The Cost of Power Outages on Enterprise Performance in Kenya

Stephene Osongo Maende & Milton Utwolo Alwanga – March 2020 Page No.: 01-05

The literature argues that inadequacies in the power sector in many developing countries especially sub-Saharan Africa constrains economic growth and development. While it is widely acknowledged that Kenya has a high number of outages, there is limited evidence on how these outages affect firm performance. Thus, the study investigates the effect of power outages on firm performance using World Bank Enterprise Survey data for 2018. We employ instrumental variable regression to overcome endogeneity as well as causality effect between power outages and enterprise profitability. The results show a negative and significant relationship between power outages and firm profitability. On the other hand, we report a positive relationship between efficiency levels, energy utilization and firm profits. The study recommends that the government should invest heavily in electricity generation, and address inefficiency within the power sector to ensure a reliable supply of electricity, and enhance enterprise performance.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 March 2020

 Stephene Osongo Maende
Department of Economics, Accounting and Finance, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

 Milton Utwolo Alwanga
Department of Economics, Accounting and Finance, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

[1] Abotsi, A. (2016). Power Outages and Production Efficiency of Firms in Africa. International of Energy Economics Policy, 6(1), 98-104.
[2] Briceño-Garmendia, C., Shkaratan, M. (2010). Power Tariffs: Caught between Cost Recovery and Affordability (No. 20). Washington, DC: World Bank Policy.
[3] Cissokho, L., & Seck, A. (2013). Electric power outages and the productivity of small and medium enterprises in Senegal. Investment Climate and Business Environment Research Fund Report, 77, 13.
[4] Doe, F., & Emmanuel, S. E. (2014). The effect of electric power fluctuations on the profitability and competitiveness of SMEs: A study of SMEs within the Accra Business District of Ghana. Journal of Competitiveness, 6(3).
[5] Eberhard, A., Rosnes, O., Shkaratan, M., Vennemo, H. (2011), Africa’s Power Infrastructure Investment, Integration, Efficiency. Washington, D.C: World Bank.
[6] Fisher-Vanden, K., Mansur, E. T., & Wang, Q. J. (2015). Electricity shortages and firm productivity: evidence from China’s industrial firms. Journal of Development Economics, 114, 172-188.
[7] International Energy Agency (IEA) and World Bank (2017). State of Access to Electricity Report. New York: World Bank
[8] Kenya Power and Lighting Company. (2012). Stimulating Connectivity Strategy; Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer
[9] Lee, L., Brewer, E., Christiano, C., Meyo, F., Miguel, E., Podolsky, M., Javier, R., & Wolfram, C. (2016). Electrification for “UnderGrid” households in Rural Kenya. Journal of Development Engineering, 1(2), 26-35.
[10] Ozturk, I. (2010) “A Literature Survey on Energy-Growth Nexus.” Energy Policy, 38(1), 340-9
[11] Pless, J., & Fell, H. (2017). Bribes, bureaucracies, and blackouts: Towards understanding how corruption at the firm level impacts electricity reliability. Resource and Energy Economics, 47, 36-55.
[12] Rud, J. P. (2012). Electricity provision and industrial development: Evidence from India. Journal of development Economics, 97(2), 352-367.
[13] Stern, D, P. Burkes and Bruns S. (2017). The Impact of Electricity on Economic Development: A Macro Perspective. Energy and Economic Growth State of Knowledge Paper Series No: 1 December, University of California, Berkeley.
[14] World Bank. (2019). Electricity Access in Sub-Saharan Africa: Uptake, Reliability, and Complementary Factors for Economic Impact. World Bank, Washington, DC.

Stephene Osongo Maende & Milton Utwolo Alwanga “The Cost of Power Outages on Enterprise Performance in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.01-05 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/01-05.pdf

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Subculture, Resistance, Violence and the Female Perspective

Nicole Cullinan – March 2020 Page No.: 06-08

An exploration of the female perspective on the role violence plays in the resistance paradigm and the history of subculture as pertaining to females.
This paper aims to discuss the concept of resistance through investigating subculture. Specifically, the role of female gender in the resistance paradigm will be discussed in relation to its intersection with politics and history. Violence in resistance will be acknowledged as an agent for political change and recognition. Looking at the evolution of subculture from the Chicago School of Sociology 1920-1940, to the second wave Birmingham School subcultural theory of the 1970s. Investigating the place in history that suffragettes occupy in relation to subculture. Finally, regarding the post subcultural theory through the female perspective, using the Riot Grrl Zine and the #Metoo movement as examples of where subculture, gender and politics intersect.
The first literary examples focusing on youth culture and subculture emerged from the Chicago School. Their studies focused on the first half of last century 1900-1950. Prior to World War One the focus on youth culture was quantitative and looked at deviance and crime (Jenson, 2018). But after the War there is a new focus on qualitative data, a need to explain these observations that extended beyond numbers and data. “Youth Culture emerged out of a much wider debate about the whole nature of post war social change” (Clarke, Hall, Jefferson & Roberts 1976, p.13). Some academics doubted the validity of the idea of youth culture and did not agree that youth could have separate looks, ideas and belief systems to their parents. Others believed it was the war that had created youth culture due to absent Fathers, abnormal family life and other stresses that war produce.

Page(s): 06-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 March 2020

 Nicole Cullinan
The University of Melbourne

[1] Ferris, K., 2007. The Sociology of Celebrity. Sociology Compass, 1(1), pp.371-384.
[2] Ferris, K., 2007. The Sociology of Celebrity. Sociology Compass, 1(1), pp.371-384.
[3] Fyvel, T., 1963. Troublemakers: Rebellious Youth in an Affluent Society. The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 56(1), p.95.
[4] Haenfler and Ross, 2014. Subcultures: the basics. Choice Reviews Online, 51(11), pp.51-5940-51-5940.
[5] Hall, S. and Jefferson, T., 2012. Resistance Through Rituals. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.
[6] Hollander, J. and Einwohner, R., 2004. Conceptualizing Resistance. Sociological Forum, 19(4), pp.533-554.
[7] Jefferson, T., Hall, S., Clarke, J. and Roberts, B., 1976. Resistance through rituals. London: Hutchinson.
[8] Jensen, S., 2018. Towards a neo-Birminghamian conception of subculture? History, challenges, and future potentials. Journal of Youth Studies, 21(4), pp.405-421.
[9] Leblanc, L., 2002. Pretty in punk. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
[10] Moore, M., 2017. Women of Color in the Academy: Navigating Multiple Intersections and Multiple Hierarchies. Social Problems, 64(2), pp.200-205.
[11] Muggleton, D. and Weinzierl, R., 2003. What is post subcultural studies anyway? The Post-Subcultures Reader, Berg, Oxford and New York, 2003, ISBN 1 8597 3668 8, 324 pp. A$63.00. Media International Australia incorporating Culture and Policy, 114(1), pp.154-156.
[12] Purvis, J., 1995. “Deeds, not words” The Daily Lives of Militant Suffragettes in Edwardian Britain. Women’s Studies International Forum, 18(2), pp.91-101.
[13] Raby, R., 2005. What is Resistance?Journal of Youth Studies, 8(2), pp.151-171.
[14] Regulska, J., 2018. The #MeToo Movement as a Global Learning Moment. International Higher Education, 94, p.5.
[15] Tomko, L. and Latham, A., 2001. Posing a Threat: Flappers, Chorus Girls, and Other Brazen Performers of the American 1920s. Dance Research Journal, 33(2), p.131.
[16] Williams, J., 2009. Youth-Subcultural Studies: Sociological Traditions and Core Concepts. Sociology Compass, 1(2), pp.572-593.

Nicole Cullinan “Subculture, Resistance, Violence and the Female Perspective ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.06-08 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/06-08.pdf

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Morphosyntax of Tonga Nicknames

Khama Hang’ombe – March 2020 – Page No.: 09-14

Many studies on nicknames of people have focussed on the social functions that these names perform. The structure of these names, particularly in Tonga, has not received adequate attention. Thus, little is known about the relationship between the structure of nicknames and their semantics. In this article, we analyse Tonga nicknames structurally, and demonstrate that their structure contribute significantly or at least has influence on their meaning. The paper specifically focuses on the morphology and syntax of Tonga nicknames. We adopt a diachronic perspective in the analysis and argue that Tonga nicknames are coined by bringing together different types of morphemes and word categories. The study argues that in order to appreciate the semantic import of Tonga nicknames, an appreciation of their morphosyntax is needed.

Page(s): 09-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 March 2020

 Khama Hang’ombe
Department of African Languages and Literature, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

[1] Carter, H. 2002. An Outline to Chitonga Grammar. Lusaka, Bookworld Publishers.
[2] Guma, M. 2001. The Cultural Meaning of Names among Basotho of Southern Africa: A Historical and Linguistic Analysis. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 10(3): 265-279.
[3] Guthrie, M. 1948. The Classification of Bantu Languages. London, Oxford University Press.
[4] Hang’ombe K. 2015. Morphology and Semantics of Tonga Anthroponyms: A Case of Tonga Given Names and Nicknames. MA Dissertation. UNZA Library [Unpublished].
[5] Hang’ombe, K. & Siantumbu, C. 2018. Social Functions of Nicknames in Zambia. Onomastica Canadiana, 97(1&2):53-70.
[6] Kahari G. P. 1990. The Rise of the Shona Novel. A Study in Development, 1890-1984. Gweru: Mambo Press.
[7] Kerem, M.M. 2011. Structure and Semantics of Jaba Personal Names. B.A project.
[8] Machaba, M. 2002. The Morphological Analysis of Zulu Homestead Names in Mabengela, Nkanda District. Nomina Africana, 16 (1&2): 23-35.
[9] Marten, L. & Kula, N. 2008. Zambia: ‘One Zambia, One Nation, Many Languages’, in Simpson, A. (ed). Language and National Identity in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press:291-313.
[10] Mashiri, P. 1999. Terms of Address in Shona: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Zambezia , XXVI(i).
[11] Mashiri, P. 2004. More than Mere Linguistic Tricks: The Sociopragmatic Functions of SomeNicknames Used by Shona-speaking People in Harare. Zambezia, XXXI (i/ii).
[12] McDowell, J. H. 1981. Toward a Semiotics of Nicknaming the Kamsá Example, American Folklore, 94: 1-18.
[13] Meiring, B. 2010. Aspects of Violence Reflected in South African Geographical Names. werkwinkel, 5(2): 95-112.
[14] Mkanganwi, G. K. 2002. Shona (derivational) Morphology: An Observation in Search of a Theory. Zambezia, XXIX (ii): 174-190.
[15] Mphasha, L.E .2006. The compound noun in Southern Sotho. PhD Thesis. Stellenbosch University.
[16] Musale, C .2009. The Grammar of Compound Nouns in Tonga. MA Dissertation. UNZA Library.
[17] Ubahakwe, E. 1981.Igbo Names: Their Structure and their Meanings. Ibadan: Daystar press. .
[18] Yakubu, J. 2012. A Syntactic Description of Agatu Personal Names. Journal of Arts and Contemporary Society, 4: 82-88.
[19] Zimbabwe. 2013. Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20). Harare: Fidelity Printers and Refiners.

Khama Hang’ombe “Morphosyntax of Tonga Nicknames” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.09-14 March 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/09-14.pdf

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Impact of Specialized Translators and General Translators on Translation Performance

Harsha Amarasinghe, Manoj Ariyaratne – March 2020 Page No.: 15-23

In the field of translation especially in Sri Lanka, almost all the translations are carried-out by general translators who have been demanded to be familiar with various types of translations. However, since general translators are not specialists in any field of translations, they are prone to produce a lesser outcome in comparison to a specialized translator, but there are no sufficient evidences on this matter. This study hence, attempted to explore the impact that specialized translators could possibly have on translation performance in comparison to general translators in the President’s Media Division at the Presidential Secretariat. A case study was used to analyse how the specialized translators and general translators would perform in different fields of translation such as legal, literature, commercial and medical? It was found through the research that specialized translation does improve the content, completeness and the time spent on a translation when compared to general translation, but there was no significant difference in terms of grammar accuracy. Hence, it was crystal clear that specialized translation had a positive impact on the translation performance in comparison to general translation. The study specifically revealed that the efficiency and the accuracy of translation were hugely improved by the use of specialized translators. Thus, the study has provided sufficient evidences to conclude that the concept of specialized translation could greatly improve the standards of translation in Sri Lanka while it also helps people understand that specialized translation could be a much better option than general translation.

Page(s): 15-23                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 March 2020

 Harsha Amarasinghe
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

 Manoj Ariyaratne
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

[1] Bills.com. (n.d.). Business translation – professional translations. Retrieved January 20, 2019, from Translation agency Bills: http://www.bilis.com/en/services/business-translation.html
[2] Corbett, J. (1999). Written in the language of the Scottish Nation. Clevedon, U.K.: Multilingual Matters.
[3] Golavar, E. (n.d.). Translators Performance. Retrieved February 01, 2019, from Translationjournal.net.: https://translationjournal.net/journal/59education.htm
[4] Gouadec, D. (2010). Translation as a profession. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Publishing Company.
[5] Graça, J. (n.d.). Measuring Translation Performance. Retrieved January 20, 2019, from Unbabel: https://unbabel.com/blog/measuring-translation-performance/
[6] Hahn, D., & Riaz, F. (n.d.). What makes a good literary translator? Retrieved February 18, 2019, from British Council.: https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/what-makes-good-literary-translato
[7] Kaur, K. (n.d.). A Competant Translator. Retrieved February 01, 2019, from Translationjournal.net: https://translationjournal.net/journal/34edu.htm
[8] Martin, C. (n.d.). Specialization in Translation . Retrieved January 20, 2019, from Translationjornal.net: https://translationjournal.net/journal/56specialist.htm
[9] Nikolett, N. (n.d.). Difference between general and specialized translation. Retrieved January 19, 2019, from Language Expets Group: https://leg.eu/index.php/en/blog-en/item/143-the-difference-between-general-and-specialized-translation-which-one-do-you-need
[10] Ponte, C. (n.d.). An introduction to medical translation. Retrieved February 01, 2019, from Traducciones Nóvalo: https://novalo.com/introduction-medical-translation/
[11] Racoma, B. (n.d.). What is Legal Translation and What Makes it Different? Retrieved 16 February, 2019, from Day Translations Blog: https://www.daytranslations.com/blog/2017/06/legal-translation-different-9203/
[12] Robinson, D. (2003). Becoming a translator (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
[13] Specialized translation – what it actually is?. (2019). Retrieved 28 January 2019, from http://langoa.eu/what-is-specialized-translation/
[14] Translationschools.org. (n.d.). Specialized translation | Find specialized translations in different fields. Retrieved February 02, 2019, from Translationschools: http://www.translationschools.org/specialized
[15] Translationschools.org. (n.d.). Literary translation | Specialized translation. Retrieved January 21, 2019, from Translation Schools: http://www.translationschools.org/specialized/literary.asp
[16] Vita, A. (2019). Specialized translators and interpreters for your business – Specialized Translators. Retrieved 20 January 2019, from https://www.specializedtranslators.com/2018/09/15/specialized-translators-and-interpreters-for-your-business/
[17] (2019). Retrieved 28 January 2019, from http://www.diacronia.ro/ro/indexing/details/A14585/pdf

Harsha Amarasinghe, Manoj Ariyaratne “Impact of Specialized Translators and General Translators on Translation Performance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.15-23 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/15-23.pdf

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Implementation of Character Education Policy in Intregated Islamic Elementary School

Yolanda Regina, Irawan Suntoro – March 2020 Page No.: 24-26

The purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the Implementation of Character Education Strengthening Policies at Pelita Khoirul Ummah Islamic Elementary School with the CIPP theory program (Context, Input, Process and Product) evaluation models. The research method used was the phenomenological method with a qualitative approach. Data collection techniques using interviews, observation and documentation. The data analyswas technique uses the procedure proposed by Miles and Huberman, while the data validity test used the credibility test.
Based on the results of the study show that: 1. In terms of context programs for strengthening character education in schools were supported by the environment in terms of safety and comfort. 2. The dimensions of the input program was to strengthen character education supported by the completeness and availability of facilities and infrastructure in schools and human resources, namely the principal, teachers, education staff and students. 3. The process dimension was supported by the strategy of implementing character education strengthening which was carried out through intracuricular, cocuricular and extracurricular activities. 4. Product dimensions produced religious character, nationalism, independent, mutual cooperation, and integrity.

Page(s): 24-26                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 March 2020

 Yolanda Regina
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Irawan Suntoro
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

[1] .Lickona, Thomas. 2012. Education For Character (MendidikUntukMembentukKarakter) BagaimanaSekolahDapatMemberikanPendidikanTentangSikapHormat Dan TanggungJawab. Jakarta: BumiAksara.
[2] Muslich, Masnur. 2011. PendidikanKarakterMenjawabTantanganKrwaswas Multidimensional. Jakarta: BumiAksara.
[3] Puspitasari, Euwas. (2014). Pendekatan pendidikan karakter. Jurnal Edueksos, 3 (2), 45-57.
[4] Sriwilujeng, Dyah. 2017.Panduan Implementasi Penguatan Pendidikan Karakter.Jakarta: Erlangga.
[5] Watson,M. (2014). Handbook of moral and character Education. New York and London: Routledge Taylor and Francwas Group.
[6] Zuchdi, D. Dkk. (2012). Pendidikan karakter: konsep dasar dan implementasi di perguruan tinggi. Yogyakarta: UNY Press.
[7] Moleong, Lexy J. 2014. MetodePenelitianKualitatif. RemajaRosdakarya: Bandung
[8] Sugiyono. 2013. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif. Alfabeta: Bandung.

Yolanda Regina, Irawan Suntoro “Implementation of Character Education Policy in Intregated Islamic Elementary School” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.24-26 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/24-26.pdf

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Implementing the Trilingual Policy: Challenges Encountered by the Translators of Government Institutes in Sri Lanka

H. A. D. Madhavee, Manoj Ariyaratne – March 2020 Page No.: 27-40

In a multilingual country like Sri Lanka, languages act as an indispensable factor for the ethnic identity of each community. Language policies are systemized and implemented to achieve a planned conversion in the language use in one or more communities. In Sri Lanka,language has been a cause for the communal unrest during the past few decades. After facing many crisis situations and thirty years of brutal war the trilingual policy has formulated to build up reconciliation among social groups. In terms of legal provisions, the trilingual policy is definitely established but practical implementation is a challenge. In the process of implementing the trilingual policy translators play a pivotal role. They are the bridge builders between languages. Translators confront certain barriers when implementing language policies. In order to investigate challenges encountered by translators in the arena of the implementation of the trilingual policy this study applies a mixed approach which includes both quantitative and qualitative data allocated by a survey. The research study analyses the perspective of government translators regarding the trilingual policy and attempts to highlight the solutions that can initiate to overcome the barriers. It was found that the effectiveness of the implementation of the trilingual policy get affected by the dearth of qualified and experienced personal who have the ability to translate in Tamil and Sinhala languages. This scarcity is the major drawback in implementing the trilingual policy. This study found that the positive attitude towards second language learning and professional training institute for translators will be of utmost importance to the success of the trilingual policy.

Page(s): 27-40                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 March 2020

 H. A. D. Madhavee
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

 Manoj Ariyaratne
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

[1] A Study Report on Translation and Interpretation Training and Services in Sri Lanka (Rep.). (n.d.). doi:http://elibrary.humanitariansrilanka.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/A-Study-Report-Translation-and-Interpretation-Training-and-Services-in-Sri-Lanka.pdf
[2] Bussnett, S. (1980). Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge.
[3] Bianco, J. Language Policy and Planning [Ebook].Multilingual Matters.
[4] Catford, J. (1965). A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Retrieved 25 June 2019, from https://archive.org/details/J.C.CatfordALinguisticTheoryOfTranslationOxfordUniv.Press1965
[5] Che, S. (2011).The Role of Translation in the Implementation of Language Policy in Cameroon. Translation Journal,15(03). Retrieved June 25, 2019, from https://translationjournal.net/journal/57cameroon.htm.
[6] Chriss, R. (2006). Translation as a Profession. Lulu.com. doi:https://www.bookdepository.com/Translation-Profession-Roger-Chriss/9781430301332
[7] Coleman, H. (Ed.). (2015). Language and social cohesion in the developing world. Retrieved June 23, 2019, from https://englishagenda.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/attachments/language_and_social_cohesion.pdf
[8] Coperahewa, S. (2009). The language planning situation in Sri Lanka.Routledge. doi:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249025264_Thelanguage_planning_situation_in_Sri_Lanka
[9] Edward Brown, M., &Ganguly, S. (2003). Fighting Words: Language Policy and Ethnic Relations in Asia.MIT Press.
[10] Fernando, L. (2017, February 11). Towards A Language Revolution for Reconciliation & Development. Retrieved June 25, 2019, from https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/towards-a-language-revolution-for-reconciliation-development/
[11] Foster, M. (1958). Translation from/into Farsi and English. Retrieved April 1, 2007 from http://www.parsa-ts.com/index.html
[12] Hadebe, T. (2001). Issues Arising from the Implementation of Language Policy in Historically Disadvantaged Schools in Greater Pietermatrizburg: A Policy Analysis [Ebook]. Retrieved from https://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/xmlui/handle/10413/3015
[13] Kadenge, M., &Nkomo, D. (2012, January 11). Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe, Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. Retrieved June 25, 2019, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233274665_Language_policy_translation_and_language_development_in_Zimbabwe
[14] Kamwangamalu, N., Baldauf, R., & Kaplan, R. (2013). Language Planing in Africa TheCamaroon, Sudan and Zimbabwe [Ebook]. Oxon: Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.lk/books?id=t6TsCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA210&lpg=PA210&dq=hadebee+2001&source=bl&ots=wgsBV3F2MD&sig=ACfU3U1MML5r6q3qzDB2YA47SnpexM1oiQ&hl=si&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj4lc360dXjAhUS7HMBHWOoCGkQ6AEwDHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=hadebee%202001&f=false
[15] Kangira, J. (2016). Challenges of the implementation of language policies in southern Africa: What is the way forward. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences,8(2). Retrieved June 14, 2019, from https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijhss/article/view/153565
[16] Makinde, T. (2005). Problems of Policy Implementation in Developing Nations: The Nigerian Experience [Ebook]. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321216480_Problems_of_Policy_Implementation_in_Developing_Nations_The_Nigerian_Experience
[17] Martyn, S. (2013, January 16). In Post-Conflict Sri Lanka, Language is Essential for Reconciliation. Retrieved June 27, 2019, from https://asiafoundation.org/2013/01/16/in-post-conflict-sri-lanka-language-is-essential-for-reconciliation/
[18] Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. Hempstead: Prentice HaH International.
[19] Núñez, G. (2016). Translation Policy in a Linguistically Diverse World. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe,15, 01st ser. Retrieved July 10, 2019, from https://www.ecmi.de/fileadmin/downloads/publications/JEMIE/2016/GonzalezNunez.pdf
[20] Perera, S. (2011).Reflections on Issues of Language in Sri Lanka: Power, Exclusion and Inclusion. Retrieved 8 June 2019, from http://www.langdevconferences.org/publications/2011-ColomboSriLanka/05-LanguageandSocialCohesion-Chapter5.pdf
[21] Pym, A. (n.d.). TRANSLATION AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR MULTILINGUAL DEMOCRACY. Critical Multilingualism Studies and Interdisciplinary Journal. Retrieved July 10, 2019, from https://cms.arizona.edu/ojs3/multilingual/article/view/18/63
[22] Spolsky, B. (2004). Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.
[23] Survey on the Implementation of Official Languages Policy at Ministerial Level in Sri Lanka – 2017(Rep.).(n.d.). doi:https://www.cpalanka.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Language-Survey-Summary-Report-2017E.pdf
[24] Suzann, A. (n.d.). The Role of Audiovisual Translation in the Implementation of Language Policies in Cameroon. Translation Journal, (October 2014). Retrieved June 25, 2019, from https://translationjournal.net/October-2014/the-role-of-audiovisual-translation-in-the-implementation-of-language-policies-in-cameroon.html
[25] Ten Year National Plan for a Trilingual Sri Lanka (2012 – 2022) (Rep.).(n.d.).

H. A. D. Madhavee, Manoj Ariyaratne “Implementing the Trilingual Policy: Challenges Encountered by the Translators of Government Institutes in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.27-40 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/27-40.pdf

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Association between Remuneration and Employee Performance: The Case of Teachers in Private Secondary Schools in Buikwe District, Uganda

Kayindu Vincent; Asiimwe Specioza, Bisaso Ritah; Nakiyingi Sarah- March 2020 Page No.: 41-45

Based on Victor Vroom’s Expectancy theory, the current study was carried in private secondary schools in Buikwe district of Uganda to examine the influence of remuneration on teachers’ performance. A total of 900 respondents participated in the study. Of these, 650 were students who assessed their teachers’ performance, while 250 were teachers, who gave responses on their own remuneration. In addition to filling questionnaires, 50 teachers were subjected to oral interviews. The respondents were got from 13 schools out of the 27 private secondary schools in the district. Whereas teachers’ remuneration was measured basing on the financial and non-financial benefits given to teachers by their respective employers, their performance was measured basing on the core roles of a teacher, namely teaching, guiding and counselling learners; assessing/marking learners’ work; as well as engaging learners in extra-curricular activities. The findings were that there is a significant influence of remuneration on teachers’ performance in private secondary schools in Buikwe district, Uganda. It was concluded that since remuneration significantly influences performance, there is need for school founders to appreciate more the efforts of their teachers by attaching more allowances to what their teachers do. This recommendation was directed towards school founders becausein private schools the founders are in most cases the ones who determine how to remunerate employees; managers such as head teachers usually dance on the tunes of the institutional founders.

Page(s): 41-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 March 2020

 Kayindu Vincent
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Asiimwe Specioza, Bisaso Ritah
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Nakiyingi Sarah
Kampala International University, Uganda

[1] Asiimwe, F. (2017). The influence of salary on the performance of teachers in private primary schools in Kampala district, Uganda. Unpublished dissertation (Master of Arts in Human Resource Management), Kampala International University.
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[9] Mwebuge, P. (2015). Determinants of primary school teachers’ job commitment in Masaka district, Uganda. Unpublished dissertation, Master of Educational Administration and Management, Kampala International University, Uganda.
[10] Nairuba, J. (2011). Motivational practices and teachers’ performance in Jinja municipality secondary schools, Jinja district, Uganda.Published Master of Arts dissertation in educational management of Bugema University, Uganda.
[11] Ouma, L. (2007). Effect of Maslow’s motivation theory to the performance of primary school teachers in Kampala district. Unpublished M.A Educ Mgt. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
[12] RibaunKorm (2011). The relationship between pay and performance in the Cambodian civil service (CCS). MBA Dissertation, University of Cambodia.
[13] Sangaire, E.M. (2007). Motivation and performance of teachers in private secondary schools. A case study of central college Kawempe. Unpublished MED dissertation, Kampala International University, Uganda.
[14] Ssekabira, G. (2006). Job description and employee motivation to work in non- government organizations in Kampala district. Unpublished MSc, HRM dissertation, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
[15] Storey .J. (2012). Developments in the management of human resources. Oxford.
[16] Turinawe H. (2011). Reward systems, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee performance in public higher institutions of learning in Uganda.PublishedMasters degree of human resource management, Makerere University Business School, Kampala, Uganda.

Kayindu Vincent; Asiimwe Specioza, Bisaso Ritah; Nakiyingi Sarah, “Association between Remuneration and Employee Performance: The Case of Teachers in Private Secondary Schools in Buikwe District, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.41-45 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/41-45.pdf

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Revenue Outlay and Community Development in Ezeagu Local Government of Enugu State, Nigeria

Martin Ifeanyi Okeke (Ph.D), Hyginus Chukwuebuka Ofodu, Johnpaul Onyebuchi Nduba – March 2020 Page No.: 46-58

The paper is the evaluation of the revenue outlay and community infrastructure development in Ezeagu Local Government of Enugu State between 2012-2018. Local governments have not performed creditably with regards to her constitutional duties and allocations and therefore necessitate this study. Adopting Developmental Theory of Local Government as its framework of analysis, the research employed both descriptive statistical technique and thematic analysis in analysing data sourced from the questionnaire and interview. From the analysis, the study revealed that the revenue outlay to the Local Government is not significant to run her offices and as well initiate development projects geared towards improving the standard of living within the communities. Furthermore, the study found out that there is no significant relationship between revenue outlay and community development initiatives in Ezeagu Local Government Area. Finally, the study revealed that the expectations/services of the local government were not significantly met within the period of study. Against this backdrop, the study recommends that the federal government should endeavor to mobilize the already established Nigeria Financial Intelligent Unit (NFIU). This is a system that can control the financial movement of the local government funds. This system is to checkmate that the local government gets what is due for them from the federation account and this to a large extent will abate the state interference of the local government allocations and accord the local government the opportunity to meet up with her constitutional mandate.Also Ezeagu local government should endeavor to delve into agriculture as they are blessed with fertile land with large land mass.

Page(s): 46-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 March 2020

 Martin Ifeanyi Okeke (Ph.D)
Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Hyginus Chukwuebuka Ofodu
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Johnpaul Onyebuchi Nduba
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

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Martin Ifeanyi Okeke (Ph.D), Hyginus Chukwuebuka Ofodu, Johnpaul Onyebuchi Nduba “Revenue Outlay and Community Development in Ezeagu Local Government of Enugu State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.46-58 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/46-58.pdf

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Status of Caste Organisation and Its Impact on Tribal Society

Dr. Usharani B. – March 2020 Page No.: 59-62

Today’s situation, the tribal communities are attracted to accept the false set of values brought about by Globalization. The tribes, who live in forest areas and other remote places, have their own culture, customs, practices and religion. The globalisation processes have serious implications for the culture of the tribes. The impact of globalisation on the tribal communities is manifold and often they are ones most negatively affected.
The present study is expressed to understand the tribal clan and class system, to examine the status of tribal caste Organisation, and to analyse the impact of globalisation on their culture. It is based on both secondary and primary data. A fieldwork was conducted in tribal concentrated district like, Mysore in southern part of Karnataka. The areas inhabited by tribal communities of different types of traditional activities like Jenu Kuruba, Betta Kuruba, Kadu Kuruba and Soligas. During the fieldwork, observations were made on present status and reason for changes in social life, religion life and economic life etc. Naturally, in their result, the tribal people realising that their culture is not simply the outdoors, but the total expression of their livelihood and identity. They also had known that their livelihood is under attacks, because in the name of national development they are being deprived of their land forest and water sources to which their culture is closely linked. Tribal communities need to go back beyond the externals of their songs and dances. They must return to value system of their cultures and choose a new set of valves based on it, in order to find relevant alternatives to selfishness which globalisation generates.

Page(s): 59-62                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 March 2020

 Dr. Usharani B.
Guest Faculty, Dept. of P G Studies & Research in Social Work, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri Campus, Konaje, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

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Dr. Usharani B., “Status of Caste Organisation and Its Impact on Tribal Society” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.59-62 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/59-62.pdf

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Teachers’ Perception on the Free Senior High School Policy in Ghana: A Case Study in One of the Municipalities in Ghana

Jacob Manu- March 2020 Page No.: 63-70

The current study looked at the perception of in-service teachers enrolled in a Master of Education programme in one of the private universities in Ghana. The study employed survey research design and the population of 190 students, who had enrolled in the programme. The findings seemed to indicate that teachers within the municipal area studied; did not have adequate knowledge on the Free SHS policy before its implementation. Second, about 95% of the respondents agreed to strongly agreed that the rolling out of the Free SHS was a relevant intervention by the Ghana Government. Third, respondents were of the view that there were many challenges of the new educational policy and as a result impacted negatively on its sustenance. The implications for practice are discussed.

Page(s): 63-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 March 2020

 Jacob Manu
University of Education, Winneba (CAGRIC)

[1] Asena, J. M., Simiyu, A. M., & Riechi, A. (2016). Factors affecting subsidized free day secondary education in enhancing learners’ retention in secondary schools in Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(20), 49-55.
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[12] Mogtari, J. B. (2019).Akufo-Addo’s free shs is full of ‘potholes.’ Retrieved from https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Akufo-Addo-s-Free-SHS-isfull-of-potholes-Joyce-Bawa-Mogtari-801291
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[18] Omoeva, C., & Gale, C. (2016). Universal, but not free: Household schooling costs and equity effects of Uganda’s Universal Secondary Education policy. International Journal of Educational Development, 50, 41-50.
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[21] Werner, J. (2011). Teacher support for universal secondary education in Uganda. Minnesota: University of Minnesota.
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Jacob Manu “Teachers’ Perception on the Free Senior High School Policy in Ghana: A Case Study in One of the Municipalities in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.63-70 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/63-70.pdf

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Strategies to Reduce Some Identified Problems of the Aging Population in Nigeria

Atumah, Oscar N. – March 2020 Page No.: 71-77

This exploratory paper attempted to shed light on the increasing number of the aging population and the need to finetune specific strategies that will provide a solution to some of the issues of aging as identified. As emphasis was on curbing birth rate and reducing infant mortality, the goals were accomplished and the attention should change and must focus on improving the quality of life of older adults. The case study method of Iberenta was used, and the rights, privileges, and status, which were accorded to older adults in pre-colonial Nigeria, were reviewed. Focus shifted to uncovering some strategies that among other things, will curtail poverty in old age and revive the negative attitude towards older adults; reduce the burden on family so that they can guarantee the general well-being of older persons; restore and strengthen intergenerational link; establish affordable communities with age-friendly integrated social care system that will promote healthy aging and removing the responsibilities that orphans of people with HIV impose on older people. The land was the main factor of production identified, and we argued that if the owners can relinquish the land to those in need, the cocoa production, which made the village to flourish will be rekindled. The recommended solutions are not capital intensive because there is always the tendency for the government to claim that there are no funds to tackle the issues confronting older adults. Our proposal is a win-win situation where the young, the youth, the young, and older adults can all find a reason to co-exist peacefully, a position that will see some of the problems of the aging population reduce, if not eliminated.

Page(s): 71-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 March 2020

 Atumah, Oscar N.
Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Nigeria

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[9] Palgi, Y., Shrira, A., Ben-Ezra, M., Shiovitz-Ezra, S., & Ayalon, L. (2012). Self- and other-oriented potential lifetime traumatic events as predictors of loneliness in the second half of life. Aging & Mental Health, 16(4), 423–430. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2011.638903
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[13] Szanton, S., Roberts, L., Leff, B., Walker, J., Seplaki, C., Soones, T., Thorpe, R., Ornstein, K., Szanton, S. L., Walker, J. L., Seplaki, C. L., Thorpe, R. J., Jr, & Ornstein, K. A. (2016). Home but still engaged: participation in social activities among the homebound. Quality of Life Research, 25(8), 1913–1920. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-016-1245-2
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Atumah, Oscar N. “Strategies to Reduce Some Identified Problems of the Aging Population in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.71-77 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/71-77.pdf

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Decoloniality and Higher Education Transformation in Ghana

Benedict Osei-Owusu – March 2020 Page No.: 78-85

Africa as a continent has witnessed a lot of dramatic political studies in the 1950’s. Between 1956 and 1962, 26 countries including Ghana had gained their sovereignty and most of the remaining states were at varying stages of self-government. Ghana attained her independence during the tail end of the cold war era in 1957. Since then democracy has become a frequently used word in the national discourse. Higher education in Ghana over the past two decades has witnessed an unprecedented growth in the various areas as it tries to achieve democratization– increased access and participation, expansion of academic user facilities, private sector involvement, innovative financial sustainability strategies and a tremendous transformative policy environment. The benefit accrued from higher education to the national development of a country cannot be ignored. The 1992 constitution makes a unique provision for higher education: higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means, and in particular, by progressive introduction of free education. Most African states in which Ghana is among witnessed a lot of democratic changes in the early 90’s. This chapter seeks to provide a critical and descriptive positive analysis of decoloniality and transformation of higher education in Ghana in an epistemological contexts relation to the history of higher education during the colonial era, post-colonial era in Ghana, emergence of private universities, governance, management and administration of the public universities, the role of government agencies like National Accreditation Board and National Council for Tertiary Education in the democratization of higher education institutions, higher education reforms in Ghana, financing of higher education, pedagogies and the various government transformative policies. Attempts will be made to stress the implications of the decoloniality and transformation of higher education to Ghana’s political environments.

Page(s): 78-85                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 March 2020

 Benedict Osei-Owusu
Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Education and General Studies, College of Agriculture Education, Mampong-Ashanti, University ofEducation Winneba, GHANA-WEST AFRICA.

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[22] Insights from a South African University.? Language and Education 26(3): 213-232.
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Benedict Osei-Owusu “Decoloniality and Higher Education Transformation in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.78-85 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/78-85.pdf

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Influence of Focus Strategy on Customer Loyalty among Small and Medium Enterprises in Garissa Town, Kenya

Feisal Hussein Farah, Dr. Patricia Kungu – March 2020 Page No.: 86-89

In today’s rapidly changing economic and business environments small and medium enterprise compete for customers, revenue, market share with products and services that meet customer’s needs. In this way, they gain competitive strategy which aims to establish a profitable and sustainable position against the forces that determine industry competition. However, Small and medium enterprise firms are increasingly facing numerous challenges in their quest to maintain their market share in this global business environment. This study investigated the influence of focus strategy on customer loyalty among small and medium enterprises in Garissa Town, Kenya. This study was carried out through a descriptive research design. The target population consisted of 450 retail businesses which were registered as retail business with ministry of trade in the county government of Garissa in year 2017. Stratified proportionate random Sampling technique was used to select the sample. The sample size was 75 respondents were obtained. The data collection instruments used for this study were questionnaires for all the respondents. Descriptive statistical analysis such as mean and standard deviation were used to analyse quantitative data and presented in terms of tables, frequencies, graphs and charts. Because the study involved more than three variables multiple regression analysis was used. The study examined that focus strategy and strategic alliance strategy had a positive and significant influence on customer loyalty. The study concluded that focus strategy enables SMEs to generate strong customer loyalty by tailoring their business to the needs of a small group. The study recommended that Small and Medium Enterprises in Garissa Town should focus on the most profitable market segment that bring in more revenue and more on the value chain as this will increase differentiation in the product offered in turn increasing the revenues.

Page(s): 86-89                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 March 2020

 Feisal Hussein Farah
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Patricia Kungu
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1]. Barney, J. (2010). The World Economy: Resources, Location, Trade and Development (5th ed). Upper Saddle River: Pearson
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[3]. Chelanga, K. E., Rono, L., & Boit, R. (2017). Effect of Differentiation and Focus Strategieson the Financial Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises. Journal of Strategic Management, 1(1), 29-41
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Feisal Hussein Farah, Dr. Patricia Kungu “Influence of Focus Strategy on Customer Loyalty among Small and Medium Enterprises in Garissa Town, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.86-89 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/86-89.pdf

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Analysis of Inhibiting Intrigues of Budget Implementation and Economic Performance in Nigeria (1999-2018)
Gbalam Peter Eze (Ph.D), Tonye Richard Apiri – March 2020 – Page No.: 35-43

Budget has gained prominent importance to government and nations as it entails quantitative projected financial plan for the various levels of government. Thus, the need of government in attaining set national objectives give rise to the formulation and formalization of budget. This study examined the inhibiting intrigues of budget implementation on economic performance in Nigeria. The study employs the use of secondary source of data obtained from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Fact File 2018, and subjected them to ADF stationarity and Johansson co-integration tests. The study parameters and outlined hypotheses were determined and tested using t-statistics outcome in the error correction mechanism (ECM). The study found that a unit reduction in government capital expenditure and government recurrent expenditure will decline Nigerian economic performance by 19% and 40% respectively. This equally indicated that there is a significant effect of budget implementation determinants on economic performance in Nigeria within the study span. The constrained recommendations of the study includes: Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to as matter of urgency to imbibe the culture regardless of region and religion differences to implement 95% of her capital and recurrent expenditure in the annual budget to achieve all round sectorial increase in economic performance and for government not to consider recurrent expenditure implementation as basis for immediate respite but rather on long term integration and development of the country.

Page(s): 35-43                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 March 2020

 Gbalam Peter Eze (Ph.D)
Banking & Finance Department, Faculty of Management Sciences, Niger Delta University Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Tonye Richard Apiri
Banking & Finance Department, Faculty of Management Sciences, Niger Delta University Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

[1] Abdullah, H., A.(2000). The Relationship between Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Administrative Science, 12(2), 173-191.
[2] Abell, J., D. (1990). The Role of the Budget Deficit during the Rise in the Dollar Exchange Rate from 1979–1985.Southern Economic Journal 57(1),66 – 74.
[3] Abu-bader, S.,& Abu-Qarn, A. (2003). GovernmentExpenditures, Military Spending and Economic Growth: Causality Evidence from Egypt, Israel and Syria. MPRA paper No. 1115. http://mpra.ub.unimuenchen
[4] Abu N., & Abdullahi, U. (2010). Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nigeria, 1970- 2008: A Disaggregated Analysis. Business and Economics Journal, Vol.4.
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Gbalam Peter Eze (Ph.D), Tonye Richard Apiri “Analysis of Inhibiting Intrigues of Budget Implementation and Economic Performance in Nigeria (1999-2018)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 3, pp. 35-43 March 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-3/35-43.pdf

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Analysis on Job Burnout of EFL University Teachers in Henan Province of China

Yang Peng, Siti Maziha Mustapha – March 2020 Page No.: 90-94

Job burnout refers to the sub-healthy living conditions that are produced by modern people when dealing with complex societies. In recent years, with the development of higher education and the reform of education system in China, English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university teacher are facing great challenges and experiencing great pressure and job burnout. However, very few researches have been done on the job burnout of university teachers, especially EFL university teachers in China. This study investigated the current situation of job burnout among EFL university teachers in Henan Province of China, and the differences in job burnout as related to demographic features.

Page(s): 90-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2020

 Yang Peng
College of Foreign Language, Pingdingshan University
Faculty of Business, Information and Human Sciences, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL)

 Siti Maziha Mustapha
Faculty of Business, Information and Human Sciences, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL)

[1] Evers, W. J., Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (2002). Burnout and self-efficacy: a study of teachers’beliefs when implementing an innovative educational system in the Netherlands. BritishJournal of Educational Psychology, 72(2), 227–244.
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[8] Platsidou, M. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence of Greek special education teachers in relationto burnout and job satisfaction. School Psychology International, 1(1), 60–76.
[9] Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2019). Using Multivariate Statistics (Vol. 7). Boston, MA: Pearson.
[10] Zhu, M. (2019). Investigation and Reflection on Occupational Stress and Burnout of Teachers in Colleges and Universities. Journal of Shandong Institute of Commerce and Technology, 19(3), 37-40.

Yang Peng, Siti Maziha Mustapha “Analysis on Job Burnout of EFL University Teachers in Henan Province of China ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.90-94 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/90-94.pdf

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Proliferation of Kidnapping in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences

John, Wajim – March 2020 Page No.: 95-98

This scholarly article examined the proliferation of kidnapping in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences. The paper unveiled some common causes of kidnapping and their consequences in Nigeria as a nation state that is characterized by poverty, unemployment, insecurity, corruption, weak constitutional framework and poor policies implementation. Kidnapping simply connotes an act of illegally and forcefully capturing and detaining of human beings for the purpose of generating financial benefits from the relations of the detainee(s).Kidnapping has become a common criminal exercise and lucrative business in Nigeria of which the perpetrators often receive huge sum of money from their victims, sometimes the kidnappers’ victims are murdered whenever the amount of money needed from them are paid and to some extent not redeemed. Poverty, unemployment and moral decadence are said to be the commonest causes of the evil called kidnapping in Nigeria. Content analysis/qualitative sources of data collection were employed for the realization of this scholarly work. Amongst other recommendations it is recommended that government should create jobs for the unemployed youths in tandem with skills development training that will help curtail the high levels of idleness as the mother of evil thoughts, evil plans and evil actions among Nigeria youths; Federal and State governments should properly equip and deploy forest guards into our forests that are serving as safe habitats for the kidnappers in order to curb the menace.

Page(s): 95-98                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2020

 John, Wajim
Department of Sociology, Federal University, Wukari, 200 Katsina-Ala Road, P.M.B 1020 Wukari, Nigeria

[1] Asuquo, M. E. (2009). The Upsurge of Kidnapping and Its Influence on Public Order in Akwa Ibom State. Unpublished Term Paper, Department of Sociology/Anthropology, University of Uyo, Uyo, AkwaIbom State- Nigeria.
[2] Catlin Group (2012). Kidnap and ransom today. A report by Catlin Group Limited. London, UK.
[3] Dode, R. O. (2007). Incidents of Hostage Taking and the Niger Delta Crisis in Nigeria. South South Journal of Culture and Development, 9 (1), 162-179.
[4] Ferraro. V , (2003). Globalizing Weakness: Is Global Poverty A Threat To The Interest Of States? Environmental Change and Security Project. Vol. 9, PP.12-19.
[5] Haralambos M. & Holborn M. (2008). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives. Seventh Edition. HarperCollins Publishers Limited, London.
[6] Inyang U. S. (2009). “Kidnapping! Who can deliver Nigeria?” News D’OR Magazine vol. 1(9): JUVL 12, pp., 11-15
[7] Kyrian, I. (2009). Intelligence Reports and Kidnapping. Dawn, May 17, p. 9.
[8] Mohammed, M. K. N. (2008). Kidnap and Ransom in South East Asia: The case for a Regional Recording Standard. Asia Criminology.
[9] Nwaorah, N. (2009). Are Kidnappers Worst Criminals? Vanguard, March 29, p. 14.
[10] Okoli, A. C. &Orinya, S. (2013). Oil Pipeline vandalism and Nigeria’s national security. Global Journal of Human Social Sciences of Political Science, 13 (3), 65 – 75.
[11] Okoli, A. C., &Agada, F. T. (2014). Kidnapping and national security in Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(6), 137-146
[12] Omeje, K (2010). Oil Conflict and Accumulation Politics in Nigeria. Population, Health, Environment, and Conflicts. ECSP Report, Issue 12
[13] Onduku, A. (2001). Environmental Conflict: the case of the Niger Delta. A presentation at the One World Fortnight Programme organized by the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, U.K. No. 22
[14] Soyombo, O. (2009). Sociology and Crime Control: That We May Live in Peace. The Guardian, September 17, pp. 56-72
[15] Thomas, T. and Nta, P. (2009). Kidnapped and Persecuted Coman Clem’s Wife, a 5 Year Old Girl. Community Pulse, August 10, p. 6.
[16] Townsend, J (2008). Poverty and Energy: Natural Resource Nationalism and the Natural Resource Curse. Regions No. 271. The Newsletter of the Regional Studies Association, 11-12
[17] Walsh, D. and Adrian, P. (1983). A Dictionary of Criminology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Plc, p. 45.

John, Wajim “Proliferation of Kidnapping in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.95-98 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/95-98.pdf

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Determinants and Consequences of Commercial Exploitation of Madrid Wood (Pterocarpus Erinaceus) in Taraba State, Nigeria

John, Wajim – March 2020 Page No.: 99-108

This study examined the determinants and consequences of commercial exploitation of Madrid Wood (pterocarpus erinaceus) in Taraba State, Nigeria. Noncompliance with forest-related laws and the poor governance of the forest resource of Nigeria as a nation state contributed tremendously to the unrestrained commercial exploitation of Madrid Wood in Taraba State. A cross sectional survey research was conducted to generate the research data used to answer the research questions as well as to test the hypotheses. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were combined in this study. Samples of five hundred and forty-four (544) questionnaires were administered by trained research assistants but five hundred and seventeen (517) were duly completed and returned. The data from the returned questionnaire were analyzed with the help of Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). Qualitative data were generated by in-depth interview (IDI) with the LGA Chairman, the Forestry Director, and eight Madrid Wood Merchants. Chi-Square was used to test the hypotheses; the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significant and 99% confidence interval. The findings of the study show that the commercial exploitation of the Madrid Wood both serves as sources of revenue to the government and income to the residents in the study area; the commercial exploitation of the Madrid Wood also contributes to the extinction of the specie, climate change among others. Thus, amongst other recommendations, the study recommended that the government of Taraba State should empower the ministries and departments responsible for regulating forest laws and policies to control the unrestrained commercial exploitation of the Madrid Wood. That would include the prosecution of corrupt government officials that aid and abet the merchants who break forestry laws. The study further recommends extensive public awareness campaign by the government through various media platforms that would educate the public on the dire consequences of deforestation to people and society at large.

Page(s): 99-108                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2020

 John, Wajim
Department of Sociology, Federal University, Wukari, 200 Katsina-Ala Road, P.M.B 1020 Wukari, Nigeria

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John, Wajim “Determinants and Consequences of Commercial Exploitation of Madrid Wood (Pterocarpus Erinaceus) in Taraba State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.99-108 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/99-108.pdf

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The Implementation of Total Quality Management in Education

Dudi Paryanto, Riswanti Rini, Irawan Suntoro- March 2020 Page No.: 109-111

Improving the quality of education is very important to be applied onorganization or educational institution, one that is in school. The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the planning, organization, implementation, and evaluation of the implementation of total quality management.
The research approach refers to the goal, so this research is a qualitative research. The study design used by researchers is descriptive qualitative. The results of this study are planning implementation of total quality management in education that is their vice principal field of quality management in the structure and organization line stands alone and is assisted by a staff of quality management, and in the implementation of the work is assisted by the vice principal other fields; organizing the implementation of integrated quality management education, namely the establishment of quality assurance organization structure of the school that proves the existence of a good organizing work and the work program describing the quality management application activities certified to ISO 9001: 2008.
The implementation of total quality management in education, planning implementation of coordination between the field, meetings between auditors and auditie and between staff with other fields. Evaluation of the implementation of total quality management in education as a tool to improve and plan future programs, to improve the allocation of resources, power and management of current and future, improve implementation and the factors that affect the implementation of the program for re-planning of a program through check the relevance of the program in terms of small changes constantly and measure the progress of the planned target

Page(s): 109-111                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2020

  Dudi Paryanto
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

  Riswanti Rini
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

  Irawan Suntoro
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

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[6] Terry, George dan Leslie W. Rue 2010. Dasar-dasarManajemen, Cetakan Kesebelas, PT BumiAksara. h. 16.

Dudi Paryanto, Riswanti Rini, Irawan Suntoro, “The Implementation of Total Quality Management in Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.109-111 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/109-111.pdf

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Political Law Revitalization on Law of Corruption Eradication Commission

Nenny Ekawati Barus, Dhoni Martien – March 2020 Page No.: 112-115

The efforts to eradicate corruption experienced a new chapter with the repeal of Law No. 3 of 1971 which was considered to be no longer in accordance with the development of legal needs in society so that it needed to be replaced with a new law that was more effective in preventing and eradicating criminal acts of corruption. This research uses a normative juridical approach and analytical descriptive nature. The results of this study relate to the application of legal politics in Eradicating Corruption according to RI Law No. 30 of 2002 concerning the Corruption Eradication Commission is the need for a legal political system that supports efforts to eradicate corruption, both from an understanding of the legal political system and understanding of socialism that prioritizes public authority, can be accommodated properly, especially both of them lead to the same effort, namely the achievement of Indonesia as a prosperous state of law. Then it is also necessary to revitalize the eradication of corruption in Indonesia, including evaluating the status and functions of the Corruption Eradication Commission as an independent ad hoc institution that is expected to be able to carry out the trigger mechanism function on the performance of the police and prosecutors

Page(s): 112-115                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2020

 Nenny Ekawati Barus
Doctor of Law Program, Universitas Jayabaya, Jakarta-Indonesia

 Dhoni Martien
Doctor of Law Program, Universitas Jayabaya, Jakarta-Indonesia

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Nenny Ekawati Barus, Dhoni Martien “Political Law Revitalization on Law of Corruption Eradication Commission” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.112-115 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/112-115.pdf

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Establishing the Relationship Between Job Orientation and Employee Performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government

Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD), Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent – March 2020 Page No.: 116-121

This study sought to establish the relationship between job orientation and employee performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government. The researcher adopted a cross-sectional design using a sample of 131 respondents. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. It was established that orientation and performance positively significantly predicted employee performance. It was hence concluded that, if staff receive briefing about working condition, organisational policies, understanding job procedures and job rewards significantly influence job performance.It was thus recommended that government agencies including local governments other organisations should put emphasis on briefing new staff about working conditions, policies, job procedures and job rewards

Page(s): 116-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2020

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD)
Kigali Independent University (ULK), Rwanda

 Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent
Kigali Independent University (ULK), Rwanda

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[11] Boyce, C.,&Palena, N. (2006). Conducting In-Depth Interviews: A Guide for Designing and Conducting In-Depth Interviews for Evaluation Input. Watertown: Pathfinder International.
[12] Brockman, B. K., & Morgan, R. M. (2003).The Role of Existing Knowledge in New Product Innovativeness and Performance.Decision Sciences 34, 385–419.
[13] Chandan.J.S. (2010).Management theory and practice. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd.
[14] Cheng, E. W. L., &Ho, D. C. K. (2001).The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer.Career Development International, 6, 20-27.
[15] Constantinos N. P., Bloch, A., & Seale, C. (2011).Structured methods: interviews, questionnaires and observation, Seale-4312-CH-11-Part 2.indd 205.
[16] Fassinger, R., & Morrow, S. (2013). Toward Best Practices in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed-Method Research: A Social Justice Perspective. Journal for Social Action in Counselling and Psychology, 5(2), 69-83.
[17] Ford, J. K., Kozlowski, S. W. J., Kraiger, K., Salas, E., &Teachout, M. S. (2014). Improving training effectiveness in work organisations (Ed.). New York, USA: Psychology Press.
[18] Habib, N. M. (2012). The role of developing countries governments in HRD programs: The Egyptian experience. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(3), 261-267.
[19] Heskett, J. (2007). What is management’s role in innovation’.Working Knowledge, 1-2.
[20] Janz, B. D., &Prasarnphanich, P. (2003).Understanding the Antecedents of Effective Knowledge Management:The Importance of a Knowledge-Centered Culture.Decision Sciences 34(2), 351–385.
[21] Jagero, N., Komba, H. V., &Mlingi, M. N. (2012).Relationship between on the Job Training and Employee’s Performance in Courier Companies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(22), 114-120.
[22] Kavoo-Linge, T., &Kiruri, J. K. (2013). The effect of placement practices on employee performance in small service firms in the information technology sector in Kenya.International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(15), 2013-219.
[23] Kebenei, E. J. (2014). Effects of induction programs on employee job performance in Eldoret Water and Sanitation Company limited. Unpublished dissertation for the award of Master of Science Degree in Human Resource Development Moi University.
[24] Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
[25] Madill, A., & Gough, B. (2008).Qualitative research and its place in psychological science.Psychological methods, 13(3).
[26] Mason, M. (2010). Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews [63 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(3), Art. 8, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100387 [Viewed 22-11-2014].
[27] Mogalakwe, M. (2006). The use of documentary research methods in social research, research report African Sociological Review, 10(1),221-230.
[28] Ndanyi, M. D. (2013). Human Resources Training for Effective Staff Performance in Local Government: Insights from Uganda. Journal of African & Asian Local Government Studies, 2(4), 75-99.
[29] Obong’o, S. O. (2014). Relationship between human resource development practices and employee performance at Barclays bank (K) Limited. Unpublished dissertation for the award of award of the degree master of business administration (MBA) University of Nairobi
[30] Okereke, C. I & Nnenna, I. B. (2011). Training, manpower development and job performance: perception and relevance among civil servants in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 3(6), 399-406.
[31] Plakoyiannaki, E., Tzokas, N., Dimitratos, P., &Saren, M. (2008). How critical is employee orientation for customer relationship management? Insightsfrom a Case Study’, Journal of Management Studies 45(2), 268–293.
[32] Powell, E. T & Renner, M. (2003).Analysing Qualitative Data. Wisconsin, USA: Cooperative Extension Publishing Operations.Price, D. (2007). Human resource managementin a business context (3rd Ed.).London, UK; Cengage Learning.
[33] Raggatt, P., Edwards, R., & Small, N. (2013).The learning society: Challenges and trends (Eds.) New York, USA: Routledge.
[34] Sarfin, R. (2015). The History of Human Resource Development. Available at: http://www. ehow.com/info 7737165_history-human-resource-development.html
[35] Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business:A skill building approach (4th Ed). New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons
[36] Sincero, S. M.2012, Personal Interview Survey. Available at: Explorable.com: http://explorable.com/personal-interview-survey (Retrieved May 27, 2015).
[37] Storey, J., Wright, P. M., & Ulrich, D. (2009).The Routledge companion to strategic human resource management (Eds).Taylor & Francis.
[38] Tashakkori, A., &Teddlie, C. (2003).Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioural research (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[39] Tavakol, M., &Dennick, R. (2011).Making sense of Cronbach’s Alpha.International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55.
[40] Truitt, D. L. (2011). The effect of training and development on employee attitude as it relates to training and work proficiency. SAGE Open, 1(3), 2158244011433338.
[41] Yongbeom, H. (2007). Organisational performance, turnover, and human resource management: focusing on municipal police services. Unpublished dissertation for the award of Doctor of Philosophy in the Martin School of Public Policy and Administration.
[42] Zhang, J. (2010). Employee orientation and performance: an exploration of the mediating role of customer orientation. Journal of business ethics, 91(1), 111-121.

Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD), Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent “Establishing the Relationship Between Job Orientation and Employee Performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.116-121 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/116-121.pdf

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Examining the Relationship between Training and Employee Performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government

Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD), Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent – March 2020 Page No.: 122-127

This study sought to establish the relationship between training and employee performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government. The researcher adopted a cross-sectional design using a sample of 131 respondents. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. It was established that training and performance positively significantly predicted employee performance. It was hence concluded that, receiving instructions on the job from their superiors, learning on the job under experts, further studies, mentoring, effective coaching sessions from superiors, refresher courses and receiving updated training significantly influenced employee performance. It was thus recommended that government agencies including local governments other organisations should prioritise giving of instructions on the job by superiors, having experts to train staff on the job and provide mentoring, effective coaching sessions, refresher courses and updated training for staff.

Page(s): 122-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2020

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD)
Kigali Independent University (ULK), Rwanda

 Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent
Kigali Independent University (ULK), Rwanda

[1] Aigboduwa, J. E., & Oisamoje, M. D. (2013). Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry. European Scientific Journal, 9(1), 244-261.
[2] Alabi, A. T. (2004). The relevance of staff development programmes to staff performance in the school system. Ilorin Journal of Education, 1-10.
[3] Alipour, M., Salehi, M., & Shahnavaz, A. (2009). A Study of on the Job Training Effectiveness: Empirical Evidence of Iran. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(11), 63-68.
[4] Akrani, G. (2010). Frederick Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory – Motivation Hygiene, Available at: kalyan-city.blogspot.com/…/frederick-herzberg-two-factor-theory.html‎.
[5] Al-Kassem, A. H. (2014). Determinants of employee’s overall satisfaction toward training and development programs. International Journal, 3(3), 129-135.
[6] Amin, M. E. (2005). Social Science Research: Conception, Methodology and Analysis. Kampala: Makerere University.
[7] Armstrong. M. (2010). Armstrong’s essential human resource management practice: A guide to people management. London, UK: Kogan Page Limited.
[8] Arora, N. (2014). Sustainability of organisational resources in development. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services & Management Research, 2(4), 78 – 88.
[9] Bakanye, J. (2013). Impact of employee training and organisational performance: A case study of Mityana District Local Government. Unpublished dissertation for the award of a Master Degree in Businesses Administration of Uganda Martyrs University Nkozi.
[10] Bordens, K. S., & Abbott, B. B. (2011). Research design and methods; A process approach (8th ed.). New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
[11] Boyce, C.,& Palena, N. (2006). Conducting In-Depth Interviews: A Guide for Designing and Conducting In-Depth Interviews for Evaluation Input. Watertown: Pathfinder International.
[12] Brockman, B. K., & Morgan, R. M. (2003). The Role of Existing Knowledge in New Product Innovativeness and Performance. Decision Sciences 34, 385–419.
[13] Chandan. J.S. (2010). Management theory and practice. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd.
[14] Cheng, E. W. L., & Ho, D. C. K. (2001). The influence of job and career attitudes on learning motivation and transfer. Career Development International, 6, 20-27.
[15] Constantinos N. P., Bloch, A., & Seale, C. (2011). Structured methods: interviews, questionnaires and observation, Seale-4312-CH-11-Part 2.indd 205.
[16] Fassinger, R., & Morrow, S. (2013). Toward Best Practices in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed-Method Research: A Social Justice Perspective. Journal for Social Action in Counselling and Psychology, 5(2), 69-83.
[17] Ford, J. K., Kozlowski, S. W. J., Kraiger, K., Salas, E., & Teachout, M. S. (2014). Improving training effectiveness in work organisations (Ed.). New York, USA: Psychology Press.
[18] Habib, N. M. (2012). The role of developing countries governments in HRD programs: The Egyptian experience. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(3), 261-267.
[19] Heskett, J. (2007). What is management’s role in innovation’. Working Knowledge, 1-2.
[20] Janz, B. D., & Prasarnphanich, P. (2003). Understanding the Antecedents of Effective Knowledge Management: The Importance of a Knowledge-Centered Culture. Decision Sciences 34(2), 351–385.
[21] Jagero, N., Komba, H. V., & Mlingi, M. N. (2012). Relationship between on the Job Training and Employee’s Performance in Courier Companies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(22), 114-120.
[22] Kavoo-Linge, T., & Kiruri, J. K. (2013). The effect of placement practices on employee performance in small service firms in the information technology sector in Kenya.International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(15), 2013-219.
[23] Kebenei, E. J. (2014). Effects of induction programs on employee job performance in Eldoret Water and Sanitation Company limited. Unpublished dissertation for the award of Master of Science Degree in Human Resource Development Moi University.
[24] Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
[25] Madill, A., & Gough, B. (2008). Qualitative research and its place in psychological science. Psychological methods, 13(3).
[26] Mason, M. (2010). Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews [63 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(3), Art. 8, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100387 [Viewed 22-11-2014].
[27] Mogalakwe, M. (2006). The use of documentary research methods in social research, research report African Sociological Review, 10(1), 221-230.
[28] Ndanyi, M. D. (2013). Human Resources Training for Effective Staff Performance in Local Government: Insights from Uganda. Journal of African & Asian Local Government Studies, 2(4), 75-99.
[29] Obong’o, S. O. (2014). Relationship between human resource development practices and employee performance at Barclays bank (K) Limited. Unpublished dissertation for the award of award of the degree master of business administration (MBA) University of Nairobi
[30] Okereke, C. I & Nnenna, I. B. (2011). Training, manpower development and job performance: perception and relevance among civil servants in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 3(6), 399-406.
[31] Plakoyiannaki, E., Tzokas, N., Dimitratos, P., & Saren, M. (2008). How critical is employee orientation for customer relationship management? Insightsfrom a Case Study’, Journal of Management Studies 45(2), 268–293.
[32] Powell, E. T & Renner, M. (2003). Analysing Qualitative Data. Wisconsin, USA: Cooperative Extension Publishing Operations.Price, D. (2007). Human resource managementin a business context (3rd Ed.). London, UK; Cengage Learning.
[33] Raggatt, P., Edwards, R., & Small, N. (2013). The learning society: Challenges and trends (Eds.) New York, USA: Routledge.
[34] Sarfin, R. (2015). The History of Human Resource Development. Available at: http://www. ehow.com/info 7737165_history-human-resource-development.html
[35] Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business:A skill building approach (4th Ed). New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons
[36] Sincero, S. M. 2012, Personal Interview Survey. Available at: Explorable.com: http://explorable.com/personal-interview-survey (Retrieved May 27, 2015).
[37] Storey, J., Wright, P. M., & Ulrich, D. (2009). The Routledge companion to strategic human resource management (Eds). Taylor & Francis.
[38] Tashakkori, A., &Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioural research (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[39] Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach’s Alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55.
[40] Truitt, D. L. (2011). The effect of training and development on employee attitude as it relates to training and work proficiency. SAGE Open, 1(3), 2158244011433338.
[41] Yongbeom, H. (2007). Organisational performance, turnover, and human resource management: focusing on municipal police services. Unpublished dissertation for the award of Doctor of Philosophy in the Martin School of Public Policy and Administration.
[42] Zhang, J. (2010). Employee orientation and performance: an exploration of the mediating role of customer orientation. Journal of business ethics, 91(1), 111-121.

Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD), Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent , “Examining the Relationship between Training and Employee Performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.122-127 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/122-127.pdf

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Challenges Facing Learning at Rural Schools: A Review of Related Literature

Elock Emvula Shikalepo – March 2020 Page No.: 128-132

The standard of education at most rural schools worldwide has been reported as low, owing to the geography of the rural areas and the rural-based dynamics which conflicted with learning endeavours.The purpose of this study was to review literatures related to the challenges and difficulties that faced learning at rural schools, and explain the intensity to which these challenges influenced learning at rural schools. The aim was to make necessary recommendations on how the challenges can be dealt with so that they do not continue to deteriorate learning at rural schools. Different sources of literatures were reviewed, and data was analysed thematically and discussed within the context of learning at rural areas, which was the focus of the study.
The study found out that learning at rural schools was characterised by numerous challenges. Impoverished and malnourished conditions of learners in rural environments were a result of poor families who were often unemployed and unable to provide basic necessities for their families.Malnourished learners failed to grasp the learning contents due to lack of concentration. In addition, minimum parental involvement in learning alongside low value attached to education by rural parents and guardians, resulted in low learners’ enrolment and high drop-out rates among rural schools, which then compromised the quality of learning. The shortage of resources, as diverse as human resources, buildings and learning aids also compromised the quality of learning at rural schools. School authorities should implement the necessary measures to minimise the detrimental effects of these challenges on learning at rural schools, to enable learners to learn optimally with improved school performance.

Page(s): 128-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2020

 Elock Emvula Shikalepo
Centre for Open and Lifelong Learning, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

[1] Adedeji, S.O. &Bamidele, R.O. (2003). Economic Impact of Tertiary Education on Human Capital Development in Nigeria. Selected papers for the 2002 Annual Conference: Nigerian Economic Society (NES). Ibadan:Polygraphis Ventures Ltd.
[2] Adedeji, S.O. &Olaniyan, O. (2011). Improving the conditions of teachers and teaching in rural schools across African countries. Addis Ababa: UNESCO.
[3] Aziz, N. (2011). Retaining high quality teachers in rural primary schools in Malaysia. Harvard University: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
[4] Bauch, P.A. (2001). School-community partnership in rural schools: Leadership, renewal, and a sense of place. Peabody Journal of Education, 76(2):204-221.
[5] Burnett, G. & Lingam, G.I. (2007). Reflective teachers and teacher educators in the Pacific region: Conversations with us not about us. Review of Education, 53:303-321.
[6] Carey, K. (2004). The real value of teachers: If good teachers matter, why don’t we act like it? Thinking K-16, 8(1):1-43.
[7] Cross, T.L. & Burney, V.H. (2005). High-ability, rural and poor: Lessons from Project Aspire and implications for school counsellors. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16:148-156.
[8] Darling-Hammond, L. (2003). Keeping good teachers: Why it matters what leaders can do. Educational Leadership, 60(1):6-13.
[9] Epply, K. (2009). Rural schools and the highly qualified teacher provision of No Child Left Behind: A critical policy analysis. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 24(4):1-11.
[10] Flora, C.B., Flora, J.L. & Fey, S. (2003). Rural communities: Legacy and change (2nd Ed.). Boulder: Westview Press.
[11] Gandara, P., Gutierrez, D. & O’Hara, S. (2001). Planning for the future in rural and urban high schools. Journal of Education for Students Placed At-Risk, 6(1):73-93.
[12] Hammer, P.C., Hughes, G., McClure, C., Reeves, C. & Salgado, D. (2005). Rural teacher recruitment and retention practices: Areview of the research literature, national survey of rural superintendents,and case studies of programs in Virginia. Charleston: Edvantia.
[13] Hanse-Himarwa, K. 2015. Minister probes college merger. The Namibian. Retrieved from: http://www.namibian.com.na/indexx.php?id=26361&page_type=story_detail&category_id=1 [Accessed on: 07 May 2015].
[14] Hardre, P., Sullivan, D. &Crowson, H. (2009). Student characteristics and motivation in rural high schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 24(16):1-16.
[15] Hardre, P.L. & Sullivan, D. (2008). Classroom environments and student differences: How they contribute to student motivation in rural high schools. Learning and Individual Differences, 18:471-485.
[16] Hardre, P.L. (2008). Taking on the motivating challenge: Rural high school teachers’ perceptions and practice. Teacher Education and Practice, 21(1):72-88.
[17] Howley, A, Rhodes, M. & Beall, J. (2009). Challenges facing rural schools: Implications for gifted students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 32(4):515-536.
[18] Ibadin, O.V. (2010). An analysis of teachers’ utilisation in urban and rural secondary schools in mid-western states of Nigeria. European Journal of Educational Studies, 2(2):87-92.
[19] Legotlo, M.W. (2014). Challenges and Issues facing the Education System in South Africa. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa.
[20] Lingam, G.I. (2012). Preparing teachers for rural schools: An empirical evidence from a Fiji case. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 2(2):1-12.
[21] Loeb, S., Darling-Hammond, L. &Luczak, J. (2005). How teaching conditions predict teacher turnover in California schools. Peabody Journal of Education, 80(3):44-75.
[22] Milanowski, A.T., Longwell-Grice, H., Saffold, F., Jones, J., Schomisch, K. & Odden, A. (2009). Recruiting new teachers to urban school districts: What incentives will work? International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 4(8):1-13.
[23] Monk, D.H. (2007). Recruiting and retaining high quality teachers in rural areas. The Future of Children, 17(1):155-174.
[24] Mulkeen, A. & Chen, D. (2008). Teachers for rural schools: Experiences in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda. Herndon: World Bank Publications.
[25] Namwandi, D. (2014). Budget Motivation Speech for the 2014/2015 Financial Year. Retrieved from: http://www.moe.gov.na/files/downloads/c1b_Budget%20Motivation%20Speech%20Ministry%20of%20Education%202014%20of%2013%20March%202014%20%283%29.pdf [Accessed on: 06 September 2014].
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[27] Narsey, W. (2004). Academic outcomes and resources for basic education in Fiji: Disparities by region, ethnicity, gender and economic background. Suva: Institute of Education.
[28] Ncube, A.C. (2013). Barriers to learner achievement in rural secondary schools in developing countries: The case of rural Zimbabwe. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 5(1):1-5.
[29] Paul, C. (2005). A proposal to address the shortage of highly qualified mathematics teachers. Mathematics Teacher, 98:456-458.
[30] Shadreck, M. (2012). Quality rural secondary school education in Zimbabwe: Challenges and remedies. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 3(5):768-774.
[31] Van der Merwe, H.M. (2011). Education of quality to the poor. Koers, 76(4):771-787.
[32] Victorian Auditor-General’s Report. (2014). Access to education for rural students. Retrieved from: http://www.audit.vic.gov.au/publications/20140403-Rural-Students/20140403-Rural-Students.pdf [Accessed on: 07 May 2015].
[33] Wallin, D.C. (2009). Rural education: A review of provincial and territorial initiatives. Manitoba: University of Manitoba.

Elock Emvula Shikalepo “Challenges Facing Learning at Rural Schools: A Review of Related Literature” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.128-132 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/128-132.pdf

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Effect of Environmental Social Responsibility on the Performance of Geothermal Development Company Limited in Kenya

Rose Waithera Njau, Dr. Linda Kimencu- March 2020 Page No.: 133-136

Corporate Social Responsibility simply refers to how business organizations impact stakeholders’ interest. Corporate Social Responsibility plays a vital role in organizational performance. The study investigated the effect of environmental social responsibility on the performance of geothermal development company limited in Kenya. Regarding statistical methods, the study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was 1081 employees of Geothermal Development Company as per Geothermal and 100 community representatives. The sample size constituted 100 participants whose selection was through stratified random sampling. Primary data was obtained by administering questionnaires to the participants. A pilot study was responsible for establishing the validity and reliability of the research instruments. The Cronbach’s reliability coefficient of 0.07 and above was acceptable as appropriate for this study. The statistical package for social sciences version 20.0 was used in the analysis. Presentation of the findings was made use of tables, charts, curves and graphs. The study established that environmental social responsibility had a positive and significant influence on organizational performance. The study concluded that the adoption of corporate social responsibility practices improves the transparency of the operations of the company, ensures accountability and improves the profitability of the firm. The study recommended that the organizations must draw in everybody’s consideration and guarantee they comprehend why the organizations are doing this, what their jobs will be, and what the organizations need to accomplish.

Page(s): 133-136                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2020

 Rose Waithera Njau
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Linda Kimencu
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1] AbuBakar, A. S., & Ameer, R. (2015). Readability of corporate social responsibility communication in Malaysia. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 18(1), 50 – 60
[2] Ahamed, W. S. W., Almsafir, M. K., & Al-Smadi, A. W. (2014). Does corporate social responsibility lead to improve in firm financial performance? Evidence from Malaysia. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(3), 126 – 138.
[3] Akgun, A. E., Heskin, H., & Byrne, J. (2016). The moderating role of environmental dynamism between firm emotional capability and performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(2), 230 – 232
[4] Chebet, R. G., & Muturi, W. (2018). Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Performance: A Case of Sony and Chemelil Sugar Factories, Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences and Information Technology, 4(2), 50 – 62
[5] Cohen, M., Cavazotte, F. Costa, T., & Ferreira, K. (2017). Corporate social- environmental responsibility as an attraction and retention factor for young professionals. BBR. Brazilian Business Review, 14(1), 21-41
[6] Dahlsrud, A. (2014). How corporate social responsibility is defined: an analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, 15(1), 1-13
[7] Dobers, P. (2015). Corporate social responsibility: management and methods. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 16(4), 185-191
[8] Fortes, H. (2015). The need for environmental reporting by companies. Greener Management International, 40(1), 77-92
[9] Guthrie, J., & Parker, L. D. (1989). Corporate social reporting: a rebuttal of legitimacy theory. Accounting and business research, 19(76), 343-352
[10] Hawrysz, L., & Foltys, J. (2015). Environmental aspects of social responsibility of public sector organizations. Sustainable Business Models, 327
[11] Kilong’i, S. W. Ayora, J. M., & Butali, P. (2019). Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Performance of Water Bottling Companies in Garissa, Kenya. International Journal of Strategic Management and Procurement, 1(1), 80 – 87
[12] Lodhia, S.; Jacobs, K.; Park, Y. J. Driving public sector environmental reporting. The disclosure practices of Australian commonwealth departments. Pub. Manag. Rev. 2012, 14, 631–647
[13] Nana, D. B., & Doris, A. K. (2016). The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organisational Performance: A Case Study of Vodafone Ghana Limited. European Journal of Business and Management, 8(2), 46- 57
[14] Nasieku, T., Togun, O. R., & Olubunmi, E. M. (2014). Corporate social responsibility and organizational performance: A theoretical review. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education, 1(12), 106-114
[15] Olowokudejo, F., Aduloju, S. A., & Oke, S. A. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and organizational effectiveness of insurance companies in Nigeria. The Journal of Risk Finance, 4(1), 52 – 63
[16] Rashid, N. Rahman, N. I. A., & Khalid, S. A. (2014). Environmental corporate social responsibility (ECSR) as strategic marketing initiatives. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130(0), 499-508
[17] Van der Laan, S. (2009). The Role of Theory in Explaining Motivation for Corporate Social Disclosures. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 3(4), 15 – 29

Rose Waithera Njau, Dr. Linda Kimencu “Effect of Environmental Social Responsibility on the Performance of Geothermal Development Company Limited in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.133-136 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/133-136.pdf

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Determining the Relationship between Performance Assessment and Employee Performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government

Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD), Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent – March 2020 Page No.: 137-142

This study sought to determine the relationship between performance assessment and employee performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government. The researcher adopted a cross-sectional design using a sample of 131 respondents. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. It was established that performance assessment positively significantly predicted employee performance. It was hence concluded that performance assessment from colleagues and the public significantly influences employee performance. It was thus recommended that government agencies including local governments other organisations should promote performance assessment by colleagues and public as priorities in employee assessment.

Page(s): 137-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2020

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD)
Kigali Independent University (ULK), Rwanda

 Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent
Kigali Independent University (ULK), Rwanda

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Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD), Uwimana Ndiyaye Innocent “Determining the Relationship between Performance Assessment and Employee Performance in Rwanda, Nyagatare District Local Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.137-142 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/137-142.pdf

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Partisipative Leadership and Decision Making Style for Overcoming Children Addiction to Gadgets

Elvira Putri Erlinda, Sowiyah, Riswanti Rini – March 2020 Page No.: 143-148

Participative leadership aims to provide a balance between the involvement of superiors and subordinates in the process of giving information, making decision and solving problems. This paper aims to examine the implementation of participative leadership and decision-making styles to educate the use of gadgets in early childhood at one selected school in Lampung Province, Indonesia. This study used qualitative research method. Data verification and conclusion drawing. Results of the study show that the teacher as a facilitator and communicator should be able to facilitate conversations between teachers and parents, provide time at all times to discuss with parents, schedule monthly counseling. Thus, that parents can consult with teachers to improve children development, , actively ask questions to one another, exchange and share ideas, and makedecisions and agreement regarding overcoming problems faced by children. After the decision and agreement are made between the teacher and the parent, they can mutually commit together to carry out the decision and agreement that have been made. The style of decision making applied is democratic. Engagement between teachers and parents is very important for the progress of children’s development. The results of this study recommend policy makers to hold seminars to educate parents and teachers about the impact of the use of gadgets in early childhood, and make a policy about limiting the use of gadgets in early childhood.

Page(s): 143-148                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2020

 Elvira Putri Erlinda
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Sowiyah
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Riswanti Rini
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

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Elvira Putri Erlinda, Sowiyah, Riswanti Rini “Partisipative Leadership and Decision Making Style for Overcoming Children Addiction to Gadgets” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.143-148 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/143-148.pdf

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Understanding the Correlation between Organizational Image and Performances of Government Higher Institutions in Nigeria. A Study of Selected Higher Institutions in Niger Delta

Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu, Epelle, E. Sopirinye, Ibitayo Catherine, Chukwuka, G. Ifeoma – March 2020 Page No.: 149-155

This study examines the relationship between organizational image and performances of government higher institutions in Nigeria. A study of selected higher institutions in Niger delta region .The study made use of a structured questionnaire to obtain data from 222 employees of the selected tertiary institution in Niger delta region. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 was used for data analysis. The study also made use of description analysis to analyze the demographic characteristics of the respondents while Pearson Moment Coefficient was used to analyze the hypotheses earlier stated. The result of the study indicates that organizational image has significant effect on institutional performances sustainability and survival in government higher institutions in Nigeria. The four dependent measures (performance, excellence, competitive advantage and global perception) were found to be influenced by organizational image. Institutions can be sustained and survive economically, socially and environmentally by ensuring they top prioritize good image both internally and externally and integrate it into organizational policy and mission.
The study concludes that that concludes that organizational image maintenance is an absolute factor that can be used by management to ensure sustainability and survival in their business operations as this, has the capacity to control, influence, and impact and affect organizational performance survival and sustainability. The study recommended among others that institutions should constantly evaluate their performance from the stakeholder’s point of view

Page(s): 149-155                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2020

 Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu
Lecturer, Department of Petroleum Marketing and Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic of Oil And Gas Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Epelle, E. Sopirinye
Student, Department of Management, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumini, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Ibitayo Catherine
Lecturer, Department of Electrical Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnic of Oil And Gas Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Chukwuka, G. Ifeoma
Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu, Epelle, E. Sopirinye, Ibitayo Catherine, Chukwuka, G. Ifeoma “Understanding the Correlation between Organizational Image and Performances of Government Higher Institutions in Nigeria. A Study of Selected Higher Institutions in Niger Delta” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.149-155 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/149-155.pdf

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Effect of 5Es Constructivist Instructional Approach on Male and Female Students’ Achievement and Retention in Chemistry in Benue State, Nigeria

Aondohemba John GARBA – March 2020 Page No.: 156-162

The study investigated the effect of 5Es constructivist instructional approach on senior secondary students’ achievement and retention in chemistry in Benue State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The quasi experimental design was used for the study. A sample of 132 senior secondary two students from six secondary schools was selected using purposive and random sampling techniques. Two instruments, Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Chemistry Retention Test (CRT) were developed by the researcher. The instruments were validated by five experts. Upon successful validation, the instruments were trial-tested in a pilot study. Kuder-Richardson (K-R21) formula was used to find the reliability coefficient of the CAT which was found to be 0.71. Data were collected at various intervals using the CAT and CRT. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviations to answer the research questions while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Chemistry using constructivist instructional strategy. In terms of retention there is a significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students with female students having the highest mean retention scores. It is concluded in this study that the use of constructivist instructional strategy enhance students’ achievement and retention in Chemistry. It was recommended that Chemistry teachers should use constructivist instructional strategy which provides students opportunity to interact with materials, teachers and peers.

Page(s): 156-162                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2020

 Aondohemba John GARBA
Department of Science Education, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria

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Aondohemba John GARBA “Effect of 5Es Constructivist Instructional Approach on Male and Female Students’ Achievement and Retention in Chemistry in Benue State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.156-162 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/156-162.pdf

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Improving Upon the Teaching of Addition of Two – Three Digit Numbers in Basic Three Using Multi-Base Blocks (Dienes Blocks)

Adu-Poku. Federick and Osei Yaw – March 2020 Page No.: 163-169

The study examined the causes of pupils’ difficulties in solving problem involving two – three digit numbers involving addition in basic three class and its implication on teaching and learning of mathematics. The action research design was adopted since it was a classroom problem and need immediate attention. The population consisted of Basic school pupils. In all, twenty-seven (27) pupils consisting of thirteen (13) girls and fourteen (14) boys were purposively selected for the study. Test and interview were used to collect data. The findings revealed that lack of interest by pupils, knowledge of subject matter by teachers, pupils’ readiness and others affect pupils’ performance. The researchers concluded that Multi- base Blocks is effective in enhancing pupils’ interest in the subject. It is recommended that mathematics teachers should use appropriate teaching resources in teaching the topic. This will enhance pupils understanding of concepts and make teaching and learning more practicable.

Page(s): 163-169                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2020

 Adu-Poku. Federick
Mathematics Tutor, Mathematics and ICT Education Department, St. Louis College of Education, Kumasi

 Osei Yaw
Mathematics Tutor and Development Studies Practitioner, Mathematics and ICT Education Department, Tamale College of Education, Tamale, Ghana

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Adu-Poku. Federick and Osei Yaw “Improving Upon the Teaching of Addition of Two – Three Digit Numbers in Basic Three Using Multi-Base Blocks (Dienes Blocks)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.163-169 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/163-169.pdf

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Analysis of the Cause Dropping Out School Children at The Primary School Age at Marga Kaya Village

Putri Chairia, Risma. M. Sinaga, Erlina Rufaidah – March 2020 Page No.: 170-173

Education in Indonesia is the main element to develop Indonesian people. One of Education problem that happens in Indonesia is there are many children in primary school age who drop out of school. We can find it in Marga Kaya Village, Jati Agung sub-district. In this village, there are many children who drop out of primary school age. The objective of this research is to find out and analyze the causes of dropping out primary school age children, in Marga Kaya Village, Jati Agung District. This research is a type of descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Data collection techniques using questionnaires, interviews, observation and documentation and data analysis used in this study is a descriptive analysis of the percentage. The research subjects were 30 children who had dropped out of school in Marga Kaya Village. The results showed that there were several factors that made many school age children dropped out of school, (1) internal factors those were low interest and children’s willingness to go to school and schools were unattractive, (2) external factors those were low family income, parents’ background education, socio- cultural factors and environment.

Page(s): 170-173                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2020

 Putri Chairia
Master of Social Science Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Risma. M. Sinaga
Master of Social Science Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Erlina Rufaidah
Master of Social Science Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

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[9] Daulay A Murni . 2009. Kemiskinan Pedesaan. USU Press. Medan

Putri Chairia, Risma. M. Sinaga, Erlina Rufaidah “Analysis of the Cause Dropping Out School Children at The Primary School Age at Marga Kaya Village” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.170-173 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/170-173.pdf

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The Shaping of Children’s Literacy: The Case of Kampung Warna-Warni Jodipan, Malang, Indonesia

Astrida Fitri Nuryani, I Wayan Suyadnya – March 2020 Page No.: 174-178

In this paper we attempt to describe our efforts towards countering literacy by a community project in one of tourism yet marginalized areas in Malang, Indonesia. The area in question is Kampung Warna-Warni Jodipan. Indonesia is currently classified as low in the culture of interest in reading, this is evidenced by Indonesia’s position which is ranked second with the index of 0.001 out of 61 countries in the culture of reading interest (Puspita & Irwansyah, 2018). Based on the survey, the lack of interest in reading in Indonesia as a result of Indonesian culture that prefers listening and oral culture and with its presence the internet becomes an additional challenge in the culture of reading interest. The lack of a culture of reading interest can have an impact on various factors, one of which is illiteracy. One of the causes the decline in interest in reading is derived from internal factors and also external factors where the person lives. Based on the data our main urgency is to overcome illiteracy for children in marginalized areas, beginning with Jodipan. Our goal to overcome this begins with overcoming illiteracy in the Jodipan area starting with children from the age of 6-10 years old, expecting that it would bring benefits in the form of increased human resources capacity for the people of Jodipan, so that it would also affects the economic conditions of the local community.

Page(s): 174-178                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2020

 Astrida Fitri Nuryani
Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

 I Wayan Suyadnya
Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

References are not available

Astrida Fitri Nuryani, I Wayan Suyadnya “The Shaping of Children’s Literacy: The Case of Kampung Warna-Warni Jodipan, Malang, Indonesia?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.174-178 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/174-178.pdf

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The British Education System and the Cultural Dilemma: in the light of the Depiction in Early Sinhala Fictions (1866-1906)

Ariyaratne Manoj – March 2020 Page No.: 179-189

A fiction or a novel as of its particularity in time and place owes a considerable allegiance to social reporting and social history. This research article will attempt therefore to discuss the British education system, its influence on early Sinhala fiction writers that typing the cultural dilemma of English educated Sri Lankans who increasingly felt that within the very education that they had so perseveringly and admiringly perused, lay hidden the spiritual and cultural disintegration. This spiritual dilemma was obvious in Sri Lankan context where Conqueror’s language (English) enthroned by law as the official language, the most important medium of instruction in school. This covers the period of writing as many major Sinhala fiction writers like Lindamulage Isac de Silva, Rev. H. Kannangara and Piyadāsa Sirisēna have published their fictions as a way of propagation of Traditional Sinhala Buddhist culture and the newly introduced Western culture along with Christianity. These fictions with considerable allegiance to social reporting and social history have depicted the cultural dilemma of the contemporary Sri Lankan society particularly as a result of the replacement of the traditional temple education prevailed in Sri Lanka by British education system. This paper will deliberate the British education System, its influence on early Sinhala fiction writers. For this qualitative research documented data were collected referring to education reports such as Morgan education report, books, magazine original fictions and web based resources. The conclusion is that the British education system and the Sinhala fiction has the similar aim of propagating culture which has resulted the internal dilemma of the society being between two cultures; traditional Sinhala Buddhist culture and that of Western. While propagating their culture the early Sinhala fiction writers subject to this research have made an effort to depict the cultural dilemma through their characters.

Page(s): 179-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2020

 Ariyaratne Manoj
Department of Languages, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka

[1] Fairchild H.P. ., (ed), Dictionary of Sociology and Related Terms. Totowa, NJ Littlefeild, Adams 1967, P.80.
[2] ibid P.80.
[3] Kottak C.P. Cultural Anthropology (4thed) New York, 1987, P.35.
[4] Meddegama, U.P. The Language of Sinhalese Fiction (1860-1970), Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in the University of London, 1973, p.89
[5] Malalgoda.Kitsiri, The Buddhist – Christian Confrontation in Sri Lanka, 1800-1880, Studies in Society and Culture, 85, Word Place, Colombo, 1994, p2.
[6] Mendis,G.C.(ed), Colebrook-Cameron Papers,Oxford University Press, 1956,p.77.
[7] Ruberu, Ranjith, T,”Early British education activities”, Education in Ceylon, A centenary Vol,Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Colombo, p.360.
[8] ibid p.360.
[9] C.O, 54, 1 letter of North to Court of Directors, East India Company, 5. Oct.1799, quoted by Raberu, Ranjith, T,”Early British education activities,Education in Ceylon,A Centenary Voll, p.361.
[10] Ibid.p.361.
[11] Ibid.p.363.
[12] Ibid. p.363.
[13] Wickramaratne,Ananda, The Roots of Nationalism, Sri Lanka Theology Department, Loyola University, Chicago, U.S.A. ,1995.p6.
[14] Rev. Roland, W.E. Annual letter, Nuwara-Eliya, 15.Dec.1880, C.M.S. Archives quoted by Wickramaratne in “The Roots of Nationalism, pp.6-7.
[15] C.C.Fenn to G.T Flemming, 8July 1880, C.M.S Achieves quoted by Wickramaratne.Ananda.Op.cit.P.6.
[16] Mendis, G.C.,(ED) The Colebrooke-Cameron papers, vol.1, Oxford University Press, 1956,P.71.
[17] Ruberu,Ranjith, T, “School Commission of Ceylon” 1834-1867, University of Ceylon Review,Oct.1962.p.244.
[18] Report of the Legislative Linguistic Council sub-committee on education, p.349 quoted by Wickramaratne, Ananda ibid. and p.85.
[19] Sarathchandra, Wickramasuriya, “English Education and the Estranged intellectual in Colonial Sri Lanka” The Sri Lankan Journal of Humanities, vol.4, University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya Campus 1978, P3’
[20] Wickramasuriya, Sarachchandra, op.cit.p5.
[21] Guruge,Ananda,(ed) Return to Righteousness, Government Press,Colombo,1965,p.697.
[22] Ibid. p 684.
[23] Ibid. p 689.
[24] Guruge, Ananda, (ed) Return to Righteousness, Government Press, Colombo, 1965, p.683.
[25] ibid. p.689.
[26] Malalgoda, Kithsiri, op.cit, p.234.
[27] Malalgoda, Kithsiri. op.cit, p.234.
[28] ibid, p.234.
[29] P.B.J. Hewawasam, “Where the Buddhist Pioneers?” Ceylon Daily News, 3, Sep.1969
[30] Malalgoda, Kithsiri, op.cit, p235.
[31] ibid, p.236.
[32] ibid, p.236.
[33] Ibid.237.
[34] Ratanasāra.Hävänpola ,britānyapratipattibudusamahāpiriven adhyāpanaya.1815-1865 Kelaniya.P. 1970.
[35] Ward, W.E.F. Fraser of Trinity and Achimota, Gahana University press, 1965, pp.53-54.
[36] ibid, pp.54-55.
[37] Farmer, B.H. Ceylon, A divided Nation, Oxford University Press, 1963, p.51.
[38] Sarathchandra, Wickramasūriya, “English education and the Estranged intellectuals in colonial Sri Lanka”, op.cit.p.5.
[39] The Introduction of SidathSangarawa,(ed. James de Alwis, 1852. ccxiviii.
[40] Sarathchandra, E.R. The Sinhalese Novel, M.D. Gunasena Co. Ltd. Colombo, 1950.79.
[41] Wickramasuriya,B.S.S.A. op.cit, p.230.
[42] úl%uiQßhir;apkaø,isxy, kjl;dfõke.Su, m%§m m%ldYlfhda. fld T,32 msgqj.
[43] Wickramasuriya , B.S.S.A. op.cit, p.232.
[44] Jayawardene,Kumari, op. cit. p.77.
[45] s,lr;akñKsjkamS,ishjilfmr,shissxy, kjl;dfõmoku. tiaf.dvf.aiy ifydaorfhda.42 msgqj.
[46] Wickramasuriya, B.S.S.A. op.cit, p.239.
[47] Issac de Silva.L,Happy and the Miserable Families. The Ceylon Religion Tract Society Colombo 1888,p.06.
[48] Wickramasuriya, B.S.S.A., op.cit. p.243.
[49] Kannanara, H. Grāmapravurtiyak .p.31.
[50] Wickramasuriya, B.S.S.A. op.cit, p.42 .
[51] De Silva,Albert. Bentota.Vesak Dūtayā.1894.p. 36.
[52] Ibid.p10.
[53] Wickramasuriya, B.S.S.A. op.cit, p.45-46.
[54] AmunugamaSarath, ‘Ideology and class interest in one of PiyadasaSirisena’s novel, The new image of the Sinhala Buddhist Nationalist Sri Lanka. Collective Identities, Vol 1, Michael Robert (ed), 1997, p. 337.
[55] Ibid.p. 338.
[56] Ibid.p.338.
[57] Ibid.p. 339.
[58] Wickrarnasuriya B.S.S.A, op. cit, p. 330
[59] Kearney, Robert, N 1967 Communalism and Language in the Politics of Ceylon, Duke University Press, North Carolina. P. 19.
[60] Twentieth Century Impressions of Ceylon, Wright, Arnold, (ed) Lloyd’s (London: Great Britain publishing Company Ltd,1907: 87.
[61] Pieris, Ralf .1956, Sinhalese Social Organization, TheKandyanPeriod, Ceylon University Press, Peradeniya. P197.
[62] Ibid.p.197.
[63] People in between, vol.1 (ed), Michael Roberts and others. Ratmalana:SarvodayaBook Publishing Services, 1989:14.
[64] Jayawardena, Kumari. op.cit.14).
[65] Amunugama,Sarath 1997,’Ideology and class interest in one ofPiyadasaSirisena novels, The new image of the Sinhala Buddhist Nationalist’,Sri Lanka, Collective Identities,Vol 1, Ed. Michael Robert,Marge Institute, Colombo .346.

Ariyaratne Manoj “Entrepreneurship Skills and Entrepreneurial Intent of Graduating Students of Selected Universities in Northwestern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.179-189 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/179-189.pdf

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Financial Regulatory Bodies And Bank’s Health in Nigeria

Oyetunji, Oyefemi Ismail, Adepoju, Jadesola Abiodun- March 2020 Page No.: 190-196

Nigerian Financial sector has grown significantly, contributing to the growth of the economy for decades and it remains one of the engines of growth especially the banking sector. Over the years, apart from remarkable achievements recorded, the sector also witnessed differs of crisis at various periods which therefore demands financial regulatory authorities to ensure a healthy sector is maintained in order to increase users’ confidence in the sector. The paper examines the impacts of financial regulatory bodies on banks’ health in Nigeria with particular emphasis on the periods from 1986 to date when the banking sector experience different forms of banking crisis and banking failures; Although, the paper claimed 1989 to 2014 as the period of general banking crisis but failure occurred throughout the period to some banks even down till 2018 ,which put the regulatory authorities on their toes at all the times. Primary data administration of unstructured questionnaire on selected respondents was adopted, and secondary data. It was retroactive and progressive in analysis. It is therefore recommended that periodic monitoring of both internal and external operations are necessary in light of environmental changes. This would facilitate a robust measure of banking health in Nigeria and thus regulating the banking sector in future.

Page(s): 190-196                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2020

 Oyetunji, Oyefemi Ismail
Department of Accountancy, The Polytechnic, Ibadan-Nigeria

 Adepoju, Jadesola Abiodun
Department of Accountancy, The Polytechnic, Ibadan-Nigeria

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Oyetunji, Oyefemi Ismail, Adepoju, Jadesola Abiodun “Financial Regulatory Bodies And Bank’s Health in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.190-196 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/190-196.pdf

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Oversights Functions of the National Assembly in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Frederick Yeitiemone Agbedi, Fidelis Allen, Ph.D, Ucheoma O. Ukachikara, Ph.D – March 2020 Page No.: 197-202

The oversight functions of national legislatures of modern representative democracies have been accorded premium in the smooth functioning of democracy. The existing literature in the case of Nigeria, however, remains inadequate and segmented, despite the many media vibes about the activities of lawmakers in the country’s fledgling democracy. Thus, this paper looks at the case of the National Assembly in Nigeria, focusing on the challenges militating against the conduct of its oversight functions between 2007 and 2017. Relying on content analysis of transcribed interviews and participant observations, the paper argues that the effective performance of oversight functions of the National Assembly is affected by several limiting factors, which includes lack of adequate statutory funding. In the same vein, the dearth of expertise on the part of legislators and clerks are major barriers to effective performance. Therefore, among the recommendations regarding the issue of unhealthy interference of the executive in the affairs of the legislature, funds required for oversight activities should be provided early enough to enhance effective performance. The legislature should avoid government agencies providing the money and other resources they need to be able to carry out their oversight duties.

Page(s): 197-202                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2020

 Frederick Yeitiemone Agbedi
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Fidelis Allen, Ph.D
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Ucheoma O. Ukachikara, Ph.D
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[16]. Stapenhurst, R., Jacobs, K. and Oladeji, O. (2016).“Legislative oversight in Nigeria: An empirical review and assessment in The Journal of legislative Studies 2(1) pp. 1-29

Frederick Yeitiemone Agbedi, Fidelis Allen, Ph.D, Ucheoma O. Ukachikara, Ph.D “Oversights Functions of the National Assembly in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.197-202 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/197-202.pdf

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Senior Secondary School Students Knowledge of Topical Environmental Issues in Delta State

Ukala, Geoffrey, A.M. Osuafor, Amaka, Nwankwo Loretta – March 2020 Page No.: 203-206

The study focused on determining Biology students’ knowledge of topical environmental issues in Delta state. Two research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised 19,845 SS2 Biology students’ in 310 public secondary schools in Delta state. The sample for the study comprised 992 Biology students which represent 5% of the population. Researcher’s developed instrument termed Students Environmental Knowledge Test (SEKT) was used for data collection and were validated by three experts. The research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation while z-test was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 alpha level. The major finding of the study based on the analyzed data showed that SS2Biology students have low level of environmental knowledge and there is no significant different between male and female students’ environmental knowledge level. Based on the findings of the study, conclusions were drawn, recommendations made and suggestions for further studies were given.

Page(s): 203-206                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2020

 Ukala, Geoffrey
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 A.M. Osuafor
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Amaka, Nwankwo Loretta
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

[1]. Agiande, K. (2006). Environmental education awareness and attitude of secondary school students in Ogoja education zone, Cross River State. (Unpublished M.ED. thesis). University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Nigeria.
[2]. Anwalu, P. A. (2014). Study of environmental awareness among higher secondary students and some educational factors affecting it. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(7), 90-101.
[3]. Arba’at, H., Tajal, A. N., &Suriati, S. (2010). The status on the level of environmental awareness in the concept of sustainable development amongst secondary school students. Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2(10), 1276-1280.
[4]. Chinedu, C. (2010). Environmental education awareness & attitude of secondary school students in Owerri Education Zone, Imo State. (Unpublished M.ED. thesis). University of Nigeria Nsuka. Nigeria
[5]. Comfort, S. N. (2011). The effects of an environmental studies course on selected variables related to environmentally responsible behavior. The Journal of Environmental Education, 26(4), 30-45.
[6]. Ekezie, O. C. (2010). Farmers attitude towards human induce factors that causes climate change in Abia central senatorial zone. (Unpublished M.ED. Thesis). Michael Opkara University of Agriculture, Umudike.
[7]. Ezeudu, F. O. (2009). Using concept map to teach ozone layer depletion and green house effects to senior secondary school chemistry students. STAN. Environmental Educational Series, 13(6), 78-87.
[8]. Kumud, G. (2014). Environmental Awareness among secondary school students of Golaghat district in the state of Asam and their attitude towards environmental education. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(3), 30-44
[9]. Nworgu, B. G. (2015). Educational research: Basic issues & methodology. (3rd edition). University trust publisher Nsukka, Nigeria
[10]. Ofoebe, C. (2009). Environmental education awareness and attitude of secondary school students in Okigwe Education Zone, Imo State. (Unpublished M.ED. thesis). Department of Science Education, UNN.
[11]. Onoja, P. A. (2014). Environmental awareness and attitude of senior secondary school students in ankpa education zone of Kogi State. (Unpublished Thesis), University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Nigeria.
[12]. Oruonye, E. D. (2011). An assessment of the level of awareness of the effects of climate change among students of tertiary institutions in Jalingo Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 4(9), 513-523.
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[17]. Ukala, G. &Osuafor, A.M., (2019). Biology students’ level of awareness of topical environmental problems in Delta state. Review of Education, Journal Institute of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka,31 (1), 117-125
[18]. UNESCO. (2010). United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) 2005-2014. www.AsiaandthePacificforum.

Ukala, Geoffrey, A.M. Osuafor, Amaka, Nwankwo Loretta “Senior Secondary School Students Knowledge of Topical Environmental Issues in Delta State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.203-206 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/203-206.pdf

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Appraisal of the Influence of Moral Standard on the Clothing Selection of Female Undergraduates in Selected Nigeria Universities

Okeke Evelyn Ogochukwu, Prof. S. L. Ajayi – March 2020 Page No.: 207-209

This study focused on the appraisal of the influence of moral standard on the clothing selection of female undergraduates in north-west universities of Nigeria. Specifically the study is aimed at identifying the influence of female students’ moral value and sexual morality on their clothing selection. This research work adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 17,116 female undergraduates. A sample size of 375 students was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The research questions was analysed using mean and standard deviations. Findings revealed that the moral value and sexual morality of female students influenced their clothing selection. Hence, the null hypotheses are hereby rejected. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things that university authorities should continue to orientate and re-orientate new and old students on good clothing selection practice and maintain high moral value.

Page(s): 207-209                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2020

 Okeke Evelyn Ogochukwu
Home Economics Unit, Government Secondary School Hajj Camp Abuja, Department Of Home Economics, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

 Prof. S. L. Ajayi
Home Economics Unit, Government Secondary School Hajj Camp Abuja, Department Of Home Economics, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

[1]. Bill, N. (1991). Clothing and fashion around the world consumer profile research CRP, council http//: www.igad.co.krladreport/cpr as 2002
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[3]. Ejila, E. A. (2014). Clothing motivations and behaviours of female undergraduate in Benue state. A Thesis submitted to Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka.
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[5]. Kiran, A., Malik, I. and Riaz, A. (2002). Factors affecting changes in the clothing pattern of the adolescent girls. International Journal of Agriculture/biology http//:www.ijab.org
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[7]. Nchekube, N. Y. (2009). Clothing selection practices of Aging women in Enugu state. A Thesis submitted to Department of Vocational Teacher Educational, University of Nigeria Nsukka.
[8]. Esiowu, A. P. and Igbo, C. A. (2008). Clothing for self expression by female undergraduates in universities in south eastern state of Nigeria. Journal of Home Economics Research, 9, 138-147.
[9]. Okeh, U. M. (2009). Dressing code and sexual characteristics of young population in south eastern Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 2(4), 51-57.
[10]. Oluwabadewo, I., Onwuka, E. M. and Ajaegbo, D. I. (2011). Issues and challenges in Nigeria education in the 21st century. West and Solomon Publishing Ltd. Onitsha.
[11]. Ozougwu, S. U. and Anyakoha, E. U. (2005). Clothing communication problems of the female undergraduate of selected Nigeria universities. Journal of Home Economics 6(2), 1-9.
[12]. Ozougwu, S. U. and Anyakoha, E. U. (2005). Beholder perception of female undergraduates clothing style in selected Nigeria universities. Journal of Home Economics, 6(1), 171-179.
[13]. Wallace, D. (1983). Male-female difference in clothing preferences. International Journal of Women Strides, 6(4), 291-307.
[14]. Weber, J. (1990). Clothing, fashion and fabric construction, preora Illinois, glenco. Macmillian Mc Graw-Hill.

Okeke Evelyn Ogochukwu, Prof. S. L. Ajayi “Appraisal of the Influence of Moral Standard on the Clothing Selection of Female Undergraduates in Selected Nigeria Universities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.207-209 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/207-209.pdf

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How Socio-Technical Landscape Can Innovate Energy Transitions in Cities? A Conceptual Framework

Usman Sattar – March 2020 Page No.: 210-214

This paper provides a conceptual frame that how socio-technical landscape components of the Multilevel Perspective can stimulate energy transitions in cities by taking a case of Beijing city. It adopts a theoretical coding method with the help of a methodical literature review to define the main sectors of energy consumption/carbon emission and socio-technical landscape components in a coherent way to support energy transitions. The recurring strands of the main sources of carbon emission—local and regional transportation, coal combustion, industrial production, fugitive dust, and others, are described first. Lately, the main factors of socio-technical landscape—political support, macro-economic trends, spatial structure, demographic trends, media, and societal values, are described as a framework of multi-sectoral cooperative interplay to minimize energy consumption, carbon emission, and improving the air quality of the city. The study intends to illuminate the pathways of energy transitions for urban planners and policy makers to make our urban localities even more resilient and a sustainable.

Page(s): 210-214                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2020

 Usman Sattar
Department of Social Work, College of Law and Political Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua (321004), Zhejiang, P. R. China

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Usman Sattar “How Socio-Technical Landscape Can Innovate Energy Transitions in Cities? A Conceptual Framework” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.210-214 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/210-214.pdf

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An Overview of the Bane of Remuneration and Service Delivery to Government Workers in Nigeria. A Case Study of Ekiti State Civil Servants

BABATOLA, Adeleye Marcus (Ph.D), OLUWASANMI, Lawrence A (Ph.D), ROTKANG, Dimlong Dimang – March 2020 Page No.: 215-217

I. INTRODUCTION
The security and development of any nation depend critically on the adequacy of its social service delivery to the populace (Nnamani and Chilaka, 2012). It is a global trend and a response to social needs and social problems of the people. (Iloh and Bahir, 2013) opine thus: “Social service encompasses programmes aimed at achieving some objectives and it relates to the social system in the goals of social policies. The efficiency and effectiveness of social services provisioning has been viewed to be critical in the overall development of a nation. Social service programmes contribute to development in such areas as job creation, economic growth, poverty reduction, mortality, rural-urban migration, diversification of the economy, citizen empowerment, self actualization and happiness among others (Nwofia, 2010). The following research questions are considered very germane to the study and are raised to guide the study. How significant is the relationship between effective wages administration in Civil service and employee’s performance? What are the constraints to regular payment of salaries by some states in Nigeria? What is the implications non-payment of salaries on public service delivery?

Page(s): 215-217                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2020

 BABATOLA, Adeleye Marcus (Ph.D)
Department of Political Science, Ekiti State University, P.M.B 5363 Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 OLUWASANMI, Lawrence A (Ph.D)
Department of Sociology, Ekiti State University, P.M.B 5363 Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 ROTKANG, Dimlong Dimang
Department of Political Science University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

[1] Lassell Mbah, P. (2011). Transparency, Accountability, and Good Governance at the Local GovernmentLevel: towards a Template In T. Onyishi (ed) Key Issues in Local Government andDevelopment: A Nigerian Perspective, Enugu: Praise House Publishers pp 727-744.
[2] Nzekwe, I. F. (2011). Women and Politics in Local Government System in Nigeria: Challengesand Prospects In T. Onyishi (ed) Key Issues in Local Government and Development: ANigerian Perspective, Enugu: Praise House Publishers pp333-344
[3] Nwofia, J. E (2010). “Local Government and Community Development in Nigeria” In Nnadozie,O. U & Uzuegbunam, A.O (eds.) “Issues in Peace and Conflict Studies and other SocialSciences 1”.Nsukka: Bel’s Books. Pp 167-188.
[4] Obi, E.A (2010).Comparative Local Government: An Ecological Approach. Onitsha, Book pointEducation Limited. Pp360
[5] Ezeani E.O. (2006). “Fundamentals of Public Administration”. Enugu: Snaap Press Ltd.
[6] Chukwu, L (2007). The Civil Service System Enugu, Nigeria Johnkens and Willy Nig Ltd.
[7] Madubueze, O (2014), Nigeria in Search of Political Culture. The Political Class,
Corruption and Democratization. A paper presented at a conference on corruption and
Democratization in Nigeria University of Ibadan, pg 19-20
[8] Erondu and Oladejo, (2015) “Exploring Variations in Public Management Reform of the 1980’s in
Bekke 1996.
[9] This Day Live November 29, 2015
[10] Nwokolo (2011). Practical Guide to writing Research Project Reports in TertiaryInstitutions. Enugu: Cheston Ltd
[11] Egbo and Okeke (2009). “Democratic Theory and Local Government” London: Allen and Unwin.Ikeanyibe, O.M. (2013). “Public Policy in Nigeria: Perspectives on Social Policy andAdministration”. Enugu: John Jacobs Classic Publishers Ltd.

BABATOLA, Adeleye Marcus (Ph.D), OLUWASANMI, Lawrence A (Ph.D), ROTKANG, Dimlong Dimang “An Overview of the Bane of Remuneration and Service Delivery to Government Workers in Nigeria. A Case Study of Ekiti State Civil Servants” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.215-217 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/215-217.pdf

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Assessment of China and Nigeria Currency Swap: The Positive Impacts on the Nigerian Economy

Chief Ajugwe, Chukwu Alphonsus Ph.D. – March 2020 Page No.: 218-223

It is noteworthy to pinpoint that historical self-evidence have demonstrated that many Countries have employed currency swap strategic weapon to stabilize their currencies; atypical example was currency swap between China and Argentina which helped both Countries to stabilize their currencies. Again the U.S. foreign Reserves engaged in an aggressive swap strategy with European Central Banks during 2010 European financial crisis to stabiles the euro, which was failing in value due to the Greek financial crises. Nigeria being a mono-foreign exchange earner based solely in exportation of crude oil to the world market, therefore, it is imperative, the ebb and flow of the price of crude oil in the International Market will surly affect the foreign exchange earnings of the country.
In view of the above, it becomes absolutely, an economic strategic importance for Nigeria to adopt currency swap strategy to stabilize its currency and with other advantages that may accrue to the economy. Specifically, Nigeria is to enter into currency swap agreements with China with the understanding that it will help her to stabilize the currency more especially when there is a fluctuation in the price of the world oil market.
The papers is therefore anchored on the examination of histories of different counties, which have embarked on currency swaps, it will also critically analysis the mechanism of the currency swap and subject the positive and negative impacts of the currency swap of Nigeria and China agreement into deeper economic analysis. The Paper will also go a long way to insightful and incisively proffer and recommend possible solutions to the problems that may be encountered in the formulation and implementation of the swap deal.

Page(s): 218-223                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2020

 Chief Ajugwe, Chukwu Alphonsus Ph.D.
Ajugwe Chukwu and Associates

[1] Adebayo Sanni-Omotosho “The Merits and Demerits of Currency Swap deal” Punch May 14, 2019.
[2] Baswa and Ighodolo “Nigeria –China Currency Swap Agreement – A Good Deal For Nigeria?” updated November 20, 2018.
[3] Chan, Fiona “Fed Swap for S’Pore” The Sharahara Report, New York, May 03, 2018.
[4] Coyle, Brain “Currency Swap” May 03, 2000. ISBN 978-0-85297-436-0D.
[5] GFANSOORAN/CONTIBUTORS 2019.
[6] CentralBank Nigeria circular 2018.
[7] Darbyshire,J.H.M. “Pricing and Trading Interest Rate Derivatives: A Practical Guide to Swap” ISBN 778-099545528.
[8] Federal Reserve , Central de Brazil, Barco de Mexico, Bank of Korea and Monetary Authority of Singapore announces the establishment of temporary reciprocal currency arrangement,
[9] ‘Fed-Central Bank Liquidity Swap “ Times –The Centre of the Universe. (April 13, 2009)
[10] https: //www.finpipe.com/g;ossary/currency swap /. Grand Sooran/Contribution.
[11] Helen Oji “Risk in Nigeria China &2.5 billion Currency Swap deals” Business Times May 14, 2018.
[12] “India , Japan sign $75 billion Currency Swap Agreement” Economic Times, India times .com. Retrieved (2018)
[13] Investopedia
[14] Johnson Chukwu: Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer/Investment “Pitfalls of Nigeria Currency Swap with China – The Guardian Nigeria News
[15] Punch Mach 10, 2019.
[16] Punch May 14, 2019
[17] Premium Times (Friday April 12, 2018) “What you Need to Know about Currency Swap between Nigeria and China”
[18] Sahara Reporters, New York May 03, 2018, “How Nigeria Will Benefit Currency Swap Deal with China201D.

Chief Ajugwe, Chukwu Alphonsus Ph.D. “Assessment of China and Nigeria Currency Swap: The Positive Impacts on the Nigerian Economy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.218-223 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/218-223.pdf

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Sexual Violence against Men in Conflict Zones: A Hegemonic Masculinity Approach

Thuso Donald Mosabala – March 2020 Page No.: 224-230

Masculinity as a concept has influenced the studies of gender across many academic fields. This essay argues that masculinity has shaped the current discourse on sexual violence against men in conflict zones. It further recognises the role of hegemonic masculinity as a form of masculinity and argues it presents an angle that has often been neglected in the study of gender and sexual violence, being sexual violence especially rape against men. It reveals that sexual violence against both women and men has served as a tactic of war essential to demonstrating dominance and humiliation of the perceived enemy. In the literature however, there is a gender bias portrayal of women and children being the only victims of sexual violence. This essay looks into the breadth and the forms of sexual violence and the different contexts under which it occurs against men in conflict. The reluctance of male victims to report sexual violence and in particular rape, the slow progress by the international community in recognising its existence on men, lack of investigating and theorising sexual violence specifically on men is explored.

Page(s): 224-230                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2020

 Thuso Donald Mosabala
Pan African University in Cameroon

Amnesty International. (2004). Democratic Republic of Congo Mass rape: Time for Remedies. United Kingdom: AI.
[2]. Arieff, A. (2010). Sexual Violence in African Conflicts . Washington DC: Congressional Research Service .
[3]. Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept. Gender and Society, 19(6), 829-859.
[4]. DelZotto, A., & Jones, A. (2002). Male on Male Sexual Violence in Wartime: Human Rights’ Last Taboo? Annual Convention of the International Students Association (ISA). New Orleans.
[5]. Dowd, N. (2008). Masculinities and Feminist Legal Theory. Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender and Society, 23(2), 201-248.
[6]. Hennessey, T., & Gerry, F. (n.d.). International Human Rights Law in Conflict Zones. Halsbur’s Law Exchange, 1-25.
[7]. International Criminal Court for former Yugoslavia. (1993). v. Furandzija (case No. IT-95-17-17/1).
[8]. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. (1998). The Prosecutor versus Jean-Paul Akayesu. Case No. ICTR-96-4-T. Chamber 1 Judgement.
[9]. Kimmel, S. M. (2004). Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, Shame, and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity. In R. D. P, Race, Class, and Gender in the United States (pp. 81-93). New York: Worth.
[10]. Kulemann, A. (2016). Gender and International Criminal Court: A Critical Assessment. E-International Relations Students, 1-14.
[11]. Lewis, D. A. (2009). Unrecognized Victims: Sexual Violence Against Men in Conflict Settings Under International Law. Wisconsin International Law Journal, 27(1), 1-49.
[12]. Mezey, G. C., & King, B. M. (2000). Male Victims of Sexual Assault. Oxford: University of Oxford Press.
[13]. Peel, M. (2004). Rape as Method of Torture. London: Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture.
[14]. Sivakumaran, S. (2010). Lost in Translation: UN Response to Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Situations of Armed Conflict. International Review of the Red Cross, 92(877), 261-277.
[15]. Smeulers, A. (2015). Female Perpetrators: Ordinary or Extra-Ordinary Women? International Criminal Law Review, 15, 207-253.
[16]. Stemple, L. (2009). Male Rape and Human Rights. Hastings Law Journal, 60, 605-260.
[17]. Storr, L. (2011, July 16). The Rape of men: the darkest secret of war. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/society/2011/jul/17/the-rape-of-men
[18]. Taguba, M. (2004). Article 15-6 Investigation of the 800th Military Police Brigade.
[19]. United Nations . (2011). Elements of Crimes . Official Records of the Review Conference of the Rome Statuteof the International Criminal Court (p. 50). Kampala: International Criminal Court .
[20]. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. (2008). The Nature, Scope and Motivation for Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in Conflict. OCHA Policy Development and Studies Branch, 2, 1-20.
[21]. United Nations Secretary General . (2019). Conflict Related Sexual Violence; Report of the United Nations Secretry General S/2019/280. New York: UN .
[22]. United Nations Security Council. (2000, October 31). Resolution 1325 (2000). United Nations , pp. 1-4.
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[25]. Wood, E. J. (2009). Armed Groups and Sexual Violence: When is Wartime Rape Rare? Politics and Society, 131-161.
[26]. World Health Organization. (2002). World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Thuso Donald Mosabala “Sexual Violence against Men in Conflict Zones: A Hegemonic Masculinity Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.224-230 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/224-230.pdf

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Effects of Employee Skills on Public Procurement Performance at National Youth Service, Kenya

Gilbert Njogu Wanjiru, Dr. Peris Chege – March 2020 Page No.: 231-235

Public procurement plays a leading role in the attainment of political, economic and social goals of a country through provision of goods, works and services. However, material quality defects, compromised order cycle time, lead time and poor contract management among others, are rampant. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of employee skills on public procurement performance at National Youth Service, Kenya. To achieve its objective, the current study adopted a descriptive research design using quantitative approach and a census method. A closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect primary data using drop and pick tactic. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21). The findings were presented in frequencies; percentages, mean and standard deviation were thematically presented in tables and figures. The study established that employee skills had a positive significant effect on public procurement performance. The study concluded that staff possess relevant procurement functionality skills, there is cross-function teamwork among staff, high level of integrity is embraced by employees, confidentiality of classified matters, this was to avoid conflict of interest, personnel had required procurement knowledge and employees had adequate experience in procurement processes respectively. The study recommended that in-house training and couching be promoted to cultivate stated organization culture such as behaviour, ideas, attitudes, values, habits, beliefs, customs and language among employees.

Page(s): 231-235                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2020

  Gilbert Njogu Wanjiru
Department of Management Science, School Of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

  Dr. Peris Chege
Department of Management Science, School Of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1]. David-Barrett, E., Heywood, P. M., & Theodorakis, N. (2015). Towards a European strategy to reduce corruption by enhancing the use of open data. UK. London for knowledge mapping in organizations. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(1), 76-86
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[3]. Mariz, C. L., Menard, C., & Abeille, B. (2014). Public Procurement Reforms in Africa: Challenges in Institutions and Governance, 2
[4]. Matto, M (2017) Mapping Public Procurement Reforms: Compliance, Challenges and Prospects, European Journal of Business and Management, 9(12), 175-182
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[10]. World Bank (2017) The Little Data Book on Financial Inclusion 2016. Washington, DC: World Bank Group
[11]. World Bank. (2016). Benchmarking Public Procurement. Washington: The World Bank

Gilbert Njogu Wanjiru, Dr. Peris Chege “Effects of Employee Skills on Public Procurement Performance at National Youth Service, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.231-235 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/231-235.pdf

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Granger Causality between Macroeconomic Variables and Stock Market Prices at Nairobi Securities Exchange, Kenya

Cornelius Kiprono Serem, Edwin Kipyego Kipchoge, Silas Kiprono Samoei – March 2020 Page No.: 236-239

The concept of co integration as have been since the time of Adam Smith and is the central theme in his work, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, as it shows that one of the crucial application of economic theory is to give explanations to the link that exist between different causal relation among economic variables and the most critical question posed is how do economist relate the existence of causal relationship with a given number of observations. To answer this question, it is necessary to understand the concept of causality and its application in economics. This paper tried to find the bidirectional relationship of selected microeconomic variable and stock market prices. Before estimating Granger causality, variables were tested for stationarity using Philip Perron test in which variables were integrated upon first difference. The results showed that stock market prices granger caused exchange rate, inflation granger caused interest rate. There was also significant granger causality between nominal GDP and exchange rate and on the relationship between interest rate and nominal GDP. All these effects were unidirectional effects.

Page(s): 236-239                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2020

 Cornelius Kiprono Serem
Department of Economics, Moi University, Kenya

 Edwin Kipyego Kipchoge
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University Of Eldoret, Kenya

 Silas Kiprono Samoei
Department of Agricultural Economics, Moi University, Kenya

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Cornelius Kiprono Serem, Edwin Kipyego Kipchoge, Silas Kiprono Samoei “Granger Causality between Macroeconomic Variables and Stock Market Prices at Nairobi Securities Exchange, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.236-239 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/236-239.pdf

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Corporate Governance, Profitability and Bank Capitalization Strategies: A Case of Banking Sector in Pakistan

Zahra Jamil, Zain Saeed Qureshi – March 2020 Page No.: 240-256

The purpose of this study is to search out the association between the corporate governance, profitability and capitalization strategies of domestic financial sample of institution in Pakistan.
This study finds out the relationship between the corporate governance, profitability and capitalization strategies of financial institution in Pakistan. To evaluate results, data is collected from financial statement of schedule banks listed in Pakistan stock exchange. Data is collected from2006- 2018.This study find that corporate governance mechanism which favors the banks shareholder interest as associated with low capitalization strategies. A governance mechanism having the board independence, intermediate board size and CEO duality is considered share holder friendly corporate governance. Board size negatively affect the financial institutions capitalization. Effective board size is also negatively associated with financial institutions capitalization strategies. Corporate governance shift risk from shareholder of banks to debt holder. Low capitalization is favorable to the shareholder. This negative association represents that corporate governance is positively associated with banking sector instability. Corporate governance having disadvantage by increasing the risk of bank. This disadvantage is compensating with benefit that good governance that underperformance of the management has been restricted. CEO compensation negative associated with bank capitalization strategies. Higher risk taking is cases of low capitalization increased compensation of the CEO. Corporate governance code 2012 suggest that the chair of the board and CEO must be different person. Chairman of the board must be nonexecutive director and its role in the board leadership.
The profitability measures show the significant and positive relationship with the capitalization strategies. Some how the some of the capitalization strategies shows the negative and insignificant relationship with the profitability.
Payout decision mean distribution of residual earing to the owner of the financial institution. Payout is very critical in case of income shocks. Corporate governance negatively associated with payout polices of financial institutions. Financial institutions scale back dividend in case of negative income shock. Consequently, it’s concluded that good corporate governance favors the shareholder interest by decreasing capitalization strategies and aggressive payout of financial institutions has been restricted.

Page(s): 240-256                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2020

 Zahra Jamil
M Phil Scholar, Department of Commerce, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan

 Zain Saeed Qureshi
M Phil Scholar, Department of Commerce, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan

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Zahra Jamil, Zain Saeed Qureshi “Corporate Governance, Profitability and Bank Capitalization Strategies: A Case of Banking Sector in Pakistan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.240-256 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/240-256.pdf

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Corporate Governance, Profitability and Bank Capitalization Strategies: A Case of Banking Sector in Pakistan

Zahra Jamil, Zain Saeed Qureshi – March 2020 Page No.: 240-256

The purpose of this study is to search out the association between the corporate governance, profitability and capitalization strategies of domestic financial sample of institution in Pakistan.
This study finds out the relationship between the corporate governance, profitability and capitalization strategies of financial institution in Pakistan. To evaluate results, data is collected from financial statement of schedule banks listed in Pakistan stock exchange. Data is collected from2006- 2018.This study find that corporate governance mechanism which favors the banks shareholder interest as associated with low capitalization strategies. A governance mechanism having the board independence, intermediate board size and CEO duality is considered share holder friendly corporate governance. Board size negatively affect the financial institutions capitalization. Effective board size is also negatively associated with financial institutions capitalization strategies. Corporate governance shift risk from shareholder of banks to debt holder. Low capitalization is favorable to the shareholder. This negative association represents that corporate governance is positively associated with banking sector instability. Corporate governance having disadvantage by increasing the risk of bank. This disadvantage is compensating with benefit that good governance that underperformance of the management has been restricted. CEO compensation negative associated with bank capitalization strategies. Higher risk taking is cases of low capitalization increased compensation of the CEO. Corporate governance code 2012 suggest that the chair of the board and CEO must be different person. Chairman of the board must be nonexecutive director and its role in the board leadership.
The profitability measures show the significant and positive relationship with the capitalization strategies. Some how the some of the capitalization strategies shows the negative and insignificant relationship with the profitability.
Payout decision mean distribution of residual earing to the owner of the financial institution. Payout is very critical in case of income shocks. Corporate governance negatively associated with payout polices of financial institutions. Financial institutions scale back dividend in case of negative income shock. Consequently, it’s concluded that good corporate governance favors the shareholder interest by decreasing capitalization strategies and aggressive payout of financial institutions has been restricted.

Page(s): 240-256                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2020

 Zahra Jamil
M Phil Scholar, Department of Commerce, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan

 Zain Saeed Qureshi
M Phil Scholar, Department of Commerce, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan

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[88] Uzun, H., Szewczyk, S. H., & Varma, R. (2004). Board composition and corporate fraud. Financial Analysts Journal, 60(3), 33-43.
[89] Vafeas, N., &Theodorou, E. (1998). The relationship between board structure and firm performance in the UK. The British Accounting Review, 30(4), 383-407.
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[91] Zywicki, T. J., & Adamson, J. (2008). The Law & Economics of Subprime Lending.

Zahra Jamil, Zain Saeed Qureshi “Corporate Governance, Profitability and Bank Capitalization Strategies: A Case of Banking Sector in Pakistan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.240-256 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/240-256.pdf

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The Economic and Social Life of Underage Married Woman in Neglasari Village

Dania Evirianti, Trisnaningsih, Pargito – March 2020 Page No.: 257-260

This study aims to describe the social life and economic life of underage married woman in Neglasari Village. The research method uses qualitative methods, the respondent of this study are the village head and 10 underage married woman of 2018 in Neglasari village which aged <16 years. The results of this study concluded 1) The social life of underage married woman which regard to education and social interaction indicators obtained the following results: (a) As general, the level of education was on low-educated, they only finished the elementary and junior high school graduates without continuing the education or dropping out of school. (b) Social interaction was not good enough because less of social interaction process among children, family, friends and environment, besides in life-after marriage, underage married woman were more often quarreled due to lack of maturity and ways of thinking in addressing life problems after marriage. 2) The economic life of underage married woman with sub-indicators such as income, residence statue, and economic dependence level obtained the following results: (a) Income was on low category, it could be seen by the average income that below the minimum wage in Lampung Province about less than Rp 1,908,477. (b) The residence statue category was evidenced by mostly being more dominant, living with parents after marriage. (c) The level of economic dependence on parents was high, it was evidenced by all economic, social and residential needs that were still borne by parents after marriage.

Page(s): 257-260                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 April 2020

 Dania Evirianti
Master of Social Science Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Trisnaningsih
Master of Social Science Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Pargito
Master of Social Science Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

[1] Adhim, Mohammad Fauzil. 2002. Indahnya Perkawinan Dini. Jakarta: Gema Insani.
[2] Basrowi. 2014. Pengantar Sosiologi. Ghalia Indonesia. Bogor.
[3] BKKBN. 2012.Materi Pegangan Kader Tentang Bimbingn dan Pembinan Keluarga Remaja. BKKBN. Jakarta.
[4] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2008 Penghasilan dan Pendapatan. Jakarta.
[5] Fuad. 2008. Dasar-Dasar pendidikan. Jakarta: Rineka cipta.
[6] Israwati. 2009. Menikah Dini Terhadap Kualitas Hidup Rumah Tangga. Jakarta: Fokus Inti Media
[7] Kurniawati, Henri. 2011. Pernikahan Usia Muda dan Dampakanya.
[8] Sugarda, Tarya 2001. Pengantar Studi Sosiologi Keluarga. Bandung: CV Pustaka Setia
[9] Sugiyono. 2010. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.
[10] Sukirno, Sadono. 2002. Teori Mikro Ekonomi. Jakarta: Rajawali Press.
[11] Walgito, Bimo. 2003. Psikologi Kelompok Yogyakarta:Andi Offset.
[12] Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan

Dania Evirianti, Trisnaningsih, Pargito “The Economic and Social Life of Underage Married Woman in Neglasari Village” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.257-260 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/257-260.pdf

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Effects of Project Risk Identification on the Performance of Core Banking Systems in Commercial Banks of Kenya

Augustus Nzili Mutua, Dr. Kirui Caleb – March 2020 Page No.: 261-264

Commercial banks in Kenya often establish a risk management practice in their core banking system for improving the performance and increase the profits. Adoption of Core banking systems is widely complex and has often significant budgets, tight schedules and consume immense resources hence minimize risks linked to be treated as a priority to every project manager. The study examined the extent to which project risk identification influences core banking system projects performance in selected commercial banks, in Kenya. A descriptive research design was utilized. The accessible population was 80 respondents comprising of 10 project managers from each bank. A census of 80 respondents was done to form the study sample size. Questionnaires were utilized to collect data. The collected data was quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The study found that risk identification, risk analysis, risk response and risk monitoring had a positive significance on project performance. The study concluded that identifying risk enables full risk analysis to be done and risk to be addressed and the project managers qualify risk based on likelihood and impact. The study recommended that commercial banks should increase level of project risk identification as it enhances the risk management activities on each significant risk.

Page(s): 261-264                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 April 2020

 Augustus Nzili Mutua
Department of Management Science, School Of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Kirui Caleb
Department of Management Science, School Of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1]. Ahmad, Raza, Amjad, &Akram, H. (2011). Corporate Governance Practices and Its Impact on firm Performance: Special Reference to Listed Banking Institutions in Sri Lanka. Global Journal of Business & Management Research, 12(21)
[2]. Alessandri, T. M., Ford, D. N., Lander, D. M., Leggio, K. B., & Taylor, M. (2014). Managingrisk and uncertainty in complex capital projects. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 44(5), 751-767
[3]. Cooper, D., Grey, S., Raymond, G., & Walker, P., (2015). Project Risk Management Guidelines: Managing Risk in Large Projects and Complex Procurements. Chichester: John Wiley &Sons, Ltd
[4]. Crawford, P., & Bryce, P. (2013). Project monitoring and evaluation: a method for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of aid project implementation. International Journal of Project Management, 21(5), 363-373
[5]. Dey, P. K. (2012). Project risk management: A combined Analytic Hierarchy Process and Decision Tree Approach. Cost Engineering, 44(3), 13–26
[6]. Dissanayaka, S. M. & Kumaraswamy, M. M. (2013). Evaluation of factors affecting time and cost performance in Hong Kong building projects. Journal of Engineering, Construct Architect Management, 6 (3), 287-298
[7]. Drazin, R., & Van de Ven, A. H. (2010). Alternative forms of fit in contingency theory. Administrative science quarterly, 514-539
[8]. Elkingtin P. &Sallman C., (2012). Managing project risks: a case study form the utilities sector. International Journal of Project Management, 20(1), 49-57
[9]. Garrido, M. C., Cassia, M., Ribeiro, F. M. L., & Naked, H. A. (2011). Risk identification techniques knowledge and application in the Brazilian construction. Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology, 2(11), 242-252
[10]. Gray, C. F. & Larsson, E. W. (2013). Project Management: The Managerial Process (4th ed), McGraw-Hill/Irwin
[11]. Merna, T. & Al-Thani, F. F. (2014). Corporate risk management: an organizational perspective. Hoboken, N. J., Wiley; John Wiley [distributor].
[12]. Mills, A. (2011). A systematic approach to risk management for construction. Structural Survey, 19(5), 245–252
[13]. Mills, A. (2011). A systematic approach to risk management for construction. Structural Survey, 19(5), 245–252
[14]. Ogamba, P. N. (2012). Combined competitive strategies by commercial banks in Kenya in the changing global environment: A case of Equity Bank: Unpublished MBA Project, School of Business, University of Nairobi
[15]. Schoonhoven, C. B. (2011). Problems with contingency theory: testing assumptions hidden within the language of contingency theory. Administrative science quarterly, 5(4), 349 – 377
[16]. Smith, N. J., Merna, T. & Jobbling, P. (2016). Managing Risk in Construction Projects (2nd ed) Oxford: Blackwell Publishing
[17]. Tadayon, M., Jaafar, M., &Nasri, E. (2012). An assessment of risk identification in large construction projects in Iran. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 3(1), 245 – 255
[18]. Tworek, P. (2010). Methods of risk identification in companies’ investment projects. In 5thInternational Scientific Conference “Managing and Modeling of Financial Risks”. Ostrava: VSB-Technical University
[19]. Ward, S., & Chapman, C. (2013). Transforming project risk management into project uncertainty management. International journal of project management, 21(2), 97-105

Augustus Nzili Mutua, Dr. Kirui Caleb “Effects of Project Risk Identification on the Performance of Core Banking Systems in Commercial Banks of Kenya ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.261-264 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/261-264.pdf

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Infopreneurship: Values and Implications on Employment Sustainability of SMEs in Rivers State Nigeria

Gloria Chinyere Chux-Nyehe, Patrick Nkiinebari Nwinyokugi – March 2020 – Page No.: 265-274

Unemployment has become a norm in the contemporary economic stories of developing nations across the globe and some forms of entrepreneurial efforts are evolving to close the gap. It therefore becomes necessary to study the relationship between infopreneurship and employment generation and sustainability in Rivers State Nigeria. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design covering a population of all the registered small scale business owners and managers in Port Harcourt, which amounts to a total of six hundred and twenty (620) small scale businesses. The Multi-Stage sampling approach was employed: convenient sampling technique and simple random sampling technique to derive a sample size of 500 operators of internet businesses within the coverage area. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data after it has been validated and tested for reliability using the Cronbach alpha to establish a reliability index of 0.76. Data gathered form the sampled respondents were analyzed using the Spearman rank order correlation coefficient which is presented with the aid of Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0.The study concluded that youth unemployment problems in Rivers State can be solved to a large extent by engaging in infopreneurship businesses. It also recommended that small and medium enterprises especially those engaged in related infopreneurship business should consider the tested dimensions of infopreneurship as critical tool for employment sustainability in Rivers State.

Page(s): 265-274                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2020

 Gloria Chinyere Chux-Nyehe
Department of Office and Information Management, Faculty of Business Studies, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Patrick Nkiinebari Nwinyokugi
Department of Office and Information Management, Faculty of Business Studies, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Nwigbo, B.F. &Imoh-Ita, S.H. (2016). Entrepreneurship education as tool for youth empowerment through higher education for global workplace in Rivers State. A paper presented at the seventh Regional conference on higher education for a globalized world held at the University of Ibadan. Ibadan. Nigerian between 17th to 21st September.
[2] Okoli, D.I. (2013). Youth empowerment through entrepreneurial development in Nigeria Journal of Educational and Social Research. 3(9), 147-153.
[3] Nasra, A.M. (2014). The influence of entrepreneurship training and financial Grant on youth-owned enterprises. The case of Shardo youth enterprise development programme in Somalia. An unpublished Master’s thesis submitted to the department of Sociology, University of Nairobi.
[4] Chidiebere, J.D. & Kenneth, A.H. (2014). British labour relations. Learning to align with the law. Modern Law Review. 49, 798-799.
[5] Banjo, S. (2019). Running the show-class action: Small business increasingly turn to MBA students for advice.(Eastern edition).Wall Street Journal. 2(4), 78-94.
[6] Igwe, S.C. (2017). Entrepreneurship: Theories and perspectives. Port Harcourt: Faith Digital Press.
[7] Akpelu, F.E. (2019). Job enhancement strategies for teachers performance in public. senior secondary schools in Rivers State.An unpublished Ph.D. thesis University of Port Harcourt.Choba: Port Harcourt.
[8] Umoru, F. (2016). Harnessing entrepreneurial opportunities for sustainability: Developing a Nigerian model. Being a lead paper presented at the 1st National Conference of School of Business, Federal Polytechnic.Idah.Held between 9th -12th August, 2016 at Judith Attah Lecture theatre.
[9] Khalid (2015). Entrepreneurship. Retrieved on June 22nd 2018 from:www.sellingzeroesandone
[10] Kimizi, D. (n.d). Knowledge management in theory and practice. Toronto: Elesvier Butterworth- Heinemann.
[11] Nash, R. (2017). What is an Infopreneur? Retrieved on March 3rd 2018 from: smallbiztrends.com.
[12] Nnodim, A.U. (2014). Assessment of private sectors’ contributions to youth empowerment among youts in Rivers State Nigeria.Journal of Business Economics and Management Studies. 2(6), 20-26.
[13] Chumakova, V. (2015). Surviving information overload: A plea for balance.Journal of explorations in Media Ecology.14(4), 257-274.
[14] Ottih, L.O. (2014). Entrepreneurship.Personality, process and enterprise.PortHarcourt: Pearl Publishers.
[15] Nweze, C. A. (2018). Utilization of ICT facilities for quality teaching and learning in the 21st century: An overview of public secondary schools in Rivers State. African Journal of Educational Research and Development.(AJERD).11(2), 215-229 ISSN 2006 5450.Choba: University of Port Harcourt.

Gloria Chinyere Chux-Nyehe, Patrick Nkiinebari Nwinyokugi “Infopreneurship: Values and Implications on Employment Sustainability of SMEs in Rivers State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.265-274 March 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/265-274.pdf

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The Social Structure of the Dagara of the North Western Ghana, Through the Clan System and Clan Appellations

Dr. Dominic Alimbey Dery, Father Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin, Father Peter Paul Yelletuo – March 2020 Page No.: 275-280

The study relied on the assistance of key informants to identify a number of respondents who were then randomly sampled for the purposes of this study. The study was to establish the existing social structure of the Dagara and the importance attached to the clan system and clan appellations. The study revealed among others that the non-human relatives of the Dagara play a role of paramount importance in the survival of these clans. They played a salvific role in the lives of these clans. So, as a sign of gratitude and appreciation, these clans regarded these non-human relatives as their consanguine. To kill one means suicide or fratricide.

Page(s): 275-280                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2020

 Dr. Dominic Alimbey Dery
Department of Languages and Liberal Studies, Faculty of Applied Arts, Tamale Technical University, Ghana

 Father Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin
McCOY College of Education, Ghana

 Father Peter Paul Yelletuo
McCOY College of Education, Ghana

[1] Appiah-Ofosu, L.H. (1969), Slavery: A Brief Survey. Waterville Publishing House
[2] Barker, P. (1999). People, Languages and Religion in Northern Ghana – A Preliminary Report. Accra: Asempa Publishers.
[3] Bekye, K. P. (1991). Divine Revelation and Traditional Religions with a Particular References to the Dagaaba of West Africa, Rome: Leberit Press.
[4] Doggu, M. N., (2015). Death and the Hereafter among the Dagaaba of Northwestern Ghana: A Critical Reflection towards Anthropologico-Religious and Philosophical Studies.
[5] Hansen, Thorkild (2002), Coast of Slaves. Sub-Saharan Publishers.
[6] Hobbes, Thomas, (1651), Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of the Common-Wealth Ecclesiastical and Civil
[7] Soum-Dery, E., (2000). Family as subject of Moral Education in the African context. Incarnating Christian Ethics among the Dagara of North-Western Ghana Munster: AlleRechtVorbehalten.
[8] Tengane, E. (ed), (1990). Dagara and Sisala Traditional Marriage in the Light of Christianity, Wa Catholic Press.
[9] Tengan, Edward B. (1994), The Social Structure of The Dagara: The House and The Matriclan as Axes of Dagara Social Organisation. St Victor Major Seminary.
[10] ————, The land as Being and Cosmos, the Institution of the Earth-Cult among the Sisala of North western Ghana, Frankfurt an Main: Peter Lang 19.
[11] ————, (ed) (2002). Report on a Research on the Human Person among the Dagara, Sisala and Kasena, Wa Diocese, n.p Document, 2002.
[12] Tuurey, G. (1982). An Introduction to the Mole-Speaking Community. Wa: Wa Catholic Press.
[13] Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and Methods, Sage Publications, New York.

Dr. Dominic Alimbey Dery, Father Alexander Bedekuru Nmaninyin, Father Peter Paul Yelletuo “The Social Structure of the Dagara of the North Western Ghana, Through the Clan System and Clan Appellations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.275-280 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/275-280.pdf

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Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Change Using Geospatial Techniques in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

Collins H. Wizor (PhD) and Nduka I. Okugini – March 2020 Page No.: 281-290

This study examines the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in mapping Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change in Ukwuani Local Government Area (LGA) between 1990, 2002, and 2014; to detect the changes that has taken place in the study area within the period of study. The study aim is to detect and map the LULC changes in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State over the period of 36years (1990-2014). In this study, three data set of Landsat Satellite images were layer stacked after which supervised classification in EARDAS imagine software was carried out and mapping in Arc GIS software. Four land use and land cover categories were classified into Built-up areas, Cultivation, Vegetation, and Waterbody. The result of the study shows a rapid growth in built-up land between 2002 and 2014 while the periods between 1990 and 2002 witnessed an increment in this class also. Findings of the study also show that there would be an accelerated increase in built-areas because of development that is coming to the study area in recent years. The study, therefore, recommends building towards the outskirts through the provision of incentives and forces of attraction that are available at the city centre in these areas. The study further recommends that the government should encourage afforestation in the study area to reduce the loss of biodiversity, inducing high rates of extinction and a worldwide depletion of biological diversity at genetic, species and ecosystem levels.

Page(s): 281-290                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 April 2020

 Collins H. Wizor (PhD)
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Nduka I. Okugini
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Agarwal, et al.: A review and assessment of land-use change models: dynamics of space, time, and human choice. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-297. Newton Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 2002; Pp. 61
[2] Burrough, P.A.: Principle of geographical information systems for land Resources Assessment. Oxford University Press, N. Y. 193 P. 1986
[3] Salami G., and Balogun H.J.: Imperatives of space technology for sustainable forest management in Nigeria. Space Applications and Environmental Science Laboratory. 2006.
[4] Sherbinin, D.: Thematic guide to social science applications of Remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment 83 (2002): 336–350
[5] Rio.: Report on the United Nations conference on the Human Environment UNCED. 1992.
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[7] Pimentel, et al.: Environmental and economic effects of reducing pesticide use in agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment.1993; 46: 273-288
[8] Bewket F.O.: Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia.; The Chemoga watershed case study. Tropical Resource Management Papers, No 44. 2003.
[9] Allen, J.C. and Barnes, D.F.: The causes of deforestation in developing countries. Annals of the Association of American Geographers.1985; 75 (2): 163-184
[10] Ellis, E.and Pontius, R., Jr. Land-use and land-cover change—Encyclopedia of earth. Environ. Protect. 2006, 2, 142–153.
[11] Peter et al.: Land system science and sustainable development of the earth system: A global land project perspective. Anthropocene (2015)
[12] Meyer, W.B. and Turner, B.I. Changes in land use and land cover: A global perspective; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1994; Volume 4.
[13] Mark, M and Kudakwashe, M.: Rate of land use/land cover changes in Shurugwi district, Zimbabwe: Drivers for change. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 2010; 12 (3): 107-121.
[14] Begum, et al.: Growth and energy budget models of the bivalve Arctica Islandica at six different sites in the Northeast Atlantic realm. Journal of Shellfish Research. 2010; 29(1): 107-115.
[15] Prakasam, C.: Land Use and Land Cover Change Detection through Remote Sensing Approach: A Case Study of Kodaikanal Taluk, Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences. 2010; 1(2): 150.
[16] Javed, A and Khan, I.: Land use/land cover change due to mining activities in Singrauli industrial belt, Madhya Pradesh using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of Environmental Research and Development. 2012; 6(3A): 834-843.
[17] Bisht, B.S. and Kothyari, B.P.: Land-Cover Change Analysis of Garur Ganga Watershed Using GIS/Remote Sensing Technique. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing. 2001; 29(3): 137-141.
[18] Dhinwa, et al.: Land use change analysis of Bharatpur district using GIS. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing.1992; 20: 237-250.
[19] Wizor, C.H and Eludonyi, O.S. Assessment of land use/land cover change detection and its impact on the environment using geospatial techniques in the University of Port Harcourt Host Communities, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports. 2020; 8 (3): 40-53.
[20] Zubair, A.O.: (2006) Change detection in land use and land cover using Remote Sensing data and GIS: A case study of Ilorin and its environs in Kwara State.
[21] Ade, M.A and Afolabi Y. D.: Monitoring urban sprawl in the federal capital territory of Nigeria using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2013; 60(1): 2-4
[22] Fabiyi O.O.: Urban Land Use Change Analysis of a Traditional City from Remote Sensing Data: The Case of Ibadan Metropolitan Area, Nigeria. Humanity & Social Sciences Journal. 2006; 1 (1): 42-64.
[23] Olusola O.O and Olalekan P.: Assessment of rapidly changing urban land use and using remote sensing data and GIS. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 2015
[24] Mmom, et al. Analysis of land use and land cover change around the city of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal of Geography and Regional Planning. 2013; 2(5): 076-086.
[25] Achionye, et al. Analysis of land use/land cover transition in Warri vegetation zone of the Niger Delta Region using geospatial techniques: Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2018;14(4):1-14.
[26] Wali, et al. Analysis of land use and land cover changes in the wetland ecosystem of Port-Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Ground Sediment and Water. 2019;9: 503-524.
[27] Xiaojuan et al.: Land use/land cover changes and their influence on the ecosystem in Chengdu city, China from 1992 to 2018. MDPI Journal of Sustainability. 2018; 10: 1-20

Collins H. Wizor (PhD) and Nduka I. Okugini “Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Change Using Geospatial Techniques in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.281-290 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/281-290.pdf

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Festivals in Africa and Social Mobilization

Gregory E. Ogbenika(Ph.D) – March 2020 Page No.: 291-295

Festivals are very important to the African people. This can be observed from the experiences of the people in Traditional African Societies and this is still very much prevalent in Traditional African societies. They are not only important for the observation of time which can be seen in reality through the seasons of the year, but can also serve the function of social mobilization and cohesion. Although, on many occasions, the reasons for these festivals have been abused by some social deviants in the society, it however, still continues to play its role in contemporary societal life. The aim of this paper therefore, is to reiterate the importance of festivals to present day African people and also showcase its relevance to the world at large. In other words, the people of a particular society should set aside moments, seasons, periods or epochs to celebrate their life, experiences, culture and heritage. This can help in promoting unity and sense of purpose among the people. We shall utilize critical, analytical and hermeneutical method in examining this paper.

Page(s): 291-295                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 April 2020

 Gregory E. Ogbenika(Ph.D)
Lecturer, Department of Philosophy, Seminary of All Saints, Uhiele-Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

Reference are not available

Gregory E. Ogbenika(Ph.D) “Festivals in Africa and Social Mobilization” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.291-295 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/291-295.pdf

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Women/Girl-child Education as a Means of Improving Women Participation in Politics

Zuwaira Ahmed, ABDULLAHI- March 2020 Page No.: 296-300

Educating Women/Girl-child and ensuring that they participate in all facets of national development including politics has become an issue of global concern. For women to play their roles effectively in all sectors of development therefore they need to acquire some knowledge to keep them conversant and abreast with developmental issues. The recognition that women make tremendous contribution to national development just like men has attracted the attention of the world leaders on how best they can be given the right type of education to enable them make an impact on the political situation of a country at whatever level. Politics being one of the developmental sectors in every nation needs the participation and contribution of this significant group of people, yet they are the most neglected group of individuals in the political proceeding of most nations. In view of this therefore the paper will focus and examine the factors that lead to poor participation of women in politics. Necessary recommendations will then be proffer on how to eliminate disparity in access to education and political bias as well as how to strengthen and increase women participation in politics.

Page(s): 296-300                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 April 2020

 Zuwaira Ahmed, ABDULLAHI
Foundations Department, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Abubakar, S. W & Maimuna G.H (2007). Women and Politics: Beyond Palliative and Apocryphal Antidole. Journal of Women in Colleges of Education, North-East Zone. Vol. (1) 3.
[2] Comfort, Z. (2007). Women in Politics: A National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy. Journal of Women in Colleges of Education, North East Zone, Vol. (1) 3.
[3] Kayode, A (2013). Women Participation in National Development in Nigeria: The Imperative of Education. Research Gate.
[4] Mulikat, A & Zuwaira A.A (2014). Women Education: A Remedy to National Security Challenges (Unpublihed). A Paper Presented at the 1st School of Education National Conference, A.S.C.O.E, Azare , Bauchi state
[5] Nonso, B & Alexander, E.T (2015). A Mentors Training Resource (Unpublished) Yola, Adamawa state, Nigeria.
[6] Rita, K. (2015). The Critical Role of Women in Nigerian Politics. National Press Centre Abuja.
[7] Sani, H. (2001). Women and National Development (The Way Forward), Ibadan Spectrum Book.
[8] Shimelis, K. (2015). Challenges and Opportunities of Women Political Participation. A Journal of Global Economics (PDF download)
[9] Vivian, F. (2017). Girl Child Education in Nigeria: Problem and Prospects. Naija. Com media limited 2011-2018.

Zuwaira Ahmed, ABDULLAHI, “Women/Girl-child Education as a Means of Improving Women Participation in Politics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.296-300 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/296-300.pdf

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Quality Assurance in the Use of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching Technical and Vocational Education and Training Courses in Rivers State Tertiary Institutions

Adiela, Bestman Kilechukwu & Ochogba, Chukwumela Obulor – March 2020 Page No.: 301-308

This study investigated Quality Assurance in the use of Information and Communication Technology in teaching Technical and Vocational Education and Training courses in Rivers State tertiary institutions. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised 42 Technical and Vocational Education and Training lecturers, which comprised 16 Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt lecturers and 26 Ignatius Ajuru University of Education lecturers. The population was manageable; hence, it was a census study whereby the entire population was adopted for this study. The instrument for the study was a survey questionnaire tagged “Quality Assurance in the use of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching”. The instrument was partitioned into four sections that were structured in the pattern of Likert 5 point rating scale. The instrument was face validated by two experts in the Department of Vocational and Technology Education in Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt. The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient method. The reliability coefficients achieved was 0.83. Copies of the instrument were administered and retrieved by the researchers on the spot. Mean with Standard Deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses. This study found among others that some ICT tools were lacking for teaching Technical and Vocational Education and Training courses and that some TVET lecturers are not competent in using some Information and Communication Technology tools for teaching. Therefore, it was recommended among others that every technical teacher or lecturer should be trained from time to time to be familiar with modern ICT tools so that they can be able to use every modern Information and Communication Technology tools that will be purchased for teaching of Technical and Vocational Education and Training courses.

Page(s): 301-308                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 April 2020

 Adiela, Bestman Kilechukwu
Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Ochogba, Chukwumela Obulor
Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Biswas, R.K. (2017). A study on status of Information and Communication Technology use in various teacher training institutes of tribal areas. International Journal of Advanced Educational Research, 2(6), 375-379.
[2] Castro-Sánchez, J.J. & Alemán, E.C. (2011). Teachers’ opinion survey on the use of Information and Communication Technology tools to support attendance-based teaching. Journal Computers and Education, 56, 911-915.
[3] Chan, F.M. (2002). Information and Communication Technology in Malaysian schools: policy and strategies. Paper presented at a workshop on the 22 October. Tokyo Japanpromotion of ICT in education to narrow the digital divide, 15
[4] Chisenga, J. (2004). The use of Information and Communication Technology in African Public Libraries: A Survey of Ten Countries in Anglophone African. Oxford: International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP).
[5] Deebom, M.T. & Goma, O.T. (2018). Utilization of Information Communication and Technology for sustainable manpower development among technical educators in tertiary institutions in Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Information Systems & Technology Research, 6(2), 48-58.
[6] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013). National Policy on Education (Revised Ed). Yaba Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council.
[7] Harman, G. (2000). Quality assurance in higher education. Bagkok: Ministry of University Afairs & UNESCO Publication.
[8] Ibidapo, A.B. (2015). Technical and Vocational Education and Training and local technologies for sustainable entrepreneurship skills development. Journal of Research in Vocational and Technical Education, 8(1), 107-120.
[9] Lawal, A.W. (2010). Rebranding Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria for sustainable national development: Problems and prospects. 1st National Conference of School of Business Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi, 1st -4th November, 2010.
[10] Lu, Z., Hou, L. & Huang, X. (2010). A research on a student-centred teaching model in an Information and Communication Technology-based English audio-video speaking class1. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 6(3), 101-123.
[11] Mohamed, M.H., Mohamed, S.H. & Moemen, N.E. (2013). Quality control, quality assurance, systems and applications. Faculty of engineering structural engineering program.
[12] Moore, C.D. (2005). Is Information and Communication Technology being used to its potential to improve teaching and learning across the curriculum?. Retrieved 23rd January, 2020 from http://www.teacherresearch.net.
[13] Nnodim, A.U. & Ochogba, C.O. (2018). Perception on federal government of Nigeria whistle blowing policy on the Implementation of technical and vocational education and training Programmes in tertiary institutions in rivers state, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 09(06), 8272-827.
[14] Ochogba, C.O. & Amaechi, O.J. (2018). The influence of technical skills acquisition in curbing insecurity challenges in Rivers State. International Journal of Education and Evaluation, 4(2), 19-26.
[15] Ochogba, C.O., Johnwest, E.K., Isiodu, B.N. & Igwe, C.C. (2017). Implementation of entrepreneurship education in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Programme for youth self-reliance in Rivers State. International Journal of Innovative Social & Science Education Research, 5(4), 21-29.
[16] Okwudishu, C.H. (2005). Awareness and use of Information & Communication Technology among Villages secondary school teacher in Aniocha South local Government area of Delta State. Unpublished B.SC (LIS) project. Delta State University.
[17] Olabiyi, O.S. & Asimolokun, B.A. (2012). Challenges of using information communication technology in Nigerian technical vocational education institutions Retrieved 23rd January, 2020 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e715/c2e7e8066e15cd0f1c6 a50439e3488796853.pdf

Adiela, Bestman Kilechukwu & Ochogba, Chukwumela Obulor “Quality Assurance in the Use of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching Technical and Vocational Education and Training Courses in Rivers State Tertiary Institutions ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.301-308 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/301-308.pdf

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Review Journal Problem Based Learning Model On Science Procces Skill Based On Learning Motivation

Nurul Azmy Rustan, Retno Winarni, Sri Yamtinah – March 2020 Page No.: 309-314

Science process skills is one of the skills that are Slightly needed by students in elementary school. Science proccess skills it is a basic competence to develop a scientific attitude and skills in solving problems, so as to form the students’ personal creative, critical and innovative. This study aimed to determine the interaction between PBL learning model on Science Process Skills in terms of motivation to learn, the formulation of the problem in this study is are there influential PBL learning model of the science process skills in terms of students’ motivation in primary schools. The process of collecting data from the literature Review obtained from several research articles in a database that is associated with discussing science process skills. On the results of the analysis of several articles according to research topics are 5 articles and of all the articles there is nothing to discuss the implementation of PBL related to the science process skills in terms of motivation to learn in an elementary school classroom.

Page(s): 309-314                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 April 2020

 Nurul Azmy Rustan
Primary Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Retno Winarni
Primary Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Sri Yamtinah
Primary Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

[1] Yoshihiro Takaechi, Correlative evaluation of the measurements of experiment skill. Procedia Computer Science, 1451. 2012
[2] Punia Turiman, Omar, J., Daud, A. M., & Osman, K. Fostering the 21st Century Skills through Scientific Literacy and. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 113, 2012
[3] Rustaman, N, Strategi Belajar Mengajar Biologi.Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang Press, 2003.
[4] OECD. (2015). Pisa.
[5] Trianto.Mendesain Model Pembelajaran InovatifProgressif.Jakarta: Prenada Media Group, 2012.
[6] Lestari, NS. Pengaruh Model PembelajaranBerbasisMasalahdan LC 5ETerhadapPemahamanKonsepsainsDitinjaudari self efficacy BagiSiswaKelas VII SMP, JurnalTeknologiPembelajaran. Vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1-21, 2012.
[7] Hasibuan, Zainal A. MetodologiPenelitianPadaBidangIlmuKomputer Dan TeknologiInformasi:Konsep, Teknik, Dan Aplikasi. Jakarta: FakultasIlmuKomputerUniversitas Indonesia, 2007.
[8] John W Creswell, Research Design, Qualitative,Quantitative And Mix Methods Approaches 3th terjemahandariAchmadFawaid. Yogyakarta2010.
[9] Volkan Hasan Kaya, BahceciD., &Altuk, Y. G. The RelationshipBetween Primary School Students’ Scientific Literacy Levels and Scientific Process Skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 47, pp. 495–500, 2012
[10] GabrielGorghiu, LuminitaMihaelaDraghicescu., SorinCristea., Ana-Maria Petrescu., Laura Monica Gorghiu. Problem-Based Learning – An Efficient Learning Strategy In The Science Lessons Context. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol.149, pp 297-301, 2014.
[11] lbilgeDökme,EmekAydinli.Turkish primary school students’ performance on basic science process skills.Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences,vol.1, pp. 544-548, 2009.
[12] SevilayErkol,Examining Biology Teachers Candidates’ Scientific Process Skill Levels and Comparing These Levels in Terms of Various Variable. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 116, pp. 474 2– 4747, 2014.

Nurul Azmy Rustan, Retno Winarni, Sri Yamtinah, “Review Journal Problem Based Learning Model On Science Procces Skill Based On Learning Motivation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.309-314 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/309-314.pdf

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Understanding The Impact of Industrial health and Safety on Employees Performance: A Study of Selected Manufacturing Firms in Rivers State

Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu, Akpuh, Davidson. Chioma, Samuel, B. Irimagha, Udeme, A.Paul- March 2020 Page No.: 315-320

The issue of health and safety of employees has been a major concern in manufacturing organization recently .this paper seek to investigate the impact of industrial health and safety on employees performance. The study adopted a structured questionnaire to obtain data from 282 workers. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 was utilized for data analysis. The study made use of description analysis to analyze the demographic characteristics of the respondents while regression and Pearson correlation moment was used to analyze the hypotheses of the study. The result of the study indicates that health and safety practices, especially training have significant effect on employees’ job performance. It was concluded that employees’ low performance can be attributed to both low health and safety practices and lack of personal protecting equipment (PPE) and management commitment to health and safety programs. The four independent measures of industrial health and safety as was used in the study were found to be influencing employee’s performance. it was recommended among others that there should be constant health and safety training for both top , middle and low level staff . As this will equip the employees with health and safety culture, as no one is above accident.

Page(s): 315-320                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 April 2020

 Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu
Department of Petroleum Marketing and Business Studies, Federal Polytechnics of Oil And Gas Bonny, Nigeria

 Akpuh, Davidson. Chioma
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal Polytechnics of Oil and Gas Bonny, Nigeria

 Samuel, B. Irimagha
Department of Electrical Electronic Engineering, Federal Polytechnics of Oil and Gas Bonny, Nigeria

 Udeme, A.Paul
Department of Industrial Safety and Environmental Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnics Of Oil And Gas Bonny, Nigeria

[1]. Anthony, V., Mark, P., Michael, B., & Ajay, D. (2007). A data-based evaluation of the relationship between occupational safety and operating performance. The Journal of SH & E Research. Spring, 4 (1).
[2]. Appleby, P., 2013. Sustainable Retrofit and Facilities Management. US & Canada: Routledge Bureau of Labour Statistics 2016. Injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) – Current and Revised Data.
[3]. idb (Construction Industry Development Board) 2004. SA construction industry status report. Pretoria: cidb.
[4]. cidb (Construction Industry Development Board) 2009. Construction health and safety in South Africa. Status and recommendations. Pretoria: cidb.
[5]. Choudhry, R.M., Fang, D. and Lingard, H., 2009. Measuring safety climate of a construction company. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135(9), pp.890-9.
[6]. Dedobbeleer, N. and Béland, F., 1991. A safety climate measure for construction sites. Journal of safety research, 22(2), pp.97-103.
[7]. Cooper, M.D. and Phillips, R.A., 2004. Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. Journal of safety research, 35(5), pp.497-512.
[8]. Mohamed, S 2002. Safety climate in construction site environments. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128: 375–384.
[9]. Garcie-Herrero, S. (2012). Working conditions, Psychological, physical symptoms and occupational accidents”. Bayesian network models, safety science. 50 (9), 1760-1774.
[10]. Hanger, I., 2014. Report of the Royal Commission into the Home Insulation Program.
[11]. Hon, C.K., Chan, A.P. and Wong, F.K., 2010. An analysis for the causes of accidents of repair, maintenance, alteration and addition works in Hong Kong. Safety Science, 48(7), pp.894-901
[12]. HSE (Health Safety Executive) 2016. Statistics on fatal injuries in the workplace in Great Britain 2016.
[13]. ILO (International Labour Organization) 2003. Safety in numbers. Pointers for global safety culture at work. Geneva: ILO.
[14]. Mtetwa, P. (2003). Never Again Discriminated. Sexual Orientation in Women’s Struggle. Mizoue, T., Andersson, K., Reijula, K., &Fideli, C. (2004).Seasonal variation in perceived indoor environment and nonspecific symptoms in a temperate climate. Journal of Occupational Health, 46, 303–309.
[15]. Othman, M. B. (2012). Middle-Management Support and Safety Training Program towards Employees Safety Behavior. Kedah: University Utara Malaysia.
[16]. Shekh, M. I. (2015). A Study of Health and Safety: A Study of Selected Employees in Innovative Cuisane Private Limited. Maharaja Sayajirao University, 1-73.
[17]. Unnikrishnan, S, Iqbal, R, Singh, A & Nimkar, M I 2014. Safety management practices in small and medium enterprises in India. Safety and Health at Work, 6: 46–55.
[18]. Wameedh A. K. (2011), “Improving Safety Performance by Understanding Relationship between Management Practices and Leadership Behavior in the Oil and Gas Industry in Iraq”, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu, Akpuh, Davidson. Chioma, Samuel, B. Irimagha, Udeme, A.Paul “Understanding The Impact of Industrial health and Safety on Employees Performance: A Study of Selected Manufacturing Firms in Rivers State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.315-320 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/315-320.pdf

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Participation of Women in the Emerging Trade Union Activities in the Tea-Gardens of Assam

Stutima Basistha, Moushumi Dutta Pathak – March 2020 Page No.: 321-324

One of the most popular known beverages in the world is tea. Tea industry is one of the oldest industries in India and also one of the biggest industries in the country. In India if we see tea is grown basically in two regions- North-East and South. A larger portion of tea is produced in Assam and North Bengal while in other states like Sikkim, Tripura, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, and Mizoram, production is on a lesser scale. The state which has the highest area under tea cultivation and is also the largest producer of tea in India is Assam. Sonitpur is one of the thirty three districts of Assam. It is an administrative district in the state of Assam. Its economy is basically an agrarian one and its one of the most unique feature is the existence of large number of tea gardens. Both Brahmaputra and Barak valley in Assam has tea gardens. The purpose of this study is to look into the role of trade unions in Sonitpur District of Assam, India, and to analyze the participation of women workers in union related activities.
The story of the tea plantation laborers is a less talked topic. Much less discussed is the role of the women tea laborers who constitutes a large working force. Even after having social, historical and anthropological importance, research work on the role and contribution of women tea laborers’ of Sonitpur District is a rarely found topic and also not much work has been carried out about the tea laborers of Sonitpur District and has not gained much significance in the field of research. Women’s position in the tea plantation has always remained a disadvantaged one and their labor never got recognized as the planters were much more interested in using women as a reproducer of labor which would help them in generating a stable work force in the long run.

Page(s): 321-324                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 April 2020

 Stutima Basistha
Department of Sociology, Gauhati University (INDIA)

 Moushumi Dutta Pathak
Department of History, Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati (INDIA)

[1]. ChatterjeePiya(2001),A Time for Tea: Women, Labour, and Post-colonial Politics on an Indian Plantation,ZubaanPublication, New Delhi.
[2]. DekaMeeta(2015),AdivasiIdentity Question In Assam:A HistoricalPerspectiveinSandhyaGoswami(ed),TroubledDiversity:ThePolitical Process in Northeast India, Oxford University Press,NewDelhi.
[3]. ChatterjeeSuparna(2008),Class and Gender: A study of Women workers in the tea gardens OfJalpaiguri(dooars), in India (1947-1997),Unpublished Thesis,Faculty of Arts,JadavpurUniversity
[4]. BorahPrithiraj(2014),The Impact of Trade Unions on Tea Plantation Workers: A Study ofDibrugarhDistrict of Assam,UnpublishedDissertation,Department of Sociology, Sikkim University.
[5]. DuaraMridusmita(Dr) (2017),Non-Inclusive Trade Unionism in the Tea-Estates of Assam; working paper/2017/04.

Stutima Basistha, Moushumi Dutta Pathak “Participation of Women in the Emerging Trade Union Activities in the Tea-Gardens of Assam” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 3, pp.321-324 March 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-3/321-324.pdf

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