices for Improving ADL’s and Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Conditions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.405-408 November 2019  URL:

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Adopting Improved Need-Analysis, Persuasion and Aesthetics for Alleviating Local Product Design Fiasco

Odji Ebenezer, Oladumiye E. B. – November 2019 Page No.: 409-418

Nigerian engineers, researchers and industrial or product designers are not short of design outputs and creativity compared to their foreign counterparts, relative to resources and facilities available to them. However, while many of our researches and design outcomes never make it to the open market (as many of them are gathering dusts in engineering and design galleries and shelves), the few that eventually get introduced to the user or consumer in the market place often fair poorly relative to their foreign alternatives. Based on a survey of consumer opinions conducted, this study showed that the utility derived from local products and contents (which have foreign alternatives) is not so different from the utility derived from the foreign alternatives. This paper therefore, based on this result, discussed how improved persuasive drives, consumer need analysis, product persuasiveness and aesthetics may be adopted for the improvement of local Nigerian product designs and research outputs with emphasis on the local product development process.

Page(s): 409-418                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 December 2019

 Odji Ebenezer
Department of Industrial Design, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Oladumiye E. B.
Department of Industrial Design, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

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Odji Ebenezer, Oladumiye E. B. “Adopting Improved Need-Analysis, Persuasion and Aesthetics for Alleviating Local Product Design Fiasco” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.409-418 November 2019  URL:

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The Case for a Maternity Protection Social Insurance Scheme in Zimbabwe: A Theoretical Consideration

Cosmas Chikwawawa – November 2019 Page No.: 419-426

Maternity protection has gained salience in the last few decades as women of child-bearing age are increasingly joining the labour market. Policies that ensure maternity protection schemes that include paid maternity leave are important in safeguarding the health and livelihood of women and children. Research-based evidence generally suggests that maternity protection is associated with higher rates of breastfeeding and vaccinations in low and middle income countries. Longer paid maternity leave may reduce infant and maternal mortality. With more and more women of child-bearing age entering the workforce, governments it is incumbent for governments to adapt policies that guarantee that employed mothers and their families are able to provide essential care during pregnancy, delivery and lactation, without losing income and employment opportunities. Inadequate maternity protection undermines maternal and infant health care, thereby forcing families into catastrophic and impoverishing healthcare expenditure. Manifestly, more effort is needed to bridge the gap between international aspirations for maternity protection, as reflected in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the International Labour Organisation’s Decent Work Agenda and the poignant realities in low income countries. Zimbabwe, like most developing countries does not have a maternity protection social insurance scheme for working women, in spite of its critical importance to the well-being of women and children as well as to social and economic development. This paper, thus, endeavours to present robust arguments for the development and introduction of a maternity protection scheme in Zimbabwe, while acknowledging that currently the country offers substantial maternity protection through constitutional and legislative provisions that enjoin the state and employers to ensure that there is a considerable measure of maternity protection. Although the constitutional and legislative provisions provide a significant foundation for maternity protection policies and programmes, they are not adequate as they do not sufficiently address the issue address of maternal and child healthcare and cash benefits to cater the costs attendant to maternity.

Page(s): 419-426                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 December 2019

 Cosmas Chikwawawa
PhD Student, College of Business, Peace, Leadership and Governance, Africa University, Mutare, Zimbabwe

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Cosmas Chikwawawa “The Case for a Maternity Protection Social Insurance Scheme in Zimbabwe: A Theoretical Consideration” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.419-426 November 2019  URL:

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Viewing Inclusive Education for Children with Visual Impairments from the Equity Lens; Relevant Strategies in School and Classroom Contexts

Daniel Yaw Acheampong – November 2019 Page No.: 427-436

This conceptual review paper synthesis exiting theories and findings to collates relevant school and classroom strategies in inclusive schooling context that maximises teaching and learning among visually impaired children. The study guided by social justice and equity lenses to education to extract 50 research literature from google scholar search using the Boolean search method. The conclusion drawn from this study is that at the methodological level situating inclusive educational research within the social justice and equity approaches help researchers and practitioners to adopt more inclusive methods that elicit critical and peripheral to create critical and inclusive knowledge. The broad conclusion drawn on from the empirical review is that responsive strategies for promoting inclusive learning among visually impaired students begin with family-school collaboration toward adapting teaching to learners’ contexts and peculiar backgrounds. The teaching and learning strategies should marry concrete, participatory and unifying learning experiences. In advancing these strategies teachers must demonstrate positive feelings; adapt to the students’ level, maintain positive communication with students, motivate, elicit and sustain student’s attention in the learning process. This paper argues for a detailed future longitudinal qualitative study on responsive teaching and learning strategies from variety of cultural and socio-economic contexts. This is crucial in developing better models for maximising learning among the visually impaired in school and classroom contexts.

Page(s): 427-436                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 December 2019

 Daniel Yaw Acheampong
Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

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Daniel Yaw Acheampong “Viewing Inclusive Education for Children with Visual Impairments from the Equity Lens; Relevant Strategies in School and Classroom Contexts” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.427-436 November 2019  URL:

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Factors That Influence the Achievement Motivation and Research Productivity of Lecturers in the Higher Education Service Institution Region VI Central Java

Asih Handayani, Amiartuti Kusmaningtyas And Slamet Riyadi – November 2019 Page No.: 437-443

This study has the purpose to prove and analyze the influence of Competence, Organizational Support, Academic Culture and Paternalistic Leadership Styles on the Achievement Motivation and Its Impact on the Research Productivity of lecturers in Higher Education Service Institution (DIKTI) Region VI Central Java. The data used in this study was the primary data source taken from the questionnaire. The population in this study were all permanent lecturers at private tertiary institutions in Higher Education Service Institution (DIKTI) (LLDIKTI) Region VI Central Java accredited by AIPT “A” and accessible, with the number population of 575 lectures and 237 as the samples of the study. The data analysis and hypothesis testing in this study using the Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results of the hypothesis testing prove that (1) Competency, paternalistic leadership style and academic culture have no significant effect on the productivity of lecturers in conducting research, (2) Organizational support has a significant negative effect on the productivity of lecturers in conducting research, (3) Competence, Academic Culture and paternalistic leadership style significantly influence the achievement motivation of lecturers in conducting research, (4) Organizational support does not affect the achievement motivation of lecturers in conducting research, (5) Achievement motivation has a positive effect on the productivity of lecturers in conducting research.

Page(s): 437-443                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 December 2019

 Asih Handayani
University of Slamet Riyadi Surakarta, Indonesia

 Amiartuti Kusmaningtyas
University of 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, Indonesia

 Slamet Riyadi
University of 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, Indonesia

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[2]. Wichian et al. 2009. Factors Affecting Research Productivity Of Faculty Members In Government Universities: Lisrel And Neural Network Analyses. Kasetsart J. (Soc. Sci) 30: 67 – 78 (2009)
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[8]. Ruswidiono, R Wasisto. 2008. The Effect of Job Characteristics, Research Methodology Training, and Academic Culture, on the productivity of lecturers in research. Journal of Business and Accounting Vol. 10, No.2, Agustus 2008, page 81-90
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[12]. Mulyati, Tatik. 2012. The Effects of Competence, Academic Culture and Spiritual Leadership on Motivation and Implications. Equity: Journal of Economics and Finance ISSN 1411-0393. Pg 66-89
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Asih Handayani, Amiartuti Kusmaningtyas And Slamet Riyadi ” Factors That Influence the Achievement Motivation and Research Productivity of Lecturers in the Higher Education Service Institution Region VI Central Java” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.437-443 November 2019  URL:

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Managing Nigeria’s Education for Quality Assurance

RABIU Ishaq, BABUGA Hassan Bello, ASIYA Idris, JAMILA Muhammad – November 2019 Page No.: 444-450

The role of education in engendering and facilitating country’s socio-economic, political and cultural development can never be over-emphasized, most especially in a situation where the education is given due consideration and proper management. This paper argued that Nigeria’s education has fallen below all standards, these falling standards from primary to tertiary institution remain a major problem in Nigeria’s education, the quality of the products of various institutions leaves much to be desired, and graduates of Nigerian tertiary institutions are unemployable for their deficiencies. In fact, the pathetic state of education in the country epitomizes the intensity of decay and degradation as well as illustrates the endemic hopelessness, despair and uncertainty under which Nigerians live, and part of its contributing factor is lack of proper management. However, the paper access Nigeria’s education and the extent at which lack of proper management has affected quality assurance in the education sector. The paper recommended among others: that an adoptive restructuring style and patterns of educational management should be developed to meet the new demands. There is also the need to create hospitable quality culture amongst members of the institution. The paper is divided into six part, the first part contained the introductory part, the second part is concerned with definition of concepts, while the third part examined the Nigeria’s education in historical perspective, the forth section assessed the education’s management tools for quality assurance. The fifth section builds a congruency between a well managed education and national development and sixth is the conclusion and recommendations.

Page(s): 444-450                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 December 2019

 RABIU Ishaq
Department of Social Studies, Shehu Shagari College of Education (SSCOE), Sokoto State, Nigeria

 BABUGA Hassan Bello
Department of Social Studies, Shehu Shagari College of Education (SSCOE), Sokoto State, Nigeria

 ASIYA Idris
Department of Social Studies, Shehu Shagari College of Education (SSCOE), Sokoto State, Nigeria

 JAMILA Muhammad
Department of Social Studies, Shehu Shagari College of Education (SSCOE), Sokoto State, Nigeria

[1]. Adeyemi J. and Ako A.E (2004) effective technological delivery in Nigerian polytechnics: Need for manpower development policy. Education policy analysis archives 12/24 available: http//
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[8]. El-Khawas, Elaine. (2001). Today’s universities: responsive, resilient, or rigid? Higher Education Policy, 14, 241-248.
[9]. Haruna M. Y. & Idris a (2006) Student’s Population Explosion in Nigeria Schools. Its Challenges to Teacher Education. A Paper presented at National Conference organized by Shehu Shagari college of education sokoto.
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[12]. Nwangu, I. O. (2005) “Quality Assurance in Public Secondary Schools: Issues and Concerns”. Nigerian Journal of Educational Administration and Planning. 5(1):229—234.
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[19]. Porter, M.E. (1990) the comparatives advantages of nations. New York, the free press p 683.
[20]. Sanusi A.B Asmau M. Zainab T. (2009) Quantity vs Quality. Challenges and Implication to Educational Standard in Nigeria. A published paper presented at National confessence organized by Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto
[21]. Singh. L.S. (1980). A Simple study of Public Administration, Delhi: Ajanta Prakashan.
[22]. Saint W. Teressa, A.H, and Strassner E. (2003) higher education in Nigeria: a status report. Published in higher education policy 2003. pp 225-281.
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[27]. Rationalization”, World bank Technical Paper Number 194 African Technical Department Series, Washington D.C: The World Bank.
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RABIU Ishaq, BABUGA Hassan Bello, ASIYA Idris, JAMILA Muhammad “Managing Nigeria’s Education for Quality Assurance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.444-450 November 2019  URL:

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Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Knowledge of Fractions

Wahab S. Kolawole – November 2019 Page No.: 451-455

The main purpose of this study was to assess Nigerian prospective mathematics teachers’ knowledge of fractions. This study adopted descriptive research design using ex-post facto type. The study population comprised of all 300L prospective mathematics teachers in F.C.T College of Education, Zuba Abuja. The study used Fraction Knowledge Test (FKT) and a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 68 prospective mathematics teachers who were selected by the use of simple random sampling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regressions at 0.05 level of significance. Result of the findings revealed that prospective teachers displayed better fraction knowledge on procedure than on conception; they had difficulty in division of fractions because of their inadequate knowledge in multiplicative thinking and their fraction procedural knowledge moderately correlated with their problem solving. Based on the findings, it was recommended that universities and colleges of education in Nigeria should, as a matter of urgency, help prospective teachers to develop deep understanding of mathematics (especially fraction concept) that they need for their future teaching and proper monitoring of teaching activities in both primary and secondary schools school be intensified.

Page(s): 451-455                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 December 2019

 Wahab S. Kolawole
Department of Mathematics, Government Secondary School Hajj Camp, Gwagwalada Abuja, Nigeria

[1]. Ball, D.L. (2005).The mathematical understanding that pre-service teachers bring to teacher. Journal of Teacher Education, 59, 399-407.
[2]. Broby, F. and Adetula, O. (2000).The general consensus and mathematics achievement at the JSS Level. New York: Macmillan.
[3]. O’kwu, S. (2013). Impact of NCE Mathematics trainee and graduate teachers on JSS Students’ Achievement in Geometry. Journal of Education, 2(4), 51-57.

Adi Susanto, Yulis Maulida Berniz, Haryadi, Agus Suroso, Sutarmin “Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Knowledge of Fractions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.451-455 November 2019  URL:

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Elements of Adjustment Process in Adolescents: Suggestions for Counselling

Ifeanyi Mathew Azuji, Uju Christiana Nwanna – November 2019 Page No.: 456-462

The issue of adjustment has been a major challenge to adolescents, especially those in the secondary schools. This paper highlighted some of the major challenges of the adolescents with regard to the elements that constitute their adjustment problems, issues associated with the adolescent’s adjustment process and the necessary fundamentals to their adjustment process. Based on these, the researcher made suggestions for counselling.

Page(s): 456-462                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 December 2019

 Ifeanyi Mathew Azuji
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Uju Christiana Nwanna
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa, Anambra State, Nigeria

[1]. Archer, S. L. (Ed.) (2014). Interventions for adolescent identity development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[2]. Archibald, A.B. (1999). Associations among parents-adolescents relationships, pubertal growth, dieting, and body image in young adolescent girls: A short term longitudinal study. Journal of Research on Adolescents. 9. 395-415.
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[4]. Barr-Anderson, D.J.; Van den Berg, P.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Story, M. (2008). Characteristics associated with older adolescents who have a television in their bedrooms. Pediatrics, (121)4: 718 -724
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[15]. Obidigbo, G. (2004). Panoramic issues in Psychology. Enugu: Sages publication.
[16]. Pritchard, M. E. Wilson, G. S. & Yamnitz, B. (2007). What predicts adjustment among college students? A longitudinal panel study. Journal of American College Health, 56(1), 15-22.
[17]. Reeve, J. (2006). Motivating Others: Nurturing Inner Motivational Resources. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
[18]. Schmakel, P. O. (2008). Early adolescents‘ perspectives on motivation and achievement in academics. Urban Education, 43, 723–749. doi:10.1177/0042085907311831
[19]. Tallen, N. (1978). Psychology of Adjustment. New York, Litton Educational Publishing Inc.
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Ifeanyi Mathew Azuji, Uju Christiana Nwanna “Elements of Adjustment Process in Adolescents: Suggestions for Counselling” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.3 issue 11, pp.456-462 November 2019  URL:

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Magnitudes and Diagnostics of Spatial Disparity in Urban – Rural Household Welfare in Nigeria

I. A. Madu, T.C. Nzeadibe, C.K. Ajaero, I.C.Mbah and O.G. Ossai – November 2019 Page No.: 463-471

The purpose of the study was to analyze the magnitudes and diagnostics of disparity in urban-rural household welfare in Nigeria. This was necessitated by the fact that, apart from some pockets of income disparity analyses, no spatial analysis of urban-rural disparity in welfare presently exists in the country. To achieve the aim, relevant data were sourced from Annual Abstract of Statistics 2016and 2017 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2016-17. The welfare status was computed by weighted sum of household assets, while the disparities between rural and urban areas were computed by absolute and relative disparity indexes. The determinants of disparity in household welfare were analyzed by regression statistics. The results show that on the average rural households are 50.34% lower in welfare status than the urban areas while the regression model accounts for 95.6% of the urban-rural disparities in the country. This calls for concerted efforts toward reducing the inequality in development between the urban and rural areas in the country. To this end, it is recommended that rural-urban linkage development strategy be adopted and that massive rural infrastructure development particularly road construction and rural electrification be embarked upon by the three ties of government in the country .This will not only reduce the imbalance, but will increase the interaction between urban and rural areas, which is necessary for the achievement of a balanced development.

Page(s): 463-471                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 December 2019

 I. A. Madu
Department of Geography, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

 T.C. Nzeadibe
Department of Geography, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

 C.K. Ajaero
Department of Geography, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

Department of Economics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

 O.G. Ossai
Department of Geography, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

[1]. Achida, M.B., Garba, T. and Abdullahi, Y.Z. (2018): Does social capital determine household welfare? An investigation into the situation in Sokoto Metropolis. Scientific and Academic Publishing. Vol.8, No.2, pp 93-104
[2]. Adebowale, O. and Lawson, D. (2018):How Does Access t