A Sociological Study on the Problems Faced by the Pensioners in Sri Lankan Context

Prabashini IGN – September 2020 Page No.: 01-07

This research paper examine the problems faced by the individual who is vigorously concerned in an assigned employment within a state institution that is identified as Government employee, who is upon reaching the retirement age, is precise or interpreted as a Pensioner. Accordingly, these pensioners are dwelling in various network levels the issues being looked by them are changed and it is to comprehend the imperative issues stood up to by the pensioner within the Sri Lanka.
Based on the Department of Pension, 150 pensioners been selected on random sampling basis from the retirement of Government services from January to December, in 2010. Data gathering was proceeded through mainly from questionnaires, further informal discussions, observations, interviews and case studies. Data analysis conducted via qualitative and quantitative categorization and presented through graphs and tables while, qualitative data analysis followed the explanatory processes.
The findings reveal the noticeable characteristics of the retired community as majority has Deteriorated Health conditions, Abounded breakdown of psychologies, Propensity to move towards spiritual life styles, Displeasure to move away from own supremacy and Majority of retired personnel follow the divorced living pattern.
Hence the study suggests the to launch a methodological and socially signified approach for the well-being of elderly and the retirees and it is necessary to reinforce the prevalent law and order policies in the country in order to ensure needed social security for the elderly community.
In order to react against entire complications to be faced by the elderly during the latter part of their lives, they have conformed to different and varied behavioural practices and develop community gatherings and bonds.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 September 2020

 Prabashini IGN
Department of Pensions, Sri Lanka

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Prabashini IGN “A Sociological Study on the Problems Faced by the Pensioners in Sri Lankan Context” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.01-07 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/01-07.pdf

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Testing the Validity and Reliability of Drug Addiction Recovery Instrument in Male Drug User in CCRC

Norashida, S.R, Norshahira, O., Lukman, Z.M. – September 2020 Page No.: 08-14

Drug addiction recovery is a fundamental factor for drug users to restart normal life and get back to the society. It is also a vital stage of drug treatment as it can be an indication or evidence whether the procedures used during treatment is suitable or not in helping addicts from drug problem. This study has been purposely conducted as to develop a drug addiction recovery instrument and to measure the recuperation level of drug addicts who were treated in the rehabilitation centre. The study is conducted to test the validity and reliability of DART instruments involving four component consisting of DDA, DPRA, DRA, and CMSA. Therefore, the factors contributing to drug addiction recovery based on conceptual framework derived from previous studies conducted by other researchers. The results show that the DART instrument had high Cronbach’s alpha values of 0.790 (DDA), 0.873 (DPRA), 0.881 (DRA), 0.845 (CMSA). PCA analysis has been used to evaluate these items either necessary to be retained or dropped. The results of the study found that all the items built have met the measurement characteristics of an instrument and can be used as a tool to measure the drug recovery addiction level.

Page(s): 08-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2020

 Norashida, S.R.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Norshahira, O.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Lukman, Z.M.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300, Terengganu, Malaysia

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Norashida, S.R, Norshahira, O., Lukman, Z.M. “Testing the Validity and Reliability of Drug Addiction Recovery Instrument in Male Drug User in CCRC ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.08-14 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/08-14.pdf

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“A Study on the Attitude towards Divorce and Co-habitation in the Indian Society”

Soumita Ramesh, Sanjana Barot, Vrishti Jain – September 2020 – Page No.: 15-18

Indian society as a whole being a patriarchal society is slowly undergoing a transformation in terms of people’s attitudes towards cohabitation and divorce. While some contend that attitudes guide behaviour we are seeing people more openly opting for a live in relationship or a divorce when their marriage does not work out. Given this contention, the current study aimed to understand the attitudes towards cohabitation and divorce in Indian society. It was hypothesised that there will be a significant difference between adolescents, adults and the elderly in terms of their attitudes towards divorce and cohabitation. The objective of the study was to verify whether the level of openness towards divorce and cohabitation is increasing with every pass-ing generation. Participants ranging from 17 to 60 years up were contacted via the method of convenience sampling to fill an online survey from which their demographic details and attitudes towards cohabitation and divorce were obtained. A survey was designed based on past research was used to assess the sample’s attitudes. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and interpreted. This study provides a clear under-standing of how different are the attitudes among the three age groups i.e adolescents, adults and elderly.

Page(s): 15-18                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2020

 Soumita Ramesh
Undergraduate Students, Department of Psychology, Mithibai College of Arts, Science and Commerce (Autonomous), Mumbai Maharashtra

 Sanjana Barot
Undergraduate Students, Department of Psychology, Mithibai College of Arts, Science and Commerce (Autonomous), Mumbai Maharashtra

 Vrishti Jain
Undergraduate Students, Department of Psychology, Mithibai College of Arts, Science and Commerce (Autonomous), Mumbai Maharashtra

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Soumita Ramesh, Sanjana Barot, Vrishti Jain ““A Study on the Attitude towards Divorce and Co-habitation in the Indian Society”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.15-18 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/15-18.pdf

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Understanding the Factors That Inhibit the Success of Indigenous Entrepreneurs in Malaysia

Mohd Hasril Amiruddin, Sri Sumarwati, Ahmad Rizal Madar, Nurhanim Saadah Abdullah, Siti Normah Suib- September 2020 Page No.: 19-23

This study aims to identify the factors that inhibit the success of indigenous entrepreneurs. The instrument in this quantitative study was a questionnaire that consisted of 54 items with Likert Scale 5. The respondents of this study were 377 indigenous youth entrepreneurs, who were selected by random sampling. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 21 used to analyze data based on frequency, percentage, and linear regression. The results show that there are nine (9) main factors that inhibit the success of indigenous entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Factors that inhibit indigenous from becoming successful entrepreneurs include being lacking financial capital, experience, knowledge in information technology and business strategy, entrepreneurial information, management skills, networking skills, difficulty in finding skilled workers, and complicated financial loan bureaucracy. Factors that inhibit the success of indigenous entrepreneurs classify into two categories. The findings of this study showed that the intrinsic and extrinsic factors had a significant influence on the motivation of Malaysian indigenous youth in entrepreneurship development. Therefore, entrepreneurship and information technology courses are necessary to improve the knowledge and skills of indigenous in Malaysia. However, on the whole, it was found that the bureaucracy of complicated financial lending had become the dominant factor that inhibits the success of indigenous entrepreneurs in Malaysia.

Page(s): 19-23                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 September 2020

 Mohd Hasril Amiruddin
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

 Sri Sumarwati
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

 Ahmad Rizal Madar
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

 Nurhanim Saadah Abdullah
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

 Siti Normah Suib
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

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Mohd Hasril Amiruddin, Sri Sumarwati, Ahmad Rizal Madar, Nurhanim Saadah Abdullah, Siti Normah Suib”Understanding the Factors That Inhibit the Success of Indigenous Entrepreneurs in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.19-23 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/19-23.pdf

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Preservation of Meaning and Value of Local Wisdom Traditional House of Lampung Kepaksian Pernong West Lampung
Muhammad Aji Wira Wardhana, Risma M. Sinaga, Erlina Rufaida – September 2020 – Page No.: 24-27

INTRODUCTION
Lampung is a province on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra, which has a strategic location because it is close to the Sunda Strait and the island of Java. Lampung Province has ethnic and cultural diversity. The cultural diversity comes from ethnic Lampung and other ethnic groups in the Lampung area.
Lampung Province has a motto on the regional symbol of “Sai Bumi Ruwa Jurai”. The meaning of the motto is Sai Bumi which means the Great Household with rooms and Ruwa Jurai which means two elements of the community who live in the Lampung Province. So, “Sai Bumi Ruwa Jurai” means a place of two inhabitants, which means a great household for the two groups of natives and immigrants (ruwai and jurai) who live in Lampung (Firma Sujadi, 2013: 4).
One of the areas in Lampung that is rich in culture is West Lampung Regency. In West Lampung Regency, there is a kingdom called Paksi Pak Sekala Brak, which consists of four Paksi, namely the Pernong testimony, the Nyerupa testimony, the Belunguh testimonial, and the Belunguh testimony. This kingdom is Saibatin and has a dialect of A.

Page(s): 24-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2020

 Muhammad Aji Wira Wardhana
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

 Risma M. Sinaga
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

 Erlina Rufaida
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

[1] Anshori, Djausal. 2002. Lampung Traditional House. Bandar Lampung: Lampung Cultural Conservation and Empowerment Project at the Lampung Provincial Education Office in 2002.
[2] Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1989. Procedure of a Practical Research. Jakarta: Bina Space
[3] David, Safari. 2012. History of Pak Sekala Brak’s Paksi Sultanate. Lampung: Center for Research and Development
[4] .Margaretha, Risma. 2017. CULTURAL REVITALIZATION Lampung Ethnic Identity Strategy. Yogyakarta: Suluh Media.
[5] Mattew B. Miles and A. Michael. 1992. Qualitative Data Analysis. Jakarta: Gramedia
[6] Nasir, Mohammad. 1983. Research Methods. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia
[7] Yuniar, Wike. 2014. ProcessAdok Inauguration in Adok Pernong Paksi’s testimony of Pak Sekala Beghak.Essay. History Education. Lampung University

Muhammad Aji Wira Wardhana, Risma M. Sinaga, Erlina Rufaida “Preservation of Meaning and Value of Local Wisdom Traditional House of Lampung Kepaksian Pernong West Lampung” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.24-27 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/24-27.pdf

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Prefects’ Preparedness in Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Baringo North Sub-County, Baringo County, Kenya

Chelimo Kiprotich, Wilson Kiptala and John Kipruto – September 2020 Page No.: 28-34

The purpose of the study was to investigate the level of preparedness of prefects in secondary schools in Baringo North Sub-county. The objectives of the study were: to establish the mode of selection used by various schools to select their prefects and to determine the level of preparedness of secondary school prefects to assume the duties given to them by the school administration. The study was guided by Henry Mintzberg’s theory on organizational structures and systems. The ontology was pragmatism and the epistemology was realism. The research method was mixed method. The research design was ex post-facto, random sampling and stratified techniques were applied. Data was generated using questionnaires and interview schedule. A total of 324 participants, 114 females and 210 males, eight deputy head teachers from the secondary schools responded to the Questionnaire and interview schedule. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages. The findings established that prefects are not adequately prepared though they are expected to act as agents in the management of secondary schools. It therefore provides solutions to the failure of prefects to effectively perform their duties through adequate preparation hence ease management by guess work. It recommended that the prefect system be replaced with a council and the latter be phased out with time in public secondary schools among other recommendations.

Page(s): 28-34                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2020

 Chelimo Kiprotich
Moi University, Kenya

 Wilson Kiptala
Moi University, Kenya

 John Kipruto
Moi University, Kenya

[1] Arekenya, L. (2012). School Prefects, Tomorrows’ Leaders. Lagos downloaded from http://vanguadngr.com. On 31/5/2012. Biketi, N. A. (2008). Influence of Prefectship on self-concept and academic Performance. A case of students in West Pokot District Secondary Schools, Unpublished Thesis, Moi University Eldoret.
[2] Berger, A. (2002). Encyclopedia Dictionary of Roman Law; The law book exchange http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/prefect.
[3] Biketi, N. A. (2008). Influence of Prefectship on self concept and academic Performance. A case of students in West Pokot District Secondary Schools, (Unpublished Thesis), Moi University Eldoret.
[4] Gorton, R., & Alstan, J. (2009). School Leadership and Administration: Important Concepts, Case Studies and Simulations. Researchgate: Open University Press
[5] Jones, A. (2001). Leadership for Tomorrows’ Schools; New York: Basil Blackwell.
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[7] Keter, J. J. (2006). An Assessment of the Role of prefects in public Secondary School Administration in Nairobi Province, Unpublished proposal, Kenyatta University.
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[11] Kosgey, K. (2008). Challenges Facing Teacher Counselors in Secondary Schools in Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis; Moi University.
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[20] UNESCO, (2010). Monitoring Education Participation. UNICEF institute. www.uis.unesco.org
[21] Wabwire, S. (2004). Secret “Cabinet” meetings for senior captains, East African Standard September 2, 2004.

Chelimo Kiprotich, Wilson Kiptala and John Kipruto “Prefects’ Preparedness in Public Secondary Schools: A Case of Baringo North Sub-County, Baringo County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 9, pp.28-34 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/28-34.pdf

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Women Labor Working Patterns of Sugar Cane Felling on Bunga Mayang Sugar Factory at Pt. Perkebunan Nusantara on 2020 (Case Study in Negara Tulang Bawang Village, Bunga Mayang Sub-District, Lampung Utara Regency)

Heni Marida Harahap, Risma Margareta Sinaga, Pujiati – September 2020 Page No.: 35-38

This study aims to determine how woman labor working patterns of sugar cane felling on Bunga Mayang sugar factory at PT. Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) VII on Negara Village. The method used is qualitative. By using the technique of determining the Snowball Sampling informant. The results showed that woman labor who work in Bunga Mayang sugar factory were seasonal. When the harvest season, they work. The recruitment system and working patterns were informal. The working of sugar cane felling in the sugar factory was a seasonal job, which occurs when the harvest season arrives. If the sugar cane harvest season had not yet taken place, the women labor work as sugar cane fellers, and odd jobs to help the economy of their families. When the sugar cane season starts, the women labour carry out their working activities. Sugar cane labor work from morning to evening. Their working schedule was from 06:00 to 15:00. The routine was carried out every day until the sugar cane field was completed.

Page(s): 35-38                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2020

 Heni Marida Harahap
Faculty of Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Risma Margareta Sinaga
Faculty of Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Pujiati
Faculty of Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

[1] Bungin, Burhan. (2009). Penelitian Kualitatif (Komunikasi, Ekonomi, Kebijakan Publik dan Ilmu Sosial Lainnya. Prenada Media Group, Jakarta
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[3] Ensiklopedi. 2004. Ensiklopedi Jilid 8 K-KIWI. Jakarta: Delta Pamungkas.
[4] PTPN VII, Unit Usaha Bunga Mayang. 2018. Data Jumlah Petani Tebu Mitra PTPN VII Unit Usaha Bunga Mayang Tahun 2018. Tidak Dipublikasikan.
[5] Universitas Lampung. 2017. Pedoman Penelitian Karya Ilmiah Unila. Bandar Lampung
[6] Yin, Robert K. 1989. Case Study Research Design and Methods. WashingtonCOSMOS Corporation.

Heni Marida Harahap, Risma Margareta Sinaga, Pujiati “Women Labor Working Patterns of Sugar Cane Felling on Bunga Mayang Sugar Factory at Pt. Perkebunan Nusantara on 2020 (Case Study in Negara Tulang Bawang Village, Bunga Mayang Sub-District, Lampung Utara Regency)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 9, pp.35-38 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/35-38.pdf

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Integration of Knowledge: An Approach to the Comprehensive Development of Learners’ Body, Soul and Spirit

Matovu Musa (PhD) – September 2020 – Page No.:39-45

Education in Islam should be founded on both acquired and religious knowledge based on the command from Allah SWT (Subhanahu Wa-Ta’ala) and sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) to better serve the society needs, and also prepare people for the Hereafter. The revealed knowledge helps people manage themselves while the acquired knowledge helps man to manage the system or society. The knowledge from Al-Quran and sunnah guide man by controlling their sensory, intellectual and spiritual components of life while the acquired knowledge controls the body functioning for the individual to manoeuvre in this world. The integration of both revealed and acquired knowledge helps the learners to fully develop in terms of their body, soul and the spirit. Attaining a well-integrated education system helps in producing professionals who are highly skilled in their professionals but also understand Allah SWT and His Prophet (PBUH).

Page(s):39-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2020

 Matovu Musa (PhD)
Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Islamic University in Uganda, Kampala, Uganda, East Africa

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Matovu Musa (PhD) “Integration of Knowledge: An Approach to the Comprehensive Development of Learners’ Body, Soul and Spirit” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 9, pp.39-45 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/39-45.pdf

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Influence of Instructional Planning on Teachers’ Performance in Secondary Schools in Sokoto State, Nigeria

Aminu Shehu Sifawa, Muhammad Atika Bashar, Abubakar Ibrahim & Bashar Ibrahim – September 2020 Page No.: 46-49

The study investigated the influence of instructional Planning on teachers’ performance in secondary schools of Sokoto Metropolis. The specific objectives that guided the study were; to determine the influence of Instructional planning on teachers’ performance in secondary schools; the study was basically based on cross sectional survey that employed quantitative method. The total number of population under study was 150. 100 questionnaires were administered to the respondents but 86 questionnaires were returned hence considered for data presentation and analysis with response rate of 85.5%. The sampling techniques were simple random sampling. Data was collected through questionnaires which were based on three likert scale of 1 for Disagree, 2 for Undecided and 3 for Agree. The data collected was analyzed using frequencies and percentages (univariate statistics), Pearson correlation co-efficient (bivariate statistics) and regression analysis. The study found a positive and significant influence of planning on teachers’ performance (sig 0.000); In conclusion, there was a statistical significant influence between planning and teachers’ performance.

Page(s): 46-49                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2020

 Aminu Shehu Sifawa
Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto State

 Muhammad Atika Bashar
Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto State

 Abubakar Ibrahim
Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto State

 Bashar Ibrahim
Arabic and Islamic Education Board Sokoto State Nigeria

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Aminu Shehu Sifawa, Muhammad Atika Bashar, Abubakar Ibrahim & Bashar Ibrahim “Influence of Instructional Planning on Teachers’ Performance in Secondary Schools in Sokoto State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 9, pp.46-49 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/46-49.pdf

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Community Diversion Behavior in Pringsewu District
Allen Nurs Atanacio, Trisnaningsih, Erlina Rufaida – September 2020 – Page No.: 50-51

I. INTRODUCTION
Daily life and interactions, humans are inseparable from the norms and rules that apply in society, if the norms and rules are obeyed by society, people’s life will be orderly, safe and peaceful. There are also people who do not even comply with existing norms, they commit violations of norms and rules, which are often referred to as deviant behavior.
Pebehavior menyimpang wrong only one is distraction identity gender. Distraction identity gender yang now this bmany tetake a look at tenhalfway mcommunity is transgender ya that waria. Menso seorang waria meforget it a pchoice hlive someone yang experienced waria membuat meconvention always mengalami hambstrength dnatural medo pesocial or memchoose pekerjaan. Kenyoran yang di hadapi oleh kroar waria, is meconvention hcurrent mampu menso waria, thumpan Male or pefemale.
Waria dI assume as penydream beven toother karena sea person betype tolamin Male ber appearance a pefemale denbro memakai pakaian dan begrooming as appropriate womenan. Penydream pebehavior yang dit shows pfig waria caused dbe prepared pthere is conflik social dnatural bevarious shapek peabuse. Pseudoa anmembers mcommunity termasuk tofamily branda myself, I haven’t got it yet menerhymes hiadiran a waria denbro wteach as is type tolamin other. Kehadiran seorang waria di sebuAh tofamily sering kali dI assume as a disgrace, so that waria always mengalami techpressure social, di dnatural pesocial branda too menfaced conconflict dalam bevarious shape, dfrom scorn, peabuse hingga penexclusion.

Page(s): 50-51                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2020

 Allen Nurs Atanacio
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

 Trisnaningsih
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

 Erlina Rufaida
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

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Allen Nurs Atanacio, Trisnaningsih, Erlina Rufaida “Community Diversion Behavior in Pringsewu District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 9, pp.50-51 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/50-51.pdf

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A Sociological Study of Economic Problems Faced by Mothers in the Single Parent Family
Mendis MRA, Jayarathne SDY – September 2020 – Page No.: 52-55

I. INTRODUCTION
The human family is a universal social institution, the sociologists and anthropologists defined this in various ways. The family is not just a cultural thing but it is a universal institution (Murdock, 1949). Family is a factory producing human personalities and it is a unit with the married couple and their children. The most important function of the family is to provide the child with a social status and socialization process (Mead,1964). Generally, a person born into society takes the membership of two families. Those are family of orientation and family of procreation (Cone and Pelto, 1967).
In modern society family faces a large number of changes. In the current special set up, one of the major problems that a family encounters is disorganization. Through it, the single parent family has been created. Single parent family is a family where only one of the parents, either mother or father, has to fulfill the financial, material and emotional needs of the children, without the help of someone else. Single parent families may be created due to widowhood, divorce, under-age pregnancies without a lawful marriage, leaving of one party without divorce (https://www.encyclopedia). According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 15% of the world’s children live in single-parent households. Of the single parent families, 85% are single mothers. This is more common in industrialized countries. (https://singleparenthack.wordpress.com).

Page(s): 52-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2020

 Mendis MRA
Department of Sociology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 Jayarathne SDY
Department of Anthropology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

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[9] https://www.enotes.com
[10] https://singleparenthack.wordpress.com

Mendis MRA, Jayarathne SDY “A Sociological Study of Economic Problems Faced by Mothers in the Single Parent Family” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 9, pp. 52-55 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/52-55.pdf

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Are School Management Committees Properly Instituted And Are They Functional? The Case of Mayuge District, Uganda

Kayindu Vincent, Nakiyingi Sarah , Nkwanga Alamanzani- September 2020 Page No.: 57-62

This study was carried out to assess, among other things, the nature of School Management Committees in primary Schools in Mayuge District, Uganda. Specifically, it explored the extent to which School Management Committees are instituted as per the government policy, and the extent to which they are functional. Employing a cross-sectional survey design with qualitative and quantitative approaches, the researcher used a target population which constituted the headteachers, teachers and members of the school management committees of the primary schools in the district, from the three counties that make up the district, namely, Bunya East, Bunya West, and Bunya South. The respondents were got from 68 primary schools out of 173 primary schools in the district. A sample size of 469 respondents was selected. These included teachers, headteachers. Forty-three (43) members of the school management committees were subjected to oral interviews. The findings were that School management committees exist in all primary schools but they are poor in terms of their institution, meetings held and implementing what is decided upon in the meetings. The recommendations were that there is need for the government and civil leaders to hold refresher courses for parents to appreciate their role in participating in the management of primary schools in their localities and to make them properly understand and appreciate their roles as members of the school management committees in case they are elected or appointed.

Page(s): 57-62                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2020

 Kayindu Vincent
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Nakiyingi Sarah
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Nkwanga Alamanzani
Kampala International University, Uganda

[1] Byamugisha, H. (2012). Foundation bodies and the management of private secondary schools in Kampala City, Uganda. MED Dissertation, Islamic University in Uganda.
[2] Golooba-Mutebi, F. (2004). Reassessing Popular Participation in Uganda: Public Administration and Development 24.4: 289–304
[3] James, E. (1995). Public-private division of responsibility for education. In M. Carnoy (Ed.), International encyclopedia of economics of education (2d ed., pp. 450–455). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
[4] Kayindu, V., Gwokyalya, E. and Baba, S. (2018). Using the managerial grid to assess managerial- related challenges in private universities in Uganda. In Reseachjournali’s Journal of Education, 6,7.
[5] Khanal, P. (2013). Community participation in schooling in Nepal: A disjunction between policy intention and policy implementation? Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 33(3), 235– 248.
[6] Nwankwo, J. I (1982). Educational administration: Theory and practice. New Dheli: Vicas Publishing House.
[7] Ongwen, T. (2018). Determinants of school management committees’ effectiveness in Gulu district, Uganda. MED Dissertation, Kampala University.
[8] Ssenkaaba, S, (2018). The new Vision, Monday, October 01, 2018. Kampala: The New Vision Publishing Co. Uganda.
[9] Tamura, N. (2012). An analysis of factors that caused the expansion and decline of community- managed schools in Guatemala. Comparative Education, 44, 24–44 (In Japanese).
[10] UWEZO (2016). Are our children learning? Annual learning assessment report. Kampala,
[11] Yamada, S. (2012). Determinants of “community participation”: The tradition of local initiatives and the institutionalization of school management committees in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Compare, 44(2), 162–185.

Kayindu Vincent, Nakiyingi Sarah, Nkwanga Alamanzani “Are School Management Committees Properly Instituted And Are They Functional? The Case of Mayuge District, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.57-62 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/57-62.pdf

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Economics of Groundnut Production in Dambatta Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria
Godfrey Onuwa, Ibiyinka Ademiluyi, Grace Yitnoe- September 2020 – Page No.: 63-69

This study analyzed the economics of groundnut production in Dambatta Local Government Area of Kano state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data collected. The results of the study revealed that the socioeconomic factors of the respondents significantly affected groundnut production in the study area. The gross margin and net farm income were estimated as ₦59,850/ha and ₦47,350/ha respectively. The estimated benefit cost ratio was 1.75. A gross ratio of 0.57 was recorded (a ratio of ˂1 is desirable). The estimates of operating and the fixed ratios were 0.46 and 0.11respectively. The estimate of return on investment was 0.75. The coefficient of multiple determinations (R2) was 0.763 implying that 76% of the variation in the output of groundnut was accounted for by the variables in the regression model. The estimate of elasticity of production is 0.675, suggesting decreasing returns to scale. Also, the constraints of production identified significantly affected groundnut production. Cooperative formation, supportive farm policies, extension delivery services, credit access, efficient supply of subsidized production inputs, processing and storage facilities and technologies to the farmers are strongly recommended.

Page(s): 63-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2020

 Godfrey Onuwa
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

 Ibiyinka Ademiluyi
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

 Grace Yitnoe
Entrepreneurship and Consultancy Unit, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

[1] National Peanut Council (2006). Peanut industry guide 2000-2001 the peanut farmer, 26(8): 270
[2] Mukhtar, A.A. (2009). Performance of three groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties as affected by basin size and plant population at Kadawa. Ph.D. Dissertation Submitted to post graduate school, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria pp 173.
[3] Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2006). Production year book, Rome, Italy.2006; 60.
[4] Weiss EA. 2000. Oilseed crops. London. Blackwell Science.
[5] Alabi, O. F., Owonibi, B., Olafemi, S.O, & Olagunju S. (2013). Production analysis of groundnut in Birni Gwari Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. PAT. 2013: 9(2):102–113. Available: Patnsukjournal.net/
[6] National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2007). The Nigerian Statistical Fact Sheets on Economic and Social Development. Abuja: National Bureau of Statistics, 121pp.
[7] Hamidu, B.M., Kuli, S.G., & Mohammed, I. (2006). Profitability analysis of groundnut (Arachishypogae L.) processing among women entrepreneurs in Bauchi metropolis. A paper presented at 20th Annual National Conference of Farm Management.
[8] Taru, Y.B., Kyagya, I.Z., & Mshelia, S.I. (2010). Profitability of groundnut production in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Science. 2010; 1:25-29.
[9] Girei, A.A., Dauna, Y. & Dire, B. (2013). And Economic Analysis of Groundnut (Arachis hypogea) production in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria Journal of Agriculture and crop Research 1 (6) pp.84 – 89.
[10] National Agricultural Extension Research and Liaisons Service (NAERLS) (2011). Agricultural survey for 2011 wet seasons.
[11] Garba, A.B., Anwalu, M. & Abdul, S.D. (2002). Effect of variety and intra-row spacing in Groundnut production under the prevailing weather condition of the Northern Guinea, Nigerian Journal of Agricultural Technology. pp. 2 (7) 54 – 59.
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[13] Raw Material Research and Development Council (RMRDC) (2004). Report on Survey of Selected Agricultural Raw Materials in Nigeria, Maiden Edition.
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[16] Madaki, M. J., Abba, I. Y. & Mary, A. (2016). Economic analysis of groundnut production in Biu Local Government area of Borno state, Nigeria International Journal of Information Research and Review, Vol. 03, Issue, 01, pp. 1657-1660 January, 2016.
[17] Ibrahim, U., Ayinde, B. T.,Dauda, H., Mukhtar, A.A., (2012). Socio-economic factors affecting Groundnut production in sabon-gari local government of Kaduna state, Nigeria. International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics. Vol. 1No.1 pp.41-48 41
[18] Ani, D.P., Umeh, J. C & Weye, E.A. (2013). Profitability and economic efficiency of groundnut production in Benue state, Nigeria. African journals of food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 13(4) 8091- 8105.Association of Nigeria held at Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State; 2006.
[19] Awoke, M. U. (2003). Production analysis of groundnut in Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2003; 2(2):138–142.

Godfrey Onuwa, Ibiyinka Ademiluyi, Grace Yitnoe “Economics of Groundnut Production in Dambatta Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.63-69 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/63-69.pdf

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Engaging the Government in Library Services for Sustainable National Development: The Case of Public Library and Information Systems in Nigeria
James Mngutyô, Angbande, Dennis P, Joseph Ahemba Gbuushi – September 2020 – Page No.: 70-74

Government involvement in Public library and information systems services has been observed to be minimal in Nigeria. Consequently, sustainable national development appears to have been adversely affected. For this, the paper examines the concepts of sustainable national development, library services, and takes a look at library services for sustainable national development and the ways to engage government in library services for sustainable national development and conclude that indeed government has not really been involved in library services soon after their take off. Because of this the required utilitarian information for sustainable development is continuously lacking. Some ways to engage government in public library services have been identified such as using library services to propagate government programmes, organizing public lectures on library’s role in governance, organizing workshop for government officials among others and the time to do it is now than ever before in the face of depleting resources.

Page(s): 70-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2020

 James Mngutyô
Department of Library and Information Science, Benue State University, Makurdi

 Angbande, Dennis P
University Library and Information Services, Benue State University, Makurdi

 Joseph Ahemba Gbuushi
University Library and Information Services, Benue State University, Makurdi

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James Mngutyô, Angbande, Dennis P, Joseph Ahemba Gbuushi “Engaging the Government in Library Services for Sustainable National Development: The Case of Public Library and Information Systems in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp. 70-74 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/70-74.pdf

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Organizational Learning and employee performance. An Indirect Effect Model of Employee Loyalty

Grace Orinda, Dr. Patrick Limo, Dr. Joel Chepkwony – September 2020 Page No.: 75-84

I. INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this study was to determine the indirect effect of employee loyalty on organizational learning and employee performance.The study adopted a cross-sectional designand systematic random sampling techniques in collecting data from a sample of 411 sampled from a target population of 2433 bank employees in Kenya. Findings reveal that organizational learning affects employee performance and also influences employeeloyalty. Additionally, results show that organizational learning has an indirect effect on employee performance via employeeA loyalty, thus revealing a partial mediation process.Banks should improve on organizational learning strategies through enhancement of knowledge awareness, intellectual cultivation and information sharing which enhances their commitment/loyalty to their work, thus increasing employee performance.The findings of this study bring new insights into theory and literature through the indirect process by unveiling a partial mediation mechanism on the link between organizational learning and employee performance.

Page(s): 75-84                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2020

  Grace Orinda
Moi university, Kenya.

 Dr. Patrick Limo
Moi university, Kenya.

  Joel Chepkwony
Moi university, Kenya.

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Grace Orinda, Dr. Patrick Limo, Dr. Joel Chepkwony “Organizational Learning and employee performance. An Indirect Effect Model of Employee Loyalty” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.75-84 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/75-84.pdf

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Perceptions of Teachers on E-Resources in Teaching and Learning of English Language in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County, Kenya

Mark W. Muvango, Kowino J. Obwana, Ajuoga Milcah & Okono Elijah – September 2020 Page No.: 85-90

Electronic resources (E-resources) sparked creativity and enlivened teaching and learning process. They also enabled conceptualization of abstract concepts in the curriculum. Despite integration of e-resources in teaching and learning, English language registered dismal performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examinations in Kakamega County, Kenya. In the years 2012 – 2019 there was negative deviations: 0.0011 – 0.01 in KCSE examinations respectively. The blame was on inadequate and inappropriate integration of e-resources in the curriculum. The purpose of the study was to assess integration of e-resources in teaching and learning of English language in public secondary schools in Kakamega County. Specific objective of the study was to: determine perceptions of teachers on e-resources in teaching and learning of English language in public secondary schools in Kakamega County, Kenya. The study found out that e-resources ensured understanding of concepts (67.6%), ensured long retention in learning (100%), concepts became lively during learning (100%) and enhanced learning in the curriculum (96.5%). Based on the findings, the study recommended that teachers should use e-resources appropriately to improve learning outcomes. The study contributed to development of teacher of English in regard to integration of e-resources in teaching and learning process. It also generated new knowledge of searching, selecting, processing and using technological information adequately in learning of English language.

Page(s): 85-90                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2020

 Mark W. Muvango
1Post Graduate Student (PhD), Department of Educational Communication, Technology and Curriculum Studies, Maseno University, Kenya

 Kowino J. Obwana
Lecturer, Department of Educational Communication, Technology and Curriculum Studies, Maseno University, Kenya

 Ajuoga Milcah
Lecturer, Department of Education, St. Paul’s University, Kenya

 Okono Elijah
Post Graduate Student (PhD), School of Education, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

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Mark W. Muvango ,Kowino J. Obwana, Ajuoga Milcah & Okono Elijah “Perceptions of Teachers on E-Resources in Teaching and Learning of English Language in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.85-90 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/85-90.pdf

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An Empirical Analysis of Corporate Response Strategy and Performance of County Pension Fund, Kenya

Damaris Kimweli, Dr. Lucy Kavindah – September 2020 Page No.: 91-98

The way an organization interacts with its business environment influences the extent to which the organization can achieve its goals and objectives. By responding to the changes in business environment, an oragnisation can effectively develop services and products that adequately serve the customers’ needs. This is done through the use of the corporate strategies. The process of mobilizing finds from the employers and employers is facilitated by Pension funds. In undertaking this role however, County Pension Funds in Kenya are constantly dealing with low profits, poor morale of the employees, inefficiencies, and inadequate customer satisfaction thus based on its financial reports, their performance has been declining. It is against this backdrop that this study examined the effectiveness of the corporate strategies and how they affect performance of County Pension Funds in Kenya. Specifically, the study looked at product diversification, strategic alliances, employee training and development and differentiation and how they influence performance at County Pension Fund, Kenya. The study was anchored on the Porter’s Five Forces Model, Resource Based View and Dynamic Capability theory. A descriptive research design was adopted and targeted a population of 250 staff working at the County Pension Fund. Using a proportionate Stratified random sampling a sample of 73 staff was chosen representing 30% of the population. Questionnaires were used as the data collection instrument. A reliability and validity test was carried out using a Cronbach Alpha coefficients with the coefficients being above 0.70; a threshold established under the cronbach alpha which attested to the reliability of the research instrument used. The analysis of data was done based on both descriptive and inferential analysis which was done using a multiple regression. The results showed that product diversification significantly and positively affected performance (p-value, .030). strategic alliance positively and significantly influenced performance (p-value, .017). There was also significant and positive relationship between employee training and development and performance (p-value, .015) and lastly differentiation strategy positively and significantly impacted performance (p-value, .024). An adjusted R2 of .780 was obtained implying that the predictor variables explained 78% of the changes in performance of County Pension Fund. The study recommended the increase in product lines as a way of diversification, training of employees based on the existing knowledge gaps in an organization, engaging in technology alliances and continuous augmentation of its services.

Page(s): 91-98                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2020

 Damaris Kimweli
School of Business, Department of Business Administration, Kenyatta University

 Dr. Lucy Kavindah
School of Business, Department of Business Administration, Kenyatta University

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Damaris Kimweli, Dr. Lucy Kavindah, “An Empirical Analysis of Corporate Response Strategy and Performance of County Pension Fund, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.91-98 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/91-98.pdf

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The Effect of Student Motivation, Learning Discipline and Parents ‘Attention Towards the Independence of Civilization Learning State Education Class VIII Students In SMP Negeri 1 Buay Pemaca Okus District 2019/2020 Academic Year

Aprial Syukur, Trisnaningsih, Pargito – September 2020 Page No.: 99-101

. INTRODUCTION :Extracurricular or extracurricular activities are additional activities carried out outside of school hours which are carried out both at school and outside of school with the aim of gaining additional knowledge, skills and insights and helping to shape the character of students according to their respective interests and talents.It is hoped that extracurricular activities will fully support all student curricular activities from the beginning of learning (planning) to the evaluation process (evaluating). Because the overall principles of management are essentially aligned with the objectives of the extracurricular activities carried out. In fact, most students have learned or do not have knowledge and attitudes in learning, the absence of additional guidance from other people besides the teacher who enters their lessons, and changes in the lines of nationalism, patriotism, virtue, and being aware of their responsibilities as students. In the learning process, there are various activities to support student change for the better, through intracurricular and extracurricular activities in schools.
Based on the research carried out by the scout organization extracurricular, it is more because it is the formation of student character with 30%, Osis extracurricular 15%, KIR extracurricular 10% Extracurricular Paskibra 25%, Rohis extracurricular 20% of the total extracurricular at SMP Oku Selatan totals 50%. seen from this percentage, the interest and talent of students to form independence, discipline, responsibility for forming honesty and forming good morals is still very low. Until the lack of interest in student learning in understanding independence, the best discipline and the formation of student character interest in learning Citizenship education is very minimal

Page(s): 99-101                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2020

 Aprial Syukur
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

 Trisnaningsih
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

 Pargito
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung Indonesia

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Aprial Syukur, Trisnaningsih, Pargito “The Effect of Student Motivation, Learning Discipline and Parents ‘Attention Towards the Independence of Civilization Learning State Education Class VIII Students In SMP Negeri 1 Buay Pemaca Okus District 2019/2020 Academic Year” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.99-101 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/99-101.pdf

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Relationship between Gambling Addiction and Violent Behaviour among University Students in Lang’ata Constituency

Kimau Fidelis Muthenya, Dr. Cosmas Kagwe, Dr. Hubert Pinto- September 2020 Page No.: 102-109

Gambling addiction is unhealthy betting that could result in problematic behaviour and experience of serious multiple problems. Historically, betting is inherently an acceptable recreational activity across human societies. Betting has become a way of life and especially among university students in Kenya. The study examined the relationship between gambling addiction and violent behaviour among university students in Lang’ata Constituency, Nairobi County. The target population was 20,700 university students. The sample size was 393 students. Skinner’s Theory of Learning was used in understanding the relationship between types of gambling, prevalence of gambling, risk factors of gambling, coping strategies, and violent behaviour among university students. Correlational research design was used. Stratified random sampling was used in identifying the sample size. Descriptive statistics was used in analysing descriptive data. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients, ANOVA and Regression Analysis were used in inferring results of the study. The response rate was 99.4%. Explanatory variables explained 73.7% of variation in violent behaviour among university students while 26.3% of variation in violence could be attributed to other factors outside the scope of this study. All independent variables have statistically significant relationship with the dependent variable hence they were retained in the final model. The resulting hypothesis affirms the relationship between gambling addiction and violent behaviour among university students. To investigate causality of betting addiction and violent behaviour among students, experimental design may be appropriate in future studies. Future studies may consider triangulating numerical and non-numerical data in investigating the relationship between betting addiction and violent behaviour among university students. Insufficient betting infrastructure was abetting betting in learning institutions in Kenya hence the need to enact policies that promote healthy betting practices.

Page(s): 102-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 September 2020

 Kimau Fidelis Muthenya
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Dr. Cosmas Kagwe
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Dr. Hubert Pinto
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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Kimau Fidelis Muthenya, Dr. Cosmas Kagwe, Dr. Hubert Pinto, “Relationship between Gambling Addiction and Violent Behaviour among University Students in Lang’ata Constituency” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.102-109 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/102-109.pdf

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Influence of Civil Society Organizations in Promoting Democratic Governance: A Case of Select Civil Society Organizations in Juba, South Sudan

Soro Mike Hakin, Dr. George Maroko, Dr. Wycliffe Ongeta- September 2020 Page No.: 110-125

Civil Society organization refers to organized groups of people who operate in the communities with a purpose of influencing the behavior of the society in a manner distinct from both government and business organizations. Civil society organizations can play a big role in promoting democratic governance in a country. This may only be achievable if all governance organs operate in a transparent manner. The aim of this study was to assess the strategies used by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in promoting democratic governance in the Republic of South Sudan, by looking at two CSOs in South Sudan known for their strong advocacy for democratic governance and adherence to democratic principles in governance. The study was guided by the following specific objectives which include: Investigation into the strategy of Civil Society Organizations in promoting democratic governance by training leaders in South Sudan : An examination of the strategy of local leadership in promoting democratic governance in South Sudan by creating political awareness and economic development: and to assess the need for reviewing the existing laws and policies in order to promote democratic governance in South Sudan. The study was guided by two theories; Theory of Conflict – Karl Marx which holds that society is controlled by those in power hence disagreements always arise between the poor and the rich and theory of Social Capital Theory by Putman which believes that the benefits of social capital accruing to the community encompasses norms and networks which facilitates the collective actions for mutual benefits. This study adopted descriptive survey design. This design is preferred as it helps the researcher determine the extent to which each independent variable is related with the dependent variable. Target population comprised of 350 people from two civil society organizations and residents and important stakeholders from South Sudan. Key informants were purposively sampled from leaders of the local government and representatives from the civil society organization under study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 187 respondents who was selected from target population comprising of three clusters/groups. Purposive sampling was used to select the respondents necessary for interview. Data was collected by use of interview process (for the key informants) discussion guide for focus group discussion and a questionnaire was designed for community members. Data was analyzed using both content and theme analysis and was presented in form of frequency tables, charts, graphs and narrative report. The researcher used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 in the analyzing quantitative data.The CSOs had carefully chosen and implemented in various cases that have been critical in achieving their intended objectives. Further, the findings showed that the strategies put in place so far had significantly proved to be effective in getting the general public as well as the government of South Sudan and its different agents in supporting the initiatives of the CSOs, there by promoting democracy in the country.

Page(s): 110-125                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2020

 Soro Mike Hakin
Kenyatta University, Kenya.

 Dr. George Maroko
Kenyatta University, Kenya.

 Dr. Wycliffe Ongeta
Kenyatta University, Kenya.

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Soro Mike Hakin, Dr. George Maroko, Dr. Wycliffe Ongeta “Influence of Civil Society Organizations in Promoting Democratic Governance: A Case of Select Civil Society Organizations in Juba, South Sudan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.110-125 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/110-125.pdf

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Conflict Management Mechanisms in Local Authorities in Muranga Town Council Kenya between 2007 till 2013
Waihenya H. Wambui, Dr George C O Maroko- September 2020 – Page No.: 126-142

Conflicts in local authorities and county governmantts were a frequent feature in Kenya before and after devolution. The conflict in kandara Town council was similar to many other conflicts in Nairobi county, Kisumu County,Nakuru County and other Counties The purpose of the study was to identify the strategies of conflict management in local authorities in Kenya, using the case of Kandara Town Council, Murang’a County. Kandara Town Council was characterized by conflicts over a long period. These involved personality, economic, political, scarce resource distribution, power and identity. The study attempted to determine the strategies and methods that had been used in conflict management and to identify the challenges that faced the stakeholders in conflict resolution, identified possible solutions to those challenges. The study was guided by the following specific objectives: To identify nature and extent of conflicts in Kandara Town Council:To establish the effects of the conflicts in Kandara Town Council: To assess the effectiveness of the mechanisms that were available for conflict resolution in Kandara Town Council: Explore other mechanisms for resolving conflicts in Kandara Town Council. The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods to conduct the research. The target population was 120 people drawn from the staff and management of Kandara town in Muranga County. A sample was of 60 respondents was selected from the population using purposive and random sampling methods. kandara. Data was collected using both secondary and primary methods. Structured questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data while target interviews were used to collect qualitative data. Data was collected and analyzed by use of descriptive statistics to determine the factors that influenced conflict management in local authorities in kandara town council. Data was analyzed and presented in the form of frequencies tables, pie-charts, graphs and tables. The research was conducted between October and December 2013. The findings from this study could be used to resolve conflicts in other cities and municipal council authorities in Kenya. Data was analysed using SPSS tool for quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. Data was presented using reports, diagrams, graphs and charts. The study scope covered the period between2007 and 2013..

Page(s): 126-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2020

 Waihenya H. Wambui
Kenyatta Univesity, Kenya

 Dr George C O Maroko
Kenyatta Univesity, Kenya

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[50] Wanjohi,N.G &Stiftung, A. K (2003)Modern Local Governments in Kenya and Agency for development, Education and Communication ,Nairobi, Kenya.
[51] Weekly Review 1979 Nov 16:14/ 9/11:1
[52] Ibid 1980 Jan 4:9/Feb 15:8/ Apr 11:7-8/18:9/25:9-10/Nov 28:7-8
[53] Ibid 1983 Jan 28 &Feb18:8
[54] Wunsch, J &.Olowu D(1996)Regime Transformation from Below, Decentralization, Local Governance and Democratic Reform in Nigeria, Studies in Comparative International Development 31(4),66-82.
[55] Wunsch,J.S (2001)Public Administration and Development, Decentralization, Local Governance and Recentralization in Africa, Creighton University Omaha,NE USA pp277-288

Waihenya H. Wambui, Dr George C O Maroko “Conflict Management Mechanisms in Local Authorities in Muranga Town Council Kenya between 2007 till 2013” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.126-142 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/126-142.pdf

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Management of Lunch Programme and Its Influence on Educational Outcomes in Public Day Secondary Schools in Mombasa and Kilifi Counties, Kenya
Julius Kinyanjui Kiiru, Dr Daniel Mange, Dr Daniel Otieno – September 2020 – Page No.: 143-148

School feeding programmes are primarily for enhancing educational outcomes in order to realize Kenya educational goals of free and compulsory basic education. School feeding programmes have the potential to increase access to primary education, reduce dropout rates, especially in the lower primary school levels, and improve academic achievement of pupils. The purpose of the study was to assess management of lunch programme and its influence on educational outcomes in public day secondary schools in Mombasa and Kilifi Counties, Kenya. Most of the studies on effects of school feeding programmes have been conducted in primary schools but not in secondary schools. The objectives of the study were, to assess financial management of lunch programme and its influence on educational outcomes, to determine procurement procedures of lunch programme and its influence on educational outcomes. The study population will be all the 49 day secondary schools in the Counties, 940 teachers, 49 principals, 49 lunch coordinators and 18,847 students. The study used simple random sampling and stratified random sampling. Stratified random sampling will be used along the following lines The sample size will comprise 17 secondary schools, 17 principals, 17 lunch coordinators, 289 teachers and 377 students. This gave a total of seven hundred respondents from the two Counties. The study employed mixed research design, questionnaires and interview schedules were used for collecting data. Reliability of the research instruments was ascertained through Cronbach technique. Results were presented using counts, percentages, distribution frequency tables, bar graphs and pie- charts. The quantitative analysis of data was performed using version 24 of the Social Package for Sciences (SPSS).The major findings of the study were that management of school lunch programme had a significant influence on realization of educational outcomes; there were malpractices in foodstuffs procurement. The study recommends Ministry of Education and Board of Management to put strategies that will enhance efficient management of lunch programmes in public day secondary schools.

Page(s): 143-148                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2020

 Julius Kinyanjui Kiiru
Kenyatta University, Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, Nairobi Kenya.

 Dr Daniel Mange
Kenyatta University, Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, Nairobi Kenya.

 Dr Daniel Otieno
Kenyatta University, Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, Nairobi Kenya.

[1] Adelman, S. H., Alderman, D. O., Gilligan, O and Lehrer, K. (2008). The Impact of Alternative Food for Education Programs on Learning Achievement and Cognitive Development in Northern Uganda. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
[2] Ahmed, A. U. (2004). Impact of Feeding Children in School: Evidence from Bangladesh. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPR).
[3] Aila, O.B. (2012). The Impact and Challenges of School Feeding Programme in Enhancing Access to Primary Education in the Unplanned Settlements of Kibera in Nairobi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Kenyatta University.
[4] Cheruiyot, K.C. (2011). The Effectiveness of Subsidies in Enhancing Optimal Enrolment in Public Secondary Schools in Kericho District, Kenya. Kenyatta University
[5] Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approach. Third edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
[6] Jomaa, L. H., McDonnell, E., & Probart, C. (2011). School Feeding Programs in Developing Countries: Impacts on Children’s Health and Educational Outcomes. [Article].Nutrition Reviews, 69(2), 83-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00369.x
[7] Neumann, C. C., Murphy, S. P., Gewa, C., Grillenberger, M., & Bwibo, N. O. (2007). Meat Supplementation Improves Growth, Cognitive, and Behavioral Outcomes in Kenyan Children. [Article]. Journal of Nutrition, 137(4), 1119-1123.
[8] Kristjansson, E.V., Robinson, M. Petticrew, B. et al; (2007). School Feeding for Improving the Physical and Psychosocial Health of Disadvantaged Elementary School Children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
[9] MOEST, (2014). Basic Education Statistical Booklet. Government of Kenya.
[10] Mugenda, O. & Mugenda, A. (2003). Research Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
[11] Mungai, S & Muturi, W. (2014). Effects of Procurement Regulations on Efficiency of the Procurement of Foodstuffs in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya – A Survey ofNyaribari Chache Constituency- published at: “International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP), Volume 4, Issue 5, May 2014 Edition”. 2502/3 SFP.
[12] Muthoni, L. M. (2010). The Impact of School Feeding Programme on Performance of Pre-School Children in Kikuyu District – Central Province. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Nairobi University.
[13] Mutua, D.S. (2014).Influence of School Feeding Program on Pupils’ Participation in Public Primary Schools in Masinga Division in Machakos County, Kenya. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Nairobi University.
[14] Muvhango, T.G. (2016). Learners’ Perceptions of Feeding Scheme Programmes at Schools in the Nzhelele East Circuit, Limpopo Province, University of South Africa,Pretoria, http “(Internet from 10-Jul-2018)http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/21692/dissertation_muvhango_tg.p df?sequence=
[15] Onsongo, E.N. (2002). Challenges facing procurement committees in implementing Procurement Act: A Case Study of secondary schools in Kisii County. Elixer International Journal, Vol. 4 No. 9
[16] Public Procurement Oversight Authority (2007). Assessment of the Procurement System in Kenya. Nairobi: PPOA
[17] Sanya, H. (2015).Impact of School Feeding on Student Attendance in Secondary School: A Case of Kiteto District in Tanzania, Open University of Tanzania
[18] Tashakkori, A. and Teddlie, C. (Eds.) (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research. New Delhi: Sage.
[19] Tolimson, M. (2007). School Feeding in East and Southern Africa: Improving Food Sovereignty or Photo Opportunity? Regional children in Africa: Evidence from School-Based Health Programmes in Ghana and Tanzania.” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92:254-261. (Internet from 22- May-2010) http://www.equinet africa.org/bibl8888/docs/DIS46nutTOMLINSON.pdf
[20] UNESCO – World Food Programme (1999). Social Feeding Handbook. Rome technical support service (ODT)
[21] WFP (2014). More than Food. Boosting Education in Kenya. Available at https://www.wfp.org/photos/gallery/more-food-boosting-education-kenya
[22] World Food Program (2009). Home-Grown School Feeding: A framework for Action. Rome: WFP.
[23] World Food Program, (2006). Situation Analysis: WFP’s Assistance to Girl’s Primary Education in Selected Districts of NWFP. Islamabad: WFP Pakistan. 3965–71
[24] WFP, (2014). School feeding programs: Why they should be scaled up now.
[25] Weru, W.M. (2011).Management of Home-Grown School Feeding Programme and Its Implication on Access and Retention in Primary Schools: A Case of Kathonzweni District, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Kenyatta University.
[26] Wiersma, W. (1986). Research Methods in Education: An Introduction, 4th edn:

Julius Kinyanjui Kiiru, Dr Daniel Mange, Dr Daniel Otieno “Management of Lunch Programme and Its Influence on Educational Outcomes in Public Day Secondary Schools in Mombasa and Kilifi Counties, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp. 143-148 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/143-148.pdf

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The Impact of Cultural Differences on Teamwork among Faculty Staff at Gaborone University College of Law and Professional Studies (GUC) in Botswana

Upenyu Chiparo – September 2020 Page No.: 149-153

Teamwork is an important aspect of work systems in a higher education institution where sharing of ideas and resources among faculty enriches the academic experience of learners. As universities and colleges in Botswana draw their faculty staff from different countries, it is imperative to investigate the impact of culture differences on teamwork among faculty staff in higher education institutions. This qualitative study was conducted at Gaborone University College of Law and Professional Studies (GUC). Data was collected through email questionnaire from twenty faculty staff of different nationalities in four departments. Data analysis was aided by the use of Nvivo Pro 11 qualitative data analysis software. The study found that, factors like differences in vernacular language, differences in approach to work and respect to deadlines, differences in the level of interpersonal interactions between opposite sex members, and differences in acceptable leadership styles affect teamwork among faculty staff. The study also found that, faculty staffs of GUC respect their cultural differences; they accommodate and trust each other although the above barriers to teamwork were prevalent. The study recommended effective implementation of cultural diversity management policies to guide the staff in their formal and informal interactions in order to improve teamwork among faculty staff in GUC.

Page(s): 149-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2020

  Upenyu Chiparo
Director of Academics, Gaborone University College of Law and Professional Studies, Gaborone, Botswana

[1] Sanyal, D.V., & Mohammed, W. H. (2018): The Impact of Teamwork on Work Performance of Employees: A Study of Faculty Members in Dhofar University: Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 20, Issue 3.
[2] Samboma, T., A. (2017) Regulation of Tertiary Education Institutions in Botswana: Issues and Options Associate Researcher Botswana Institute for Development Policy Analysis (BIDPA): Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal – Vol.4, No.6.
[3] Molutsi, D,.P. (2009) Tertiary education reforms in Botswana: Commonwealth Education Partnerships: http://www.cedol.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/136-138-2009.PDF
[4] Rudhumbu, N., & Chawawa, M.(2014) Diversity Management Practices in Higher Education: Evidence of Private Higher Education Institutions in Botswana: Journal of Education and Practice, 5(18), 31-45.
[5] Matsumoto, D. (1996). Culture and Psychology. Stanford, CT: Thomson Learning.
[6] Adriasola, .E. 2014 Influencing your organization’s culture: A practical guide to crafting a culture that values difference: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271097337
[7] De Dreu, C. K.W., Bechtoldt, M. N .and Bernard, A. N. (2008) Team personality diversity, group creativity, and innovativeness in organizational teams- University of Amsterdam, Department of Psychology, Netherlands.
[8] Chwiałkowska, A. (2012), Teamwork in a Cross-Cultural Context. Austria, Poland and Turkey Comparison – Journal of Positive Management.
[9] Msindo, E,.(2012)Ethnicity in Zimbabwe: Transformations in Kalanga and Ndebele Societies, 1860-1990 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276416927_Ethnicity_in_Zimbabwe_Transformations in Kalanga and Ndebele Societies 1860-1990
[10] Bhebhe N, Viriri A (2012). Shona Proverbs: palm Oil with Which African Words Are Eaten. Booklove Publishers: Gweru Zimbabwe
[11] Tembo,Z,. (2015) Exploring work-related cultural dimensions in Malawian projects. http://ubir.bolton.ac.uk/1086/1/Zachariah Tembo Masters 2015.pdf
[12] Chinelo O. D, (2012) Appropriate management in an African culture: Implications for education: International Journal of Education Administration and Policy Studies Vol. 4(2), pp. 53-60, February -Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/IJEAP
[13] Rarick,C.A., Winter, G., Nickerson, I,. Falk, G,. (2014).An Investigation of Ugandan Cultural Values and Implications for Managerial Behavior:  Global Journal of Management and Business Research XIII(iX)
[14] Steve, W.J. Kozlowski and Daniel, R. I (2006) .Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-1116.
[15] Ofori, D.F. (2013), ‘Project Management Practices and Critical Success Factors–A Developing Country Perspective’, International Journal of Business and Management, 8 (21), pp.14-31
[16] Lansdell, S,.(2009)Teamwork across cultures: commentary from :Emerald publishing
[17] Chitakornkijsil, P., 2010. Intercultural communication challenges and multinational organization communication. International Journal of Organizational Innovation,[online]3(2), 6-20. Available through: University of Borås Library website http://search.proquest.com.lib.costello.pub.hb.se/docview/
[18] Hussain, S,. (2018) Managing Communication Challenges in Multicultural Organizations * Assistant Professor of Journalism and Communication, Madda Walabu University, Bale-Robe, Oromia Region, Ethiopia
[19] Singh, D. (2014). Managing Cross-cultural Diversity: Issues and Challenges in Global Organizations, paper read at the International Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering and Management, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India, 11-12 April 2014. http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jmce/papers/ICRTEM/ME/Volume3/IOSRMG002.pdf
[20] Green, K,. Lopez, M,. Wysocki,.Kepner,K,. Farnsworth,. 7 Clark, J,. (2012)Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools : https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HR/HR02200.pdf
[21] Chao. P., (2007). Cross- Cultural Project Management Issues and their Impact on U.S to China Technology Transfer. San Jose, California, Optical Microwave Networks Inc
[22] Robinns, S.P,. (2010) Organisational behaviour in southern Africa 2nd edition Pearson South Africa
[23] Creswell. J., (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[24] Groenewald. T., (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1)
[25] Alase. A., (2017), The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA): A Guide to a Good Qualitative Research Approach School of Education, Northeastern University, Boston.
[26] Farai. N. (2014) Cultural values: A conduit of shaping managerial thinking in Zimbabwe’s industrial relations Human Resource Management Department, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe.
[27] Kang.I., Shin, H.; & Jiwon. L.; (2018) Task-Oriented And Relationship-Building communications Between Air Traffic controllers And Pilots
[28] Sanyal, S., and Hisam Mohammed, W., (2018). The Impact of Teamwork on Work Performance of Employees: A Study of Faculty Members in Dhofar University: Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 20, Issue 3. PP 15-22.

Upenyu Chiparo “The Impact of Cultural Differences on Teamwork among Faculty Staff at Gaborone University College of Law and Professional Studies (GUC) in Botswana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.149-153 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/149-153.pdf

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Development Administration and the challenges of Neo-liberal Reforms in the expansion of Nigerian Education System

EMORDI, Promise Jude, ONUEGBU, Ebubechi Miracle – September 2020 Page No.: 154-161

The quest of every nation state is to attract, sustain and fast-track growth and development in all ramifications. The Nigerian state between 1960 and 2020 has experienced an unabated expansion of universities. Ironically, the war against illiteracy is yet to be won, despite the experimentation of different western developmental ideologies in the Nigerian educational system. The study examined the contributions of development administration in the Nigerian educational sector as well as ascertained if the current neo-liberal reform has aided the expansion or retrogression of the educational sector most especially, the university sub-sector in Nigeria. The theoretical framework of the study was anchored on the post-colonial Nigerian state theory. Methodologically, the study strictly utilized the documentary method and data were sourced through the secondary sources and analyzed in content. The study found that the experimentation of western development ideologies in Nigeria actually aided the expansion of the universities but undermined the realization of free, quality and accessible university education for all and sundry. The study recommended among others: the applications of the action plan of Professor Okonjo as regards creating a universal tertiary education for all Nigerians and sustainably financing it.

Page(s): 154-161                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2020

 EMORDI, Promise Jude
Post-Graduate Student; Department of Political Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 ONUEGBU, Ebubechi Miracle
Post-Graduate Student; Department of Political Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

[1] Abamba, G.O. (1997). History and development of education: a textbook for students in Nigeria. Ibadan: End-Time Publishing House LTD
[2] Ake, C. (1981). A political economy of Africa. London: Longman Group
[3] Ake, C. (1996). Democracy and development in Africa. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press
[4] Akhaine, S.O. (2016, October 27). Education in the age of neo-liberalism: local and external contact. Vanguard Newspaper
[5] Alade, B., Dodondawa, O., Nwokoji, C., & Oyedeyi, I. (2020, January 5). Finally, 2020 year of Nigeria vision is here: has the nation attained the goal of being among 20 great economies? Nigerian Tribune Newspaper
[6] Alubo, O. (2018, January 3). Debating quality education in Nigeria. Daily Trust Newspaper
[7] Anyebe, A.A. (2016). Development administration and the challenges of privatization programmes in Nigeria. International Journal of Economic and Business Review.Vol.4, No.9, September, 2016.
[8] Bamiro O.A. (2012). Tertiary Education in Nigeria and the challenges of corporate governance. Speech at the TETFUND year 2012 strategic planning workshop, at IdrisAbdukadir Auditorium, National Universities Common Maitaima, Abuja.
[9] Central Bank of Nigeria (2015). Statistical Bulletin on budgetary allocations to education. Abuja, Nigeria.
[10] Chakrabaty, B. & Chand, P. (2012). Public administration in a globalizing world: theories and practices. Indian: Sage Publications
[11] Deigo, I.M. (2006). Nigeria, the federal Republic in T.M. Leonard (Eds.). Encyclopedia of the developing World. New York: Routledge
[12] Emordi, P.J. (2019). Neo-liberal reforms and poverty reduction in Nigeria, 2015-2019. An unpublished M.Sc thesis submitted to the department of Political Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
[13] Emordi, P.J. and Onuegbu, E.M. (2020). Remarks on the nature and behavior of Nigerian elites on the education of the Nigeria citizen. An unpublished note
[14] Eneasator, G.O. (1988). Two and a half decades of education and manpower planning in Nigeria, (1960-1985): A review. Interdisciplinary Journal in Education and Business Studies, Vol.3, No.1 March, 1988. College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State.
[15] Eno, A.S. (2015, April 9). Nigeria misses 2015 global education goals. The Guardian Newspaper
[16] Eno, A.S.(2015, September 17). Curbing rising illiteracy, reduce poverty, social strive, firms counsels Nigeria. The Guardian Newspaper
[17] Ezirim, G.E., Nnamani, K.J., Onah, V.C., Agbo, H.N., & Ike, C.C. (2016). Political science as prospect for achieving sustainable development goals in Nigeria. Meditarian Journal of Social Science Research, Vol.7 No.5 September, 2016
[18] Habib, Z. & Ahmed, S.H. (2012). Managing development in a globalized world: concepts, processes, institutions. London: CRC Press
[19] Katie, W. (2012). Theories and practice of development (2nd Ed.). London: Routledge
[20] Lawal, I. (2018, June 21). Tuition as a metaphor for varsity survival. The Guardian Newspaper
[21] Lenshie, N.E. (2013). Politicization of education in Nigeria: implications for national transformation. Global Journal of Human Social Science.Vol.13, Issue 5.
[22] National Bureau of Statistics, (2019). Statistical Bulletins showing budgetary allocation to education 2015-2019; illiteracy rate etc. Retrieved from http://www.nigrianstat.gov.ng
[23] Ndujihe, C. (2018, April 8). Education Sector Gets Paltry N3.9 Trillion out of N55.19 Trillion in 10 years. Vanguard newspaper
[24] National Universities Commission (2004). Nigerian Univeristies News Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.nuc.edu.ng/pages/univerisites.asp
[25] Nwokolo, C. (1993). On the nation’s moral decay and economic failure: a challenge to Nigerian universities. Second Frontier Lecture ,NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka.
[26] Obi, E.A. & Chukwuemeka, J.N. (2006). Development administration: theory and practice. Onitsha: Book Point LTD
[27] Obi, E.A. (2005). Political economy of Nigeria. Onitsha: Book Point LTD
[28] Okeke, C.C. (2020, January 20). Over 60M Nigerians can’t read, write—FG. Daily Trust Newspaper
[29] Okogba, E. & Ugweloha, C. (2019, February 18). Issues in recovering Nigeria.Vanguard newspaper
[30] Okon, I.U. (1986). An evaluation of development administration in Cross Rivers State of Nigeria. An unpublished M.Sc thesis submitted to the department of Public Adminstration, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaira, Nigeria.
[31] Okonjo, C. (2000). The quiet revolution: on creating an information foundation system for Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited
[32] Okonjo, C. (2017). Universal tertiary education (UTE) for all Nigerians: on reforming and sustainably financing Nigerians education system. Ibadan: Safari Books LTD
[33] Omobowale, A.O. (2016). Nigeria: modern economic imperialism, (1980 to present). In Z. Cope (Eds.). The Palgrave encyclopedia of imperialism and anti-imperialism. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.
[34] Onah, F.O. & Okoli, F.C. (2002). Public administration in Nigeria: nature, principles and application. Enugu: John Jacob Classic Publishers Limited
[35] Rathod, P.B. (2010). Elements of development administration: theory and practice. Indian: ADB Publishers
[36] Shuaibu, I. (2019, December 11). First agenda on Nigerian education. Daily Trust Newspaper
[37] The Nation (2016, September 16). Nigeria what went wrong? (1). The Nation Newspaper
[38] The Nation (2016, September 16). Nigeria what went wrong? (2). The Nation Newspaper
[39] Ughamadu, K.A. (1992). Curriculum: concept, development and implementation. Onitsha: Lincel Publishers
[40] Umezurike, C. (2019). Neo-liberalism in Nigeria: a paradox of statism and democratic deficit 148th inaugural lecture. Enugu: University of Nigeria Press
[41] Umezurike, L.C. (2016). A comparative analysis of economic development in Nigeria and Singapore. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review. Vol.6, No.3, October, 2016
[42] World Education News Reviews (2017). Education System Profiles. Retrieved from https: //wenr.wes.org/2017/03/education-in-Nigeria

EMORDI, Promise Jude, ONUEGBU, Ebubechi Miracle, “Development Administration and the challenges of Neo-liberal Reforms in the expansion of Nigerian Education System” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.154-161 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/154-161.pdf

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Conceptual Framework for Dancing Teacher’s Ethics

Dr (Mr) W.B.A.Vitharana, – September 2020 Page No.: 162-167

Several dance teachers’ ethical issues in general education system in Sri Lanka. Favoritism, Nepotism, and Bribes for school entrance, exams, assessment, private tutoring, etc, academic fraud activities. Therefore this paper specific the need of research on code of ethics teachers’ profession.
Dance teachers should also be bound by a strong code of ethics in a clear up to instill professionalism inside them. Teaching constructs all other occupations. A Teacher is said to be a lamp that lights itself to light up the life of others; they should nourish appropriate ethics among themselves so that the same values can be nourished among students. While a great majority of teachers influence with their heads great this royal convention and even innovate and teach further away the classroom setting, other teachers have lost the passion to impart knowledge and are simply going through the motions of teaching, for the diminished of performing an bonding. Now, teaching profession can also be puzzled with pollution. The research paper covers the light on the needs, practices, and demands and impels in the execution of Professional Ethics in teachers.
In order to achieve the goal of the study, the literature survey research designed within the framework of qualitative approach was used in a sample of, Secondary sources, on the other hand, included journal articles, books, policy documents, thesis, booklets, and literature from educational researches. Equally relevant were electronic documents retrieved from the Internet. These varied sources provided the researcher with relevant data with diverse viewpoints. In the light of the above, the researcher utilized interviews, discussions and conversations as the major and reliable means for the data generation.
The study revealed that there was a generally positive attitude towards the code of ethics teaching profession. Ethics, also known as moral philosophy. The term comes from the Greek word ethos, which means “character”.

Page(s): 162-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2020

 Dr (Mr) W.B.A.Vitharana
Senior Lecturer , Department of Languages, Cultural Studies & Performing Arts, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

[1] Ana Paula Caetano. Maria de Lurdes Silva, sísifo / educational sciences journal • no. 8 • jan/apr 09 issn 1646 -6500
[2] Davis, M., (1991), Thinking like an engineer: The place of a Code of Ethics in the practice of a Profession”, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 20.2 150 -167.
[3] Davis, M., (1991), Thinking like an engineer: The place of a Code of Ethics in the practice of a profession”, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 20.2 150 -167.
[4] Harris, C. E., Jr., Pritchard M. S. and Rabins M. J., 1995, Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases, Wadsworth Publishing

Dr (Mr) W.B.A.Vitharana, “Conceptual Framework for Dancing Teacher’s Ethics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.162-167 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/162-167.pdf

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Enhancing Efficiency of Agricultural Financing through a Proposed Cluster Communication Model. A Case Study of Kano State Farmers.

Ummi Ibrahim Atah & Shafaatu Bello Habib- September 2020 Page No.: 168-173

The study aims at enhancing efficiency of financing farmers through identifying factors responsible for poor access of information among farmers in Kano state. In addition to proposed cluster communication model for improving access to information through SMS alternatives, which enhances access to finance, a web form of information hub is generated with the advantage of building extended business opportunities. The study adopts qualitative method by critically reviewing the existing literatures through content analysis. The study revealed array of factors responsible for wide communication gap such as farmer’s incapability, Illiteracy, inadequate infrastructural facilities and few extension agents. After critical analysis, the study identified corruption as the major factor. Moreover, the study uncovers that little input on information sharing and networking through text message on Kenya’s and China’s farmers have shown astronomical improvement of farmer’s life. Hence the study proposes cluster communication as the key to success of bridging communication gap between stakeholders as well as stimulant for enhancing financing of farmers. It is a root-to-top communication for effective networking of information management to circumvent the corruption-ridden means of communication. Using simple but modern means of communication, three stages were proposed which includes; the enlightenment, implementation and feedback mechanism. The novelty of this study lies in proposing a unique structure of cluster communication model which embark on from top to bottom communication for enhancing financing to farmers through adequate flow of information. The research is limited to content analysis and proposing only cluster communication model without practical survey to assess the stakeholder perception regarding the model. Study findings can be useful to policymakers in finding underlying factors that brings about communication gap between farmers and financiers as well as the right measures to take in speeding up adequate flow of information between agricultural stakeholders. The study outcome may improve the level of awareness of farmers through adequate flow of information which ultimately enhance their access to financing thus improve their productivity and quality of life.

Page(s): 168-173                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2020

 Ummi Ibrahim Atah
Department of Economics, Saadatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbotso Kano State, Nigeria

 Shafaatu Bello Habib
Department of Economics, Saadatu Rimi College of Education, Kumbotso Kano State, Nigeria

[1] Adamu, I. K. (2016). Analysis of value chain on irrigated tomato in Kano state, Nigeria.
[2] Adegoke, A. S., & Babalola, I. T. (2011). Quality of service analysis of GSM telephone system in Nigeria. American journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2(5), 707-712.
[3] Agwu, A. E., Ekwueme, J. N., & Anyanwu, A. C. (2008). Adoption of improved agricultural technologies disseminated via radio farmer programme by farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. African journal of biotechnology, 7(9).
[4] Aliyu, S., Yusof, R. M., & Naiimi, N. (2017). The role of moral transaction mode for sustainability of banking business: A proposed conceptual model for Islamic microfinance banks in Nigeria. International Journal of Social Economics, 44(12), 2238-2256.
[5] Anderson, J., Learch, C., & Gardner, S. (2016). National Survey and Segmentation of Smallholder Households in Uganda. Understanding Their Demand for Financial, Agricultural and Digital Solutions.
[6] Barau, A. S. (2006). An account of the high population in Kano State. Research and Documentation Directorate, Government House, Kano, 1–29.
[7] Bichi, A. I. (2017). The effect of agricultural credit on agricultural productivity in Bichi local government area, Kano State, Nigeria. KIU Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 257-265.
[8] Brinkman, W., & Wesseler, G. (2003). Bridging information gaps between farmers, policy-makers, researchers and development agents.
[9] Chen, Z., Liu, C., & Yang, D. (2011). Information Poverty and Farmers’ Information Right in China’s Mountainous Rural Areas. Procedia Engineering, 15, 1277-1281.
[10] Danlami, A. H., Islam, R., Applanaidu, S. D., & Tsauni, A. M. (2016). An empirical analysis of fertiliser use intensity in rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Tofa local government area, Kano State, Nigeria. International Journal of Social Economics, 43(12), 1400-1419.
[11] Ekoja, I. I. (2003). Farmers’ access to agricultural information in Nigeria. Bulletin of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 29(6), 21-23.
[12] FAO, I. (2015). WFP (2015) The state of food insecurity in the world. In Meeting the.
[13] Fawole, O. P., & Olajide, B. R. (2012). Awareness and use of information communication technologies by farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of agricultural & food information, 13(4), 326-337.
[14] Galbraith, J. K. (2017). Money: Whence it came, where it went. Princeton University Press.
[15] Karim, A. J. (2011). The significance of management information systems for enhancing strategic and tactical planning. JISTEM-Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management, 8(2), 459-470.
[16] Kshetri, N. (2016). Big data’s role in expanding access to financial services in China. International journal of information management, 36(3), 297-308.
[17] Kidwell, D. S., Blackwell, D. W., Sias, R. W., & Whidbee, D. A. (2016). Financial institutions, markets, and money. John Wiley & Sons.
[18] Mohammed, A. I. (2016). The Viability of Salam Finance In The Growth Of Agricultural Production In Kano State, Nigeria. Asian journal of multidisciplinary studies, 4(12).
[19] Obidike, N. A. (2011). Rural farmers’ problems accessing agricultural information: A case study of Nsukka local government area of Enugu State, Nigeria.
[20] Ogunbado, A.F. & Ahmed, U. (2015). Bay’ Salam as an Islamic Financial Alternative for Agricultural Sustainability in Nigeria. Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance (JIEBF). Vol. 11, No 4.
[21] Okpachu, A. S., Okpachu, O. G., & Obijesi, I. K. (2013). The Impact of education on agricultural productivity of small scale rural female maize farmers in Potiskum Local Government, Yobe State: A Panacea for Rural Economic Development in Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Food Sciences, 2(4), 26-33.
[22] Precision agriculture in the digital era: https://www.basf.com/cn/en/company/news-and-media/BASF-Information/Food-nutrition/PrecisionJiang Weiqi, Manager, Marketing, Fungicide and Specialty Crop, Crop Protection, BASF Date retrieved 13/4/18.
[23] Sabo, B. B., Isah, S. D., Chamo, A. M., & Rabiu, M. A. (2017). Role of smallholder farmers in Nigeria’s food security. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science, 7(1), 1-5.
[24] Turner, A. (2017). Between debt and the devil: Money, credit, and fixing global finance. Princeton University Press.

Ummi Ibrahim Atah & Shafaatu Bello Habib, “Enhancing Efficiency of Agricultural Financing through a Proposed Cluster Communication Model. A Case Study of Kano State Farmers” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.168-173 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/168-173.pdf

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Post Covid-19 Crisis: Effects and Transformation of Tertiary Education System in Nigeria

Wahab S. Kolawole, Bello, A.A. PhD, Saadatu L. Sanusi – September 2020 Page No.: 174-178

Covid-19 pandemic has caused education disruptions and prolonged school closures all around the world, which affected about 95% of the world’s student population. This paper holistically looks into post COVID-19 crisis: Effects and Transformation of Tertiary Education System in Nigeria. Concept of tertiary institutions was x-rayed and some of the factors that may affect closure of schools were highlighted. They are: Student dropout, unplanned pregnancy and Academic setback. Post COVID-19 Crisis to System Transformation was discussed where the paper divides into stages. The first phase explained the institutions could adapt with post COVID-19 pandemic and set a template for academic process, second phase highlighted how to build continuity in terms of academic recovery and the third phase looked into speedy recovery of had been built in the previous stages. Combining these stages would bring about academic transformation in Nigeria education system. Conclusion was made that the stages suggested in this paper, if properly adopted would bring about academic transformation in Nigeria.

Page(s): 174-178                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2020

 Wahab S. Kolawole
Department of Mathematics, Government Secondary School Hajj Camp Abuja, Nigeria

 Bello, A.A. PhD
Department of Educational Foundation, University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Saadatu L. Sanusi
College Library, FCT College of Education Zuba Abuja

[1] Bungau, C., Pop, A.P. & Borza, A. (2017). Dropout of first year undergraduate students: A case study of engineering students. 8th Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education, Sibiu Romania, October, 2017.
[2] Edeh, M.O., Nwafor, C.E., Obafemi, F.A., Shuvro, S., Atonye, F.G., Sharma, A. & Alhuseen, O.A. (2020). Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic on Education. Journal of Education and Practice, 11(13), 108-121.
[3] Ehiametalor ,E.T, (2007) Issues of Access and Equity and private sector participation in the Deregulation of Education. Deregulating the provision and Management of Education in Nigeria. Jos The Nigerian Association for Educational Administration and Planning (NAEAP).
[4] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education. Lagos: NERDC Press Imhanlahimi, E.O.& Maduewesi, B.U.(2006). Implementing panacea for admission crisis into Nigerian Universities: an innovation diffusion plan. Project Innovation (Alabama), 40(3), (Accession Number: 150965822).
[5] Isuku, E.J. & Emunemu, B.O. (2009). Economic relevance of widening access to higher education in Nigeria. Journal of sociology and Education in Nigeria. 9(2), 157-173.
[6] Okeke, E.C. & Osuala, I.Q. (2016). Tertiary Education in Nigeria: The Student Predicament and Manifestations in Imo State. International Journal of Education and Evaluation, 2(7), 25-31.
[7] Rumberger, R. W. (2001). Why students drop out of school and what can be done. American educational Research journal, 32(3), 583-625.
[8] The Global Partnership to End Child Marriage, (2020). COVID-19 and Child, Early and Force Marriage: An Agenda for Action. Girls Not Brides. 1-6.
[9] World Bank Group (2020). The Covid-19 Pandemic: Shock to Education and Policy Responses. World Bank Group Education. https://www.worldbankgroup.org/en/data/interactive/2020/07/14/ world-bank-education-and-covid-19.

Wahab S. Kolawole, Bello, A.A. PhD, Saadatu L. Sanusi, ” Post Covid-19 Crisis: Effects and Transformation of Tertiary Education System in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.174-178 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/174-178.pdf

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Re-Writing on crime and punishment: A comparison; with Archaeological evidence in Sri Lanka

A.A Bandaranayake, K.G.N.U Ranaweera- September 2020 Page No.: 179-183

History is intangible and unchangeable. Historical shreds of evidence draw lines from past to the present with evolutionary changes occurred in society. The societal views and the implemented systems in a respective society could differ from another and be recognized as modern than the other. This paper examines the early archaeological evidence on crime and punishment in Sri Lankan context and tries to compare with the accepted system as the pioneering ideologies which introduced far back from the Sri Lankan archaeological pieces of evidence aroused with the “Vēvälkätiya pillar inscription” in the period of the King IV Mahinda (circa1026-1042 A.D.). Although Cesare Beccaria (1738 – 1794) and Jeremy Bentham (1748- 1832) introduced the specific deterrence concept regarding the “free will” in 1764 with the “essay on crime and punishment”, Sri Lankan history indicates a similar deterrence practice before 722 years. Swiftness, certainty, and severity were known as the unique characteristics of punishment by classical schoolers, and Vēvälkätiya pillar inscription included these as it is and more descriptive ideas on steps can be taken for an effective deterrence could be identified. This purposive comparative study revealed that the methodological discussion regarding the crime and punishment and the implementation were done in Sri Lanka and it runs far back to the year 1026 to 1042 A.D., which addresses the history beyond accepted as the pioneering discussion on crime and punishment. .

Page(s): 179-183                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2020

 A.A Bandaranayake
Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

 K.G.N.U Ranaweera
Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Sri Jayewerdenepura, Sri Lanka

[1] Bandaranayake, A. A. (2020). Archaeological Photography. Unpublished
[2] Cesare Beccaria. (2020, July 16). Retrieved August 03, 2020, from https://www.biography.com/scholar/cesare-beccaria
[3] Christian, D. (2016). Big History. London. Penguin Random House
[4] De Silva Wickremasinghe, D. M. (1976). Epigraphia Zeylanica being Lithic and Other Inscriptions of Ceylon (Vol. 1). Colombo, Sri Lanka: Aitken Spence and co. Ltd.
[5] De Silva Wickremasinghe, D. M. (2000). Epigraphia Zeylanica being Lithic and Other Inscriptions of Ceylon (Vol. 1). Translated by Karunarathne, S. M. Colombo, Sri Lanka: government press
[6] History of Crime & Punishment: How Criminology Has Evolved. (n.d.). Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://www.volocars.com/blog/history-of-crime-and-punishment
[7] International Journal of Multidisciplinary Education and Research-info@educationjournal.in, Ranaweera K.G.N.U (2020). Evolution of the Criminological Theory – A Short Overview. Retrieved August 01, 2020, from http://www.educationjournal.in/archives/2020/vol5/issue4
[8] Introduction to critical criminology. (n.d.). Retrieved August 02, 2020, from https://www.open.edu/openlearn/society-politics-law/introduction-critical-criminology/content-section-1.1
[9] Lilly, J. R., Ball, R. A., & Cullen, F. T. (2019). Criminological theory: Context and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications
[10] Penal Code. (Re-Printed 2018). Colombo: Government Printer at the Government Press
[11] Spence, K. (2004). The seven great inventions of the ancient world. Ed. M. Fagan. London. Thames and Hudson Ltd.
[12] Stone inscriptions in Sri Lanka. (2020, March 05). Retrieved August 08, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_inscriptions_in_Sri_Lanka
[13] The Code of Hammurabi (L. W. King, Trans.). (2008). Retrieved August 01, 2020, from https://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp
[14] Wijesekara, N. (1990). Inscriptions. Colombo. Department of Archaeology
[15] www.mahawansaya.com. (n.d.). King Mahinda IV – House of Lambakarna II: Anuradhapura – (955 – 972) – Sri Lankan History – Kings – Governors – Presidents – Ministers. Retrieved August 08, 2020, from http://www.mahawansaya.com/king-in-sri-lanka-king-mahinda-iv-169.html

A.A Bandaranayake, K.G.N.U Ranaweera, ” Re-Writing on crime and punishment: A comparison; with Archaeological evidence in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.179-183 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/179-183.pdf

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Financial Risks Management and Bank Profitability in Nigeria: Case of Access Bank of Nigeria Plc

John Ugah – September 2020 Page No.: 184-190

The study examined financial risk management and bank profitability in Nigeria. With the aid of a well-structured questionnaire data were drawn from a convenient sampling technique; a sample size of 56 management staff of Access Bank of Nigeria Plc. Simple linear regression was used for the test of hypotheses using statistical package for social science software version 20. The study revealed that; there exist a significant positive effect of liquidity risk, credit risk, interest risk and inflation risk on return on assets of Access Bank Nigeria Plc. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that banks should take proactive measures aimed at curbing financial risks as this will have a positive effect on their profit.

Page(s): 184-190                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2020

 John Ugah
Research Student, Department of Banking and Finance, Faculty of Management Sciences, Univeristy of Calabar, Nigeria.

[1] Anthony, M. & David, F. (1997). Financial Risk Management by Insurers: An Analysis of the Process. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 64(2), 231-270.
[2] Anthony, W, & Shanise, C. (2018). The impact of time factors on the financial performance of the commercial banking sector in Barbados.Journal of Governance and Regulation 7(1), 20-25.
[3] Amelia, M. R. (2012). Effect of firm characteristics, financial performance and environmental performance on corporate social responsibility disclosure intensity on manufacturing firm listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Journal of money, credit and banking. 20(34), 56-67.
[4] Baldwin, E & Scoff, U,. (1993). Size and performance of banking firm. Journal of monetary Economics. 31(1), 47-67.
[5] Bikker J., & Boss J. (2008). Bank performance, A theoretical and Empirical Framework for the Analysis of profitability, Competition and Efficiency, Routledge International Journal in Money and Banking. 45(23), 768-801.
[6] Christopher U. (2019). Loan Administration, Calabar: University of Calabar Printing Press.
[7] Ghani, R. A (2015). Risk management practices and performance of micro-financing banks in malaysia. Academyia Journal UiTMT (http://Journal -Academiauitmt.edu.my/), 4(2), 26–33.
[8] Gray, B., Cassidy, C., & RBA (1997). Credit risk in banking : proceedings of a conference at H.C. Coombs Centre for Financial Studies, 1-2 May 1997. [Melbourne?]: Reserve Bank of Australia.
[9] Hoseininassab, E., Yavari, K., Mehregan, N., & Khoshsima, R. (2013). Effects of risk parameters (credit, operational, liquidity and market risk) on banking system efficiency (studying 15 top banks in Iran). Iranian Economic Review, 17(1), 1–24.
[10] Imola, D. (2012) Financial risk analysis for a commercial bank in the Romanian banking system.Journales’ Annales universitatis Apulensis series oeconomica, 14(1), 20-47.
[11] Jiménez, G., & Saurina, J. (2006). Credit cycles, credit risk, and prudential regulation. International Journal of Central Banking, 2(2), 65-98.
[12] Kambi, R., & Ali, A. I. (2016). Effects of Financial Risk Management Practices on Financial Performance of Listed Banks at the Nairobi Securities Exchange in Kenya. The International Journal of Business & Management, 4(4), 19–36.
[13] Ogunleye, R.W. (2001). Sensitivity of bank stock returns to market and interest rate risks: An empirical investigation NDIC, Quarterly Review, 11(2), 57-77.
[14] Oluwafemi, S., Israel, N., & Simeon, O. (2013). Risk Management and Financial Performance of Banks In. IOSR. Journal of Business and Management 14(6), 52–56.
[15] Olamide, O., Uwalomwa, U., & Ranti, U. O. (2015). The Effect of Risk Management on Banks Financial Performance in Nigeria. Journal of Accounting and Auditing. 15(8), 1–7.
[16] Olteanu, A. (2003). Management of finance, Ed. New Delhi: Dareco Bucuresti publisher.
[17] Pandey, I.M (2004). Financial Management New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.
[18] Res, I. J. A., Sa, K., & Gemechu, D. (2016). Risk management techniques and financial performance of insurance companies. International Journal of Accounting Research, 4(1), 1–5.
[19] Stephen, N. & Akele, A. O. (2014). Risk management and financial performance of banks in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(31), 336–343.
[20] Thomas.D., Ayodele, A. A., Raphael, H., Oladele, K., & Alabi, T. (2014) Risk management in Nigeria Banking Industry. Research Journal of finance and accounting.5 (7), 45-56.
[21] Wruck, K. H. (1990). Financial distress, reorganization, and organizational efficiency. Journal of financial economics, 27(2), 419-444.
[22] Yimka, A. S., Taofeek, A., Abimbola, C., & Olusegun, A. (2015). Management and Financial Performance of Selected Commercial Banks in Nigeria. Journal of Economic & Financial Studies, 3(1), 1–9.
[23] Yousfi, I. (2014). Risk Management Practices and Financial Performance in Jordan: Empirical Evidence from Islamic Banks. International Shari’ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance, 6(5), 1–24.

John Ugah “Financial Risks Management and Bank Profitability in Nigeria: Case of Access Bank of Nigeria Plc” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.184-190 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/184-190.pdf

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Impact Assessment of International Public Accounting Standards (IPSASS) On Public Administration in Africa

Zivanai Mazhambe – September 2020 Page No.: 191-193

Formal adoption of the International Public Accounting Standards (IPSASs) by the African Union in year 2013 was strategic, after numerous successive seemingly ineffective public financial management reforms. These public financial management reforms made short term impact on effective public administration in the public sector. This study seeks to assess the impact of IPSASs on public administration in Africa. The methodology adopted for this study was mixed research methodology, through questionnaires and interviews to PAFA public accountants in practice throughout Africa. The study findings revealed that public financial management is the core of the public administration system, with IPSASs playing a very impactful pivotal role. IPSASs in the context of public financial management have proved to be a pivotal with measurable matrices for transparency and accountability which are useful for public administration decision making. 3

Page(s): 191-193                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2020

 Zivanai Mazhambe
Post Doctoral Research Department, Bright Africa Consultancy Training

[1] African Union (AU, 2013): AU IPSAS Newsletter. African Union adopts IPSAS
[2] African Union (AU, 2019): STRENGHTENING PUBLIC FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA
[3] Alexander D and Nobes C (2010): Financial Accounting, An International Introduction. 2010. Pearson Education
[4] IPSAS 1 (2018): International Public Sector Financial Statements. Presentation of financial statements. 2018
[5] IPSASB (2013): International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board. 2013
[6] Mazhambe (2020): Evaluation of financial reporting ‘Fair Presentation’ Conceptual objective of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs) in Africa. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume IV, Issue VIII, August 2020|ISSN 2454-6186
[7] Mazhambe, Z (2014): Book – The compromise of IASB’s Conceptual Framework and IFRSs, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN: 978-3-659-57452-8
[8] Mazhambe, Z (2014b): Book -Doctoral (PhD) Proposal Writing, CompletelyNovel, ISBN- 13: 978-1849145909, ISBN-10: 1849145903
[9] Zivanai Mazhambe. (2020). Evaluating The International Public Sector Accounting Standards (Ipsass) Cash And Accrual Based Accounting Application Technical Differences In Africa. Http://Doi.Org/10.5281/Zenodo.3747544

Zivanai Mazhambe “Impact Assessment of International Public Accounting Standards (IPSASS) On Public Administration in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.191-193 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/191-193.pdf

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International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASS) Application of Consolidated Financial Statements (CFS) In Africa Government Accounting Systems

Zivanai Mazhambe – September 2020 Page No.: 194-197

Consolidated financial statements provide compounded single financial group General Purpose financial statements prepared by the parent economic entity, amalgamating other entity’s financial information intended for useful decision making by the user stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to analyse the technical application and complexities of IPSAS Consolidated financial statements in Africa Government accounting systems. The study methodology adopted is mixed research methodology administered through questionnaires and interviews on PAFA professionals in public practice across Africa, using statistics and content analysis for data analysis. The study findings revealed that consolidated financial statements for government, prepared and presented fairly with other financial reports are useful for decision making. The respondents also highlighted technical complexities in terms of applying the accounting standards and financial reporting elements recognition and measurement as rather subjective in the determination of control, variable benefits, existing power, benefits and the binding agreement. 3

Page(s): 194-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2020

 Zivanai Mazhambe
Post Doctoral Research Department, Bright Africa Consultancy Training

[1] Alexander D and Nobes C (2010): Financial accounting. An International introduction. ft Prentice Hall. Pearson Education. ISBN:978-0-273-72164-2
[2] Bergmann, A., Public Sector Financial Management, Prentice Hall Financial Times, 2009
[3] Grossi G and Soverchia M (2011): European Commission Adoption of IPSAS to Reform Financial Reporting. ABACUS, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2011
[4] Grossi, G., and R. Mussari, ‘Effects of Outsourcing on Performance Measurement and Reporting:The Experience of Italian Local Governments’, Public Budgeting and Finance, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2008.
[5] Grossi, G., and S. Newberry, ‘Theme:Whole-of-Government Accounting—International Trends’, Public Money and Management, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2009.
[6] IPSAS 1(2018): International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS 1). Presentation of financial statements
[7] IPSAS 35: International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS 35). Consolidated Financial Statements
[8] IPSASB (2013): International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board. 2013
[9] Mazhambe (2020): Evaluation of financial reporting ‘Fair Presentation’ Conceptual objective of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs) in Africa. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume IV, Issue VIII, August 2020|ISSN 2454-6186
[10] Mazhambe, Z (2014): Book – The compromise of IASB’s Conceptual Framework and IFRSs, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN: 978-3-659-57452-8
[11] Mazhambe, Z (2014b): Book -Doctoral (PhD) Proposal Writing, CompletelyNovel, ISBN- 13: 978-1849145909, ISBN-10: 1849145903
[12] Tagesson, T., ‘Debate: Arguments for Proportional Consolidation: The Case of the Swedish Local Government’,Public Money and Management, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2009.
[13] Zivanai Mazhambe. (2020). Evaluating The International Public Sector Accounting Standards (Ipsass) Cash And Accrual Based Accounting Application Technical Differences In Africa. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3747544

Zivanai Mazhambe “International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASS) Application of Consolidated Financial Statements (CFS) In Africa Government Accounting Systems” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.194-197 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/194-197.pdf

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International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASS) Assessment of Public Entities “Going Concern” Assumption Concept in Africa

Zivanai Mazhambe- September 2020 Page No.: 198-200

Legislation enacted by the elected representatives is the key control and guide for public sector entities, defining the constituent limits and oversight. Financial reporting under general acceptable accounting standards of IPSASs and the IFRSs, hold the precondition assumption of ‘going concern’ as fundamental requiring the assessment benchmarks and the determination be disclosed and justified accordingly. This study seeks to assess the IPSASs going concern assumption of IPSAS of financial reporting in public entities, as a prescribed underlying assumption. The methodology adopted for this study was mixed research methodology, through questionnaires and interviews of PAFA professionals across Africa selected randomly. The findings revealed that the IPSASs assessment and determination of its ‘going concern’ assumption when applied to public sector entities is difficult and complex. The findings further revealed that the ‘going concern’ assessment of sovereign governments political systems in Africa is technically complex in determination and further compounded by the periodic appointments of public policy and officials in terms of the constitutional provisions which renders disruptiveness the public administration, compromises service potential and delivery, thereby causing subjectivity in the assessment of the IPSASs going concern assumption.

Page(s): 198-200                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2020

 Zivanai Mazhambe
Post Doctoral Research Department, Bright Africa Consultancy Training

[1] Accounting Standards Board (ASB, 2018): Conceptual Framework -2018
[2] African Union (2019) : Strengthening public financial management in Africa – 2019
[3] Alexander D and Nobes C (2010): Financial Accounting, An International Introduction. 2010. Pearson Education
[4] IPSAS 1 (2018): International Public Sector Financial Statements. Presentation of financial statements. 2018
[5] IPSASB (2013): International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board. 2013
[6] Mazhambe (2020): Evaluation of financial reporting ‘Fair Presentation’ Conceptual objective of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASs) in Africa. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume IV, Issue VIII, August 2020|ISSN 2454-6186
[7] Mazhambe, Z (2014): Book – The compromise of IASB’s Conceptual Framework and IFRSs, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN: 978-3-659-57452-8
[8] Mazhambe, Z (2014b): Book -Doctoral (PhD) Proposal Writing, CompletelyNovel, ISBN- 13: 978-1849145909, ISBN-10: 1849145903
[9] Zivanai Mazhambe. (2020). Evaluating The International Public Sector Accounting Standards (Ipsass) Cash And Accrual Based Accounting Application Technical Differences In Africa. Http://Doi.Org/10.5281/Zenodo.3747544

Zivanai Mazhambe, “International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSASS) Assessment of Public Entities “Going Concern” Assumption Concept in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.198-200 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/198-200.pdf

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Vernacularization of Islam and Sufism in Medieval Assam: A Study of the Production of Sufi Literature in Local Languages

Tania Begum – September 2020 Page No.: 201-202

Islam originated in Arabia in eight century and spread all over the world, resulting a mass conversion of the local population in Persia, Byzantine and North Africa. In this region under banner Sufism, Islam as a faith promised enough flexibility and accommodation to be adjusted with the varied socio-cultural backgrounds. Consequently the universal principles of Islam were vernacularised and contextualized or localized form and expression of the Islamic spiritualism emerged in this region. Like the other parts of India, Assam also witnessed the emergence and development of Sufism. The Sufi scholars and saints at first composed the Sufi literature in Arabic language, then in Persian and in later period it the Sufi literatures were written in various local and vernacular languages specially in asamease and bengali language. In assamese, zikir and zari songs were composed which had the elements of Islamic religion teachings and communal brotherhood. The marfati murshidi and baul songs and other literature of Bengali languages also contributed in the growth of synthetic cult in this region.

Page(s): 201-202                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2020

 Tania Begum
North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India.

[1] Acharya, N. N., The History of Medieval Assam, Omsons Publications, New Delhi, 1992.
[2] Baruah, B.K., A Cultural History of Assam, Vol-1, Lawyers Book Stall, Guwahati, 1969.
[3] Hussain, Ismail, Asomor Char- Chaparir Lok-Sahitya, Banalata Prakasan, Guwahati, 2009.
[4] Hussain, Mahibul , Hazrat Azan Pir, Asom Sahitya Sabha, Sibsagar,1972.
[5] Malik, Sayed Abdul, Asomiya Zikir aru Zari , Gauhati University, Guwahati, 1958
[6] Nath, D.(ed.), Religion and Society in North East India, DVS Publishers, Guwahati, 2011.
[7] Rastogi, T. C. , Islamic Mysticim-Sufism, Sterling Publication Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 1982.
[8] Saikia, M.K., Assam- Muslim Relation and its Cultural Significance, Luit Printers, Guwahati,1992.
[9] Syiemlieh, D. R., & Sharma Manorama(eds.), Society and Economy of North East Indian, Vol-3, Regency Publications, New Delhi, 2006.
[10] Tamizi, Mohd. Yahya, Sufi Movement in Eastern India, Idarah-i- Adabiyat-I Delli, Delhi, 2009.
[11] Zaman, Assaduz, Sufi Tradition and Culture: The Growth of Syncretic Shrines in North East India, Kamakhya Book Stall, Guwahati, 2007.

Tania Begum “Vernacularization of Islam and Sufism in Medieval Assam: A Study of the Production of Sufi Literature in Local Languages” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.201-202 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/201-202.pdf

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Women In Paid Work and Their Participation In Social Development: Mapping a Developmental Trajectory for Female Teachers in Mkoba Secondary School.

Maruzai Nyevero, Annah Moyo- September 2020 Page No.: 203-211

The debate about women and the extent they benefit from development has characterised the development agenda at international and national levels in the past few decades. Development practitioners, feminists and groups that fight for women empowerment have in the process facilitated increased participation of women in paid work and in decision making. Notwithstanding the achievements hitherto, the realisation of equality and equity in development remains an elusive task for development practitioners. While exposure to paid work has positive dividends to gender issues in development, it is the limited research attention given to gender social relations in production and reproduction which has contributed to a partial address or the worsening of women’s issues in development especially for women in paid work. This study makes an analysis of the way in which women in paid work play their multiples roles and how it affects their participation in social development. Using the mixed method research approach data were collected using semi- structured questionnaires and in depth interviews. The population of the study had 150 female teachers. The sample was made up of 95 participants where 15 female teachers responded to the interview and 80 of them responded to the questionnaire. Findings from the study pointed to the fact that multiple roles of women situated in a patriarchal tradition, retrogressive pieces of legislation and primary gender socialisation contribute to women’s limited participation in development. For the increased participation of women in development there is need for gender responsive budgeting at all levels and the enactment of gender specific policies.

Page(s): 203-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2020

 Maruzai Nyevero
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe.

  Annah Moyo
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe.

[1] Apter, D.E. (1987) Rethinking Development: Modernisation, Dependency and Post-Modern Politics, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA
[2] Bilance (1997) “A world in balance – Bilance Stands for Social Development: Policy paper”. Oegstgeest, September 1997
[3] Chauraya, E (2013) Gender Discrimination in Transnational Academic Mobility of Lecturers: A Zimbabwean Case. In The Dyke A journal of the Midlands State University. Volume 7(3) 2013 pp85-101
[4] Connell, R (1997) Socialist Feminist Theory: An Appraisal in Australian Left Review No.8
[5] Creswell, J (2014) Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches International Student Edition Sage London
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[7] EU Gender Advisory Services ( 2010). Gender Terms Glossary
Fareda, Banda (n.d.) Women Human Rights and Development https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Development/RTDBook/PartIIChapter11.pdf
[8] Gardenuity(2018) The Brief History of Working Women https://blog.gardenuity.com/a-brief-history-of-working-women/
[9] https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43541781.pdf Basic Needs Critics.
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[11] International Labour Organization (N.D)SEAPAT South-East Asia and the Pacific Multidisciplinary Advisory Team ILO/SEAPAT’s On Line Gender Learning & Information Module https://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/mdtmanila/training/unit1/groles.htm
[12] Kumar, R (2014) Research Methodology: A Step by step Guide for Beginners 4rth edition Sage London
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[14] March, C., Smyth, I., & Mukhopadhyay, M. (1999). A Guide to Gender-Analysis Frameworks. Oxfam. Retrieved from Oxford.
[15] Miller, C. & Razavi, S. (1995) : From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse, UNRISD Occasional Paper, No. 1, United Nations Research Institute for SocialDevelopment(UNRISD),Genevahttps://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/148819/1/863101828.pdf
[16] Rathgeber, E. (1990). WID, WAD, GAD: Trends in Research and Practice. The Journal of Developing Areas, 24(4), 489-502. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4191904
[17] Summit for Social Development (1995) New York: United Nations https://www.un.org/development/desa/dspd/world-summit-for-social-development-1995.html
[18] Tamilnadu Social Development Report 2000 https://www.academia.edu/15337992/Tamilnadu_Social_Development_Report_2000
[19] UN Women. (2018).Turning Promises into Action: Gender Equality in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
[20] UNDP(2019) Human Development Report 2019 Inequalities in Human Development in the 21ST Century Briefing Note for Countries on the 2019 Human Development Report Zimbabwe http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/ZWE.pdf
[21] UNICEF 2018) Women Work: UNICEF Approach To Women’s Paid work https://www.unicef.org/media/66136/file/Women%20work:%20UNICEF’s%20approach%20to%20women’s%20paid%20and%20unpaid%20work.pdf
[22] United Nations (1995) The Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action: World United Nations, The Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action: World Summit for Social Development. New York,1995
[23] Yin, R. (2014) Case Study Research. Design and Methods. Sage London
[24] Zibani, T (2016) The Triple Burden . The Triple Role of Women

Maruzai Nyevero, Annah Moyo, “Women In Paid Work and Their Participation In Social Development: Mapping a Developmental Trajectory for Female Teachers in Mkoba Secondary School.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.203-211 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/203-211.pdf

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The Role of Management Accounting Practices in Strategy Implementation by Small and Medium Enterprises in Manufacturing Sector in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province

Dr Fainos Chinjova, Elvis Msipha -September 2020 Page No.: 212-216

The study sort to establish the role of management accounting practices in strategy implementation by SMEs in manufacturing sector in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province. The research was motivated by the fact that SMEs in manufacturing sectors in Zimbabwe are facing a host of challenges which includes failure to adopt prudent accounting practices in their strategy implementation. An explanatory study in which a survey research design was adopted. The major finding was that SMEs were willing to adopt management accounting practices in their strategy implementation, but were constrained by a number of challenges that included a volertile economic environment, ever changing government policies as well as lack of financial resources.

Page(s): 212-216                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2020

 Dr Fainos Chinjova
Graduate School of Business; National University of Science and Technology; P O Box AC 939 , Ascot , Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

  Elvis Msipha
Graduate School of Business; National University of Science and Technology; P O Box AC 939 , Ascot , Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

[1] Abdullahi, S. R. Sulaimon, H. Mukhtar S. and Musa. L, (2017) ‘Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis as a Management Tool for Decision Making In Small Business Enterprise within Bayero University, Kano’, IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 19(02), pp. 40–45. doi: 10.9790/487X-1902014045.
[2] Abdul-hadi, H. (2017) Management accounting Role in strategy. SSRN Electronic Journal Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Journal, Volume 9 Issue 2 Theoretical framework on management accounting and organisational changefaculty of accountancy, University
[3] Ahmad K. (2017) The Implementation of Management Accounting Practices and its Relationship with performance in small and Medium Enterprises: International journal Review of Management and Marketing.
[4] Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie& Nancy L. Leech (2007) On Becoming a Pragmatic Researcher: The Importance of Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8:5, 375-387, DOI: 10.1080/13645570500402447
[5] Bell, J. Ansari, S. Klammer, T. and Lawrence, C. (2004) , Strategy and Management Accounting. Module 12 Version Hugton Mifflin
[6] Bible, L. Kerr, S. and, Zanini, M. (2006), The balanced scorecard: here and back: from its beginnings as a performance measurement tool, Publication: Management Accounting Quarterly
[7] Consolata, W. (2018),Effects of Managerial Accounting Practices On Financial Performance: A Case of Manufacturing Firms in Industrial Area, Nairobi URI: http://erepo.usiu.ac.ke/11732/4543
[8] Kyei, E. (2015) ‘Budgets and Budgetary Control as a Management Tool for Ghana Metropolitan Assemblies’, Journal of Finance and Accounting, 3(5), p. 159. doi: 10.11648/j.jfa.20150305.17.
[9] Mtigwe, B. (2009) Postgraduate Research Handbook, NUST GSB
[10] Maziriri, E. T. and Mapuranga, M. (2017), ‘ The impact of management accounting practices (maps) on the business performance of Small and Medium Enterprises within the Gauteng Province of South Africa’, The Journal of Accounting and Management, 7(2).
[11] Maravelakis, E. Bilalis, N., Antonias, A., Jones, K. and Moustakis, V. (2006), ‘Measuring and benchmarking the innovativeness of SMEs: A three-dimensional fuzzy logic approach’, Production Planning & Control, 17(3), pp. 283–292.
[12] Mugenda, M. &Mugenda, G. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi, Acts Press.
[13] Onwuegbuzie, A. J. and Leech, N. L. (2007), On Becoming a Pragmatic Researcher: The Importance of Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8:5, 375-387, DOI: 10.1080/13645570500402447
[14] Porter .M E. (1979),The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy
[15] Sharma, A. (2009), Implementing Balance Scorecard for Performance Measurement Faculty, The Icfai Business School, Jaipur, India.
[16] Saunders, M. , Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2016), Research Methods for Business Students, 16e
[17] Wang, D. H.-M. and Huynh, Q. L. (2013) ‘Mediating Role of Knowledge Management in Effect of Management Accounting Practices on Firm Performance’, (3), p. 25.

Dr Fainos Chinjova, Elvis Msipha, “The Role of Management Accounting Practices in Strategy Implementation by Small and Medium Enterprises in Manufacturing Sector in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.212-216 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/212-216.pdf

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Examining the Influence of Strategic Management Practices on Small Scale Firms Performances in Niger Delta Region.

Nwachukwu, Precious. Ikechukwu, Dappa, Jane. A, Obasi, E. Ifeyinwa – September 2020 Page No.: 217-221

This paper investigated the influence of strategic management practices on small scale firm’s performances in Niger delta region. Using a descriptive design, a well structured questionnaire was adopted to obtain data from 1200 small scale firm manager within the nine states which constituted the region. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 was utilized for data analysis. Findings from the study disclosed that strategic management practices have a significant effect on small scale firms’ performances in the Niger delta region. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the effectiveness, survival, competitiveness, innovativeness, profitability etc of small scale firms, depends on how strategically a firm plan is drafted and implemented. The study concludes that strategic management is vital in ensuring the survival and sustainability of small scale firms in the Niger delta region given the significant relationship it has on performance. Base on that, it was recommended among others that Small scale firms owners should study their firms and plan strategically for potential areas of competitive advantage to the firm.

Page(s): 217-221                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2020

 Nwachukwu, Precious. Ikechukwu
Lecturer, Department of Petroleum Marketing and Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Dappa, Jane. A
Lecturer, Department of Statistics, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Obasi, E. Ifeyinwa
Admin officer, School of General Studies, Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] Adeleke, A, Ogundele, O. J. K. and Oyenuga, O. O. (2008).Business Policy and Strategy. (2ndEd). Lagos: Concept Publications Limited .
[2] Ang, L. and Buttle, F.A.,(2006).Customer Retention Management Processes : A quantitative Study. European Journal Of Marketing .Vol. 40, No.1/2,pp 83-99
[3] Barney, J., and Clark, D. (2007). Resource-based theory: Creating and sustaining competitive advantage. USA: Oxford University Press.
[4] Bianca, A. (2017, June 2). The Impact of Strategic Management on Organizational Performance. Retrieved from Chron:http://smallbusiness.chron.com/impact-strategic-management-organizational-performance 69836.htm
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[9] Kraja, Y. & Osmani, E. (2013). Competitive advantage and its impact in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) (Case of Albania). European Scientific Journal, 9(16), 76-85.
[10] Majama, N.S. & Magang, T.I.T. (2017). Strategic planning in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): A case study of Botswana SMEs. Journal of Management and Strategy, 8(1), 74-103.
[11] Makanga, R.O. & Paul, S.N. (2017). Influence of strategic management practices on performance of Kenya power and lighting company ltd, Nairobi County, Kenya. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 4(4), 289-306.
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[13] Porter, M.E.(1981) Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, New York: The Free Press. (Republished with a new introduction, 1998).
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[15] Raduan, C. R., Jegak, U., Haslinda, A., & Alimin, I. I. (2009). Management, strategic management theories and the linkage with organizational competitive advantage from the resource-based view. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(3), 402-418.
[16] Rudd, J., Greenley, G., Beatson, A., & Lings, I. (2008). Strategic planning and performance: Extending the debate. Journal of Business Research, 99–108.
[17] Stonehouse, G.H. (2004) ‘The Impact of National Cultures on Learning and Creativity in Organisations’, Refereed Paper in Proceedings of the International Conference ‘Knowledge Based Economy and Global Management’, South Taiwan University of Technology, Tainan, Taiwan, November, pp 20-30
[18] Swayne, L. E., Duncan, W. J., & Ginter, P. M. (2006). The Nature of Strategic Management. 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA: Blackwell Publishing
[19] Zeithaml, V. A., Rajan, V. P., & Zeithaml, C. P. (1988). The contingency approach: its foundations and relevance to theory building and research in marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 52, 2-22

Nwachukwu, Precious. Ikechukwu, Dappa, Jane. A, Obasi, E. Ifeyinwa “Examining the Influence of Strategic Management Practices on Small Scale Firms Performances in Niger Delta Region.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.217-221 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/217-221.pdf

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Export Trade and Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

Kenneth Chikezie Anyalechi, Emeka Okereke, and Ikechukwu S. Nnamdi- September 2020 Page No.: 222-227

The effect of exchange rate variation on international trade becomes one of the critical issues for economic policy makers. Debates around this issue come to the fore because there is no consensus on whether variations in exchange rate affect foreign trade activity. In this direction, Khosa, Botha and Pretorius, (2015) argued that a cursory look at raw data without in-depth analysis, makes it difficult to establish the nature of the relationship between exchange rate variations and trade, while lack of clarity on this subject increases the risk of improper planning by international trade partners as well as implementation of economic policies. Hence, real exchange rate is widely considered an important macroeconomic measure which underlies the adoption of certain economic policies (Kurtovic, Halili & Maxhuni, 2017; Hunegnaw, 2017). Even though the study in this area is not yet conclusive, there is a general consensus among professionals that exchange rate influences trade balance in the long run (Chaudhary, Hashmi & Khan, 2016).

Page(s): 222-227                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2020

 Kenneth Chikezie Anyalechi
Department of Finance and Banking, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Emeka Okereke
Department of Finance and Banking, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Ikechukwu S. Nnamdi
Department of Finance and Banking, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[1] Alege, P. O., & Osabuohien, E. S. (2015). Trade –exchange rate nexus in Sub-Saharan African countries: Evidence from panel cointegration analysis. Foreign Trade Review, 50(3), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0015732515589440
[2] Aye C., Gupta R., Moyo P. & Pillay N. (2015). The impact of exchange rate uncertainty on exports in South Africa. Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy, 6(1), 1- 22.
[3] Chamunorwa, W., & Choga, I. (2015). Exchange rate volatility and export performance in South Africa. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 5(10), 1174–1186. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.aefr/2015.5.10/102.10.1174.1186
[4] Chaudhary, G. M., Hashmi, S. H., & Khan, M. A. (2016). Exchange rate and foreign trade: A comparative study of major South Asian and South-East Asian countries. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 85–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.09.011
[5] Dell’Ariccia, G. (1999). Exchange rate fluctuations and trade flows: Evidence from the European Union. IMF Staff Papers, 46(3), 315–334.
[6] European Central Bank (ECB). (2016). Understanding the weakness in global trade. Occasional Paper Series, (178), 1–48.
[7] Genc, E. G., & Artar, O. K. (2014). The effect of exchange rates on exports and imports of emerging countries. European Scientific Journal, 10(13), 128-141.
[8] Hakura, D. (2015). Exchange Rate Regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa : Experiences and Lessons. International Monetary Fund, 31–60. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/~/media/Websites/IMF/imported…/_chapter21016pdf.ashx Accessed 08/04/2018
[9] Hunegnaw, F. B. (2017). Real Exchange Rate and Manufacturing Export Competitiveness in Eastern Africa. Journal of Economic Integration, 32(4), 891–912.
[10] Khosa, J., Botha, I., & Pretorius, M. (2015). The impact of exchange rate volatility on emerging market exports. Acta Commercii, 15(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.4102/ac.v15i1.257
[11] Kurtovic, S., Halili, B., & Maxhuni, N. (2017). Effect of depreciation of the exchange rate on the trade balance of Albania. Naše gospodarstvo/Our Economy, 63(3), 27–36. http://doi.org/10.1515/ngoe-2017-0016
[12] Meniago, C., & Eita, J. H. (2017a). Does Exchange rate volatility deter trade in Sub-Saharan Africa? International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 7(4), 62–69.
[13] Meniago, C., & Eita, J. H. (2017b). The effects of exchange rate changes on Sub-Saharan Africa trade. Int. J. Sustainable Economy, 9(3), 213–230.
[14] Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2005). Trade and structural adjustment. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Publications, 1–25.
[15] Raddatz, C. (2007). Exchange rate volatility and trade in South Africa. The World Bank, 1–44.
[16] Roodman, D. (2007). Aid effectiveness—opening the black box. AEA Papers and Proceedings, 97(2), 316–321.
[17] Senadza, B., & Diaba, D. D. (2017). Effect of exchange rate volatility on trade in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Trade, 4(1-2), 20–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joat.2017.12.002
[18] Serenis, D., & Tsounis, N. (2014). Does exchange rate variation affect African trade flows? Procedia Economics and Finance, 14, 565–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00757-6
[19] Seyoum, B. (2009). Export-Import theory, practices, and procedures. Routledge, 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016.
[20] United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD]. (2018). Key statistics and trends in international trade. United Nations, (UNCTAD/DITC/TAB/2019/2), 1–35.
[21] Vijayasri, G. V. (2013). The importance of international trade in the world. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services & Management Research, 2(9), 111–119.

Kenneth Chikezie Anyalechi, Emeka Okereke, and Ikechukwu S. Nnamdi, “Export Trade and Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.222-227 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/222-227.pdf

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Unearthing Disablers in the Cultivation of Civic Skills among Learners in Selected Secondary Schools in Lusaka District, Zambia

Wilfred Muntengwa, Brendah Namadula, Viola Hamainza, Racheal Simwatachela, Fabian Kakana, Francis Simui& Gistered Muleya- September 2020 Page No.: 228-238

The thrust of this study was to unearth disablers in the cultivation of civic skills among learners in selected secondary schools in Lusaka, Zambia. At the core of the study, we interrogated teaching sources, methods and evaluations in Civic Education. Purposive sampling was applied to select participants from the selected schools. Specifically, Civic Education teachers formed part of the sample. Data was generated through the use of an interview Guide. Raw data was produced, coded and organised in themes for the purposes of drawing implications in the discussions. The study revealed that teachers of Civic Education were using methods that did not empower learners with civic skills. Further, the study revealed that the teaching of Civic Education in the schools relied mainly on lecture approaches which did not support the development of civic skills among the learners. The study also revealed that the lack of teaching and learning materials coupled with over enrolments affected the abilities of the teachers in supporting the learners to develop the civic skills. The study therefore concludes that teachers of Civic Education anchor their teaching on sources, methods and evaluation and in the process fail to support the learners in the development of civic skills. Thus, it is recommended among others, given that Civic Education Syllabus for Grade 10 to 12 has only Specific Outcomes based on Cognitive Level (Knowledge based outcomes), there is a need to revise the Syllabus so as to include the Specific Outcomes based on Psychomotor Level (Skill based outcomes) and Affective Level (Value based Outcomes).

Page(s): 228-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2020

 >Wilfred Muntengwa
School of Education, University of Zambia

 Brendah Namadula
School of Education, University of Zambia

 Viola Hamainza
School of Education, University of Zambia

 Racheal Simwatachela
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Fabian Kakana
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Francis Simui
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 >Gistered Muleya
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

[1] Bergersen, A. and Muleya, G. (2019). Zambian Civic Education Teacher Students in Norway for a Year- How Do They Describe Their Transformative Learning?‟ Sustainability 2019, 11 (24), 7143; doi: 10.3390/su11247143, pp 1-17 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
[2] Bogdan, R., & Biklen, K. S. (1998). Qualitative research foe education: An introduction to theory and methods . Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
[3] Brandy, H. E., Verba, S., & Schlozman, K. L. (1995). Beyond SES: A Resource Model of Political Participation. American Political Science Review, 89(2), 271 – 294.
[4] Bransford, D. J. (1990). Anchored Instruction: Why We Need it and How Technology Can Help. Nix & R. Sprio (Eds), Cognition, Education and Multimedia. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
[5] Butts, F. R. (1988). The Morality of Democratic Citizenship: Goals for Civic Education in and the Profession. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University.
[6] Clark, R. D. (2015). Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains. . Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer: San Francisco.
[7] Cohen, A. (2009). Four Aspects of Civic Education: Teaching the History And Geography of The Land of Israel as A Case Study. Atlanta: Colombia University.
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[20] Magasu, O., Muleya, G. & Mweemba, L. 2020. Pedagogical Challenges in Teaching Civic Education in Secondary Schools in Zambia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 9 (3), 1483-1488. DOI: 10:21274/SR 20327121153.
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[26] Muleya, G. (2019). Curriculum Policy and Practice of Civic Education in Zambia: A Reflective Perspective, In A. Petersen et al. (eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of Citizenship and Education. https://doi/10.007/978-3-319-67905-153-1
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[33] Mupeta, S., Muleya, G., Kanyamuna, V., & Simui, F. (2020). Imperial Districts Civic Entrepreneurship: The Implementation of Civic Innovations in the Governance of the University of Zambia. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 7(7) 674-685.
[34] Mwanangombe, C. Mundende, K. Muzata, K.K. Muleya, G. Kanyamuna, V & Simui, F. (2020). Peeping into the Pot of Contraceptives Utilization among Adolescents within a Conservative Culture Zambia American Journal of Educational Research,2020, 8, (8), 513-523 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/8/1 Published by Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/education-8-8-1
[35] Mwase, D. Simuyaba, E. Mwewa, G. Muleya, G & Simui, F (2020). Leveraging Parental Involvement in the Education of their Children as a Conflict Resolution Strategy in Selected Secondary schools, Zambia , International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume IV, Issue VII, July 2020|ISSN 2454- 6186
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Wilfred Muntengwa, Brendah Namadula, Viola Hamainza, Racheal Simwatachela, Fabian Kakana, Francis Simui& Gistered Muleya, “Unearthing Disablers in the Cultivation of Civic Skills among Learners in Selected Secondary Schools in Lusaka District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.228-238 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/228-238.pdf

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Inclusiveness of the Library Services available for Distance Education students at University of Zambia
Fabian Kakana, Kasonde Mundende, Gistered Muleya, Francis Simui & Boniface Namangala- September 2020 – Page No.: 239-246

This paper explored the ‘inclusiveness’ of the library provided services for all students at the University of Zambia. A survey with a sample size of 54 respondents that included library staff, lecturers, Institute of Distance Education staff and students on distance learning mode. The major findings were that the majority of respondents indicated that University of Zambia library had introduced a number of services with a view to widening access to library materials by all categories of students including those on distance mode and those who attended evening classes. The services introduced included establishing Provincial libraries, subscription to various e-resources (e-books and Journals), establishing an institutional repository and many more electronic based platforms. While the University of Zambia has widened access to library services, there are still challenges bordering on attitudes and quality of infrastructure and learning materials that need further improvement to guarantee full inclusiveness for all distance education students.

Page(s): 239-246                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2020

 Fabian Kakana
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Kasonde Mundende
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Gistered Muleya
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Francis Simui
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Boniface Namangala
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

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[12] Magasu, O., Muleya, G. & Mweemba, L. 2020. Pedagogical Challenges in Teaching Civic Education in Secondary Schools in Zambia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 9 (3), 1483-1488. DOI: 10:21274/SR 20327121153.
[13] Muleya, G., Simui, F. Mundende, K., Kakana, F., Mwewa, G. & Namangala, B., (2019). ‘Exploring Learning Cultures of Digital Immigrants in Technologically mediated Postgraduate distance learning mode at the University of Zambia‟ Zambia Informational Communication Technology (ICT) Journal. Vol 3, Issue 3, 2019, pp 1-10
[14] Muleya, G. (2017a). ‘The Conceptual Challenges in the Conceptualization of Civic Education.’ In Journal of Lexicography and Terminology. Vol 1, Issue 1, pp 59-81
[15] Muleya, G. (2017b). ‘Civic education and Civics: Where do we draw the line?’ In Journal of Lexicography and Terminology. Vol 1, Issue 2, pp 125-148.
[16] Muleya, G. (2018b). ‘Civic Education Versus Citizenship Education? Where is the point of Convergence?’ Journal of Lexicography and Terminology, Vol 2, Issue No. 1, pp 109- 130.
[17] Muleya, G.,(2018c). ‘Re-examining the Concept of Civic Education’ Journal of Lexicography and Terminology, Vol 2, Issue No. 2, pp 25- 42
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[20] Mupeta, S., Muleya, G., Kanyamuna, V., & Simui, F. (2020). Imperial Districts Civic Entrepreneurship: The Implementation of Civic Innovations in the Governance of the University of Zambia. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 7(7) 674-685.
[21] Mwanangombe, C. Mundende, K. Muzata, K.K. Muleya, G. Kanyamuna, V & Simui, F. (2020). Peeping into the Pot of Contraceptives Utilization among Adolescents within a Conservative Culture Zambia American Journal of Educational Research,2020, 8, (8), 513-523 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/8/1 Published by Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/education-8-8-1
[22] Mwase, D. Simuyaba, E. Mwewa, G. Muleya, G & Simui, F (2020). Leveraging Parental Involvement in the Education of their Children as a Conflict Resolution Strategy in Selected Secondary schools, Zambia , International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume IV, Issue VII, July 2020|ISSN 2454- 6186
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[32] Simui F. (2009). Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education: A Study of the English Approach. Paper Presented at the SANORD 2ND International Conference: Inclusive and Exclusion in Higher Education, Rhodes University, Grahmstown, South Africa, December 7 to 9, 2009.
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Fabian Kakana, Kasonde Mundende, Gistered Muleya, Francis Simui & Boniface Namangala “Inclusiveness of the Library Services available for Distance Education students at University of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.24-28 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/239-246.pdf

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Entrepreneurship Management: A Panacea for Social Economic Development in Nigeria.

Anekwe Rita Ifeoma, Dr. Ndubusi –Okolo Purity, Dr. Nwanah Chizoba Patience- September 2020 Page No.: 247-251

The role of entrepreneurship in social-economic development has become an essential factor in employment, and innovations which enhanced market competition. They are the spark that ignites the flames of economic development in a country. Entrepreneurship is the focal point in the process of economic development. A nation’s economic growth depends on successful domestic entrepreneurship combined with the forces of an established corporation. Several socio-economic problems that bedeviled the country such as corruption, terrorism, poor infrastructure, poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, low standard of living, etc. can be addressed through entrepreneurship development and management. The study explores entrepreneurship management as a panacea for social-economic development in Nigeria. It highlights the role of entrepreneurship in social-economic development, social-economic challenges confronting Nigeria, and the solution to Social Economic Challenges in Nigeria was also discussed. It was concluded that entrepreneurship is the engine of growth and development that drives the socio-economic transformation of any country, especially in a developing country like Nigeria. The study, therefore, recommended that the government should encourage people to engage in entrepreneurial activities by providing financial institutions that will give loans to people who are interested in venturing into business without demanding collateral.

Page(s): 247-251                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2020

 Anekwe Rita Ifeoma
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria

  Dr. Ndubusi –Okolo Purity
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Dr. Nwanah Chizoba Patience
University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus.

[1] Adesuyi, O.O (2013) “SME Finance in Nigeria”. Paper presented for the Roundtable on “Making Small Business Finance Profitable in Nigeria”.
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Anekwe Rita Ifeoma, Dr. Ndubusi –Okolo Purity, Dr. Nwanah Chizoba Patience, “Entrepreneurship Management: A Panacea for Social Economic Development in Nigeria.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.247-251 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/247-251.pdf

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The Impact and Trend Analysis of Domestic Violence against Women in Umedpur Union: A Sociological Investigation

Mst. Arjina Khatun, Md. Shahin Parvez, Md. Abdur Rashid – September 2020 Page No.: 252-260

Violence against Women is a one of the major threats in Rural Bangladesh. Regrettably, despite remarkable achievements in the field of women’s development and bearing a magnanimous history of women’s movement, incidences of violence against women are still burning issues. It is not easy to surmise whether violence against women has decreased or increased over the past decades because of lack of reliable survey, but in absolute term, the number of incidences is on the increase. The majority of women are domestically violated by their husbands, in-laws and other family members if she fails to be dowry demands or to perform household work. From the study, we have tried to make a sense about the types, reasons, and domestic violence against women in Umedpur Union, collecting data and analysis from different sources. For these reasons, we have selected 105 respondents to identify the socio-economic and demographic status and causes of domestic violence. Domestic violence invades the lives of many women both in the urban and the rural areas. Domestic violence takes many procedures and occurs in all settings, within the household, and in almost all cases, perpetrated by the patriarchal order. This study aims to find out the impact of violence in our society and cohere it with our social norms and values. Buried deep into the social structure which is underpinned by the patriarchal male-dominant ideology the roots of this violence. The higher incidence of dowry harassment and the deeply entrenched concept of family honor lead to a lot of concealed domestic violence in the upper socio-economic strata.

Page(s): 252-260                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2020

 Mst. Arjina Khatun
MSS Student, Department of Sociology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

 Md. Shahin Parvez
MSS Student, Department of Sociology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

 Md. Abdur Rashid
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh

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Mst. Arjina Khatun, Md. Shahin Parvez, Md. Abdur Rashid, “The Impact and Trend Analysis of Domestic Violence against Women in Umedpur Union: A Sociological Investigation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.252-260 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/252-260.pdf

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Residential Satisfaction in Low, Medium and High-Density Neighbourhoods: The Case of Eldoret Municipality, Kenya

Alima Tovesi Dennis, Kiplagat Andrew – September 2020 Page No.: 261-271

Residential satisfaction, that is the feeling of contentment when an individual has or realizes what he or she desires in a house, has been fundamental in predicting individual’s perception of general quality of life, evaluating the success of housing developments by both the private and public sector, predicting potential residential mobility and determining inadequacies in residential neighbourhoods. This study sought to determine residential satisfaction in low, medium and high-density residential neighbourhoods of Eldoret Municipality. A mixed research design was used where a combination of both quantitative and qualitative research techniques were used to collect and analyse data. It was found out that residents in Eldoret municipality expressed a moderate level of residential satisfaction with a mean index of 77.5965%. However, satisfaction with dwelling unit component of residential environment was higher (82.4090%) compared to satisfaction with the neighbourhood component (74.158%).

Page(s): 261-271                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2020

 Alima Tovesi Dennis
Department of Environmental Planning and Management, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya

 Kiplagat Andrew
Department of Environmental Planning and Management, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya

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Alima Tovesi Dennis , Kiplagat Andrew “Residential Satisfaction in Low, Medium and High-Density Neighbourhoods: The Case of Eldoret Municipality, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.261-271 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/261-271.pdf

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Comprehending Employees’ Performance Appraisal in Organizations: A Methodical Exposition of the Processes, Methods and Rationalizations

Asadu, Ikechukwu, Ph. D, Chukwujekwu Charles Onwuka, Onah, Celestine Chijioke- September 2020 Page No.: 272-284

Employees’ performance appraisal is a vital and integral aspect of human resource management. Human resource managers do not only recruit, select, orient and place workers but are expected to continually evaluate the performance of the workers. Scholars and practitioners in human resource management have expressed divergent views on the significance of performance assessment to employees, organizations and society. The study, therefore, methodically examined the processes, methods and necessity for objective assessment of employees’ performance in organizations, with a view to encouraging human resource managers to periodically appraise their employees using some suitable appraisal methods. Primary and secondary sources of data generation were employed. The data generated were subjected to descriptive analysis. The findings, among other things, revealed that employees’ appraisal is significant for several purposes such as improving the attainment of the overall organizational goal; recruitment and selection of competent workers; promotion and training of workers; setting and measurement of goals; employee development and performance management; succession planning; downsizing; decisions taking and providing feed back to employees about their performance. Accordingly, the study suggests that organizations should periodically appraise their workers using objective and appropriate methods capable of enhancing the organizational and employees’ goals.

Page(s): 272-284                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2020

 Asadu, Ikechukwu, Ph. D
Department of Public Administration and Local Government, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

 Chukwujekwu Charles Onwuka
Department of Sociology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Onah, Celestine Chijioke
Social Science Unit, School of General Studies , University of Nigeria, Nsukka

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Asadu, Ikechukwu, Ph. D, Chukwujekwu Charles Onwuka, Onah, Celestine Chijioke, “Comprehending Employees’ Performance Appraisal in Organizations: A Methodical Exposition of the Processes, Methods and Rationalizations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.272-284 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/272-284.pdf

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Whistle Blowing Policy and Fight against Corruption in Nigerian Administrative System

Edmund Amaechi Egboh, Kelechi Gift Akobundu- September 2020 Page No.: 285-291

Background: Beginning the federal to the state and local level of governments, there has been a phenomenal increase in the incidence of corruption and bad governance, which has consistently threatened political stability in the country. Corruption has eaten deep into the nation’s political system and this portrays Nigeria in a negative way towards other nations of the world. This reality of corruption has hindered steady economic growth and development, while insecurity is heightened because of corruption. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether whistle blowing policy is playing any role in the fight against corruption.
Methods: The Key Informant Interview (KII) was used to interview some selected high profile and top ranking staff of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) and Federal Ministry of Finance (FMF). The data used in this study was analyzed and interpreted with major findings using the Nvivo Software.
Results: Whistle blowing policy has been instrumental in fighting against corruption and other unlawful conduct in both the public and private arena as it encourages a culture of transparency and openness. The identified roles of whistle blowing policy spans across checks and balances, crime exposure, crime reduction, crime reporting, fund recovery, fund retrieval and persecution, image maintenance, image redemption, increased crime fight, increased governance and accountability, increased public awareness, information retrieval, new direction, rapid growth and support, and reduction of money laundering. Whistle blowing policy has encountered serious challenges. One of the prominent challenges is the absence of a special court to adjudicate suspected offenders given that it has been observed that the conventional courts in Nigeria has a very slow pace of trial with very few convictions. To improve whistle blowing policy, what should be done is to fight against the challenges that the whistle blowing policy is facing in fighting corruption. To achieve that, the whistle blower has to be protected and also ascertain that the information received from a whistle blower is accurate and valid.
Conclusion: The research concluded that whistle blowing policy plays a substantial role in fighting against corruption, whistle blowing policy encounters challenges and whistle blowing policy needs improvement.

Page(s): 285-291                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 0ctober 2020

 Edmund Amaechi Egboh
Professor, Department of Political Science ,Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Kelechi Gift Akobundu
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

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[15] Kolo, A. (2017, May 14). Whistle-blowing and the Fight against Corruption. Daily Trust. Retrieved from https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/ viewpoint/whistle-blowing-and-the-fight-against-corruption/197626.html
[16] Kaufman, D. (1999). Corruption, Unpredictability and Performance. Washington D.C: World Bank.
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[21] Onuegbulam, M. C. (2017). Whistle Blowing Policy and the Fight against Corruption in Nigeria: Implications for Criminal Justice and the Due Process. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence, 8(2), 174-179.
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[24] Samad, K. A., Khalid, H., & Kayadibi, S. (2015). Reducing Apathy in the Face of Corrupt Behaviour: Whistleblowing as an Act of’Amr bi-l-ma’ruf wa-nahy’an al-munkar. Journal of Emerging Economies & Islamic Research, 3(3), 1–14.
[25] Silk, U. U. (2017). Whistle Blowing As A Mechanism For Energizing The War Against Corruption in Nigeria. International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies, 3(4), 26-42.
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Edmund Amaechi Egboh, Kelechi Gift Akobundu, “Whistle Blowing Policy and Fight against Corruption in Nigerian Administrative System ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.285-291 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/285-291.pdf

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Capacity Development in Anti-poverty Programmes: Analysis of the Impact of FADAMA III Capacity Building, Communication and Information Support in Kaduna and Sokoto States, Nigeria

Sa’idu Idris, PhD, Lawal Bala Isa, Asma’u Idris- September 2020 Page No.: 292-298

This study empirically explores the relationship between capacity development and poverty reduction using beneficiaries’ views of Third National Fadama Development Project (NFDP III) from Kaduna and Sokoto States, Nigeria. Using survey design, data for the study was obtained from Two hundred and forty-five (245) NFDP III’s selected project beneficiaries. Grossman reflexive comparison was used as a frame for discussion. The study used Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and t-test in the data analysis. Results indicate that, Capacity building, Communication and Information Supports (CBCIS) has strong and positive correlation with poverty reduction. R= 0.734, p= 0.000. Results also show that, there was no significant difference in the level of provision of CBCIS amongst the project beneficiaries in Kaduna and Sokoto States, Nigeria because all the potential beneficiaries underwent same capacity building processes and the trainers followed strictly, the stipulated guidelines as contained in the Project Implementation Manual (PIM), nationwide. However, the Capacity building process fell short in the management of group-owned sub-projects. For example, bore hole constructed at Anguwan Galadima, Makarfi, Kaduna State stopped functioning due to poor maintenance. Open market stalls at Maraban T/Yari, Makarfi, Kaduna State is dilapidated, Para-vet Clinic at Dagawa, Yabo, Sokoto is decaying. Several other productive assets including poultry houses, rice hullers, rice processing machines and grinding machines, etc could not in most cases, function beyond four (4) years after NFDP III. The study recommends the establishment of Farmers’ Skill Acquisition Centers (FSACs) who should focus mainly on building the capacity of FUGs in the management of productive assets and in the adoption of best practices in agricultural technology. There is also the need for the inclusion of Credit Service Providers (CSP) to enable farmers’ access to loans to boost agricultural activities.

Page(s): 292-298                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2020

 Sa’idu Idris, PhD
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria

  Lawal Bala Isa
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria

  Asma’u Idris
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria

[1] Abang, P.O. (2015). The impact of Fadama II project on poverty reduction: A comparative study of Imo, Ogun and Kaduna States, Nigeria, 2004-2009. Unpublished Ph.D thesis in Local Government and Development Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria.
[2] Brock, K. (2002). Introduction: Knowing poverty; Critical reflections on participatory research and policy. In: Knowing poverty: Critical reflections on participatory research and policy, K. Brock and R. McGee, (Eds.) 1-13. London: Earthscan.
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[22] Watkins, J. J. & Tacchi, Jo A. (Eds.) (2008). Participatory content creation for development: principles and practices. UNESCO, New Delhi, India.
[23] World Bank, (2008). World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Sa’idu Idris, PhD, Lawal Bala Isa, Asma’u Idris, “Capacity Development in Anti-poverty Programmes: Analysis of the Impact of FADAMA III Capacity Building, Communication and Information Support in Kaduna and Sokoto States, Nigeria.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.292-298 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/292-298.pdf

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Climate Change Perceptions and Smart Agricultural Practices among Goat Farmers in Bassa, Plateau State, Nigeria

Godfrey C. Onuwa, Mailumo S. Sunday, Ibiyinka O. Ademiluyi and Chizea I. Chizoba- September 2020 Page No.: 299-302

This study analyzed climate change perceptions and smart agricultural practices among goat farmers in Bassa Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaires. Statistical and inferential techniques were used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed that the socioeconomic characteristics significantly affected goat farmer’s adoption decisions. The most significant effect of climate change on flock performance was indicated through pest and disease infestation (3.44). Irregular rainfall pattern (3.3) had the most significant effect on grazing land. Semi-extensive systems (3.51) were the most prevalent farm management practice; however the level of adoption of smart agricultural practices was relatively low among the respondents. The estimated Nagelkerke R2 was 0.678, suggesting that 68% of the variation in farmer’s adoption decision was accounted for by the variables in the regression model. Also, all the constraints identified significantly affected their adoption decisions. Efforts to ameliorate these adoption constraints are strongly recommended.

Page(s): 299-302                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2020

 Godfrey C. Onuwa
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

 Mailumo S. Sunday
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

 Ibiyinka O. Ademiluyi
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

 Chizea I. Chizoba
Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria

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[3] Apata, T.G., Samuel, K.D. & Adeola, A.O., (2009). Analysis of Climate Change Perceptions and Adaptation among Arable Food Crop Farmers in South Western Nigeria: Paper Presented at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Beijing, China.
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[8] Nigerian’s Population Census (NPC) (2006). Arranged by State (Wikipedia). Retrieved 2nd July 2019.
[9] Plateau Agricultural Development Project (2014). Bulletin & Annual report.
[10] Greene, W.H., (2003). Econometric Analysis Fifth edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
[11] Royal Society (2005). Impact of Climate Change on Crops. http://royalsociety.org/news.asp Retrieved 2nd July, 2019.

Godfrey C. Onuwa, Mailumo S. Sunday, Ibiyinka O. Ademiluyi and Chizea I. Chizoba, “Climate Change Perceptions and Smart Agricultural Practices among Goat Farmers in Bassa, Plateau State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.299-302 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/299-302.pdf

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Divided at Home, United Abroad: Assessing the Bases and Impact of Intra-Mbum Integration in the Mambilla Plateau of Nigeria

Richard Tanto Talla, Reymond Njingti Budi- September 2020 Page No.: 303-313

This paper focuses on analyzing life in Mbum communities in the Mambilla Plateau of Taraba State in Nigeria particularly in the towns of Gembu, Nguroje, Maisamari, Jalingo, Kakara, Furmi, Yerrmaru and Mayo Ndaga. In spite of their background of ethnic disintegration at home (in the Nkambe Plateau of Cameroon), the Mbum in the Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria, have forged a strong sense of ethnic integration and constituted themselves into a unit. With the aid of a wide range of source materials including written, oral and field observations, the paper launches an inquest into integration among the Mbum in the Mambilla Plateau. It submits that a number of factors conspired to knit the Mbum in the Mambilla Plateau into an ethnic bond and this significantly influenced their interactions.

Page(s): 303-313                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2020

 Richard Tanto Talla1
Associate Professor of History and Archeology, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

  Reymond Njingti Budi
PhD Candidate, Department of History and Archaeology, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

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[11] Gsir, Sonia and Mescoli, Elsa, Maintaining National Culture abroad Countries of Origin, Culture and Diaspora, European University Institute: INTERACT Research Report 2015/10, Conceptual Paper, 2015.
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[13] Jang, Luria Abare (Lecturer, Taraba State University, Nigeria), in discussion with the Author on June 7, 2020.
[14] Jitzi, Sylvester Gambo (Member of Nfuh society and Mbum Elite in Gembu) in discussion with Author on May 7, 2020.
[15] Kara, H.A., Aboki, E. and Adamu, M.M., “Economic Analysis of Beneficiaries of Fadama II Project in Sardauna Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria”. International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences 1. Issue 6. (2014): 385-91.
[16] Kimbi, Leticia (member of Toh women’s dance in Gembu), in discussion with author on May 5, 2020.
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[19] Kushnirovich, Nonna “Ethnic Niches and Immigrants’ Integration”. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 30• Nos. 7 and 8. (2010): 412-26.
[20] Lapsamba, Richard, (Civil engineer and Mbum Elite based in Douala) in discussion with Author on February 17, 2020.
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Richard Tanto Talla, Reymond Njingti Budi “Divided at Home, United Abroad: Assessing the Bases and Impact of Intra-Mbum Integration in the Mambilla Plateau of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.303-313 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/303-313.pdf

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Performance of Grasscutters (Thryonomys Swinderianus) Fed With Varying Composition of Compounded Feed

Okeke, A.N. – September 2020 Page No.: 314-317

This research compared the effect of different feed ration on growing grasscutters to obtain a compounded feed that is efficient in managing this rodent in captivity. Ten young grasscutters (2 months old) were weighed at the initial stage, put in five compartment cages (two animals in a cage) of equal dimension: 0.75 x 0.38 x 0.40 m (L x W x H). Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used to allow the animals in their cages, labeled Treatments 1to 5 (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5). The animals were fed with varying percentages of compounded maize, millet, Guinea corn, sweet potatoes, cassava tubers with clean water, and forage every day for six months. The feeds used for each treatment were labeled F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5 respectively. Data were collected weekly on body weight (kg) and length (cm) of the animals by the use of weighing balance and ruler respectively. The result shows that T2 animals, fed with the highest percentage of millet were significantly higher (P<0.05) in both body weight and length, while T4 animals fed with sweet potatoes have the lowest body weight and length. This work recommends improving grasscutter feed with millet flour for fast growth and agility.

Page(s): 314-317                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2020

 Okeke, A.N.
Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State Nigeria

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Okeke, A.N. “Performance of Grasscutters (Thryonomys Swinderianus) Fed With Varying Composition of Compounded Feed” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.314-317 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/314-317.pdf

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Managerial Economics and Production Functions – Theoretical Review and Practical Applications

Kwesi Atta Sakyi- September 2020 Page No.: 318-321

The objective of this paper is to review the important economic concept of production functions with regard to how they influence business decisions both in the short and long run, and also show how practically they determine how firms compete to make profit. This paper is a short review of an important economic concept so the approach adopted as methodology was that of a qualitative approach based on relying on secondary data. It is hoped that the paper will stimulate further reading and research by researchers and students alike.

Page(s): 318-321                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2020

 Kwesi Atta Sakyi
Head of Research, ZCAS University, Lusaka, Zambia

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Kwesi Atta Sakyi, “Managerial Economics and Production Functions – Theoretical Review and Practical Applications” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.318-321 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/318-321.pdf

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Database Marketing – Definition and Application of the Concept

Kwesi Atta Sakyi- September 2020 Page No.: 322-325

A database is a collection of information on a set of variables of interest on a specific topic. Database marketing has become relevant and practical due to great advances in ICT and also because of globalization which has led to the convergence and integration of global markets, The objective of this paper is to explore the meaning and application of database marketing. The methodology used is that of a qualitative approach which is based on relying on secondary data and reviewing it by using the author’s insights gained he was recently pursuing an online MBA programme. The author hopes this paper will be useful to both researchers and students of marketing.

Page(s): 322-325                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 0ctober 2020

 >Kwesi Atta Sakyi
Head of Research, ZCAS University, Lusaka, Zambia

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Kwesi Atta Sakyi, “Database Marketing – Definition and Application of the Concept” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.322-325 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/322-325.pdf

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Influence of Urbanization on Street Vending Business in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions of Tanzania

Felix Joseph Chille, CBE and Michael John Haule, AIA- September 2020 Page No.: 326-332

The overall objective of the paper was to establish the links between urbanization and the types of small business. The study assessed whether various types of street vendors by categories of goods they sold, nature and the number of street vendors had relationship with urbanization. The study was conducted in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions to investigate the nexus between expansion of cities and the changing types of street vending business in Tanzania.
Data were collected around bus stops along the Morogoro Road, in ten (10) different localities from Kimara bus stand (15 km) to Mlandizi, which is 65 kilometres from Dar es salaam city centre. A sample of 100 respondents were interviewed, 10 from each centre; and gender considerations was emphasized. Interviews that used semi-structured questionnaires were employed in data collection. Data were processed by using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS); whereby descriptive statistics were computed. Qualitative data were processed manually by applying the content analysis. The findings indicated a positive relationship between mobile street vendors and urbanization as the numbers of mobile street vendors increased with higher levels of urbanization. However, the study unveiled a negative relationship between types of products sold by street vendors and urbanization. Moreover, the study demonstrated dominance of consumer products on street vending selling behaviour. The study recommends that street vendors’ business environment be improved by local government,, central government, and private sector to align their policies and plans in supporting this fast growing informal sector. The needs of formalization of the street vending activities is of great significance too.
.

Page(s): 326-332                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2020

 Felix Joseph Chille, CBE
Institute Of Accountancy Arusha, Tanzania

  Michael John Haule, AIA
Institute Of Accountancy Arusha, Tanzania

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Felix Joseph Chille, CBE and Michael John Haule, AIA, “Influence of Urbanization on Street Vending Business in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions of Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.326-332 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/326-332.pdf

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The Territorial Distribution of Industries in Enugu Urban Area of Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria

Ogbu, S. Okonkwo and Ejimofor, Ijeoma John- September 2020 Page No.: 333-340

This study on the distribution of industries in Enugu urban area was necessitated in order to identify the spatial distribution, factors in the location, and the problems of industrial activities in the area. Management and employees of the industrial plants formed the study population, and survey research design and purposive sampling technique were used. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 84 (30.4%) from the available and registered 276 industrial plants in the area. Again, 196 employees of the sampled 98 industrial plants were purposively selected at the rate of 2 employees from each of them. Thus, 280 respondents were used in this study. Data were collected through the methods of questionnaire, interview, field observation, and documentary materials. Similar questionnaire and interview were prepared and administered on the 2 groups of our respondents, while the field data were analysed using the simple percentage ratio, and especially pie and bar graphs. The results of the analyses indicate that 13 different types of industry are established in the area. They are; bakery, construction, hotel, plastics, textile, oil and gas, block and concrete, auto-mobile, poultry, furniture, education, transport, and iron and steel industries. In the locations of these industrial plants, 7 factors were responsible- availability of transport facilities, market especially the local type, labour, energy resources, resources of space, agglomeration economies, and access to raw materials. Again, this study to identified 9 factors that constitute drawbacks to the activities of industry in the area such as intermittent power supply, inadequate access road, poor market facilities, inadequate material input, shortage of financial capital, inadequate space, labour supply problems, competition from other similar industries in the area, and effects of government policies. In accordance with these findings, it is recommended for development in infrastructural facilities.

Page(s): 333-340                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2020

 Ogbu, S. Okonkwo
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu, Nigeria

  Ejimofor, Ijeoma John
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu, Nigeria

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Ogbu, S. Okonkwo and Ejimofor, Ijeoma John, “The Territorial Distribution of Industries in Enugu Urban Area of Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.333-340 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/333-340.pdf

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Analysis of Poultry Product Demand among Households in Jos-North, Plateau State, Nigeria

Godfrey Onuwa, Ibiyinka O. Ademiluyi and Grace Owa – September 2020 Page No.: 341-344

This study on the distribution of industries in Enugu urban area was necessitated in order to identify the spatial distribution, factors in the location, and the problems of industrial activities in the area. Management and employees of the industrial plants formed the study population, and survey research design and purposive sampling technique were used. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 84 (30.4%) from the available and registered 276 industrial plants in the area. Again, 196 employees of the sampled 98 industrial plants were purposively selected at the rate of 2 employees from each of them. Thus, 280 respondents were used in this study. Data were collected through the methods of questionnaire, interview, field observation, and documentary materials. Similar questionnaire and interview were prepared and administered on the 2 groups of our respondents, while the field data were analysed using the simple percentage ratio, and especially pie and bar graphs. The results of the analyses indicate that 13 different types of industry are established in the area. They are; bakery, construction, hotel, plastics, textile, oil and gas, block and concrete, auto-mobile, poultry, furniture, education, transport, and iron and steel industries. In the locations of these industrial plants, 7 factors were responsible- availability of transport facilities, market especially the local type, labour, energy resources, resources of space, agglomeration economies, and access to raw materials. Again, this study to identified 9 factors that constitute drawbacks to the activities of industry in the area such as intermittent power supply, inadequate access road, poor market facilities, inadequate material input, shortage of financial capital, inadequate space, labour supply problems, competition from other similar industries in the area, and effects of government policies. In accordance with these findings, it is recommended for development in infrastructural facilities.

Page(s): 341-344                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 october 2020

 Godfrey Onuwa
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

  Ibiyinka O. Ademiluyi
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

  Grace Owa
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria.

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Godfrey Onuwa, Ibiyinka O. Ademiluyi and Grace Owa, “Analysis of Poultry Product Demand among Households in Jos-North, Plateau State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.341-344 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/341-344.pdf

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Local Hydroelectric Power as Seedbeds for Supplementing Electricity Supply in the North West Region of Cameroon.

Riddley Mbiybe Ngala, Gilbert Banboye Fondze- September 2020 Page No.: 345-353

Access to electricity in most developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a herculean task. However, the emergence of Local hydroelectric power (LHEP) is becoming popular and being embraced by a wide range of communities as a pre-solution to their energy issues. Although widely acknowledged as coming to the rescue of electricity disfavoured communities, this paper considers such initiatives as going far beyond mere energy supply schemes but standing out as seedbeds for supplementing electricity supply. This perception is challenged with evidences on the role and influence of this category of renewable energy schemes in energy supply. Then a demonstration is made of how local electricity systems are unavoidable recourse to by numerous households in classical energy redundant areas. It is, therefore argued that decentralized electricity systems serve as seedbeds for supplementing energy supply and sustaining it in marginalised energy supply communities, makes it a seedbed to electricity supply. Further academic attention is required to render such initiatives less risky and efficient by upgrading their performance with the required technological know-how and equipment.

Page(s): 345-353                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2020

 Riddley Mbiybe Ngala
Department of Geography, The University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

 Gilbert Banboye Fondze
Department of Geography, The University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

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Riddley Mbiybe Ngala, Gilbert Banboye Fondze, “Local Hydroelectric Power as Seedbeds for Supplementing Electricity Supply in the North West Region of Cameroon.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.345-353 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/345-353.pdf

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Assessment of Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour of Rice Farmers in Enugu North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria.

Ume, S I, Okoro, G, Ben- Chukwu, M A, and Nnaji, J O- September 2020 Page No.: 354-363

The study was carried out to assess the information needs and information seeking behaviour of rice farmers in Enugu North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents were selected using mult-stage sampling technique. Percentage responses, 3-likert scale rating technique and probit model analysis were used to capture the objectives of the study. The result shows that majority (63.3%) of the respondents had a low information seeking behaviour, followed by 20%; did not seek for information on rice production, while 15% 5% of the respondents had medium and high information seeking behavior respectively. Additionally, the majority (78%, 64%, 67%, 83.7% and 76%) of the respondents sourced for information on marketing were from agricultural marketing and new seed(improved varieties), productive resources such as land and harvest management respectively. Also, those who sourced information from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) were on fertilization (78%), pesticides application (81%), weed control, (67%) and disease control (68%0). Furthermore, the respondents indicated that they sourced for information on new seed from radio. Moreover, coefficient of education, poor access to power supply and poor access to communication infrastructure affected farmers’ seeking behaviour. As well, the information need of the farmer were affected by their following socioeconomic characteristics; educational level, farm size, farming status and access to credit. In addition, the constraints to the respondents’ information seeking behaviour were poor access to information services, poor access to extension services, information not easily accessible and high cost of labour. The recommendations were need to increase farmers. access to credit, educational programmes and encourage farmers to join or form cooperative society

Page(s): 354-363                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2020

 Ume, S I
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management. Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

  Okoro, G
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management. Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

 Ben- Chukwu, M A
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management. Federal College of Agriculture, Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

 Nnaji, J O
National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services(NAERLS) Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Kaduna State, Nigeria.

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[32] Wakelin D and Simelane, S D. (1995). Information and communication technologies and sustainable livelihoods: a case of selected rural areas of Tanzania. PhD. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
[33] William. M (2000). The challenges of utilizing information communication technologies (ICTs) for the small-scale farmers in Zambia. Library hi tech 23 (3): 414-424.
[34] Wilson.F(1997). Information needs and information seeking behaviourin developing countries: a review of the research. The international information and library review 41 (1): 44-51.

Ume, S I, Okoro, G, Ben- Chukwu, M A, and Nnaji, J O, “Assessment of Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour of Rice Farmers in Enugu North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.354-363 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/354-363.pdf

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Collaborative Leadership in Decision Making

Yoenny Oktavia Tangidy, Sowiyah, Riswanti Rini- September 2020 Page No.: 364-367

Collaborative Leadership In Decision Making At Educational Institute. Principals who are competent in managing school programs collaborate with the community regarding decision-making in human resources management. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the leadership role of principals, principal collaborative efforts and decision making at school. Methods: The method used is a qualitative method with a phenomenological approach. Data collection techniques using amounted to 10 people with key information of the head of the foundation, the principals, head of administration, teachers and the parents. Result: The results showed that (1) the role of leadership in schools has an influence on the success of the collaborative process. (2) Collaborative efforts in schools can be done by building a culture of cooperation and distributing good leadership. (3) Decision making can be effective if it is carried out jointly and takes into account the consequences that arise thereafter.

Page(s): 364-367                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 october 2020

 Yoenny Oktavia Tangidy,
Department of Educational Management, University of Lampung, Indonesia

  Sowiyah
Department of Educational Management, University of Lampung, Indonesia

 Riswanti Rini
Department of Educational Management, University of Lampung, Indonesia

[1] Emihovich, C., & Battaglia, C. J. I. J. o. L. i. E. (2000). Creating cultures for collaborative inquiry: New challenges for school leaders. 3(3), 225-238.
[2] Fiedler, F. E., & Chemers, M. M. (1974). Leadership and effective management [by] Fred E. Fiedler [and] Martin M. Chemers.
[3] Foster, R., & St Hilaire, B. J. A. J. o. E. R. (2004). The who, how, why and what of leadership in secondary school improvement: Lessons learned in England. 50(4), 354.
[4] Fullan, M. J. T. i. p. (1995). The school as a learning organization: Distant dreams. 34(4), 230-235.
[5] Harris, A. J. S. l., & management. (2003). Teacher leadership as distributed leadership: heresy, fantasy or possibility? , 23(3), 313-324.
[6] Hoerr, T. R. J. P. D. K. (1996). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. 77(5), 380.
[7] Huffman, J., & Jacobson, A. J. I. L. i. E. (2003). Perceptions of professional learning communities. 6(3), 239-250.
[8] Hurley, T. (2011). Collaborative Leadership: Engaging collective intelligence to achieve results across organizational boundaries. In: White paper: Oxford Leadership Academy.
[9] Ireland, R. D., & Hitt, M. A. J. A. o. M. P. (1999). Achieving and maintaining strategic competitiveness in the 21st century: The role of strategic leadership. 13(1), 43-57.
[10] Jackson, D. S. J. S. L., & Management. (2000). The school improvement journey: Perspectives on leadership. 20(1), 61-78.
[11] Lambert, L. J. C. J. o. E. A., & Policy. (2000). Framing reform for the new millennium: Leadership capacity in schools and districts. (14).
[12] Lezotte, L. J. O. c. g. T. p. o. p. l. c. (2005). More effective schools: Professional learning communities in action. 177-191.
[13] O’Shea, D. J., & O’Shea, L. J. J. J. o. L. D. (1997). Collaboration and School Reform: A Twenty-First—Century Perspective. 30(4), 449-462.
[14] Ogawa, R. T., & Bossert, S. T. J. E. a. q. (1995). Leadership as an organizational quality. 31(2), 224-243.
[15] Rivai, V. (2003). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia untuk Perusahaan: Dari
[16] Teori ke Praktik. . Jakarta:.
[17] Sarwaty. (2013). BENTUK KOLABORASI PEMIMPIN DAN STAF DALAM MEMBERIKAN LAYANAN ADMINISTRASI DI FAKULTAS BAHASA DAN SASTRA UNM. Jurnal Economix, Vol 1.
[18] Senge, P. J. R. M. (2002). School change: The myth of the hero leader. 6, 2005.
[19] Sergiovanni, T. J. J. T. U. R. (1991). Constructing and changing theories of practice: The key to preparing school administrators. 23(1), 39-49.
[20] Taylor, D. J. P. t. S. o. e., climate, j. S. o. u. S., & making., p. d. Tashakkori (1997).
[21] Veithzal, R., & Sagala, E. J. J. J. P. R. G. P. (2004). Manajemen sumber daya manusia untuk perusahaan.
[22] Veithzal, R. J. J. R. G. P. (2003). Kepemimpinan dan perilaku organisasi.
[23] Williams, R. J. C. J. o. E. A., & Policy. (2006). Leadership for school reform: do principal decision-making styles reflect a collaborative approach? (53).

Yoenny Oktavia Tangidy, Sowiyah, Riswanti Rini, “Collaborative Leadership in Decision Making” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.364-367 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/364-367.pdf

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Effects of Poor Funding on the United Nations Security Council Humanitarian Intervention in Sudan (2003 – 2018)

Umanah, Saturday Brendan, Prof. Mike C. Oddih- September 2020 Page No.: 368-376

The research was on effects of poor funding on United Nations Security Council humanitarian intervention in Sudan. The specific objective of the study was to determine the extent to which poor funding affected the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) humanitarian intervention in Sudan from 2003-2018. In line with this objective, the researcher sourced for data from relevant textbooks, previous research works, journals, newspapers and video clips obtained from institutions like office of the United Nations Organization in Nigeria, libraries, internet services and military formations in Nigeria. Relevant literature to this study were duly reviewed while the three Grotian theories of humanitarian intervention were found very suitable for the research. Based on the qualitative nature of the research, data collated for the study were duly tested and analyzed using textual presentation and analysis. The research confirmed that the dwindling financial contributions to the Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) by donor countries and agencies from $172.3million in 2006 to a paltry $36.3 million in 2017 had been one of the major factors that undermined the success of the humanitarian mission in Sudan. The study therefore recommends that the UNSC should mobilize other critical stakeholders to make meaningful financial commitment to ensure the success of the humanitarian mission in Sudan.

Page(s): 368-376                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 october 2020

 Umanah, Saturday Brendan
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Prof. Mike C. Oddih
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
.

[1] International Crises Group Report (2016). Sustaining the UN Humanitarian Intervention in Sudan.
[2] Jason, L. (2003). Neighbours on Alert: Regional Views on Humanitarian Intervention. The Fund of Peace, Washington DC.
[3] McElhinney, H. (2014). The Evolution of Humanitarian Financing in Sudan. Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, Issue 61.
[4] Ottaway, M. (2006). An End to Africa’s War: Rethinking Humanitarian Intervention. Harvard University, Harvard.
[5] Poole, L. (2014). A Calculated Risk: How donors should engage in Risk Financing and Transfer Mechanism OECD.
[6] Pooles, L. (2014). Bridging the Needs Based funding Gap: NGO Perspectives, NRC.
[7] Scott, R. (2014). Imagining more Effective Humanitarian Aid: A donor Perspective OECD.
[8] Slim, H. (2014). Innovation in Humanitarian Action. SAID Business School, University of Oxford.
[9] Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) Operation Manual, Retrieved on 5th April, 2017.
[10] UN Panel Report (2017). Towards A Better Humanitarian Donorship. Sudan Humanitarian Fund Operational Manual.
[11] UNDP Report (2014). Financing Recovery for Resilience.
[12] UNDP Report (2016). Sudan and the Emerging Challenges in Humanitarian Crises Management in Africa.
[13] United Nations News Centre (2016). Report of the Secretary –General on the Sudan Crisis.5/2016/881, 2(11).
[14] World Humanitarian Summit Report (2016): The Dwindling in Funding of Humanitarian Intervention in Sudan.

Umanah, Saturday Brendan, Prof. Mike C. Oddih, “Effects of Poor Funding on the United Nations Security Council Humanitarian Intervention in Sudan (2003 – 2018)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.368-376 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/368-376.pdf

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Assessment of Safety Prevention Practices on Employee Performance at Hirshabelle Civil Service Commission, Somalia

Warsame Muhumed Abdi, Jackson Ndolo Muthini- September 2020 Page No.: 377-380

Issues of occupational safety and health have become a global concern. This has been ascribed to increasing proof of significant losses and suffering caused by unsafe environment across the various job industries. Given the amount of expenditure involved in health and safety management, action needs to be taken. The study therefore sought to establish the influence safety prevention on employee performance at Hirshabelle civil service commission in Somalia. The study was anchored on human factors theory which looks into the relationship between humans and their working environment. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The research targeted a complete population of 210 staff with a census being carried out. Questionnaires were the main primary information collection tools. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Using tables and figures, the results were presented. The findings from the correlation and regression analysis indicated that safety prevention has a positive significant effect on employee performance. The findings led to the recommendation that Hirshabelle Civil Service Commission and other organizations need to invest in implementation of safety prevention practices involving Occupational exposure, Risk awareness/ preparedness and Mitigation plans to ensure that employee’s welfare is well taken care of to trigger their positive performance.

Page(s): 377-380                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2020

 Warsame Muhumed Abdi
School of Business and Economics, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

  Jackson Ndolo Muthini
School of Business and Human Resource Development, Rongo University, Kenya

[1] Bayram, M., Ünğan, M. C., & Ardıç, K. (2017). The relationships between OHS prevention costs, safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics, 23(2), 285-296.
[2] Chen, Y., McCabe, B., & Hyatt, D. (2017). Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry. Journal of safety research, 61, 167-176.
[3] Friend, M. A., & Kohn, J. P. (2018). Fundamentals of occupational safety and health. Rowman & Littlefield.
[4] Hanvold, T. N., Kines, P., Nykänen, M., Thomée, S., Holte, K. A., Vuori, J., … & Veiersted, K. B. (2019). Occupational safety and health among young workers in the nordic countries: a systematic literature review. Safety and health at work, 10(1), 3-20.
[5] Jilcha, K., & Kitaw, D. (2017). Industrial occupational safety and health innovation for sustainable development. Engineering science and technology, an international journal, 20(1), 372-380.
[6] Jilcha, K., & Kitaw, D. (2017). Industrial occupational safety and health innovation for sustainable development. Engineering science and technology, an international journal, 20(1), 372-380.
[7] Kapp, E. A. (2012). The influence of supervisor leadership practices and perceived group safety climate on employee safety performance. Safety science, 50(4), 1119-1124.
[8] Kenei LB (1995). An Investigation of the Probable Factors contributing to Industrial Accidents among Manufacturing Firms in Kenya: an Empirical Study; Unpublished MBA Project, University of Nairobi.
[9] Kim, Y., Park, J., & Park, M. (2016). Creating a culture of prevention in occupational safety and health practice. Safety and health at work, 7(2), 89-96.
[10] Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology, methods & techniques (2nd ed.).New
[11] Lauver, K. J. L. (2007). Human resource safety practices and employee injuries. Journal of Managerial Issues, 397-413.
[12] Obsiye, A. (2017). Rethinking the Somali State.
[13] Orodho, A.J. (2003) Essentials of Educational and Social Science Research Methods. Mazola
[14] Panchanatham, N., & Jayalakshmi, V. (2016). A study on employee safety and workplace hazards in relation to performance of jewellery manufacturing industries. Journal of Contemporary Research in Management, 11(3), 1.
[15] Pike A (2000). Tough Targets and Heavy Penalties: Financial Times: Business Health and Safety. London Printers, UK
[16] Sanchez, F. A. S., Peláez, G. I. C., & Alis, J. C. (2017). Occupational safety and health in construction: a review of applications and trends. Industrial health, 55(3), 210-218.
[17] Schall Jr, M. C., Sesek, R. F., & Cavuoto, L. A. (2018). Barriers to the adoption of wearable sensors in the workplace: A survey of occupational safety and health professionals. Human factors, 60(3), 351-362.
[18] Schuler R, Huber V (1993). Personnel and Human Resource Management; West Publishing Company. London, UK

Warsame Muhumed Abdi, Jackson Ndolo Muthini, “Assessment of Safety Prevention Practices on Employee Performance at Hirshabelle Civil Service Commission, Somalia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.377-380 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/377-380.pdf

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Factors Impeding the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Nigeria Police Force in the Maintenance of Law and Order

Ifeoma Pamela Enemo- September 2020 Page No.: 381-387

The Police Force in Nigeria maintains law and order as part of their duties. Unfortunately, the citizens have had unpalatable experiences and stories to tell about the escapades of the Police while carrying out their duties. There is no gain saying the fact that the performance of Nigeria Police Force is unsatisfactory due partly to integrity issues and inadequate funding. Their attitude seems to reflect the society and environment in which they operate, and this has led to a lot of criticisms that have reached a dangerous height. The work employs doctrinal and content analysis of relevant literature in this area. This paper identifies some factors that impede the efficiency and effectiveness of the Police Force in Nigeria in the maintenance of law and order. It finds that even though their efficiency and effectiveness are hindered by so many problems, there is still hope of the Police Force attaining the desired focus. For example, with the establishment of a Police Trust Fund, with credible and competent people in charge, law abiding citizens of Nigeria may begin to experience a more professional, responsible and responsive Police Force with a changed narrative.

Page(s): 381-387                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2020

 Ifeoma Pamela Enemo
Faculty of Law, University of Nigeria, Engu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria

[1] Adegoke, N., (2014). Factors Influencing Nigerian
[2] Police Performance : A case study of zone two Nigerian Police Headquarters, Lagos. Global Journal of Applied Management and Social Sciences (GOJAMSS) Vol. 7, 23. https://www.academia.edu/9755325/
[3] Aired on Galaxy TV. Yahoojournalist.com
[4] Brownson, O.B., (2012). The Role of Nigerian Police Force in the Administration of Justice : Issues and Challenges. (Master’s thesis), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. www.org/Nigeriapolice.
[5] Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.
[6] Haley, C., (1999). Training, in Cordner, G., and Hale, D. (eds.), What Works in Policing? Operations and Administration Examined, Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.
[7] Idowu, J.,(2013) Policing in Contemporary Nigeria: Issues and Challenges Vol 16 No 1 African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Sciences (AJPSSI).
[8] Kelling, G.L., Brodeur, J-P., Whetstone, T., Walsh, W.F., Banton, M.P., (2020) Police: Law Enforcement, https://www.britannica.com
[9] Karimu, O.O, (2015). Effects of the Nigeria Police Force Personnel Welfare Condition on Performance. Vol. 3, No 1, European Journal of Research and Reflection in Arts and Humanities 29.
[10] Nigeria: Finally, Minister Inaugurates Police Trust Fund Board, This Day (Lagos), May 20, 2020 https://allafrica.com
[11] Odeh, A.M., & Umoh, Nanji., (2015). State Policing and National Security in Nigeria Vol. 6, No. 1, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 415.
[12] Omale, A., (2017) Nigerian Factor; A monster in Nigeria’s wheel of progress and the way out. Saudi Journal of Humanities and SocialSciences.
[13] Onakpoberuo, O. V., (2015) A culture of corruption: “The Nigerian Factor.” https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/culture-corruption-nigerian-factor-onoriode-Victor-onakpoberuo
[14] Onwuchekwe, S.I., (2015). Police and administration of criminal justice system in Nigeria. Paper presented to the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, on March 25 2015.
[15] Osayande, P.B.O., (2017). Factors inhibiting police performance in Nigeria. A paper presented at the occasion of the retreat with the theme: Understanding the mandate and operations of the Police Service
[16] Commission in context of the rule of law.psc.gov.ng/wpcontent/uploads/2017/11/Chairman.
[17] Police Act (Nigeria), Cap P 19 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004.
[18] Police: Recruitment of Fresh Constables Begins Soon, todayng, March 18, 2020 https://www.todayng
[19] Police women no longer need Commissioner’s permission to marry – Court (n.d.). <https://www.channelstv.com/2012/05/16/police-women-no-longer-need-commissioners-permission-to-marry-court/>
[20] Police. Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary Merriam-Webster https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/police
[21] Violence Against Persons (Prohibition) Act (VAPP Act) of 2015

Ifeoma Pamela Enemo, “Factors Impeding the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Nigeria Police Force in the Maintenance of Law and Order” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-4-issue-9, pp.381-387 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-9/381-387.pdf

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