Perceived Impact of Utilisation of ICT Facilities on Academic Performance of Undergraduates in Universities in Southwest, Nigeria

ADEPOJU, Eunice Olayinka (PhD) – May 2020 Page No.: 01-09

The study examined the availability, accessibility and utilisation of ICT facilities on academic performance of undergraduates in Universities in Southwest Nigeria. The research design for this work was descriptive of survey type. The population comprised of all the undergraduates in the universities in Southwest Nigeria. Five hundred undergraduates were sampled from the four universities selected in Southwest Nigeria. Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency counts and simple percentages, mean and standard deviation while the hypothesis were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation, t-test, chi-square statistics at 0.05level of significance. The results showed that the level of availability of ICT resources for academic purpose in southwest, Nigeria was moderate. The finding also shown that the level of students’ accessibility to ICT resources for academic purpose was moderate and that there is no significant relationship between the use of ICT and academic performance of university undergraduates in Southwest, Nigeria. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made; that adequate fund should be released to the Universities in Southwest, Nigeria in order to acquire the needed ICT facilities for effective teaching and learning. The management should establish ICT centre that students can access at their convenient time and the services should be extended to the school environment where the students are accommodated. The teachers should make adequate use of the available ICT facilities to teach the students for effective performance. ICT facilities should be made available and affordable in the universities in Southwest Nigeria. Personal capacity building in acquiring adequate ICT skills by the students and the teachers should be provided by the university authorities.

Page(s): 01-09                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 May 2020

 ADEPOJU, Eunice Olayinka (PhD)
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

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ADEPOJU, Eunice Olayinka (PhD) “Perceived Impact of Utilisation of ICT Facilities on Academic Performance of Undergraduates in Universities in Southwest, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.01-09 May 2020  URL:

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A Study of the Distinctiveness of Colophon in the Manuscript Literature in Sri Lanka

Chandasiri, Olaganwatte, Ariyaratne, Manoj – May 2020 Page No.: 10-18

The aim of this study is to identify the distinctiveness of Colophon, ‘Samamāpti vākya’ in the Manuscript Literature in Sri Lanka which has been evident since the 6th century BC. According to the Encyclopaedia of Britannica Colophonis an inscription placed at the end of a book or manuscript and giving details of its publication—e.g., the name of the printer and the date of printing. Colophons are sometimes found in manuscripts and books made from the 6th century BC on. In the world manuscript literature, in Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts, a colophon was occasionally added by the scribe and provided facts such as his name and the date and place of his completion of the work, sometimes accompanied by an expression of sincere thanks for the end of his task. As far as Sri Lanka is concerned the history of Ola-leaf manuscripts traces back to the 6th Century BC and until the third Century BC, Ola-leaf manuscripts were used and with the introduction of printing press by Dutch in 1737, Ola-leaf manuscripts writing were gradually disappeared. However, there is a very rich collection of Ola-leaf manuscripts in the National Museum of Sri Lanka, in Buddhist temples and and in some personal libraries throughout the country which are rarely accessed by the scholars for reference. This study was conducted through the content analysis of Colophons in those Ola-leaf manuscripts originally available in the National Museum of Sri Lanka. According to the finding of this research, the distinctiveness of colophon could be identified in several ways.The nature of the implications of these colophons can be analysed under several categories. Hence, Colophon could be considered as a resource for social reporting and its paramount importance for identifying the social stratification and belifs of contemporary Sri Lanka society is noteworthy.

Page(s): 10-18                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 May 2020

 Chandasiri, Olaganwatte
Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

 Ariyaratne, Manoj
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

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Chandasiri, Olaganwatte, Ariyaratne, Manoj “A Study of the Distinctiveness of Colophon in the Manuscript Literature in Sri Lanka ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.10-18 May 2020  URL:

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‘Sponsor’ Relationship among Kenyan University Students (Perspective Essay)

Elvis Omondi Kauka – May 2020 – Page No.: 19-21

The purpose of this essay is to explore both the factors that contribute to illicit relationships between university students and financially endowed adults (here-in referred to as sponsors) and in so doing offer some pragmatic solutions to the problem. The fact that young University students engage carnally with older richer men and women poses an ethical dilemma necessitated by a warped utilitarian and relativistic philosophical model of thought. The essay proceeds by exploring factors that force the students and adults into sponsor relationships(push factors) and factors that attract them into sponsor relationships(pull factors). It finally suggests some possible pragmatic solutions based on the author’s experience and observations as a former high school student and teacher, a former university student, and a current university teacher.

Page(s): 19-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 May 2020

 Elvis Omondi Kauka
Department of Educational Foundations, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

References are ot available

Elvis Omondi Kauka “‘Sponsor’ Relationship among Kenyan University Students (Perspective Essay)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.19-21 May 2020 URL:

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Environmental Communication for Mangrove Restoration and Conservation in a Fishing Village, Sri Lanka

M. D. K. L. Gunathilaka – May 2020 Page No.: 22-27

Puttalam lagoon as the largest and destructed mangrove forest in Sri Lanka has gained much attention from researchers. The study was carried out in Anawasala; a fishing village in Kalpitiya to evaluate the contribution of environmental communication on mangrove restoration and conservation.Randomly 30 households were selected for the questionnaire survey and a vegetation survey was performed too. Field observations were carried out to find out the success of mangrove restoration areas.MS Excel 2013 version and Shannon-wiener diversity index were used for data analysis. The study found that lower education, lack of diverse communication methods, unawareness, poverty negatively impacts on the success of environmental communication. 63 % of participation for restoration programs also depend on small grants. Only female participation was recognized.99% are fishermen. Concerning the carrying capacity of the lagoon, the utmost protection of mangrove is necessary as the source of income of residents is the lagoon. To overcome the barriers to the success of environmental communication and mangrove restoration and conservation education level have to be increased and alternative job opportunities have to be established in the area. Also, the restoration process has to be implemented with more technical and practical methods.

Page(s): 22-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 May 2020

 M. D. K. L. Gunathilaka
Department of Geography, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

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[15] Weragodathanna, D. (2010) GIS atlas of Puttalam lagoon, IUCN, Sri Lanka.

M. D. K. L. Gunathilaka “Environmental Communication for Mangrove Restoration and Conservation in a Fishing Village, Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.22-27 May 2020  URL:

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A Critique of ‘The Criticisms against Metaphysics’ (Perspective essay)

Elvis Omondi Kauka – May 2020 Page No.: 28-31

This essay examines selected sentiments against Metaphysics by tracing different criticisms against metaphysics, and subsequently presents rebuttals against each anti-metaphysics argument. Auguste Compte(1798-1857AD) is herein viewed as among the first philosophers to systematically critique metaphysics with an extrapolation towards positive epistemology or empirical Science. The essay further observes that systematic critique of metaphysics by Comte led to a vehement affirmation of Science by a group of thinkers known as Positivists and logical positivist. They constricted epistemology by classifying knowledge into analytic and synthetic. Any proposition outside the dichotomy of Analytics and Synthetic such as metaphysics is consequently labeled by them as ‘meaningless’ chatter. The essay also presents en passant the internal strife of a section of Metaphysicians who oppose traditional metaphysics by appealing to a more empirical metaphysics. The peak of anti-metaphysics is discussed under Scientism which tends towards emotional and near cultic hatred towards metaphysics and Philosophy in general. The zenith of this essay is the systematic rebuttal of the anti-metaphysics sentiments using the CONPiTT criteria of Science. The criteria exclude anti-metaphysics sentiments from the real empirical Science; neither does it affirm them as philosophical. The final inference is expressed in the last section in which Anti-metaphysicism should be viewed as an erroneous metaphysics and a romanticisation of empirical Science.

Page(s): 28-31                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 May 2020

 Elvis Omondi Kauka
Department of Educational Foundations, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

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[3] Ribeiro, C. (2015). Unjustified criticism of Metaphysics. Revue de la Socité de Philosophie des Sciences. Vol. 2 N° 1.

Elvis Omondi Kauka “A Critique of ‘The Criticisms against Metaphysics’ (Perspective essay)
” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.28-31 May 2020  URL:

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The Use of Visual Basis Learning Strategy in Social Science: Facing the Industrial Revolution 4.0 Era

Agussani – May 2020 Page No.: 32-39

Industrial revolution 4.0 brings challenges and problems to the education system and social skills. The education system should be able to prepare the students to face the challenges of industrial revolution 4.0, while social science lesson should be able to improve students’ social skills that may be declined by the emergence of industrial revolution 4.0. This study is a review study that aims at exploring visual basis learning strategy with the integration of ICT to teach social science. It tried to find out whether or not visual basis learning strategy and ICT suits industrial revolution 4.0 challenges and can solve the problems in social skills that is caused by it. The data of the study were collected from books and journals that discuss about industrial 4.0, social science lesson, and visual basis learning. The collected data were analyzed using content analysis technique. The result of the analysis shows that the use of visual basis and the integration of ICT in teaching social science is promising since it suits the characteristics of the z generation and the education 4.0. Therefore, it is recommended that visual basis learning with the integration of ICT is used by the social science teachers in teaching their students in facing industrial 4.0 era.

Page(s): 32-39                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 May 2020

Faculty of Social dan Political Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara, JL. Kapten Mukhtar Basri No 3, Medan 20238, Indonesia

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Agussani “The Use of Visual Basis Learning Strategy in Social Science: Facing the Industrial Revolution 4.0 Era” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.32-39 May 2020  URL:

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Scientificalization and Technologization of Contemporary Society: A Preparatory Ground for World War III

Ignatius Nnaemeka Onwuatuegwu PhD – May 2020 Page No.: 40-45

The 21st century has been mesmerized by unprecedented growth in science and technology, as well as its aggressive penetration into areas which it formally lacked applicability. Just as in other aspects of modern society, the 21st century has seen an increased use of science and technological innovations in the pursuance and maintenance of world peace. Most benefits have been accrued from the use of technological innovations such as satellite technologies, Global Positioning System (GPS), unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) among others in keeping surveillance on potential war sources or countries, to prevent the unexpected outbreak of war. There have also been growth in development, acquisition, and use of science and tech-powered ammunition and weapons such as nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and other war ammunitions such as drones, guns, among others with the primary intent of maintaining peace within a country as well as in the world in its entirety. Ironically, while the 21st century is praised for the technological revolution and sophistication in armoury which was assumed would increase stability and world peace, however, this quite the irony, as the century have been ridden by wars of different scales, hostility and large scale violence within and between nations; the century has also gained herself the status of “an age of war”. This study, therefore,is set to explore the possible threat to world peace as well as an impending potential outbreak of nuclear war due to the aggressive adoption of science and technology in the development of war ammunition and weapons of mass destructions such as nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.

Page(s): 40-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 May 2020

 Ignatius Nnaemeka Onwuatuegwu PhD
Philosophy Department, Faculty of Arts, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

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Ignatius Nnaemeka Onwuatuegwu PhD , “Scientificalization and Technologization of Contemporary Society: A Preparatory Ground for World War III” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.40-45 May 2020  URL:

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Validation of Recognition of Cultural Values Subscale of Cultural Worldview Scale among Nigerians

Dauda Akwai Saleh – May 2020 Page No.: 46-50

A total of 173 participants (84, 48.6% females and 89, 51.4% males) participated in this study aimed at determining if factor 2, Recognition of Cultural Values Subscale of Cultural Worldview Scale (CW scale) developed by Choi, Papandrea, and Bennett, (2007) would be valid for use among Nigerians or not. Kaiser- Meyer – Olkin Measure of sampling adequacy (KMO) test had good values, likewise Bartlett’s test of Sphericity is highly significant and value of communality for each variable (items) hold diagonal value more than 0.5. Based on Rule of thumb for Cronbach’s alpha as recommended by Gliem and Gliem (2003), findings of this study revealed that among females (n=84) the subscale showed good internal consistency, α = 0.811, among males (n=89) the subscale showed questionable internal consistency α = 0.660 and among females/males (n=173) the subscale reached acceptable internal consistency α = 0.757. It is therefore, concluded that Recognition of Cultural Values Subscale of CW scale can be used among Nigerians.

Page(s): 46-50                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 May 2020

 Dauda Akwai Saleh
Department of Psychology, Plateau State University Bokkos, Nigeria

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Dauda Akwai Saleh “Validation of Recognition of Cultural Values Subscale of Cultural Worldview Scale among Nigerians ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.46-50 May 2020  URL:

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Influence of Work Environment and Training on Job Performance of Library Personnel in University Libraries in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Agada, Eric Ojobo, Tofi, Simon Ternenge – May 2020 Page No.: 51-60

The study investigated the influence of work environment and training on job performance of library personnel in university libraries in Nasarawa State. Two (2) specific objectives with corresponding research questions guided the study and Two (2) hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a survey research design and was carried out in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The population of the study was 150 library personnel in University libraries in Nasarawa State which were made up 44 library personnel in federal university Lafia, 66 library personnel in Nasarawa State University Keffi and 40 library personnel in Bingham University Karu, Nasarawa State. The total of 150 library personnel in the universities were used. The instrument for data collection was a self-developed structured questionnaire titled “Influence of work environment and training on job performance Questionnaire” (IWETJPQ). The data collected were analyzed using Means and Standard Deviation to answer the research questions and Chi-Square statistics to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that, work environment and training have significant influence on job performance of library personnel in university libraries in Nasarawa State. Furthermore, conclusion and recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.

Page(s): 51-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 May 2020

 Agada, Eric Ojobo
(Head, College of Veterinary Library), Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Tofi, Simon Ternenge
(Librarian II), Benue State School of Nursing, Makurdi, Nigeria

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Agada, Eric Ojobo, Tofi, Simon Ternenge, “Influence of Work Environment and Training on Job Performance of Library Personnel in University Libraries in Nasarawa State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.51-60 May 2020  URL:

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Factors Causing the Emergence of Understanding Terrorism in Historical Overview

Indra Martian Permana, Fadzli Adam- May 2020 Page No.: 61-65

The movement of terrorism in Islam in reality emerged in this modern century and occurred as an various aspects and factors. Resistance to the sense of injustice experienced by Muslims on various aspects of life such as colonization of land and earth of Islam in Palestine, Iraq, Afghanistan carried out by Israel implication of and America to the aspects of economic hegemony which is controlled by foreign capitalists. In the historical aspect, Muslims have a long history which is a trigger for the birth of the terrorism movement. History notes that terrorism in Islam occurs due to several factors such as divisions and firoq, socio-political development, the rapid spread of Islam, the development of different Ummah interpretations, Ta’ashub and the birth of aqeedah thoughts which then form the first phase of terrorism in Islam known as khawarij which then gave birth to a generation of terrorism in Islam in modern developments. Some of these factors were reviewed and analyzed based on the methodology of the study of history and Islamic history literature taken from Islamic history books.

Page(s): 61-65                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 May 2020

 Indra Martian Permana
Research Institute for Islamic Product and Malay Civilization (Inspire) UNISZA Terengganu Malaysia, STAI PTDII Jakarta Indonesia

 Fadzli Adam
Research Institute for Islamic Product and Malay Civilization (Inspire) UNISZA Terengganu, Malaysia

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Indra Martian Permana, Fadzli Adam “Factors Causing the Emergence of Understanding Terrorism in Historical Overview” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.61-65 May 2020  URL:

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Right to Information at a Glance

Rajib Kahar – May 2020 Page No.: 66-67

Information is an essential tool for the development of any society. It acts as a bridge between the sender and the receiver and connects the whole world out of a large diaspora into one cluster. It has played a key role in the evolution of human civilisation and can be rightly termed as a paradigm of ‘participatory democracy’. It is a basic need of all human being without which the network of communication cannot be comprehensive. With the expansion in the channel of communication, the influx of information has gathered tremendous pace with a global outreach and brought revolutionary change among the target audience which can be described as the dawn of a new era. With the advent of 21st century and the invasion of digital era that overwhelmed the mankind with its omnipresence, promulgation of information from all sources became the need of the hour. But with the advent of new opportunities, it has certainly raised many challenges as well. To ensure precise &meticulousflow of information for the fulfilment of its objective of an informed citizenry and also to bring about accountability & transparency in the system of administration and with an aim to mitigate the menace of corruption, the Right to Information (RTI) Act came into force in 2005.

Page(s): 66-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 May 2020

 Rajib Kahar
Assistant Registrar, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Assam, India

[1]. Right to Information Act 2005: A Handbook
[2]. The Right to Information in India

Rajib Kahar “Right to Information at a Glance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.66-67 May 2020  URL:

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The Nexus between Language Rights, Democracy and Education in Multilingual Zambia

Kasonde Mpundu Mulenga – May 2020 Page No.: 68-74

This paper is a critical reflection of how language rights in Zambia are distributed by policy and exercised by individuals beyond the ethnic divide. To do so, the paper looks at the language policy in Zambia and how it explicitly and implicitly empowers some and disempowers others. It also provides arguments for how some individuals are symbolically violated based on their language incapabilities and ethic affiliation by extension. The paper ends by offering suggestions on how language rights can be distributed and exercised by all in Zambia. At the centre of the paper is the problematisation of regionalisation of languages by policy and the colonial influence on the policy which has engendered English hegemony at the expense of people’s enjoyment of universal language rights.

Page(s): 68-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 May 2020

 Kasonde Mpundu Mulenga
Zambia Correctional Service

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Kasonde Mpundu Mulenga “The Nexus between Language Rights, Democracy and Education in Multilingual Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.68-74 May 2020  URL:

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Relationship between Entry and Exit Grades: Case Study of St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

Samuel Amoh Gyampoh – May 2020 Page No.: 75-79

This paper is an action research article which involves a sample of 162 students of St. Monica’s College of Education for the 2018/2019 academic year graduates. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between the entry and exit grades of the 2018/2019 academic year graduates of the Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) programme. The study answered the following research questions;
1. Is there a correlation between final grade point average (exit grade) and entry grades of students?
2. What are some of the factors that significantly affect students’ academic performance?
Convenience sampling was used for the study. Convenience sampling because these results were found to be most appropriate and available for the study. Statistical analyses were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Pearson Correlation Reliability Coefficient Test was the main statistical tool used for the study.
The study revealed that students’ exit performance has little to do with their previous academic performance at the senior high secondary school. Students with good senior high secondary school grades can perform badly and the other way round.
The study recommends that student’s performance at the College of Education should not solely be based on entry grades but several factors may account for this negative and weak correlation between student’s entry and exit grades. Some of these factors are; Effective use of instructional period, Depth of knowledge of facilitators, Students’ motivation, Adequate coverage of content matter, just to mention a few.

Page(s): 75-79                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 May 2020

 Samuel Amoh Gyampoh
Department of Mathematics and ICT, St. Monica’s College of Education, P. O. Box MA 250, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

[1] Dewey, John (1944). Democracy and Education. The Free Press pp 1 – 4. ISBN 978-0-684-83631-7.
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[4] Ghana Education Service. Accra, Ghana.
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Samuel Amoh Gyampoh “Relationship between Entry and Exit Grades: Case Study of St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.75-79 May 2020  URL:

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Gender Responsive Life-Skills-Based Sexuality Education and Adolescents’ Protective Sexuality Attitudes and Behaviour
Dr Scolastica Kariuki, Dr. Regina Gachari – May 2020 – Page No.: 80-89

Adolescent are at high sexual risk owing to their biopsychosocial development and in view of high rate of new HIV infections in persons aged 15-24-years in Kenya. According to the Kenya National AIDS Control Council (2015) the increase is from 21% in the year 22013 to 51% in 2015. Education on adolescent sexuality behavior and reproductive health, is often expected from education sector yet comprehensive sexuality Life skills-based education is not ascertained.
Aims: So, a research study was conducted to determine the relationship gender responsive life-skills based sexuality education and adolescents ‘protective sexuality attitudes and behaviors in church-based schools in Kenya. The independent variable of study comprised combined variables of gender responsive life-skills based sexuality education, which included comprehensive sexuality education, gender responsive sexuality education, gender equality and equity, & gender power.
Samples: A questionnaire was administered among 140 adolescent girls and boys aged 15-20 in Nairobi and Athi River church schools. The Catholic Church and Presbyterian churches schools were selected by convenience sampling.
Methods: Quantitative research design was employed, adolescents responded to Likert scale items and open-ended questions to provide score on gender responsive life-skills based education and their protective attitude and behavior. Pearson correlations coefficient was used to determines links between independent and dependent variables.
Results and Conclusion: Comprehensive sexuality education takes place in church schools and predicts 10.7% of adolescents’ protective sexuality attitudes and behavior. Gender responsive life skills-based sexuality education should be taught in all schools in Kenya as they enhance protective attitudes and behaviors

Page(s): 80-89                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 May 2020

 Dr Scolastica Kariuki
Department of Education, Daystar University, Kenya

 Dr. Regina Gachari
Department of Language and Performing Arts, Daystar University, Kenya

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Dr Scolastica Kariuki, Dr. Regina Gachari “Gender Responsive Life-Skills-Based Sexuality Education and Adolescents’ Protective Sexuality Attitudes and Behaviour” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp. 80-89 May 2020 URL:

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Causes for Degradation to Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary and Its Restoration Strategy

Md. Safiqur Rahman, Dr. A K M Obaydullah – May 2020 Page No.: 90-97

The purpose of the study is to identify the Causes for the Degradation to Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) and its restoration strategy. Besides this, the study also highlighted the issues in forest management and biodiversity conservation and identify the challenges for the CWS. This forest is seriously degraded and most parts of it are now denuded. Natural forest cover is confined in a few small pockets and represented by few scattered trees nearby the forest offices only. The forest is now dominated by herbs, shrubs and sun grass. Agricultural activities have also increased. Land encroachment has increased by 80% compared to 1970 level. This research study is descriptive-cum-empirical as well as suggestive in nature. The study is survey type. The present study has been included secondary resources consisting of books, newspapers, periodicals, articles from national and international level. Internet sources have been used for the research. Attempts have been made to include the latest information whenever available. At the same time primary data have been collected through interview with some officials and experts on the topic. Baseline data was collected from January to April in 2019. The study shows that highest about 80% HHs depend on forest fuel wood, bamboo and sun grass, followed by fruits (8%), cane (5%), bark of trees (2%), vegetables (5%). Besides, stone and sand also are collected from CWS. About 86% HHs informed that they collect it directly from forest and in 14% cases they purchase or collect it from others. Land encroachment leading to expansion of settlements and agriculture, tree poaching, hunting, collection of fuel wood, bamboo and cane, and other forest products are the major causes for the degradation of the forest and its resources. Poor forest management by FD, local deteriorating law and order situation, adverse role of the local influential people, operation of brickfield and sawmills, local unemployment and poverty are the major underlying factors that contribute to the forest degradation. Finally, it may be concluded that there is an urgent need to strengthen the local FD in the Sanctuary with adequate and skilled manpower with modern weapons and vehicles and to capacitate them in dealing with co-management of Protected Areas, establishment of a buffer sustainable resource use zone around the PA with provision for fuel wood plot, woodlot and other plantations required for house building purposes, appropriate, site specific and technically sound management. Action Plans should be developed with consultation of local people, betel leaf cultivation should be stopped within the sanctuary area, poor resource users should be identified and brought under AIG program with provision that they give up the unsustainable use of forest resources.

Page(s): 90-97                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 May 2020

 Md. Safiqur Rahman
Regional Coordinator, Nature Conservation Management (NACOM), Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Dr. A K M Obaydullah
Instructor, URC, Primary and Mass Education Ministry, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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[27] Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ostrom, E, J Burger, CB Field, RB Norgaard and D Policansky. 1999. Sustainability – Revisiting the commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges. Science 284: 278-282.
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Md. Safiqur Rahman, Dr. A K M Obaydullah “Causes for Degradation to Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary and Its Restoration Strategy ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.90-97 May 2020  URL:

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Inclusive Classroom Management (Case Study in Early Childhood Education)

Ridha Mentari Dwansi, Sowiyah, Irawan Suntoro – May 2020 Page No.: 98-103

Classroom management aims to create an atmosphere of learning that is effective and fun and can motivate students to learn well according to ability. The purpose of this study was to analyze and describe: planning of learning, organizing the physical environment of the class, implementing the social environment, and evaluating problems in classroom management in early childhood education in inclusion in one selected school in Lampung Province, Indonesia. The method used in this research was qualitative with a case study design. Data collection techniques used were in-depth interviews, participant observation and study of documents. The results showed that (1) learning planning was arranged every of new school year, referring to the national education curriculum with modification. (2) organizing the physical environment of the classroom was through the arrangement learning support objects in the classroom, such as seating, air circulation, lighting, learning media, blackboards, cabinets, wall hangings, etc. (3) actuating social environment was focused on activities that provide direction for students to actively learn and focus on the application of the learning process. (4) controlling problems in classroom management took steps to determine what should be done, how to control it, and if necessary make improvements.

Page(s): 98-103                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 May 2020

 Ridha Mentari Dwansi
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

 Irawan Suntoro
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

[1] Barni, D., Russo, C., &Danioni, F. (2018). Teachers’ values as predictors of classroom management styles: a relative weight analysis. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1970.
[2] Booth, T. &Ainscow, M. (2002). IndeksFor Inclusion: Developing Learning And Particapation In Schools. London: Centre For Studies On Inclusive Education.
[3] Cooper, J. M. (2010). Classroom teaching skills.Cengage Learning.
[4] Creswell, J. W. (2014). PenelitianKualitatif&DesainRiset. Yogyakarta: PustakaPelajar.
[5] Delceva–Dizdarevik, J. (2014). Classroom management. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 2(1), 51-55.
[6] Djigic, G., &Stojiljkovic, S. (2011). Classroom management styles, classroom climate and school achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 819-828.
[7] Guba, E. G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries.Ectj, 29(2), 75.
[8] Horne, S. E. (1980). Classroom management. British Journal of Teacher Education, 6(3),228-235.
[9] Latwis, B. (2011). Classroom management: a study in leadership, theory, and implementation.
[10] Mack, N., Woodsong, C., MacQueen, K. M., Guest, G., & Namey, E. (2005). Qualitative research methods: a data collectors field guide.
[11] Majid, Abdul. (2007). PerencanaanPembelajaran. Bandung: PT RemajaRosdakarya.
[12] Miles, Matthew B, A. Michael Huberman & Jhony, Saldana. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis, A Methods Sourcebook.EdisiKetiga. Sage Publivation: Inc.
[13] Ni’matuzahroh. (2015). Analisis Kesiapan Guru dalam Pengelolaan KelasInklusi.Psychology Forum UMM. ISBN: 978-979-796-324-8.
[14] Nurlina, Ina. (2010). PengaruhManajemenKelas Dan EtosKerjaTerhadapEfektivitas Proses BelajarMengajar Guru SekolahDasar Di Kecamatan Babakancikao Kabupaten Purwakart a.Jurnal Administrasi Pendidikan. Vol 12, No 2. ISSN: p.1412-8152 e.2580-1007.
[15] Pijl, S. J., & Meijer, C. J. (2002). Factors in inclusion: A framework. In Inclusive Education (pp. 18-23).Routledge.
[16] Salfi, N. A. (2014). Perceptions Of Students About Classroom Management As A Contributing Factor Towards Learning At Secondary School. Journal Of Education And Human Development, 3(2), 713-728.
[17] Shamina, E., & Mumthas, N. S. (2018). Classroom Management: Implications for Teacher Preparation Programmes. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science, 23, 41-44.
[18] Soodak, L. C. (2003). Classroom management in inclusive settings. Theory into practice, 42(4), 327-333. [19] Majid, Abdul. (2007). Perencanaan Pembelajaran. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.
[19] Suharsimi, Arikunto. (2008). Pengelolaan Kelas Dan Siswa. Jakarta: CV Rajawali.
[20] Sunaengsih, Cucun. (2017). Buku Ajar Pengelolaan Pendidikan. Sumedang: Sumedang Press.
[21] Terry, George R. (2009). Prinsip-prinsip Manajemen. Jakarta: Penerbit Bumi Aksara.

Ridha Mentari Dwansi, Sowiyah, Irawan Suntoro “Inclusive Classroom Management (Case Study in Early Childhood Education)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.98-103 May 2020  URL:

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An Analysis of USA and North Korea Relations from 1945 till Date

Ediagbonya Michael (PhD), Buhari, L.O. (PhD), Aluko Yemi Ebenezer – May 2020 Page No.: 104-110

The paper examines the USA and North Korea Relations from 1945 till date. It discusses the Korean peninsula under the control of Japan and China. It analyzes San Francisco Treaty and USA intervention. The relationship between USA and North Korea in the 20th and 21st Centuries came to focus. The study relied on primary sources like oral interview and secondary sources such as books, newspapers, journal articles, speeches, theses, dissertations. It was found that her geographical position placed her in a precarious situation hence Japan, China and Russia exploited before USA intervention. It was also found that the involvement of USA in Korean civil war against North Korea strained the relationship between the two countries. It was found that over 3 millions North Koreans died in that war because of USA involvement. Again, the dismissal of General Douglas by Harry Truman, who was planning to use nuclear weapons on North Korea came to focus. In conclusion, the constant test of rockets by North Korea in Korean peninsula and USA imposition of sanctions on her, demanding full denuclearization before the lifting of sanctions strained the relationship between the two countries.

Page(s): 104-110                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2020

 Ediagbonya Michael (PhD)
Lecturer, Ekiti State University, Department of History and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Buhari, L.O. (PhD)
Lecturer, Ekiti State University, Department of History and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Aluko Yemi Ebenezer
Postgraduate Student, Ekiti State University, Department of History and International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1]. Daily Nik, A Seoul- Based Websites, April 22, 2020.
[2]. Dean Rusk’s Comments on the Outcome of Korean Civil War, US Secretary of State, 1953.
[3]. Donald Trump’s Comments at the end of Vietnam Summit, Feb 28, 2019.
[4]. Donald Trump and Kim Jong-Un Address at the end of Vietnam Summit, 28th February, 2019.
[5]. Donald Trump’s Comments at the end of the Singapore Summit, June 12th, 2018.
[6]. Duyile, W.A. An Interview Conducted on 16th July, 2019, at Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti.
[7]. Ediagbonya, Michael. ‘A Study of the Portuguese-Benin Trade Relations: Ughoton as a Benin Port (1485-1506) International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, ISSN 2356-5926, July-September 2015, Volume 2 Issue 2.Guardian 24, 2020.
[8]. Hayashitadasu’s Letter to the Foreign Secretary in London, 1902.
[9]. Hillary, Clinton’s Comments during USA Presidential Campaign, 2016.
[10]. Leadership Newspaper, March 4, 2019.
[11]. Mike, Pompeo, USA Secretary of State, an Interview conducted by Daily Nik, on 23rd April, 2020.
[12]. The Nation, September 9, 2017.
[13]. New Encyclopedia, Britannia, 1768.
[14]. Storry, Richard. A History of Modern Japan. Penguin Books Ltd, 1968.
[15]. Segun, Ayobolu. The Nation’s Correspondent September 9, 2017.
[16]. Orobator, S. E. “Trade of Imperial Benin with the Portuguese and Dutch” In O.N. Njoku (ed.) ‘Pre-Colonial Economic History of Nigeria. Benin Ethiope Publishing Corpoeration, 2002.
[17]. Truthout, US. Based Progressive online Magazine, 2017.
[18]. Washington Post, August 29, 2018.
[19]. World Guide, 2002.
[20]. Yoo, Je-Seung. An Interview at Soeul on Feb 9, 2019.
[21]. Yoo, Jeh-Seung and General Thomas Vanal of the US Eight Army based in the South. Joint
[22]. Briefing in Soeul Feb, 10, 2019.

Ediagbonya Michael (PhD), Buhari, L.O. (PhD), Aluko Yemi Ebenezer “An Analysis of USA and North Korea Relations from 1945 till Date” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.104-110 May 2020  URL:

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Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic and the Need for Effective Management of Population Statistics: The Nigerian Example

Ushie, Michael Anake (Ph.D.), Ushie, Christiana Aloye, Egidi, Stephen Achuen, Tangban Egbe (Ph.D.)- May 2020 Page No.: 111-131

The paper examines CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) PANDEMIC AND THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF POPULATION STATISTICS: THE NIGERIAN EXAMPLE. The paper is concerned with the quality assurance of the palliative measures of the government of Nigeria to mitigate the effects of stay at home directive of the federal government in view of the fact that there is no comprehensive and reliable data Management system that captured the whole population of Nigeria. Hence, there is need to address the methods of sharing palliative by the Nigerian Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development. The demographic implications of Covid-19 pandemic, the management of vital statistics, essence of maintaining accurate figures of human numbers in Nigeria shall become a core value of Nigerian post Covid-19 experience. The paper recommended that the Nigerian Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs Disaster Management and Social Development should partner with the Nigerian data management bodies in palliative and relief materials distribution to access the “poor and vulnerable” in the rural communities whose livelihood has been disconnected as a result of the outbreak of Covid-19 in Nigeria. Also, the Nigerian government should see population data as an essential and reliable statistics during any outbreak of public health emergency.

Page(s): 111-131                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2020

  Ushie, Michael Anake (Ph.D.)
Department of Social Work, University of Calabar- Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

  Ushie, Christiana Aloye
Department of Environmental Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

  Egidi, Stephen Achuen
Department of Sociology, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

  Tangban Egbe (Ph.D.)
Department of Social Work, University of Calabar- Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

[1] AbdulAzeez A. A (2020). The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: A review and an update on cases in Africa. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine.13(1):1-25
[2] De-Yun, W.,and Yan, Y. (2020). The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status. Journal of Military Medical Research. 7 (11): 131 -21.
[3] Michael, W., Justin, W., Lynch, T., and David, C. (2008). Mapping Levels of Palliative Care Development: A Global View.Journal of Pain and Symptom Management.35(5):470-477
[4] Olusanya, E. O., Korter ,G. O. and Obafemi, A. K. (2015). Nigerian statistical system: the evolution, progress and challenges. Journal of Social Development. 1(2):1-11
[5] Tamar, E., Diederik, L., and Gabriela, B. (2018). Palliative Care and Human Rights: A Decade of Evolution in Standards. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 55(2):1-7
[6] Yan-Rong, G., Qing-Dong, C. , Zhong, S., Yuan-Yang, T., Shou-Deng, C., Hong-Jun, J., Kai-Sen, T., Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., LiX., Yang, B., and Song, J. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China. International Journal of Medical Research.382(8): 727–33.

Ushie, Michael Anake (Ph.D.), Ushie, Christiana Aloye, Egidi, Stephen Achuen, Tangban Egbe (Ph.D.), “Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic and the Need for Effective Management of Population Statistics: The Nigerian Example” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.111-131 May 2020  URL:

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An Anthropology Study: Why Single Mothers Have to Face Differences

S.D.Y. Jayarathne, W.T.D. Wijethunga – May 2020 Page No.: 132-135

Family is a factory producing human personalities and it is a unit with the married couple and their children. In modern society, family faces a large number of changes. In the current special set up, one of the major problems that a family encounters is disorganization. Through it, the single parent family has been created. Single parent family is a family where only one of the parents, either mother or father, has to fulfill the financial, material and emotional needs of the children, without the help of someone else. The main objective of this research was to Study the economic problems faced by mothers in the single parent family. As the field of research were used Wennappuwa, Puttalam District, North Western Province, Sri Lanka. 150 single parent households and representing those, 52 households are being chosen at 30% of sample under systematic sample method. The research is fundamentally based on Primary sources and secondary sources. Out of the total sample, 63% of single mothers were found age group 35-40. From the subjects considered, 3/4th was Sinhalese. Tamils & Muslims were 9% and 15% respectively. From the women participated in the research, 1/3rd of them were widowed due to husband’s death. 30% were divorced and 20% were separated, but 17% of women were not legally separated. An interesting fact found with this is that 98% of women were married under 24, while 41% were married under 18%.63% of these women are employed, majority (56%) are employed in the private sector. Average monthly income was less than 20,000. 59% of these families reported that they suffer from debt burden. Finally it could be conclude authorities should be conduct uplift programs for single mothers in Sri Lanka.

Page(s): 132-135                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2020

 S.D.Y. Jayarathne
Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Sri Jayewardhanepura, Sri Lanka

 W.T.D. Wijethunga
Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Sri Jayewardhanepura, Sri Lanka

[1] Bell,N.and Vogel,E.F.(1960).A Modern Introduction to the family.London:Free press.
[2] Cone,C. and Pelto,P.J.(1967).Guide to Cultural anthropology Illinois.Scott:Sernoll.
[3] Kotwal,N. and Prabhakar,B.(2017).Problems faced by single mothers:published online
[4] Mead, M. (1963). Growing up in New Guinea. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
[5] Murdock,G.P.(1949).Social Structure.New york:Macmillian Cooperation.
[6] Parsons,T.(1960).The stability of American family system.London:A division of Macmillian publishing cooperation.
[7] Perera”T.(1994&¡Introduction of Sociology and Antropology¡ Colombo: S Godage and brothers.

S.D.Y. Jayarathne, W.T.D. Wijethunga “An Anthropology Study: Why Single Mothers Have to Face Differences” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.132-135 May 2020  URL:

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Exploring Library User Perception on the Link between Knowledge Economy and Sustainable Development

Jacob Kehinde OPELE, Yemisi Susan ADEYEYE, Deborah Funmilola IYANDA & Murainah Alo OLAGOKE – May 2020 Page No.: 136-144

This study explored library user perception on the link between knowledge economy and sustainable development. This study adopted the descriptive survey design of correlational type. The population of the study consisted of all library users who were randomly selected during the period of the study. In all, 250 library users agreed to participate in this study. Out of which, 200 of them completed the questionnaires as 30 questionnaires were not adequately completed and 20 respondents did not return their copies. The questionnaire was validated by two experts in library and information science disciplines while the reliability of the instrument was determined by conducting a pilot study among 30 library users at two faculty libraries at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. The reliability test revealed a high level of inter-item consistencies. The data collected were analyzed using percentage distribution, mean and standard deviation, correlation, and regression. Findings revealed a significant positive relationship between the knowledge economy and sustainable development (r = 0.327, P<.05). The results further revealed that; education and training (β = 0.427, t = 6.191, p<.05) and ICT (β = 0.322, t = 5.172, p<.05) significantly influenced sustainable development. This study concluded that the ability of the key stakeholders in the knowledge economy should leverage on the intangible assets within the economy which will help to identify, create, manage and measure the successes and failures of the knowledge economy and how this can affect sustainable development

Page(s): 136-144                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2020

 Jacob Kehinde OPELE
National Centre for Technology Management (NACETEM), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

 Yemisi Susan ADEYEYE
Hezekiah Oluwasanmi Library, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

 Deborah Funmilola IYANDA
American International University, West Africa, the Gambia

 Murainah Alo OLAGOKE
American International University, West Africa, the Gambia

[1]. Abrahamson, D. E., & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2014). Impediments to information and knowledge sharing within policing: A study of three canadian policing organizations. SAGE Open, 4(1).
[2]. Abramovici, M., & Filos, E. (2011). Industrial integration of ICT : opportunities for international research cooperation under the IMS scheme. 717–724.
[3]. Adetoro, N. (2008). Acquisition and use of library resources in the transition from a college to a university: A statistical record assessment. Library Philosophy and Practice, 2008(DEC.).
[4]. Afif, A. H. (2018). The Relationship Between Perceived Organizational Supports with Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment at Faculty Members of Universities. 20(4), 290–293.
[5]. Al-rahbi, I. A. (2008). an Empirical Study of the Key Knowledge Economy Factors for Sustainable Economic Development in Oman. PhD Thesis, Victoria University, Melbourn, Australia, (August), 246.
[6]. Antuchevičienė, J. (2003). Principles of revitalisation of derelict rural buildings. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 9(4), 225–233.
[7]. Asoh, D., Belardo, S., & Neilson, R. (2002). Knowledge Management : Issues , Challenges and Opportunities for Governments in the New Economy. 00(c), 1–10.
[8]. Assegaff, S., Hendri, H., Sunoto, A., Yani, H., & Kisbiyanti, D. (2017). Social Media Success Model for Knowledge Sharing (Scale Development and Validation). TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), 15(3), 1335.
[9]. Badii, A., & Sharif, A. M. (2003). Integrating Information and Knowledge for Enterprise Innovation. Logistics Information Management, 16(2), 145–155.
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Jacob Kehinde OPELE, Yemisi Susan ADEYEYE, Deborah Funmilola IYANDA & Murainah Alo OLAGOKE “Exploring Library User Perception on the Link between Knowledge Economy and Sustainable Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.136-144 May 2020  URL:

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An Explanation for Frequently used Terminologies used in the Pilgrimage to Sri Pada in Sri Lanka: A Lexical Explanation

Abeyweera, G.H., T.M.P.S. I. Tennakoon, M.Rubavathanan – May 2020 Page No.: 145-148

Sripada also known as Samanala Kanda which is at a height of 7359 feet is the third highest mountain in Sri Lanka where Buddhists believe that the Gauthama Buddha placed his left foot-print on the peak of the mountain on the invitation of God Saman who is considered to be the guardian of the Samanala Kanda (mountain). A large number of devotees including the majority of Buddhists embracing different regions strenuously climb the mountain annually during the Sripada season which is from Duruthu (December) full moon poya day to Vesak (May) full moon poya day the following year. In the language of the laymen, the Sripada pilgrimage starts in December and ends in May in the following year and the rest of the period is considered as off-season which is particularly set aside for celestial beings especially for God Sumana Saman. Most of the devotees in their pilgrimage to Sripada used to use a particular set of terminology peculiar to Sripada pilgrimage. These terminologies are not used any other context in Sri Lanka either in a pilgrimage or any other excursion. Thus, this paper attempts to provide explanations to the most frequently used lexis in the context of Sripada pilgrimage in Sri Lanka.

Page(s): 145-148                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2020

 Abeyweera, G.H.
Department of English Language Teaching of Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka

 T.M.P.S. I. Tennakoon
Department of Public Administration of Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka

Department of Public Administration of Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka

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Abeyweera, G.H., T.M.P.S. I. Tennakoon, M.Rubavathanan, “An Explanation for Frequently used Terminologies used in the Pilgrimage to Sri Pada in Sri Lanka: A Lexical Explanation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.145-148 May 2020  URL:

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Purchasing and Supply a Neglected Function in Nigeria: Implication on Profitability

Spencer G. O. Okpighe – May 2020 Page No.: 149-153

The growth of every business enterprise depends on the level of profit it makes. One of the ways profit can be maximized is through application of the purchasing and supply strategic function. This paper attempt to examine purchasing and supply a neglected function in Nigeria and its implication on profitability with special focus on manufacturing industries. The findings proved that purchasing function is relegated to the background and regarded as a mere clerical function in most organisations compared with other business functions. However, where few purchasing departments exist, the function is handled by non-professionals. This paper concludes that the negative effect of this neglect is on the profitability of the manufacturing industries. The author therefore recommend that to avoid low profit perhaps business failure, purchasing and supply function should be practiced as a business function with the involvement of professionals. The purchasing function should be seen as integral part of a top corporate business strategy.

Page(s): 149-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2020

 Spencer G. O. Okpighe
Department of Marketing, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Nigeria

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Spencer G. O. Okpighe “Purchasing and Supply a Neglected Function in Nigeria: Implication on Profitability” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.149-153 May 2020  URL:

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Inclusive Practice (IP) in Primary Schools of Bangladesh: Challenges and Opportunities

Mohammed Kamrul Hassan, Marjana Jahir, Angela Smith, Dr. A K M Obaydullah- May 2020 Page No.: 154-166

This study explored the inclusive practice in primary schools in Bangladesh. The study sought to investigate the barriers to and opportunities for greater development of inclusive practice in primary schools in Bangladesh, in Sreepur Upozila of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh, based on insights from primary teachers. The study aimed to provide direction for the improvement of the inclusive practice in primary schools in Bangladesh. A mixed methods research instrument was used, with data collected via a questionnaire. Thirty-three out of a total of thirty-five teachers with at least 6 weeks involvement in the inclusive practice participated in the study. Descriptive statistics were performed on the quantitative data and some open question data were thematically analysed. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated that the participants in this study associated their involvement inclusive practice in a primary school in Bangladesh with of a variety of areas in need of better development. Although, overall, the assistant head teacher and head teachers questioned viewed current policies and legislation on IP as having a positive role in developing IP. A key area of development identified was the shortage of the overall number of teachers trained in IP, added to which there is a national shortage of teachers. A need to work with guardians to raise their awareness of the benefits to disabled students’ physical and emotional health and wellbeing of IP also became clear. The thematic analysis of the open question resulted in the identification of the barriers to and opportunities for inclusive practice in primary schools in Bangladesh. These findings were in line with evidence about the potential of inclusive practice in primary schools in Bangladesh to promote a range of positive outcomes for the children involved in them.

Page(s): 154-166                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2020

 Mohammed Kamrul Hassan
Upazilla Education Officer, Primary and Mass Education Ministry, Bangladesh

 Marjana Jahir
Assisstant Professor, Department of English, BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology, Bangladesh

 Angela Smith
Associate Lecturer, School Of Education, University of The West of Scotland, England

 Dr. A K M Obaydullah
Instructor, URC, Ministry of Primary and Mass Education, Bangladesh

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Mohammed Kamrul Hassan, Marjana Jahir, Angela Smith, Dr. A K M Obaydullah “Inclusive Practice (IP) in Primary Schools of Bangladesh: Challenges and Opportunities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.154-166 May 2020  URL:

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The Influence on Family Type on Bullying Behavior Among Students of Secondary School Age in Ikwerre Local Government Area

Iyagba Philemon Wokoma (Ph.D), Nwankwo, Gershom Udochukwu – May 2020 Page No.: 167-177

The purpose of the study was to investigate factors influencing bullying behavior among senior students of secondary school age in Ikwerre local government of Rivers State. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Seven research questions and six hypotheses guided the conduct of the study. The population of this study consists of 2,368 secondary school students from Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. A sample of 300 secondary school students in SS 2 in the research area was selected for the study through stratified random sampling technique. The instruments for data collection in this study were a self-designed structured questionnaire titled “Bullying Risk Factor Questionnaire ” (BRFQ). Face and content validities of the instrument were determined while test-retest using Pearson product moment correlation method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while AN OVA and independent t-test were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha levels. All data were subjected to analysis using statistical package for social science. The following results were obtained; watching violent movies is the highest contributor to bullying behaviour among students of secondary school age; bullying behaviour is higher among students of secondary school age that watch violent movies than those that do not watch violent movies; bullying behavior is higher among students from polygamous families than those from monogamous families; bullying behavior is higher among students bullied by siblings than students not bullied by siblings; bullying behavior is higher among students of secondary school age from Uneducated parental background than those from educated parental background; bullying behavior is higher among students from authoritarian homes, followed by those from permissive homes, and lastly by those from authoritative homes; bullying behavior is higher among students of secondary school age who experience inter-parental violence than those who do not. Based on the findings, five recommendations were made among which are that; parents should also ensure that the home environment is devoid of all form of cumbrances and threats that can impede the good upbringing of children born into it; counseling units should be established in all public secondary schools in Nigeria to enable students seek counseling whenever the need arises; students identified with bullying behaviour should be referred to guidance counselors for professional assistance.

Page(s): 167-177                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2020

 Iyagba Philemon Wokoma (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counseling, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Nwankwo, Gershom Udochukwu
Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counseling, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

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[13] Sharma, B., Nam, E. W., Kim, H. Y. & Kim, J. K. (2016). The Influence of Witnessing Inter-Parental Violence and Bullying Victimization in Involvement of Fighting AmongAdolescents: Evidence from a School-based Cross Sectional Survey in Peru. Journal of lifestyle medicine, June 6 (1) 27-35. Retrieved from

Iyagba Philemon Wokoma (Ph.D), Nwankwo, Gershom Udochukwu “The Influence on Family Type on Bullying Behavior Among Students of Secondary School Age in Ikwerre Local Government Area” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.167-177 May 2020  URL:

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Influence of Peer Interaction through Peer Components on Talent Identification for Players in Rugby Clubs in Kenya

Michael D. Otieno, Nicholas K. Bailasha, Elijah G. Rintaugu – May 2020 Page No.: 178-183

The quality of the relationship between adolescents and their peers, as well as the type of peers they associate with, play important roles in aiding or impeding their career choices. The influence of peer interaction through peer components have, however, not been examined in talent identification amongst rugby players in Kenya. The objective of this study therefore was to investigate the influence of peer components on talent identification for players in rugby clubs in Kenya. The peer components included rugby being viewed as a prestigious sport, on the basis of social interaction and as a health and fitness gain. Data were collected using Questionnaires and interviews from rugby players (n= 125) and coaches (n=15) during the 2018/2019 Kenya Rugby Union league competition. Data were analyzed through both descriptive and inferential statistics of Chi- square test of independent measures.
The study concluded that the peer components had a significant influence on talent identification for rugby players in Kenya. In addition, the most influential peer component was identified as health and fitness gains from the findings. The study recommends the use of friends as a key socio-economic variable for talent identification for rugby clubs in Kenya. Other studies involving other socio-cultural components that are likely to impact on talent identification like family, coaches, schools, club infrastructure, need to be conducted

Page(s): 178-183                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2020

 Michael D. Otieno
Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Nicholas K. Bailasha
Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Elijah G. Rintaugu
Department of Recreation and Sport Management, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Abisai, J. (2014). Assets and modes of identification and development of talented student-athletes in selected sport disciplines in Kenyan universities. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Kenyatta University, Kenya
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[11] Oketch, S. O. (2012). Psychological satisfaction of male Kenya Rugby Union registered university rugby players with technical and institutional managerial support. Unpublished master’s thesis, Kenyatta University
[12] Orunaboka, T. T; &Deemua, A. G. (2011). An analysis of peer groups influence on sports involvement of female athletes in Rivers State secondary schools, Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Social Science, 3, (1): 9-14.
[13] Rittenhouse, M.A. (2008). The effect of peer influence on the amount of physical activity performed in 8-12 year old boys. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kent State University College of Education.
[14] Salvy, S.J; Roemmich J. N; Bowler J.C; Romero, N, D Stadler, P, J; & Epstein, L. H (2009). Effect of peers and friends on youth physical activity and motivation to be physically active. Journal of Pedatric Psychology 34 (2): 217-225
[15] Weiss, M.R; Smith, A.L; &Theelboom, M. (1996). ‘That’s what friends are for’. Children’s and teenagers’ perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18: 347-379

Michael D. Otieno, Nicholas K. Bailasha, Elijah G. Rintaugu “Influence of Peer Interaction through Peer Components on Talent Identification for Players in Rugby Clubs in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.178-183 May 2020  URL:

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Analysis of the Impact of Nigeria Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) on Price Volatility of Maize in Lagos

Iheanacho, Albert Omeni, Ogbechi, Adigwe Daniel – May 2020 Page No.: 184-195

This study examined the impact of Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) on price volatility of maize in Lagos state. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the impact of NSPRI product preservation on price volatility of Maize in Lagos market; to investigate the impact of NSPRI product safety recommendation on price volatility of Maize in Lagos; to ascertain if NSPRI Postharvest activity has impact on price volatility of Maize in Lagos market. The research design was descriptive survey design, the population of the study consisted of intermediaries of maize which include distributors, wholesalers and retailers of maize and maize products in Mile 12 Market area of Lagos. The research instrument was a structured questionnaire. Stratified sampling technique was used to select participants who were active dealers of maize agricultural products. A total sample of 200 maize intermediaries was selected from the entire population of the study and questionnaire administered. One hundred and eighty two (182) copies of the questionnaire were properly completed. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The results obtained led to the study conclusion that there is a strong, positive correlation between NSPRI Product Preservation and Price volatility of Maize in Lagos market; that NSPRI product safety recommendation has significant impact on price volatility of Maize in Lagos; and that there is a positive correlation between NSPRI Postharvest activity and price volatility of maize. The study recommended that NSPRI adoption of simple, effective and appropriate preservation techniques would reduce price of grains and ensure food security in Nigeria and that NSPRI must intensify efforts in improving maize quality and production, amongst others.

Page(s): 184-195                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 May 2020

 Iheanacho, Albert Omeni
University of Nigeria, Department of Marketing, Enugu Campus, Nigeria

 Ogbechi, Adigwe Daniel
Department of Business Administration, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

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Iheanacho, Albert Omeni, Ogbechi, Adigwe Daniel “Analysis of the Impact of Nigeria Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRI) on Price Volatility of Maize in Lagos” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.184-195 May 2020  URL:

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A Historicism of INEC and the Conduct of Elections in Nigeria: The First two Decades of the Fourth Republic (1999-2019) in Focus

Ezeogueri-Oyewole, Anne Nnenna Ph.D, Mahmud Mohammed Momoh – May 2020 Page No.: 196-210

The origin of electoral conduct in Nigeria stretches backward to 1959. Before the dawn of the 4th Republic which marked the current political dispensation of the country, the nation has witnessed a spate of intermittent rise and fall of a number of electoral bodies beginning with the Electoral Commission of Nigeria (ECN)-enacted in 1958. But surprisingly, the ECN demised in January 1966 following the coup of that year subsequent introduction of military rule that same year. Like the ECN, other electoral bodies that came after, i.e. Federal Electoral Commission (FEDECO) 1979-1983, and the National Electoral Commission (NEC) 1990-1993, all died still-births, as they did not live to stand the test of their times. The establishment of INEC in 1998 was one singular index that heralded the birth of the Fourth Republic which kick-started on 29th May, 1999. Though, INEC has succeeded in concluding six elections since 1999-2019, but many believed its conduct left much to be desired. These opprobrium included claims that INEC is complicit with some political party agents and aspirant in sabotaging tendencies towards credible elections and even its former chairman professor Attairu Jega was quite equivocal on this, when he was quoted as saying in 2015 that; “INEC officials receive bribe to influence electoral outcomes”. From 2003 through 2011 INEC was confronted with plethora of problems such as delay in the preparation of voters election manual, failure to get voters’ pictures on registration cards, under-funding, poor infrastructure and poorly trained staff. From 2015, INEC introduced the smart card reader and the permanent voters card (PVC) to check cases of electoral rigging. Though these two innovations are believed to have enhanced the credibility of elections, but claims about the viability of the smart-card reader and purported incidences of INEC server hacking after the 2019 general election results has once again raised some ominous dust.

Page(s): 196-210                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 May 2020

 Ezeogueri-Oyewole, Anne Nnenna Ph.D
Kogi State University Anyigba, Nigeria

 Mahmud Mohammed Momoh
Kogi State University Anyigba, Nigeria

References are not available

Ezeogueri-Oyewole, Anne Nnenna Ph.D, Mahmud Mohammed Momoh “A Historicism of INEC and the Conduct of Elections in Nigeria: The First two Decades of the Fourth Republic (1999-2019) in Focus” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.196-210 May 2020  URL:

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Challenges Facing Teaching at Rural Schools: A Review of Related Literature

Elock Emvula Shikalepo – May 2020 Page No.: 211-218

Traditionally, it has been difficult attracting and retaining teachers and other professionals to teach at school located in rural areas. Consequently, teaching at rural schools continues to deteriorate as the problem of attracting and retaining qualified teachers for quality teaching still remains.The purpose of this study was to review literatures related to the challenges that faced teaching at rural schools, and explain the intensity to which these challenges influenced the quality of teaching at rural schools. The aim was to make necessary recommendations on how the challenges can be dealt with, so that they do not continue to deteriorate teaching at rural schools. Different sources of literatures were reviewed, and data was analysed thematically and discussed within the context of teaching at rural areas, which was the focus of the study.
The study found out that teaching was defined by the struggle to cope with the absence of basic teaching resources, overloaded with teaching and administrative duties, underfunding to schools and poor teacher salaries.In addition, most teachers were not competent in improvising instructional and teaching materials in the absence of sufficiency resources, which has rendered teaching ineffective. Rural school teachers felt isolated, as ffinancial, recreational and health service centres were not easily accessible, which caused low teacher morale, and minimised teaching effectiveness.It was established that most teachers at rural schools were not well paid compared to their counterparts in other professions with comparable levels of education, experience and input towards their work. This disparities demoralised teachers and negatively shaped their teaching output. School authorities should implement the necessary measures to minimise the detrimental effects of these challenges on teaching at rural schools, to enable teachers to teach optimally and improved school performance.

Page(s): 211-218                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 May 2020

 Elock Emvula Shikalepo
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

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Elock Emvula Shikalepo “Challenges Facing Teaching at Rural Schools: A Review of Related Literature” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.211-218 May 2020  URL:

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Challenges of Cyber Policing in Response of Cybercrime to Reduce Victimization

Abu Taher Muhammad Abdullah, Israt Jahan – May 2020 Page No.: 219-226

This research investigated cyber policing challenges to reduce victimization in response to cybercrime with a systematic literature review method. Thematic analysis technique adopted to synthesize 111 articles of Scopus and ASSIA databases to find the theme ‘challenges of cyber policing’. While ‘Big Data’ is an important hurdle to cybercrime investigation for police and othe law enforcement organizations, as cyber criminals use images and social media texts in cyber offences. Then, recording of traditional crime fails to identify the digital fraud, commercial victimization, and gang culture which is huge challenge of effective cyber policing. Besides, transnational jurisdiction, ‘Advaced Persistent Threats (APT), Brexit, interdisciplinary barriers, command responsibility, electronic evidence and lack of equipments and devices were identified as challenges of policing in cyberspace. However, future responsive policies to cybercrime recognized as proactive approach to identify this crime, gain digital specialism, national crime database, ‘Swiss Model’, and vigilatntes. Hence, this study is not beyond limitation of empirical observations, which will be the future initiative in the field.

Page(s): 219-226                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 May 2020

 Abu Taher Muhammad Abdullah
MA Criminology, School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Nottingham, UK

 Israt Jahan
MA Digital Media, School of Computing and Digital Media, London Metropolitan University, UK

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Abu Taher Muhammad Abdullah, Israt Jahan “Challenges of Cyber Policing in Response of Cybercrime to Reduce Victimization” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.219-226 May 2020  URL:

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Influence of Universal Basic Education on Political Development in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

Ndum, Victor Etim (Ph.D), Udoye, Rita Nneka and Henshaw, Vera Ene – May 2020 Page No.: 227-231

In this study, a careful examination of influence of Universal Basic Education on Political development in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria is made. The survey research design is used. Population of the study consisted of all teachers and stakeholders of Universal Basic Education in primary schools in Etung Local Government Area. The population size therefore was three hundred and fifty (350) teachers. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select one hundred (100) respondents, forming the sample size. A structured instrument was used for data collection. Data was statistically analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis at.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between Universal Basic Education and Political development. Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers, managers, government and all stakeholders in the Universal Basic Education programme should be more focused and dynamic in their tasks, with the understanding that these efforts would translate into political transformation in Nigeria.

Page(s): 227-231                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2020

 Ndum, Victor Etim (Ph.D)
Institute of Public Policy and Administration, University of Calabar, Nigeria

 Udoye, Rita Nneka
School of Business Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria

 Henshaw, Vera Ene
Institute of Public Policy and Administration, University of Calabar, Nigeria

[1] Abdullahi,D.& Abdullah , M.S. (2014). The Political will and Quality Basic Education in Nigeria. Journal of Power, Politics & Governance, 2(2).
[2] Adesina, A. E. (2011). Perceived impact of primary education on the attainment of Nigeria vision 20:2020.Mediterranean journal of social sciences , 2 (5),61-69.
[3] Ayeni, M.A. (2000).Secondary Education: A New Look at Nigerian Adolescents and Young Adults. A paper presented at the 18th Annual Conference of Philosophy of Education Association of Nigeria, 16th October – 19th October (2000).
[4] Benedict, O. E. (2008) Private sector participation in education and skills development in Nigeria. European journal of social sciences, 6(4) 165-170.
[5] David, H. (2011). Achieving Transformational change in education systems. Quarterly Journal of the College of Teachers,61(2), 35-72.
[6] Enemuo, P.C. (2000).The Strive Towards the Philosophy and Goals of National ideology and the Educational Process: Nigeria at the Cross Roads. A paper presented at the 18th Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Association of Nigeria, 16th October to 19th October (2000).
[7] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERC Press.
[8] Mallinson, V. (1980). An Introduction to the Study of Comparative Education. Heinemann Educational Books, London
[9] Moore, T.W. (1982). Philosophy of Education: An Introduction. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London

OGELE, Eziho Promise “Influence of Universal Basic Education on Political Development in Etung Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.227-231 May 2020  URL:

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Spatial Variability of Global Population, Temperature and Covid-19 Pandemic: Implication for Health Care Management

Dr. Nwaerema, Peace, Dr. Samuel Ibbi Ibrahim – May 2020 Page No.: 232-238

This study examined spatial variability of global population, temperature and covid-19 pandemic as it applies to health care management. The study sampled thirty (30) countries in the six (6) inhabitable continents of the world namely Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America and Australia/Oceania where Covid-19 has been recorded. However, five (5) countries were randomly selected from each of the continents considering their regional locations (geocodes) of north, south, east, west and center. Data were generated from online sources and reports from World Health Organization (WHO). The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to analyze the speculations. However, continents of Asia, Africa and Oceania showed relatively low spread of covid-19 having higher temperature. Continents of North America, South America and Europe showed higher Covid-19 spread with relatively low temperature. Countries with moderate mean temperatures between 11-200C relatively showed higher Covid-19 spread than countries of extreme low and high mean temperature regimes of <0-100C and 21-300C respectively. Finally, this study established that temperature and population density do not have any statistically significant effect on the spread of Covid-19. Therefore, health practitioners and individuals should consider stringent health and hygiene practices to curb the deadly Covid-19 infectious disease worldwide.

Page(s): 232-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2020

 Dr. Nwaerema, Peace
Department of Geography, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria

 Dr. Samuel Ibbi Ibrahim
Department of Geography, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria

[1] Anthony, C. A.; Peterson, R. A.; Polgreen, L. A,; Sewell, D. K.; Polgreen, P. M. (2027). The seasonal variability in surgical site infections and the association with warmer weather: a population-based investigation. Infect Control Hospital Epidemiol, 38, 809-816. doi: 10.1017/ice.2017.84.Isaifan, R. J. (2020).The dramatic impact of Coronavirus outbreak on air quality: Has it saved as much as it has killed so far? Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage. 6(3), 275-288. doi:10.22034/gjesm.2020.03.01.
[2] Cann, K. F.; Thomas, D. R.; Salmon, R. L.; Wyn-Jones, A. P.; Kay, D. (2013). Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease. Epidemiol Infect, 141, 671–86.
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[4] Facts you need to know (n.d): 7 continents of the world: Available from:
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[6] Mordecai, E. A; Cohen, J .M.; Evans, M. V.; Gudapati, P.; Johnson, L. R; Lippi, C. A; etc (2017) Detecting the impact of temperature on transmission of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya using mechanistic models. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 11(4), e0005568. Available from:
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[10] Oliveiros1, B.; L Caramelo, L; Ferreira1, N. C. and Caramelo, F. (2020). Role of temperature and humidity in the modulation of the doubling time of COVID-19 cases. Medrxiv.
[11] Peterson, R A.; Polgreen, L. A.; Cavanaugh, J. E.; Polgreen, P. M. (2017). Increasing incidence, cost, and seasonality in patients hospitalized for cellulitis. Open Forum Infect Dis, 4: ofx008.
[12] Peterson, R. A.; Polgreen, L. A.; Sewell, D. K.; Polgreen, P. M. (2017). Warmer weather as a risk factor for cellulitis: a population-based investigation. Clin Infect Dis, 65, 1167–73.
[13] Perencevich, E. N.; McGregor, J. C.; Shardell, M.; Furuno, J. P.; Harris, A. D.; Morris, J. G.; Fisman, D. N.; Johnson, J. A. (2008). Summer peaks in the incidences of Gramnegative bacterial infection among hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hospital Epidemiol, 29, 1124-1131.doi:10.1086/592698
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Dr. Nwaerema, Peace, Dr. Samuel Ibbi Ibrahim “Spatial Variability of Global Population, Temperature and Covid-19 Pandemic: Implication for Health Care Management” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.232-238 May 2020  URL:

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The Political Ecology of Oil Pipeline Vandalism in Nigeria

Lanre Olu-Adeyemi- May 2020 Page No.: 239-245

This paper examines the effect of oil pipeline vandalism on the Nigerian economic, social and environmental space. It seeks to establish the implications of oil pipeline vandalism for Nigeria especially as it relates to dwindling fortunes for the livelihood of the people of Niger Delta and the national economy cum security. This paper utilized secondary (including historical) sources of data to show the threat of Oil Pipeline Vandalism as exemplified in loss of lives, economic losses, environmental degradation, and pipeline explosions. The paper submits that oil pipeline vandalism portends serious environmental crime with dire consequences for Nigeria.

Page(s): 239-245                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2020

 Lanre Olu-Adeyemi
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria

[1] Abia, D., “Taming Niger Delta Avengers”, Independent Newspaper, Monday, May 23, 2016, p7.
[2] Adeyemo, D. and Olu-Adeyemi, L. (2009) ‘Amnesty in a Vacuum: The unending Insurgency in the Niger Delta of Nigeria” in Victor Ojakorotu and Lysias Dodd Gilbert (eds) Oil Violence in Nigeria: Checkmating its resurgence in the Niger Delta, Berlin: Lambart.
[3] Amnesty International (2011) UN confirms Massive Oil Pollution in Niger Delata available online at http:// (accessed July 2017)
[4] Asu, F., “Theft, vandalism leave fuel pipelines, depots idle”, Punch, Thursday, April 28, 2016, p29
[5] Daily Trust, March 10, 2013 ‘Lies about Nigeria Oil Blocs’
[6] Ebiri, K. and Onakemu, O (2016) “Nigerians Insensitivity to Niger delta Issues responsible for renewed militancy”, The Guardian, Saturday, May 14, p51.
[7] Ebiseni, O. (2014) “Oil first discovered in Ilaje not Oloibiri” Vanguard Newspapers, June 8
[8] Eboh, M.,(2016) “Nigeria loses N13 billion to oil theft, vandalism in one month”, Vanguard, Tuesday, May 31, p21.
[9] Energy Information Administration (2011) Country Analysis Briefs, accessed on July 22, 2017)
[10] Falola, T (1999) The History of Nigeria: Nigeria in the Twentieth Century, Lagos. Pp 133-156
[11] National Bureau of Statistics(2017) Quarter 4 (2016) Unemployment Report, NBS, Abuja, p. 4
[12] NEITI (2013) “Annual report of the Nigerian extractive industry transparency initiative, NEITI, Nigeria.
[13] Njoku, A (2016) Oil Pipelines Vandalism And Its Effects On The Socio-Economic Development
[14] In Nigerian Society in International Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Research Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016 Pp 47-60
[15] Okoli, A. C. and Orinya, S. (2013) Oil Pipeline Vandalism and Nigeria’s National Security in Global Journal of Human Social Science Volume 13 Issue 5 Version Pp 66-75
[16] NNPC (2015) “Report of special committee on the review of petroleum product supply and distribution”, Nigerian National Petroleum Cooperation, 2015 at:
[17] Onuoha, F. (2007).”Poverty, pipeline vandalization/explosion and human security: Integrating disaster management into Poverty Education in Nigeria “ (Assessed July 16, 2017).
[18] Onyibe, P. and Ejim, C., “Again, militants bomb Agip pipeline in Bayelsa”, New Telegraph, Monday, May 23, 2016, p1.
[19] Petroleum Production and Distribution (Anti-Sabotage) Act of 1975
[20] Premium Times, 2016, July 26 (accessed on July 12, 2017)
[21] Sanusi, A.O., Josiah, C., and Isa, H. (2016)The Environmental Impact of Pipeline Vandalism – A Challenge to Biodiversity in Portharcourt Area of Rivers State, Nigeria in International Journal of Advances in Chemical Engineering & Biological Sciences (IJACEBS) Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp 142-146
[22] Salau, S., (2014)“Shell to sell more oil fields in Nigeria”, The Guardian, Thursday, August 28, p.24.
[23] UNEP (2011) Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland, pg 1 – 25
[24] Vivan, E.L (2012) “Socio-Economic Impact of the Oil Industry in the Niger-Delta Region in Five Decades of Oil Production in Nigeria: Impact on Niger- Delta” in CENDS, Centre of Environmental and Niger- Delta Studies. Delta State University, Abraka, pp. 193-203, Yusuf, A. (2015) “Nigeria loses 150,000 barrels of oil export daily”, New Telegraph, Thursday, October 1.
[25] Yusuf, A. (2016) “Nigeria risks N1.4bn daily oil income losses”, New Telegraph, Tuesday, May 12. p4.

Lanre Olu-Adeyemi “The Political Ecology of Oil Pipeline Vandalism in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.239-245 May 2020  URL:

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Physical Condition Determinants of Quality of Life in Selected Communities in Yenagoa City, Nigeria

Eyenghe, Tari, Samuel Dagogo – May 2020 Page No.: 246-255

Spatial and population growth of urban areas impact on physical conditions of urban communities and affects Quality of Life (QOL). The study aimed to assess physical condition determinants of QOL in selected communities in Yenagoa City, Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study are to identify and determine physical condition indicators of QOL in communities in the study area; assess the effects of physical condition indicators of QOL in communities in the study area; and provide physical planning framework to enhance physical condition of QOL in communities in the study area. The study employed a Mixed Methods Research (MMR) methodology adopting concurrent triangulation research design. The study identified 29 communities in the study area and 20% representing 6 communities specifically; Famgbe, Yenagoa, Ovom, Yenizue-Gene, Yenegwe and Igbogene communities were randomly selected for the study. A total of 399 respondents were selected for interview using stratified sampling technique and key informant approach was employed to obtain quantitative and qualitative data subjectively and objectively. The study revealed that buildings in the study area are mostly rooming housing and block of flats and these buildings are mostly permanent structures. Occupants are mostly renters and having between 2-3 and 4-6 households occupying a building with an average of 4-6 persons per households occupying between 1room and 2-3rooms reflecting overcrowding and high densification. Buildings lack water supply and irregular public power supply, communities are unplanned lacking access roads and non-functional drainages. Some of households domestic wastes and sewage disposal methods are unstainable and environmentally unfriendly which made rating of physical neighbourhood conditions by residents to be mixed in feelings as good and bad. These conditions have impacted positively and negatively on QOL of communities in the study area. The study recommended a review and implementation of Yenagoa Master Plan of 2004 to achieve sustainable urban planning and development in communities of the study area; BSPPDB and other government agencies should strictly enforce urban planning policies, regulations and standards to enhance physical conditions of communities to improve QOL through building and housing codes and public health and environmental edicts of the city; urban sprawl and leapfrog development should be curtailed with sustainable and efficient physical planning and development control measures to prevent squatter and slum formation; carryout urban renewal schemes in communities to enhance physical conditions of communities by providing and upgrading existing infrastructure and services to improve QOL in communities in Yenagoa City.

Page(s): 246-255                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2020

 Eyenghe, Tari
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Samuel Dagogo
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Barcaccia, B. (2013). Quality of Life: Everyone Wants It, But What Is It? Retrieved 6th June, 2018 from https//…/2013/quality-of-life
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[13] Søren V.,Joav, M. & Niels, J.A. (2003). Quality of Life Theory I. The IQOL Theory: An Integrative Theory of the Global Quality of Life Concept. The Scientific World Journal,3, 1030-1040.
[14] The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) (2011). A Summary of the Liveability Ranking and Overview August 2011. London, UK: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited.
[15] United Nations (UN) (2018). UN: 68 Percent of World Population Will Live in Urban Areas by 2050. Retrieved 12th December, 2018 from…/2018-05percent
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[17] United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) (2016). Measurement of City Prosperity: Methodology and Metadata. Retrieved 6th April, 2018 from /CPI%20METADATA.2016.pdf

Eyenghe, Tari, Samuel Dagogo “Physical Condition Determinants of Quality of Life in Selected Communities in Yenagoa City, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.246-255 May 2020  URL:

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Improving the Mouse Skills of Basic School Learners Using the Optical Mouse and Self Instructional Software. A Case of a Ghanaian Basic School

Samuel Asare, Agyemang Eno Leticia – May 2020 Page No.: 256-270

The study came about as a result of poor performance showed by Bosofour R\C primary 6 learners’ during practical sessions. The general objective of the study is to examine the causes of learner’s poor mouse skills and provide an immediate solution to it. The research was conducted at Bosofour R\C primary school from the month of December, 2019 to June, 2020. The study was critically analyzed, though ICT is a core subject offered by all learners’ in the school, but due to time constraint, nature of the research and inadequate financial support, all the classes could not be covered but few were sampled to represent the whole school. The study adopted a random sampling technique for its appropriateness in reaching out to a large representative sample and generalization of the findings. The target population included five hundred and twenty (520) learners, comprising of two hundred and forty-eight (248) boys and two hundred and seventy-two (272) girls. Random sampling techniques was used to select twenty (20) learners’. Test, interview and observation were the main instruments used for data collection. The main design for the study was action research. The collected data was analyzed with the help of frequency distribution table, using pre- test and post- test as a method of obtaining data. The challenges of the study include; insufficient time for practical activity lessons, abstract methods of teaching, inadequate teaching\ learning resources and teachers’ pedagogical knowledge about the course. The results of the study showed that learners’ mouse skills may be improved by the use of optical mouse, self –instructional software and giving students enough time during practical sessions. It is therefore recommended that, Ghana Education Service should equip all Basic schools across the country with several types of educational software’s, in addition in-service training on ICT should be provided for all teachers, and finally, much time should be allotted for ICT practical activity lessons.

Page(s): 256-270                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2020

 Samuel Asare
St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

 Agyemang Eno Leticia
St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

[1] Barton A, Simth , Jante Ho ,Wendy Ark and Shumin Zhai. (2000). Hand Eye Cooridination Patterns in Target Selection.
[2] Bullock, D. (2004). Moving from theory to practice; An examination of the factors that pre-service teachers encounter as they attempt to gain experience teaching with technology during filled placement experiences. Journal of technology and teacher education, 12(2), 221-237.

[3] Cohen, L. Manion, L and Morrison , K . (2000). Research methods in education.
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[21] Yelland, N. (2001). Barriers to successful intergration of ICT in teaching ans learning environments. U.S Department of education office of educational technology.

Samuel Asare, Agyemang Eno Leticia “Improving the Mouse Skills of Basic School Learners Using the Optical Mouse and Self Instructional Software. A Case of a Ghanaian Basic School” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.256-270 May 2020  URL:

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Proffering Solution to Professional Misconduct among Secondary School Teachers in Nnewi Education Zone

Stanley U. Nnorom, Ezenwagu, Stephen – May 2020 Page No.: 271-275

This study was carried out in the aim of providing solutions to professional misconduct among secondary school teachers in Nnewi Education Zone. To achieve this, the study adopted a survey research design method. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection.280 teachers were studied in the area. Mean rating was used to analyze the data collected. The findings of the study showed that there are several professional misconducts on the side of the teachers; these misconducts have negative effects on the academic development of the schools and the students. The study concluded that if strong measures are not taken by the government and other stakeholders, the schools will end up a place where children receive bad training instead of good one. Based on the findings, the study recommended that government should ensure that teachers are thoroughly screened for academic qualification and otherwise before they are employed for teaching; rules and regulations should be made to guide the school teachers, and must be applied all the time; the quality of teachers performance must be checked at the end of every term through the academic performance of the students. This will help to ascertain the level of teacher’s commitment during the term; and there should be regulatory bodies in the school that monitor the activities of the school. The presence of these bodies will make the teacher refrain from unprofessional activities in the school.

Page(s): 271-275                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2020

 Stanley U. Nnorom
Department of Educational Management and Policy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Ezenwagu, Stephen
Department of Educational Management and Policy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

[1]. Amadi, C. (2016). Effective management at the beginning of the school year. The Elementary School Journal, 80, 219-231.
[2]. Barrett, F. (2015). Understanding interaction the dynamics of emotional and behavioural difficulties. Ohio: AKP.
[3]. Ebert, T. (2013). Ethics: An introduction to moral philosophy. U.K: Polity Press.
[4]. Enamiroro, N. (2018). Ethics in education: The role of teacher codes. Paris: UNESCO.
[5]. Gibson, R. (2018). International Handbook of Research on Teachers and Teaching, Springer International Handbooks of Education, 21, 417-431.
[6]. Green, D. (2016) The extent of physical education teachers’ compliance with the professional code of ethics and conduct in Tanzania. Unpublished PhD thesis, Kenyatta University, Kenya.
[7]. Hall, L. (2015). Corrupt schools, corrupt universities: What can be done? Paris: IIEP.
[8]. Hawa, E. (2016). Classroom problem behavior and teacher-child relationships in kindergarten: The moderating role of classroom climate. Journal of School Psychology, 46(4), 367-391
[9]. Hursthouse, R. (2013). Virtue Ethics. Auckland: Fall Publishers
[10]. Jill, V. (2015). Effective management at the beginning of the school year in junior high classes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 485-498
[11]. Lebrun, K. (2019) Teaching respect in the classroom: An instructional approach. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8, 245-262
[12]. Mabagala, P. (2017). The prevalence of professional misconduct among public secondary school teachers in Nzega District. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 35-40
[13]. Newton, E. (2017). Understanding classroom management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
[14]. Nwoko, I. (2017). Decline in the professional code of conduct among the teachers in Nigerian public schools: Causes and Implication. M.A Unpublished Dissertation, University of Nigeria, Nssuka.
[15]. Onichamba, F. (2015). Student teachers observations of unfavorable teacher behaviors exhibited in classrooms. Psychological Reports, 108(1), 45-53
[16]. Shah, G. (2016). Impact Of Teacher’s Behaviour on the impact of teacher’s behaviour on the academic achievement of university students. Acra: Syphon Press.

Stanley U. Nnorom, Ezenwagu, Stephen “Proffering Solution to Professional Misconduct among Secondary School Teachers in Nnewi Education Zone” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.271-275 May 2020  URL:

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Climate Change and Air Pollution: Implication for Human Health and Environment in Rivers State

Dr. Ajiere, Susan, Dr. Nwaerema, Peace – May 2020 Page No.: 276-279

he importance of sustainability is geared towards development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability to also meet future needs and that is why all nations of the world are finding solutions to reduce the impact of climate change and air pollution in the environment. Climate change and air pollution are very important environmental problems facing nations and cities of the world. Climate change has widespread impacts on human and natural ecosystems across the globe. The US and other nations of the world are experiencing its impact but Africa has been considered to be the world’s most endangered region due to the tender or fragile nature of its ecosystem and economy [1]. Climate change refers to a shift in the state of the climate that can be identified using statistical tests by changes in the mean or the variability of its properties that persists for an extended period typically in number of decades due to natural variability or as a result of human activities [1]. Climate change alters the composition of the global atmosphere over comparable time periods [2]. Thus, climate change describes the current trend toward higher average of global temperatures and accompanying environmental shifts such as rising sea levels and more severe storms, floods, droughts and heat waves [3]. The phenomenon is basically is a statistically observed change in the climatic elements of a country or region over a period of time.

Page(s): 276-279                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2020

 Dr. Ajiere, Susan
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Dr. Nwaerema, Peace
Department of Geography, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Nigeria

[1]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] (2007). Climate change: synthesis report. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Geneva, Switzerland.
[2]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2007). Climatic change impact, vulnerabilities and adaptation in developing countries UNFCCC Secretariat, Martin-Luther-King-Strait 8 53175 Bonn, Germany. www.un
[3]. Glenn, D. R. (2019). Research from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Climate Change and the Federal Reserve. Available from:
[4]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] (2014). Climate Change: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland, Pp151.
[5]. United Nations Environment Programme World Environment Day (2019). Air pollution. Available from:
[6]. Udayasoorian, C; Jayabalakrishnan, R. M., Suguna, A. R., Mukunda, M. G., & Suresh, S. B. (2014). Aerosol black carbon characteristics over a high-altitude Western Ghats location in Southern India. Ann Geophys, 32, 1361-1371.
[7]. World Health Organisation (2018). Ambient (outdoor) air pollution. Available from: ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-an.
[8]. Shell Petroleum Development Company [SPDC], (2017). Soot Report: Ambient Air Characterization of Selected Areas in Port Harcourt.
[9]. Oyegun, C. U. (2016). Petroleum Development and Environmental Quality in the Niger Delta. In proceedings of the International Conference on Deltas in Africa, University of Port Harcourt.
[10]. Sokari, T. G. (2016). Silent, Sinister Effects of Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta; Worth Closer Attention. In proceedings of the International Conference on Deltas in Africa, University of Port Harcourt.
[11]. Weli, V. E. (2014). Atmospheric Concentration of Particulate Pollutants and its Implications for Respiratory Health Hazard Management in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Civil and Environmental Research, 6(23), 11-17.
[12]. Kuenzer, C., Van, B., Gessner, U., & Dech, S. (2014). Land Surface Dynamics and Environmental Challenges of the Niger Delta, Africa: Remote Sensing-based Analysis Spanning three decades (1986-2013). Applied Geography, 53, 354-368.
[13]. Ede, P. N. and Edokpa, D. O. (2015). Regional Air Quality of the Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 4(1), 4236-54348.
[14]. Ajiere, S. l and Weli, V. E. (2018). Assessing the impact of climate change on Maize (Zea mays) and cassava (manihot esculenta) in Rivers State Nigeria. 8(2): 274-285 doi:10.4236/acs.2018.82018.
[15]. National Research Council [NRC] (2010). Advancing the Science of Climate Change. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
[16]. Jacob, D. J. and Darrel, A. W. (2009). Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment, 43(1). 51-63. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.051.
[17]. Yakubu, O. (2017). Particle (soot) pollution in Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria- Double Air pollution Burden Understanding and Tracking Potential Environmental Public Health Impacts. Environments, 5(1), 2-8.
[18]. Ede, P. N. and Edokpa, D. O. (2017). Satellite Determination of Particulate Load over Port Harcourt during Black Soot Incident. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution, 5(2), 55-61.
[19]. United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation (2010). Available from:
[20]. Kath, L. (2010). Air Pollution and Climate Change. Science for Environmental Policy, 24, 1-3.
[21]. Ugbebor, J. N., Yorkor, B., & Amadi, G. (2019). Assessment of air quality and its health implications on Abuja campus residence, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Science, Technology and Environment Informatics, 7(1), 500-509.
[22]. Weli, V. E., Adegoke, J., & Eyo, B. J. (2018). The Incidence of Soot and Surface Boundary Layer Meteorology in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Climatology and Weather, 6(2), 2-9. doi:10.4172/2332-2594.1000233.

Dr. Ajiere, Susan, Dr. Nwaerema, Peace “Climate Change and Air Pollution: Implication for Human Health and Environment in Rivers State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.276-279 May 2020  URL:

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Intellectual Capital and Business Performance of Self-employers in Sri Lanka: An Empirical Investigation

P.A. Dulanjani, H. M. S. Priyanath – May 2020 Page No.: 280-287

This paper aims to explore the impact of intellectual capital on business performance of self-employers in Sri Lanka. The data were collected from 115 self-employers in Ingiriya Divisional Secretary Division in Sri Lanka. Partial Least Square – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was conducted to test research hypotheses. The findings revealed that human capital and relational capital have a positive and significant impact on the business performance of self-employers except structural capital. In particular, relational capital has the strongest and largest contribution to business performance. Thus, the study provided sufficient evidences to conclude that relational capital and human capital have a significant impact on business performance of self-employers in Sri Lanka. The study provides more important insights for the self-employers and policy makers to make strategies to strength the intellectual capital in order to achieve business performance.

Page(s): 280-287                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2020

 P.A. Dulanjani
Department of Economics and Statistics, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka

 H. M. S. Priyanath
Department of Economics and Statistics, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka

[1] Baum, J.A.C. and Silverman, B.S. (2004) Picking winners or building them? Alliance, intellectual, and human capital as selection criteria in venture financing and performance of biotechnology startups, Journal of Business Venture. 19, pp. 411–436.
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[3] Bontis, N. (2009) A causal model of human capital antecedents and consequents in financial services industry. Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 53-69.
[4] Bontis, N. (2003) Intellectual capital disclosure in Canadian corporations, Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting, Vol. 7, No. 1/2, pp. 9–20.
[5] Bontis, N. C. (2000) Intellectual capital and business performance in Malaysian industries. Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 1 No. 1, 85-100.
[6] Bontis, N. (1998) Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models. Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 36 No. 02, pp. 63-76.
[7] Brooking, A. (1996) Intellectual capital: Core Asset for the Third Millennium Enterprise. International Thomson Business Press.
[8] Chahal, H. and Bakshi, P. (2016) Measurement of Intellectual Capital in the Indian Banking Sector. The Journal of Decision Makers, 41, pp. 61-73.
[9] Chaudhuri, C.A. and Holbrook, M.B. (2001) The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 65 No. 2, pp. 81-93.
[10] Daum, J. H. (2005) Intangible Assets-Based Enterprise Management – A Practical Approach, PMA IC Symposium, 15 December 2005, Stern School of Business, New York.
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[12] Edvinsson, L. A. (1996). Profiting from intellectual capital: learning from leading companies. Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 33-46.
[13] Edvinsson, L. and Malone, M.S. (1997) Intellectual Capital: Realizing Your Company’s True Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower. Harper Business, New York.
[14] Firer, S. and Mitchell Williams, S. (2003) Intellectual capital and traditional measures of corporate performance, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 4 No. 3, pp. 348-360.
[15] F-Jardon, C. and Martos, (2009) Intellectual capital and performance in wood industries of Argentina. Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 1452-1469.
[16] Gamage K.V.P.I. and Priyanath, H. M. S. (2019). Interpersonal trust, opportunism and business performance: An empirical evidence of gem dealers in Sri Lanka, International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management, 10(2), 96-118.
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[18] Huang, H. and Chang, W. (2007). Embedded ties and the acquisition of competitive advantage. Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 91-105.
[19] Iswatia, S. and Anshoria, M. (2007) The Influence of Intellectual Capital to Financial Performance at Insurance Companies in Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSE), Proceedings of the 13th Asia Pacific Management Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 2007, pp. 1393-1399.
[20] Johan Roos, Göran Roos, Leif Edvinsson, Nicola C. Dragonetti. (1997) Intellectual Capital ‐ Navigating in the New Business Landscape. London: Macmillan Press.
[21] Kannan, G. and Aulbur, W.G. (2004) Intellectual capital: Measurement effectiveness, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 389-413.
[22] Kamukama, N., Ahiauzu, A. and Ntayi, J. (2010) Intellectual Capital and Performance: Testing Interaction Effects. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 11, pp. 554-574.
[23] Kaplan, R. A. (2004) Measuring the strategic readiness of intangible assets. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 82 No. 2, pp. 52-63.
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P.A. Dulanjani, H. M. S. Priyanath “Intellectual Capital and Business Performance of Self-employers in Sri Lanka: An Empirical Investigation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.280-287 May 2020  URL:

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General Recommendations 19 and 36 Issued under the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women: A Critical Review of Sri Lanka

K A A N Thilakarathna – May 2020 Page No.: 288-296

Sri Lanka became a state party to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) on 5th October 1981 and has even introduced a Women’s Charter in 1993 all of which is put in place to afford women with equality and fairness. The 1978 Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, under Article 12 of the Constitution prohibits discrimination based on sex and it further provides for the governments to take affirmative actions in safeguarding and promoting the rights of the women. This paper in particular looks at general recommendation 19 dealing with gender-based violence against women and general recommendation 36 which deals with the right to education of the women, both issued under CEDAW. In looking at the background of these recommendations and their implementation from a Sri Lankan context, it is revealed that, while compared to many South Asian countries, the standards enjoyed by the women in the country can be appreciated, there still remains some gray areas in the laws and policies of the country that is some what short of the standards expected under CEDAW. Therefore, this article showcases those gray areas and suggests possible solutions that could be practically implemented to overcomes those shortcomings.

Page(s): 288-296                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2020

 K A A N Thilakarathna
Institute of Human Resource Advancement, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

[1] Azza Karam, “Education as the pathway towards gender equality”, UN Chronicle, vol. L, No. 4 (2013).
[2] Deepika Udagama, Implementation of the UN Convention on Women (CEDAW) in Sri Lanka: A Country Study, 24 Sri Lanka J. Int’l L. 53 (2012-2015)
[3] Government of Sri Lanka, ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 Of the Convention Eighth Periodic Report ff States Parties Due In 2015’ (UN 2015).
[4] Government of Sri Lanka, ‘Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 18 Of the Convention Combined fifth, sixth and seventh periodic reports of States Parties 2010′ (UN 2010).
[5] Malathi de Alwis and Kumari Jayawardena, Casting Pearls (Social Scientists’ Association, Colombo 2001)
[6] Marsha A Freeman, C. M Chinkin and Beate Rudolf, The UN Convention on The Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1st edn, Oxford University Press 2013)
[7] The United Nations and The Advancement of Women, 1945-1995, UN Blue Book Series, Vol. VI (Rev edn, 1996)
[8] UN, ‘General Recommendation No. 19 On Gender-Based Violence Against Women’ (UN 1992). and UN, ‘General Recommendation No. 35 On Gender-Based Violence Against Women, Updating General Recommendation No. 19’ (UN 2017).
[9] UN, ‘General recommendation No. 36 (2017) on the right of girls and women to education’ (UN 2017).
[10] UN, ‘General Recommendations Adopted by The Committee on The Elimination of Discrimination Against Women’ (, 2019)
[11] UNESCO Institute for Statistics and United Nations Children’s Fund, Fixing the Broken Promise of Education for All: Findings from the Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children (2015).

K A A N Thilakarathna “General Recommendations 19 and 36 Issued under the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women: A Critical Review of Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.288-296 May 2020  URL:

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Youth Participation in Rural Community Infrastructural Development in Gombi Local Government Area Adamawa State, Nigeria

Garandi, I. D., Hassan, S. T. (Ph.D), Hyelnacha, B. A. – May 2020 Page No.: 297-304

This research assessed the contributions of youth in rural community infrastructural development in Gombi Local Government Area of Adamawa State. For the purpose of this research, 200 questionnaires were administered to respondents in five (5) selected wards of the study area on the principle of stratified random sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis and presentation of data collected. The findings of the study indicate that youth participation in rural community infrastructural development played a significance role in the process of rural community infrastructural development. The findings further revealed that most of the projects undertaken in the communities are done through team work which shows that youth participation are playing great role in all aspect of life in rural areas. However, there are some problems hindering the full efforts of the youths in the area with regards to finance and assistance while trying to conduct any developmental project. The research recommends that there should be unity and mutual assistance among community members to encourage youth participation in rural community infrastructural development particularly in the study area. Members of rural communities should advise the youths of the various communities to join youth organizations so that development will take place rapidly.

Page(s): 297-304                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2020

 Garandi, I. D.
Department of Geography, Adamawa State University’ Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

 Hassan, S. T. (Ph.D)
Department of Geography, Adamawa State University’ Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

 Hyelnacha, B. A.
Department of Geography, Adamawa State University’ Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

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Garandi, I. D., Hassan, S. T. (Ph.D), Hyelnacha, B. A. “Youth Participation in Rural Community Infrastructural Development in Gombi Local Government Area Adamawa State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.297-304 May 2020  URL:

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Influence of Home Environment on Students’ Performance in Public Day Secondary Schools in Katulani Sub-County, Kenya

Judith Kavutha Muema, Dr. Rose Mwanza, Dr. Janet K. Mulwa – May 2020 Page No.: 305-308

This study sought to investigate the Influence of Home Environment on Students’ Performance in Public Day Secondary School in Kenya. The study objectives sought to establish the influence of parents’ level of income and parenting style on students’ performance in public day secondary schools in Katulani sub-County. The study was based on the Effective Schools model whose proponent is Lezotte. Descriptive survey research design was employed. The target population comprised of 59 principals and 885 teachers. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to obtain a sample size of 18 principals and 89 teachers. Questionnaires were used as tools for data collection. Pilot study was carried to establish instrument validity. A Test re-test technique was used to establish instrument reliability. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data which was presented using frequency distribution tables. Qualitative data was organized into themes and presented in narrative form. From the findings, 43.8% of the principals strongly agreed and 6.3% of the principals disagreed that students whose parents have better income perform well in academics as they are provided with more learning materials. The study also found from 37.5% of the principals who strongly agreed and from 25.0% of the principals who disagreed that parenting style has a direct influence on student academic performance. The study concludes that economic status and parenting style have significant influence on students’ academic performance in public day secondary schools.

Page(s): 305-308                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 June 2020

  Judith Kavutha Muema
Master of Education Student, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

  Dr. Rose Mwanza
Lecturer, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

  Dr. Janet K. Mulwa
Lecturer, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

[1]. Abesha, G (2013). Effects of parenting styles, academic self efficacy and achievement motivation on the academic achievement of university students in Ethiopia (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Edith Cowan University,doi10.1.414.7354
[2]. Adesehinwa O. A. & Aremu, A. O. (2010). The relationship among predictors of child, family, school, society and the government and academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Procedia Social. Behaviour Sciences, 5(2), 842 – 849
[3]. Akinsanya, O. O., Ajayi, K. O. & Salomi, M. O. (2011). Relative effects of parental occupation, qualification and academic motivation of wards on students’ achievement in senior secondary school mathematics in Ogun State. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 3(2), 242 -252
[4]. Ali, N., Jusoff, K., Ali, S., Mokhtar, N., & Salamat, A. S. A. (2014). The factors influencing students’ performance at Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah, Malaysia. Management Science and Engineering, 3(4), 81 – 96.
[5]. Awasthi, S. (2017). Perceived parenting styles as correlates of achievement. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4(3),175-194.
[6]. Chonge, H. M., Barasa, P. N., & Chonge, B. M. (2016). Influence of parenting styles and self- concept on students’ achievement in Mathematics: A case study of Kaplamai divison, Transnzoia County in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology, 3(3),74-85
[7]. Barnard, W. M. (2014). Parent involvement in elementary school and educational attainment. Children and Youth Services Review, 2(6), 39- 62.
[8]. Egunsola, A. O. E. (2014). Influence of home environment on academic performance of secondary school students in agricultural science in Adamawa State Nigeria. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 4(4), 46-53.
[9]. Fairmon, U. (2010). The importance of secondary education. Rand Afrikaans University. Joannesburg. South Africa.
[10]. Hoghuighi, M., & Long, N. (2004). A handbook of parenting: Theory and research for practices. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
[11]. Jayanthi, J. & Srinivasan, K. (2015). Influence of Home Environment on Academic Achievement in Mathematics. IOSR Journal of Mathematics, 11(4), 26-31
[12]. Kamuti, J. M. (2015). Influence of home environment on academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Kitui west sub county, Kitui County, Kenya. Doctoral dissertation, Kenyatta University
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[14]. Lezotte, L.W. (2010). What effective schools do: Re-envisioning the correlates. Indianapolis, IN: Solution Tree
[15]. Machana, T. Kevogo, N., & Mwebi, B. (2017). Influence of Selected Home Environmental Factors on Pupils’ Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools, Kenya. International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, 4(2), 1 – 28
[16]. Obeta, A. O. (2014). Home environmental factors affecting students’ academic performance in Abia State, Nigeria. In Rural Environment. Education. Personality. (REEP). Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference (Latvia). Latvia University of Agriculture
[17]. Ogawa, K. (2010). Universal Primary Education Policy and Quality of Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Case Study of Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda (Master’s Project, Kobe University).
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[21]. Slaughter, D. T., & Epps, E. G. (2012). The home environment and academic achievement of Black American children and youth: An overview. The Journal of Negro Education, 56(1), 3-20.

Judith Kavutha Muema, Dr. Rose Mwanza, Dr. Janet K. Mulwa “Influence of Home Environment on Students’ Performance in Public Day Secondary Schools in Katulani Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.305-308 May 2020  URL:

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Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour of Farmers for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Benue State, Nigeria

Lughlugh, Joseph – May 2020 Page No.: 309-312

The study investigated Information needs and Information Seeking behaviour of farmers in Benue State for sustainable agricultural development. Three purposes with corresponding research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The population of the study comprised of 4200 registered farmers with Benue State Agricultural and Rural Development Authority (BNARDA). The sample size for the study was 365 farmers who were selected using multi-stage sampling procedure. The instrument employed for data collection was a self-developed questionnaire titled ‘Questionnaire on Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour of Farmers in Benue State” (QINISBFBS) which was validated by three experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was established using Cronbach Alpha method and a reliability coefficient of 0.72 was obtained which showed that the instrument was highly reliable. Data collected for the study were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentages to answer research questions and chi-square statistics to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed some information needs of farmers for Sustainable agricultural development in Benue to include; fertilizer and agrochemicals, pest and diseases control, agricultural finance, improved seedling, post-harvest technology, control of weeds, modern technology application among others. It also revealed that Information needs of farmers significantly leads to sustainable agricultural development in Benue State. Recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.

Page(s): 309-312                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 June 2020

 Lughlugh, Joseph
University Library and Information Services, Benue State University, Makurdi-Nigeria

[1] Anwar, M. A. (2007). Research on information seeking and use: An assessment. Pakistan Journal of Library and Information Science, 8, 15–32.
[2] Ekoja, I.I. (2010). Personal variables affecting the adoption of Agricultural Innovations by Nigeria Farmers.Forthcoming in the South Africa Journal of Agricultural extension
[3] Emmanuel H. (2012). Information needs and information seeking behaviour of rural Farmers in okpokwu local government area of Benue state of Nigeria. Master’s thesis submitted to department of library and Information Science University of Nigeria, Nsukkaretrieved from ( on October 27, 2017.
[4] Muhammad A. N., Anwar M.A., and Surraya B. (2012) Information seeking by Pakistani farmers: A review of published research. Pakistan Journal of Library & Information Science, 13, 2
[5] National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2017). Retrieved from ( on October 28, 2017.
[6] Njoku, I.F. (2004). Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour of Fishermen in Lagos State; Nigeria International Information and Library Review 36 (4), 123-130.
[7] Ofuoku, G.N. (2008). Information Utilization among Rural Fish Farmers in central, Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria.In Emmanuel (2012).
[8] Oladele (2008).Information Society in Nigeria: The role of Government and Private sector.
[9] Rhoe, V., Oboh, V. and Shelton, P. (2010) The Role of Libraries in Supporting Agricultural Policy Research- Evidence from Selected University and Research Institute Libraries in Nigeria. Nigeria Strategy Support Program (NSSP). Paper No 0014. Retrieved from on October 31, 2017

Lughlugh, Joseph “Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour of Farmers for Sustainable Agricultural Development in Benue State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.309-312 May 2020  URL:

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Risk Management Committee Size, Independence, Expertise and Financial Performance of Listed Insurance Firms in Nigeria

Ibrahim Mallam Fali,Okika Nkiru Philomena, Yunusa Ibrahim & Janada Amos – May 2020 Page No.: 313-319

Continuous collapse of many organization have increase the demand to have a committee aside the board whose focus is on setting and implementing firm risk policy, appetite and limit. With firm goal on maximizing profit, this study evaluates the effect of risk management committee size, independence, expertise on financial performance of listed insurance companies in Nigeria from 2012 to 2018. The study used a sample size of (24) insurance companies from population of 27 insurance firms. The study used secondary data obtained from annual report of the firms. The dependent variable was measured by return on asset (ROA) The study employed Random Effect regression model and find evidence that risk management committee expertise has negative and significant effect on financial performance while risk management committee size and independence does not influence financial performance. The study concludes that risk management committee constrain on management excess risk undertaking will lead to poor financial performance of insurance firms. The study recommends that the risk management committee should be made effective by inclusion of more members with back ground on finance and actuarial sciences into risk management committee structures.

Page(s): 313-319                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 June 2020

 Ibrahim Mallam Fali
Department of Accounting, University of Calabar, Nigeria

 Okika Nkiru Philomena
Independent Researcher, Lagos, Nigeria

 Yunusa Ibrahim
Department of Accountancy, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria

 Janada Amos
Department of Accounting, University of Calabar, Nigeria

[1] Abubakar, A. H., Ado, A. B., Mohamed, M. I., & Mustapha, U. A. (2018). The Effect of Risk Management Committee Attributes and Board Financial Knowledge on the Financial Performance of Listed Banks in Nigeria.American International Journal of Business Management, 1(2), 07-13.
[2] Akindele, R. I. (2012). Risk management and corporate governance performance—Empirical evidence from the Nigerian banking sector. IFE Psychologia: An International Journal, 20(1), 103–120.
[3] Akinsulire, O. (2006).Financial Management. 4th Edition, Ceemol Nigeria Limited.
[4] Akpey I. G. and Azembila A. B. (2016). The Effect of Audit Committees on the Performance of firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange. Journal of Business and Management, 18(11), 55-62.
[5] Battaglia, F., Gallo, A., & Graziano, A. E. (2014). Strong boards, risk committee and bank performance: Evidence from India and China. In Corporate Governance in Emerging Markets (pp. 79-105). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
[6] Bédard, J., Chtourou, S. M., & Courteau, L. (2004). The effect of audit committee expertise, independence, and activity on aggressive earnings management. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, 23(2), 13-35.
[7] Davies, B. (2013). Papers how do boards address risk management and oversight􀯗? Journal of Risk Management in Financial Institution, 6(4), 352–365.
[8] Edogbanya, A., & Kamardin, H. (2015). The Relationship between Audit and Risk Management Committees on Financial Performance of Non-financial Companies in Nigeria: A Conceptual Review. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(3), 206.
[9] Elamer, A. A., & Benyazid, I. (2018). The Impact of Risk Committee on Financial Performance of UK Financial Institutions.
[10] FRC. (2012). Guidance on Audit Committees. London: Financial Reporting Council.
[11] FRC. (2014). Guidance on Risk Management, Internal Control and Related Financial and Business Reporting. London: Financial Reporting Council.
[12] Halim, E. H., Mustika, G., Sari, R. N., Anugerah, R., & Mohd-Sanusi, Z. (2017). Corporate governance practices and financial performance: The mediating effect of risk management committee at manufacturing firms. Journal of International Studies, 10(4), 272-289. doi:10.14254/2071-8330.2017/10-4/21
[13] Heenetigala, K., & Armstrong, A. F. (2011, December). The impact of corporate governance on firm performance in an unstable economic and political environment: Evidence from Sri Lanka. In 2012 Financial markets & corporate governance conference.
[14] Ravichandran, M., & Subramanian, M. V. (2016). A Study on Financial Performance Analysis of Force Motors Limited. International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, 2(11), 662-666.
[15] Dinu, V., & Nedelcu, M. (2015). The Relationship between the Audit Committee and the Financial Performance, the Asset Quality and the Solvency of Banks in Romania. Transformations in Business & Economics, 14(2), 35.
[16] Jensen, M. C., and Meckling, W. H. (1976). Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3(4), 305-360.
[17] Jimoh, A. T., & Attah, J. A. (2018). Risk management committee attributes and bank performance in Nigeria. Fountain University Osogbo Journal of Management, 2(3).
[18] Kakanda M. M., Salim B. and Chandren S. (2017). Risk Management Committee Characteristics and Market Performance: Empirical Evidence from listed financial firms in Nigeria. Proceedings of 94th IASTEM International Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malasia.
[19] Kallamu, B. S., Saat, N. A. M., & Senik, R. (2013). Corporate strategy and firm performance in finance industry: the moderating role risk management committee. Management, 2(11), 143-153.
[20] Kazeem, H. S. (2015). Firm specific characteristics and financial performance of listed insurance firms in Nigeria: Unpublished M. Sc Dissertation.
[21] Kibiya, M. U., Che-Ahmad, A., & Amran, N. A. (2016). Audit committee independence, financial expertise, share ownership and financial reporting quality: Further evidence from Nigeria. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 6(7S), 125-131.
[22] Koładkiewicz, I. (2014). Audit Committees in Polish Supervisory Boards: Common Practice and New Challenges. In Corporate Governance in Emerging Markets (pp. 311-329). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
[23] Malik, M. F. (2017). Enterprise risk management and firm performance: Role of the risk committee (Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology).
[24] McShane, M. K., Nair, a., & Rustambekov, E. (2011). Does Enterprise Risk Management Increase Firm Value? Journal of Accounting,
[25] Nayeri, N., & Salehi, M. (2013). Agency Costs in Islamic Countries: Evidence from Iran. IUP Journal of Accounting Research & Audit Practices, 12(2).
[26] Naz, F., Ijaz, F., & Naqvi, F. (2016). Financial performance of firms: evidence from Pakistan Cement Industry. Journal of Teaching and Education, 5(01), 81-94.
[27] Ng, T. H., Chong, L. L., and Ismail, H. (2013). Is the risk management committee only a procedural compliance? An insight into managing risk taking among insurance companies in Malaysia. The Journal of Risk Finance, 14(1), 71-86.
[28] Nicholson, G. J., and Kiel, G. C. (2007). Can Directors Impact Performance? A case‐based test of three theories of corporate governance. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 15(4), 585-608.
[29] Protiviti (2011). Should the Board have a Separate Risk Committee? Board Perspectives: Risk Oversight. Available at:
[30] Subramaniam, N., Mcmanus, L., & Zhang, J. (2009). Corporate Governance, Firm Characteristics and Risk Management Committee Formation in Australian Companies. Managerial Auditing Journal, 24(4), 316-339.
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[33] Zraiq, M., & Fadzil, F. (2018). The impact of audit committee characteristics on firm performance: Evidence from Jordan. Sch J Appl Sci Res, 1(5), 39-42.

Ibrahim Mallam Fali,Okika Nkiru Philomena, Yunusa Ibrahim & Janada Amos “Risk Management Committee Size, Independence, Expertise and Financial Performance of Listed Insurance Firms in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.313-319 May 2020  URL:

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The Nexus of Street Trading and Juvenile Delinquency: A Study of Chanchaga Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria

HASSAN, Ibrahim Muhammad, AKUNESIOBIKE Chibueze Adindu, UGWUOKE O. Cyril PH.D. – May 2020 Page No.: 320-325

Globally, the number of working children has been decreasing around the world in recent years, but child labour has continued to be a widespread problem today, especially in developing countries (Paola, Viviana, Flavia & Furio2007). International Programme on Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC 2016) reported that between 2012 to 2016, about 182 million children in the developing world aged 5-14 years were engaged in work. Against this background, governments, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have focused their efforts on tackling in particular the worst forms of child labour such as forced and bonded labour, which put children in physically and mentally harmful working conditions (Bunnak 2007).
According to Ekong (2016), in most developing countries, 1 in every 5 children work; and 1 in every 3 children work in Africa, though there are significant differences in economic activity rates across these regions. Child labour is widespread and has been on the increase in Nigeria, where 45percent of the total population, of over 140 million people, has been found to be children under the age of 15 years (Dimeji and Arielle 2008). A huge 15 million children, under the age of 15 years, are engaged in one form of labour or another in Nigeria. A majority of these children are exposed to long hours of work in very dangerous and unhealthy environments (Bada 2015). Children in Nigeria are employed in public places and markets: as street vendors (64%); beggars and shoe shiners (4%); car washers/watchers (6%); scavengers (5%); and feet washers (8%) (Mustapha & Mustapha 2014). In northern Nigeria, children who survive on the street by begging are referred to as `almajirai’. The rise in the rate of child labour in the country might have been a consequence of the demand for cheap labour and poverty (Dammert and Galdo 2013), although, children have always worked in Nigeria.

Page(s): 320-325                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 June 2020

 HASSAN, Ibrahim Muhammad
Department of Sociology & Anthropolgy, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 AKUNESIOBIKE Chibueze Adindu
Department of Sociology & Anthropolgy, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Department of Sociology & Anthropolgy, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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[7] Bass, L. E. (2004). Child Labour in Sub-Saharn Africa. Lynne: Rienner Publishers.
[8] Bunnak P. (2007).Child Workers in Brick Factories: Causes and Consequences. A Research Study for Campaign of Combating the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Cambodia Centre for Population Studies at Royal University of Phnom Penh.
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HASSAN, Ibrahim Muhammad, AKUNESIOBIKE Chibueze Adindu, UGWUOKE O. Cyril PH.D. “The Nexus of Street Trading and Juvenile Delinquency: A Study of Chanchaga Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.320-325 May 2020  URL:

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Value Re-Orientation as a Catholicon to Reducing Banditry in Nigeria

Chibuzor Obi Jude, Ibrahim Hayatu, Amanda Paul – May 2020 Page No.: 326-332

The incessant banditry in Nigeria has posed a big challenge to the country’s economy and the world at large. The area of concern has attracted many conferences, workshops, and dialogues about the future of the country’s image as other efforts to eliminate banditry in the land seemed abortive. This paper was an examination of value reorientation as a catholicon to reducing banditry in Nigeria. The paper used secondary sources for data collection to uncover issues surrounding banditry. The paper explored value reorientation and found it to mean “the act of intentionally struggling to change the direction which attitudes and beliefs of our value institutions in Nigeria are currently preoccupied with, or the act of altering behavior, attitude and beliefs of Nigerian youths in a new direction with the intention to reduce banditry in our society and the world at large. The Institutional theory was applied to explain the phenomenon. The incessant banditry in Nigeria could be as a result of failed moral institutions in carrying out their responsibility as it supposed. When the quest for wealth acquisitions outweighs quest for moral values, the result would not be far from criminality which among them is banditry. Essential elements such as humility, responsibility, diligence, entrepreneurship, contentedness and respect for elders, among other moral values should be made an utmost priority as values. We recommend that families, the schools, political institutions, religious institutions, and media should work round the clock in creating awareness and make sure that moral values are upheld in society.

Page(s): 326-332                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 June 2020

 Chibuzor Obi Jude
Department of Public Administration, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

 Ibrahim Hayatu
School of Preliminary Studies New Bussa, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria

 Amanda Paul
Department of Public Administration Bauchi State University Gadau, Nigeria

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Chibuzor Obi Jude, Ibrahim Hayatu, Amanda Paul “Value Re-Orientation as a Catholicon to Reducing Banditry in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.326-332 May 2020  URL:

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Leadership Development Program for First Time Managers –Design and Its Importance

N. Divyapriyadharshini, U. Devika – May 2020 Page No.: 333-336

Companies have found that investment in human capital in the form of learning and development yields high returns. The companies which recognize the value of their employees give more importance on learning and development, and they are becoming more competitive and successful as a result. The right way to produce leaders in your organization is not to train them but to develop them through coaching and mentoring. While training focuses on how things are done right now, development focuses on how things ought to be done in the future. When training focuses on compliance, development focuses on performance.

Page(s): 333-336                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 June 2020

 N. Divyapriyadharshini
Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

 U. Devika
Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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N. Divyapriyadharshini, U. Devika “Leadership Development Program for First Time Managers –Design and Its Importance ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.333-336 May 2020  URL:

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Influence of Deviant Behaviour on Psycho-Social Well-Being of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Ruiru Sub County, Kiambu County, Kenya

Edith Njoroge, Karimi Jane – May 2020 Page No.: 337-344

Global psychology scholars recommend that to relate to teenagers peacefully, a positive difference in their moral attitudes and behaviors is necessary. However, past scholarly works remark that though schools are expected to holistically develop teenagers’ character, this has hardly been achieved. This is not unique for Ruiru Sub County. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of deviant behavior on students’ psycho-social well-being in public secondary schools in Ruiru sub county, Kenya. The objectives were to; determine the impact of sexual molestation on students’ psycho-social well-being in public secondary schools and to establish the effects of bullying on the students’ psycho-social well-being in public secondary schools, The study was carried out in Ruiru Sub county Kenya. The study was based on multi-factorial model and Erikson theory of psycho-social development. The researcher used quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study applied concurrent triangulation design. The target population comprised of 36 deputy principals, and 432 teachers from public secondary schools in Ruiru Sub County. The sample population was 30% of the target population comprising of 11 deputy principals and 129 teachers. Stratified random sampling was used to sample deputy principals and teachers. From the 11 sampled schools, the study randomly sampled the deputy principals and teachers proportionately. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the teachers and interview schedules for the deputy principals. Piloting of the instruments was done in 4 schools and the validity of the instruments was determined through the expert judgment of professionals in the area. The reliability of the instruments was done by use of test-retest method and the results calculated using Cronbach’s alpha Method at 0.74% threshold measure. SPSS Version 24.0 was used to analyze quantitative data using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Poisson regression model and measures of central tendency and presented using tables, graphs and charts. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically and presented in narrative form. The study found that sexual molestation has no influence on psycho-social well-being of students but bullying and substance use have influence on psycho-social well-being of the students at .05 significance level. Behavioral Strategies for shaping psycho-social well-being of students include talking to school administrator, followed by counselor and teacher; encouraging the bullied child to be assertive and ordering the bully to leave the bullied alone. The findings may be useful to the Ministry of Education for guiding intervention programs related to the psycho-social well-being of students. Parents and other stakeholders may also use the study findings to ascertain psycho-social well-being of students who are children at home. Further research can be carried out to determine causal relationships between psycho-social learning conditions and students’ well-being. Moreover, some of the study limitations experienced can be improved in the future research by enhancing the response rate, improving instruments’ reliability and increasing study scope.

Page(s): 337-344                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 June 2020

 Edith Njoroge
School of Social Sciences – Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Karimi Jane
School of Social Sciences – Mount Kenya University, Kenya

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Edith Njoroge, Karimi Jane “Influence of Deviant Behaviour on Psycho-Social Well-Being of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Ruiru Sub County, Kiambu County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.337-344 May 2020  URL:

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Assessing Health Enhancing, Physical Activity Level and Attitude of Students in St. Monica’s College of Education using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)

Abena Adasa Nkrumah, Stephen Addae Kyenkyehene – May 2020 Page No.: 355-359

The main purpose of this study was to assess physical activity level of Students in St. Monica’s College of Education using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A sample size of 350 was selected from a population of 750 and simple random sampling technique was used to select participants for the study. Questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics (percentages. mean and standard deviation) were used in analyzing and discussing the result. The study revealed that students of St. Monica’s college of education have a strong negative attitude (M=2.78, SD=1.43) towards participation in the physical activities. It also revealed that students have low participation in Physical Activity (78%). It is recommended that after school games and activities should be made fun and the games should not be male dominated. Student must be educated on the importance of physical activity.

Page(s): 355-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2020

 Abena Adasa Nkrumah
Tutor, St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

 Stephen Addae Kyenkyehene
Tutor, St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

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[17]. Schauer, D.,(2010). Obesity in adults. BMJ of Clinical Evidence.1(3)06-04.
[18]. Shamshoum, K. B. (2003). Gender differences in physical activity among Birzeit University (Palestine) first year students. Journal of International Council Physical Health Education, Recreation Sport and Dance, 34(1), 28-31.
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Abena Adasa Nkrumah, Stephen Addae Kyenkyehene “Assessing Health Enhancing, Physical Activity Level and Attitude of Students in St. Monica’s College of Education using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.355-359 May 2020  URL:

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Impact of Performance Appraisal on Employee Productivity in Private and Public Hospitals in Tigray, Ethiopia

Dr. Atakilt Halifom Siyum – May 2020 Page No.: 360-368

Performance appraisal has gradually more become part of a strategic approach to integrating HR activities and business policies and may now be seen as a general term covering a diversity of activities during which organizations request to assess employees and develop their capability, improve performance and distribute rewards A performance appraisal system embodies the tools and actions used by taught assessors in conducting the evaluation of employees Impact Of Performance Appraisal On Employee Productivity In Private And Public Hospitals In Tigray, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional simple survey involving 379 human resource employees of the public and Private Hospitals found in Tigray regional was carried out from January to March 2019. Participants from each private and public general and primary Hospital were selected using simple random sampling (SRS) and the survey was supplemented by structured questionnaire adopted from literature reviews. The collected data was entered into SPSS Software version 25.0 and was cleaned and analyzed. Descriptive analyses of variance and Binary logistic regression and Cross tabulation with Chi-Square was used. The results were summarized as crude and adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals. The findings show that there was Impact of Performance Appraisal on Employee Productivity in Private and Public Hospitals in Tigray, Ethiopia.

Page(s): 360-368                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2020

 Dr. Atakilt Halifom Siyum
Department of Tigray Regional Health Bureau, Tigray, Ethiopia

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Dr. Atakilt Halifom Siyum “Impact of Performance Appraisal on Employee Productivity in Private and Public Hospitals in Tigray, Ethiopia ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.360-368 May 2020  URL:

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Effective Indigenous Technology for Self-Reliance and Sustainable Economic Development

Okon Joseph Umoh, Augustine Okon Jacob – May 2020 Page No.: 369-372

Technology in its broadest context, as referring to all activities geared to social production and distribution and includes market and non-market activities. Sustainable development as meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generation. Economic development must be sustainable which means that it should keep going. The aspect of our indigenous and local technology development has been examined in this research work. This research study actively presents options open to developing countries or nations that wish to become technology self-reliance. It further looked into certain areas, which are yet to be explored to our systematic development of relevant technology in Nigeria. It is noted in the study that self-reliance program has no inherent magic wand to catapult a nation host pursues it into a technologically giant nation overnight. This research work therefore, submit that a relatively higher-level utilization of certain local skill towards greater or higher self-reliance and sustainable technology development in the country. Sustainable development has many objectives. Besides increasing economic growth and meeting basic needs, the aim of lifting living standards includes a number of more specific goals: bothering people’s health, educational opportunities, giving everyone the chance to participate in public life, helping to ensure a clean environment, promoting intergenerational equity and much more.

Page(s): 369-372                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2020

 Okon Joseph Umoh
Department of Economics, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

 Augustine Okon Jacob
Department of Management, School of Management Science, Heritage Polytechnic, Ikot Udota, Eket, Nigeria

[1] Adubija, A. (1990) Technology policy in Nigeria. NISER publication
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[17] Udo-Aka (1983) Policies and programs for rapid industrialization and self-reliance in Nigeria. A paper presented at the 3rd Annual training conference of the industrial training fund, Benin city

Okon Joseph Umoh, Augustine Okon Jacob “Effective Indigenous Technology for Self-Reliance and Sustainable Economic Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.369-372 May 2020  URL:

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Research on Factors Influencing University Teachers’ Acceptance of Blended Learning in a Selected University in China

Wang Lu, Liu Min, Siti Maziha Mustapha – May 2020 Page No.: 373-376

Teachers are considered to play a key role in implementing the blended learning method. This study intends to explore the factors that will influence teacher’s acceptance of blended learning based on the theory of innovation diffusion. 191 teachers from a selected university in China participated in the study. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS 24.0. The results of regression analysis show that school support, perceived ease of use, compatibility, relative advantage, and communication channels contribute to university teachers’ acceptance of blended learning. Recommendations and suggestions are proposed to promote the level of teachers’ acceptance of blended learning in Chinese universities.

Page(s): 373-376                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2020

College of Foreign Studies, Hubei Normal University, China
Faculty of Business, Information and Human Science, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL), Malaysia

 Liu Min
College of Foreign Studies, Hubei Normal University, China

 Siti Maziha Mustapha
Faculty of Business, Information and Human Science, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL), Malaysia

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[11] Xu Chenghuan. (2015) Analysis of the moderating effect of mobile library based on the diffusion of innovation theory. Research on Library Science, 7. 45-53

Wang Lu, Liu Min, Siti Maziha Mustapha “Research on Factors Influencing University Teachers’ Acceptance of Blended Learning in a Selected University in China ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.373-376 May 2020  URL:

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An Analysis of Data Protection and Compliance in Nigeria

Diyoke Michael Chika, Edeh Stanley Tochukwu – May 2020 Page No.: 377-382

Contemporarily data protection and privacy has garnered increasing attention in recent years, majorly because data has become a ubiquitous asset in the global community, mirroring the transformation of our societies to data sharing age. Again, the regular and large-scale breaches of sensitive data around the globe have become a growing concern. In spite of these breaches and attacks, several countries of the world and organizations have not yet completely prioritized personal data protection particularly in the third world countries such as Nigeria. Thus it was on this note that this paper was set up to explore the data protection and compliance in Nigeria. The methodology was based on review of published articles, books and journals in order to draw a conclusion on the contemporary issues in data protection and compliance in Nigeria. The paper argued that the upsurge of data sharing and breaches in Nigeria is still hampered by inappropriate/inadequate data protection and privacy legislation, lack of enforcement drive, limited number of practicing professionals among others. In addition, it was observed that data protection and privacy are practically strange to the Nigerian society as data subjects are generally unaware of their privacy rights over personal data that belongs to them. The resultant effect is high level of data breaches and data privacy abuse in the country. In the light of the above, this paper concludes that it is clear that data has become a ubiquitous asset in the global community – Nigeria inclusive. Thus the paper recommends (amongst others) that there is need to strengthen the current legislation and enforcement procedures on data protection.

Page(s): 377-382                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2020

 Diyoke Michael Chika
Department of Sociology Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

 Edeh Stanley Tochukwu
Department of Computer Science, Caritas University Enugu, Nigeria

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Diyoke Michael Chika, Edeh Stanley Tochukwu “An Analysis of Data Protection and Compliance in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.377-382 May 2020  URL:

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English Small Talk in Business Letters: Language Forms and Messages

Elfiondri – May 2020 Page No.: 383-387

The study examines English small talks also called phatic communion in English business letters. Small talk is a type of speech in which ties are created by a mere exchange of words. In such communication words do not convey meanings, but fulfill a social function. The problems which are discussed involve the forms and messages the written small talks have in business letters. The aim of the study is to find the forms and messages of the written small talks in the letters. To get reach of the aim of the study applies a socio-pragmatic approach, a linguistic research methodology. The result of the study shows that in business letters there are various forms of small talks with directive. Expressive, and declarative category. They contain various messages for example thanks, hope, rejecting, apology, praising, regretting, agreeing, reminding, etc. The letter writers as businessmen use the small talks in their letters with the purpose of establishing and keeping business relationship. The small talks can muffle and please the business participants.

Page(s): 383-387                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2020

Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Bung Hatta, Indonesia

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Elfiondri “English Small Talk in Business Letters: Language Forms and Messages” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.383-387 May 2020  URL:

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21st Century Higher Education Curriculum Implementation and Employability in Cameroon: The Case of The University of Yaounde1

Ngwabienwu John Tumbuh – May 2020 Page No.: 388-391

This research was conducted by using the content analysis technique in connection with document analysis, which is one of the qualitative research methods widely used today in writing articles. How can universities ensure that they are preparing their students for today’s highly competitive job market? Employability in the 21st century presents some burning issues which Higher education realize as lacking behind through Curriculum planning and implementation. In this Era of a global village, the higher education system is also facing a lot of challenges which must be overcome through innovations in the Curriculum planning and implementation. The employment prospect for most higher education graduates worldwide are bleak for a number of reasons which include rapid technological change, inability of governments and partners to anticipate for young graduates , low level of professional training, low level of economic situation, all these makes it difficult for new graduates to have skilled knowledge. These employability skills include presentation and communication of ideas, project identification and development, project planning and execution, planning and problem solving, social development and interaction.

Page(s): 388-391                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 June 2020

 Ngwabienwu John Tumbuh
Faculty of Education, The University of Yaouinde 1, Cameroon

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Ngwabienwu John Tumbuh “21st Century Higher Education Curriculum Implementation and Employability in Cameroon: The Case of The University of Yaounde1” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.388-391 May 2020  URL:

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Coronavirus (COVID- 19) Pandemic and Online Learning Nexus in Colleges of Education in Ashanti-Brong Ahafo Regions (ASHBA), Ghana

Ephraim Armstrong Awinbugri (Ph.D), Nicholas Aning Boadu, Edmond Nyarko Nkrumah, Davis Mawuena Aweso, Florentia Adai Nottinson, Samuel Baah –Duodu, Edem Wotortsi, James Badu Afari, Richmond Amoh-Yeboah, Patrick Cudjo Dogli – May 2020 Page No.: 392-396

The research explored Coronavirus (COVID- 19) pandemic and online learning nexus in Colleges of Education in Ashanti-Brong Aha foregions (ASHBA),Ghana
Online survey was administered to 4,550 respondents out of an overall population of 10,466 students, selected from all the 13 Colleges of Education within ASHBA.
The respondents reiterated that 0.55 of their lecturers were familiar with online learning tools such as zoom, facebook live, moodle etc. The above average score of lecturers on handling e-learning tools was linked to a seminar organized by T-TEL in conjunction with Dr. Dimitrios Vlachopoulos of Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences as facilitator. Similarly, a handful of 0.37 students preferred online tutorials to face to face, reiterating unreliable internet, high level of illiteracy in ICT education and inadequate funding for online studies as few of the constraints observed.
The researchers recommended that adequate public education be intensified for a holistic adoption and subsequent inculcation of online learning as part of the mainstream curriculum even after COVID-19. Additionally, Colleges of Education should find innovative ways of providing tablets/android phones with affordable data to all students/lecturers at a subsidized rate to facilitate the fervency of e-learning during, before and after crisis.

Page(s): 392-396                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 June 2020

 Ephraim Armstrong Awinbugri (Ph.D)
Lecturer- University of Education, Winneba (IDL), Ghana

 Nicholas Aning Boadu
Ag. Vice Principal- Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

 Edmond Nyarko Nkrumah
Lecturer- Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

 Davis Mawuena Aweso
Ag. College Secretary/Lecturer-Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

 Florentia Adai Nottinson
College Secretary-Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

 Samuel Baah –Duodu
Lecturer- Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

 Edem Wotortsi
Snr. Accounts Assistant-Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

 James Badu Afari
Lecturer- Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

 Richmond Amoh-Yeboah
Lecturer- Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

 Patrick Cudjo Dogli
Lecturer- Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education, Ghana

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[9] Wijekumar, K., Ferguson, L., & Wagoner, D. (2006).Problems with assessment validity and reliability in wed-based distance learning environments and solutions. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15(2), 199–215

Ephraim Armstrong Awinbugri (Ph.D), Nicholas Aning Boadu, Edmond Nyarko Nkrumah, Davis Mawuena Aweso, Florentia Adai Nottinson, Samuel Baah –Duodu, Edem Wotortsi, James Badu Afari, Richmond Amoh-Yeboah, Patrick Cudjo Dogli “Coronavirus (COVID- 19) Pandemic and Online Learning Nexus in Colleges of Education in Ashanti-Brong Ahafo Regions (ASHBA), Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.392-396 May 2020  URL:

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The Alémo̩Sóko Festival in Ìdóàní, Ondo State

Omobola Agnes Aladesanmi PhD – May 2020 Page No.: 397-401

This paper investigates the cultural factors that are responsible for the continuity of the Alémo̩sóko festival among the Iyayu people of Idoani in Ondo State of Nigeria. This study is an attempt to unravel the cultural factors that are responsible for the continuity of the Alemosoko festival at Iyayu quarter of Idoani in Ondo State despite the dominant presence of foreign religions such as Christianity and Islam which maintain a negative attitude towards traditions. Findings in this paper reveal that, the continuity of the Alémo̩sóko festival is hinged on the involvement of every family or house hold in the Ìyàyú quarters. The age group of age of 34 and 44 are made to participate fully in the Alémo̩sóko festival. Findings also show that, there are age differences among those who participate in Alémo̩sóko festival and those who masquerade in other Yorùbá towns and villages. While previous studies do not specify the ages of those who can masquerade, the present study on Alémo̩sóko festival stipulates the ages of the people who can masquerade in the Iyayu quarters at Idoani is between 34 and 44 years. For data collection, oral interview was employed by interviewing selected people of Iyayu people of Idoani in Ondo State. A simple percentage statistical method was used to test the data that were collected.

Page(s): 397-401                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 June 2020

 Omobola Agnes Aladesanmi PhD
Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

[1] Adeoye, C. L. (1979). Às̩à àti Ìs̩e Yorùbá. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
[2] Adeoye, C. L. (1989) Ìgbàgbó̩ àti È̩sìn Yorùbá. Ibadan: Evans Brothers Ltd.
[3] Alabi, Alfred E. (2003) Ìdóàní: My Historical Jottings. Lagos: CSS Bookshop
[4] Ìdòwú, B.E. (1995) God in Yorùbá Beliefs. New York: Plainview Publications
[5] Ikotun, R. O. (1995) Code Choice in Idoani Community in Ondo State. Unpublished M. A. Thesis. Obafemi Awolowo University. Ile-Ife.
[6] Ogunbowale, P. O. (1962) Àwo̩n Irúnmalè̩ Ilè̩ Yorùbá.
[7] Ogunniran, L. (1972) Eégún Aláré. Ibadan: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Ltd.
[8] Oke, D. O. (1972) “‘Language Choice in the Yorùbá – Edo Border Area”. ODU New Series No 7.
[9] Olajubu, O (1972) Àṣà Ìbílẹ̀ Yorùbá. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

Omobola Agnes Aladesanmi PhD “The Alémo̩Sóko Festival in Ìdóàní, Ondo State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.397-401 May 2020  URL:

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Criminalization of Notary Profession in Indonesia

Syafran – May 2020 Page No.: 402-404

The background of this research was intended to study the problem of punishment for Notary profession in Indonesia. The phenomenon of criminalization towards Notary is a form of criminalization. Therefore, in order to facilitate the difference in perception between the Notary and the law enforcement officers, a criteria or punishment for crime application is required for Notary as a profession as normative reference that could provide legal protection for Notary in the future.

Page(s): 402-404                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2020

Doctor of Law Program, Universitas Jayabaya, Jakarta-Indonesia

[1].G. C. Iskadrenda and A. M. Dewi, “Analysis Of Notary Honorary Council Consent As Grounds Of Impunity (Strafuitslautingsgronden) Against Revelation Of Secrets,” Yust. J. Huk., 2017.
[2]. D. P. D. Muri, G. Prayogo, and F. Arif, “The rights and obligations of notaries according to Indonesian law concerning notary position,” Int. J. Mech. Eng. Technol., 2018.
[3]. P. A. Aulia, Y. Yuliandri, and A. Fendri, “Law Enforcement by the Notary Supervisory Board for Violations Toward Law on Notary Position (in Padang City),” Int. J. Multicult. Multireligious Underst., 2019.
[4]. G. Farah, F., & Gunarto, “Notaris Law Protection Under The Civil Law In Law Number 2 Year 2014 Concerning Amendment To Law Number 30 Year 2004 Regarding Notary Position,” J. Akta, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 555–560, 2018.
[5]. T. Erwinsyahbana and M. Melinda, “Kewenangan dan Tanggung Jawab Notaris Pengganti setelah Pelaksanaan Tugas dan Jabatan Berakhir,” Lentera Huk., 2018.
[6]. S. M. Pertiwi, I. N. Sirtha, and I. M. P. Dharsana, “Tanggung Jawab Notaris Terhadap Akta Otentik yang Berakibat Batal Demi Hukum Pada Saat Berakhir Masa Jabatannya,” Acta Com., 2017.
[7]. P. Mas Maya Ramanti, “Tanggung Jawab Notaris Dalam Pembuatan Minuta Yang Dibuat Berdasarkan Keterangan Palsu,” Acta Com., 2016.
[8]. Heriyanti, “Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Notaris Yang Terindikasi Tindak Pidana Pembuatan Akta Otentik,” Yust. J. Huk., 2016.
[9]. Mustakim, “Kedudukan Risalah Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham (RUPS) sebagai Akta Otentik dalam Kaitan dengan Tanggung Jawab Notaris sebagai Pejabat Umum,” Kanun J. Ilmu Huk., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 159–172, 2016.
[10]. Setiabudhi, and G. M. Swardhana, “Sanksi Hukum Terhadap Notaris Yang Melanggar Kewajiban Dan Larangan Undang-Undang Jabatan Notaris,” Acta Com., 2017.
[11]. T. Din, “Pertanggungjawaban Notaris terhadap Akta Otentik Terindikasi Tindak Pidana,” J. Penelit. Huk. Jure, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 171–183, 2019.
[12]. G. Y. Yustyawan, S. Hamidah, and H. Susilo, “Aspek Pertanggungjawaban Pidana Notaris Pada Pembuatan Akta Pihak (Studi Putusan Mahkamah Agung Nomor 1099/Pid/2010,” J. IUS Kaji. Huk. dan Keadilan, 2018.

Syafran “Criminalization of Notary Profession in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.402-404 May 2020  URL:

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A Core Value Model For Implementing Total Quality Management in EQWIP-Hub Surabaya East Java Indonesia

Slamet Riyadi- May 2020 Page No.: 405-408

This research defines Core Values as shared beliefs and culture of an organization that leads to the principle of visible and invisible performance possessed by all members of the organization to act to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. Core Values can help the development of Total Quality Management and establish a culture, Core Values foster Total Quality Management and define culture, A principle that guides an organization’s internal conduct as well as its relationship with the external world (Core Values fosters Total Quality Management and defines culture , principles that guide the internal behavior of the organization and its relationship with the outside world).

Page(s): 405-408                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2020

 Slamet Riyadi
Faculty of Economic and Business, University of 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

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Slamet Riyadi “A Core Value Model For Implementing Total Quality Management in EQWIP-Hub Surabaya East Java Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.405-408 May 2020  URL:

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Anthropology Study on the Present Situation of Matrilineal Unilineal Descent Kinship System in Coastal Village – Panama

S.D.Y. Jayarathne, N. L. K. Sandunika – May 2020 Page No.: 409-410


Traditional kinship system in Sri Lanka is an interesting topic of study. There are several types of marriage that are associated with a number of kinship systems that are built around a system of customs unique to Sri Lankan society. Almost all of them are based on early kinship systems and kinship lineages. Cross-kinship, monogamy marriage, “Binna” marriage, and polygamy are some of the forms of marriage recognized in Sri Lankan kinship. (Marguerite S. R. 1968). A large body of research has been done on the Sinhalese kinship system. Through these studies I intend to identify the present status of the Sinhala kinship system through this research. One of unique features, the matrilineal unilineal kinship system in Sri Lanka has been demolished and this research was conducted to study about the current status of this kinship system. (Ganewatta, P. 2006). At the present time, social relations are being eroded by the gradual erosion of kinship, and the kinship systems are being destroyed by the loss of relationships and the forbidden marriage. This research is the study of this situation which has now become a social problem.

Page(s): 409-410                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2020

 S.D.Y. Jayarathne
Department of Anthropology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

 N. L. K. Sandunika
Department of Anthropology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

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[4]. Marguerite S. R. (1968). Some observations on the kandyansinhalese kinship system. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.
[5]. Ananda, T.; Nahallage, C. (2016).AlaththiBama: Traditional Ritual Performed by Vedda Woman for Katharagama Deity. ICSS.
[6]. Goonasekera.S. (2012).Walking to Kataragama. International Centre for Ethic Studies Publishers.

S.D.Y. Jayarathne, N. L. K. Sandunika “Anthropology Study on the Present Situation of Matrilineal Unilineal Descent Kinship System in Coastal Village – Panama” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.409-410 May 2020  URL:

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The Impact of Maize Post-Harvest Management Practices on Smallholder farmers’ Income in Bugesera District, Rwanda

Emmanuel NZEYIMANA – May 2020 Page No.: 411-426

The Govt of Rwanda has given a priority to maize production in the country’s marshlands and hillsides in regions where this crop can be grown as recommended by the crop intensification program (CIP ), over the last decade huge investments were done in agricultural infrastructures; swamp reclamation, irrigation systems etc…Bugesera District in Eastern part of Rwanda is one of the regions that grow maize at large scale; in that region farmers grow maize as a cash crop and they have increased maize production and productivity in the last decade. The development of maize production has boosted the needs in postharvest handling materials and infrastructures for proper postharvest management aiming to meet market conditions for quality, which are among the key determinants for market prices. Governement of Rwanda’s investments in the maize value chains aimed at reducing the poverty through increased income for the smallholder farmers. However, this objective faced a variety of challenges mostly due to poor post-harvest practices that lead to the poor quality of maize, and contribute to the maize post harvest looses that is still high. As the maize produces continued to be dried, stored and processed using inappropriate materials and techniques this has lead to the persisted high maize postharvest losses and affected the quality (moisture content and impurity), hence make locally produced maize to become less competitive at the market compared with the maize imported from the region. The vision of Govt of Rwanda (Vision 2020) of reducing poverty, food insecurity and increase the per capita income to 900 USD in 2020, from 220 USD in year 2000(MINECOFIN, 2000) was constrained by this situation for the smallholder farmers to achieve this target. This research analyzed the issues from a triangulated perspective analysis; firstly the analysis of the gain in prices resulting from small farmers selling their maize produces collectively through the Cooperative, secondly the analysis of the gain resulting from improved maize quality (drying and storage practices) and thirdly the analysis of the gains from the improved primary postharvest practices which increase the maize quality (Shelling, drying, winnowing and sorting) both aiming to increase income at individual small farm holder’s level. The research findings revealed that for the majority (99%) of the farmers, income from maize produces contributes to more than 50% of their annual income: 55% said that income from Maize contributes to more than 75% of their annual income while 44% said that it contributes from 50 to 75% of their annual incomes, making the maize to be their main source of incomes at households’ level. The research has revealed that the majority, 67% of the farmers sell their maize produces collectively through the Cooperative while 33% they do not, majority of farmers 100% don’t have storage and drying facilities at household level: farmers have two options: i) 67% farmers they use “Plastic sheets” for drying the maize and ii) Only 33% of maize produces from small farmers is dried using Cooperative’s drying facilities, this explains the reason of the high maize losses and deterioration of the quality at household level and it explains why a small potion of the maize produce could be sold collectively from known channels like cooperative, reason for the persisted low income from the maize at household level despite of the huge investments already made in the last decade.

Page(s): 411-426                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2020

PhD Scholar in Development Studies, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

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Emmanuel NZEYIMANA “The Impact of Maize Post-Harvest Management Practices on Smallholder farmers’ Income in Bugesera District, Rwanda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.411-426 May 2020  URL:

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Abolition of Exchange Marriage System Amongst the Tiv People and its Socioeconomic Implications

Wayas, David Tarhom. Ph.D., David-Wayas, Onyinye Ph. D – May 2020 Page No.: 427-430

The paper examines the issues associated with the exchange marriage system amongst the Tiv people. Using historical and analytical approaches, the paper observes that exchange marriage rite was a product of trade by barter practiced during the pre- colonial era. The Tiv people used the exchange marriage system called ‘yamshe’ as a sign of love, economic empowerment and unity among families. However, it is believed that this form of marriage most often introduces some elements of witchcraft practices. The idea of ‘yan ngyor’/giving a daughter to a brother to give out in marriage as a symbol of love and economic empowerment for his livelihood was later seen as a practice responsible for the death of people. The paper also observes that causative agents of death in families revolved around the yamshe practice. The abolition of this practice introduced the kem kwase/ pride price which is seen as an act of cultural evolutions. The economic empowerment and its prospects got phased out while the capitalist -oriented marriage system introduced at the expense of the people. The custodians of cultures (traditional rulers) should as a matter of relevance, appreciate the socioeconomic aspects of the exchange marriage system by setting out traditional regulatatory institutions to control the cost of marriage and other extortions.

Page(s): 427-430                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2020

 Wayas, David Tarhom. Ph.D.
Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, University of Nigeria

 David-Wayas, Onyinye Ph. D
Department of Economics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

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[7]. Waya, D. T. & Okanume, I. (2017). Evaluation of Tiv and Igbo Marriage Systems. IISTE Journal of Culture, Society and Development. 12. Vol. 3.

Wayas, David Tarhom. Ph.D., David-Wayas, Onyinye Ph. D “Abolition of Exchange Marriage System Amongst the Tiv People and its Socioeconomic Implications” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.427-430 May 2020  URL:

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How Important Leadership and Organizational Culture to Build Working Motivation

Ratih Komala Sari, Setyo Riyanto – May 2020 Page No.: 431-435

This paper aims to discuss the important role of leadership in organizations to help further understand the organizational culture that exists in a company so that it can provide a role in encouraging work motivation. This paper is aimed at employees at one of the logistics companies in Indonesia, namely PT YI with the characteristics of a contract employee of 52 people. The author gets an overview of the role of leadership, organizational culture, and work motivation through a survey conducted as data analysis and reviewing some literature. It can be concluded that the role of leadership in providing an understanding of organizational culture provides a role for employees to have work motivation so as to achieve the goals of the organization.

Page(s): 431-435                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2020

 Ratih Komala Sari
Master of Management Student, Mercubuana University Jakarta, Indonesia

 Setyo Riyanto
Lecturer of Postgraduate, Mercubuana University Jakarta, Indonesia

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[17]. Nahavandi, A. (2015). “The art and science of leadership”. 7th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson
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Ratih Komala Sari, Setyo Riyanto “How Important Leadership and Organizational Culture to Build Working Motivation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.431-435 May 2020  URL:

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Developing Plurilingual Speakers in a Multilingual Situation : A Case of the University of Nigeria

Wayas, David Tarhom Ph.D, Obinna Mouh U., Mbata Godwin Segun – May 2020 Page No.: 436-446

The language choice is an issue of critical national debate in every multilingual society. In a multilingual setting like Nigeria, language is often considered as a weapon for marginalization and exclusion. This paper explores the importance of plurilingual consciousness among Nigerians. The study adopts both qualitative and quantitative approaches for analysis. The result shows that, most respondents with an urban upbringing displayed negative attitudes towards indigenous languages when compared to those with rural upbringings. The study suggests that speaking at least three or more Nigerian indigenous languages will certainly promote national unity and peace. It is therefore important to ensure a modification in the existing language policy to appreciate the need for plurilinguial speakers in Nigeria project.

Page(s): 436-446                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 June 2020

 Wayas, David Tarhom. Ph.D.
Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, University of Nigeria

 Obinna Mouh U.
Department of History of International Studies, University of Nigeria

 Mbata Godwin Segun
Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, University of Nigeria

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Wayas, David Tarhom Ph.D, Obinna Mouh U., Mbata Godwin Segun “Developing Plurilingual Speakers in a Multilingual Situation : A Case of the University of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.436-446 May 2020  URL:

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Drought and Food Security in Kassebwera Parish, Butenga Sub County, Bukomansimbi District, Uganda

Henry Stanley Mbowa, Specioza Asiimwe, Beatrice Birungi – May 2020 Page No.: 447-454

Over 800 million people in the world are food insecure where 180 (23%) million are found in the Sub Saharan Africa. The paper establishes the association between drought and food security in Kassebwera parish, Butenga Sub County, Bukomansimbi district, Uganda. The paper uses both cross-sectional and descriptive survey designs which included mixed methods data collection approaches. 1996 people were targeted and a sample of 322 respondents was determined using Krejcie and Morgan sample size formula. Data was collected through questionnaire which was validated through validity and reliability tests. Reliability was ensured through a pilot study and administered two times at different intervals. Thereafter, responses were calculated using Cronbach Alpha and the reliability was found at 0.778. Validity was ensured through content value index based on the number valid items in the questionnaire, hence a CVI of 0.735 was obtained. Data collected was organized, edited, coded and entered into the SPSS for analysis from which descriptive and inferential statistics were generated that is, regression and correlation. Results indicated that, drought contributes 38.6% while the other factors 61.4% to the variation of food security. The study recommends that, sensitization, awareness and capacity building in SMART agriculture should be enhanced among the households to adapt to the effects of drought on food security.

Page(s): 447-454                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 June 2020

 Henry Stanley Mbowa
Kampala University, Uganda

 Specioza Asiimwe
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Beatrice Birungi
Kampala University, Uganda

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Henry Stanley Mbowa, Specioza Asiimwe, Beatrice Birungi “Drought and Food Security in Kassebwera Parish, Butenga Sub County, Bukomansimbi District, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.447-454 May 2020  URL:

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Gone with the Sand: River Sand Mining RSM and Gendered Livelihood Struggles in a Village in Sri Lanka

Fazeeha Azmi – May 2020 Page No.: 455-460

This article uses the concept of political ecology to understand the conflict arising out of RSM in the village and tries to locate gender and livelihood changes as central elements. Influenced by the foregoing discussion. The article views gender as an important aspect in the political ecology of RSM as the livelihood impact of RSM are different on men and women. The article adopts the view of ‘displacement in place’ to show how RSM has negatively affected the livelihoods of the interviewed villagers who have not physically moved outside the village, but engaged in local, trans local and temporary global migration based livelihoods.

Page(s): 455-460                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 June 2020

 Fazeeha Azmi
Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

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Fazeeha Azmi “Gone with the Sand: River Sand Mining RSM and Gendered Livelihood Struggles in a Village in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 5, pp.455-460 May 2020  URL:

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Transformational Leadership: Examining Subordinates’ Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Outcomes in Nigeria

Chikelu Okey Felix. PhD, Bala Aliyu Kardi, Mohammed Saleh Ismail – May 2020 Page No.: 461-467