Flood and Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

Ekine, Data Irene & Talbot, Osaki – June 2020 Page No.: 01-04

The paper examined flood and Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study was informed by the damages done by flood on agricultural activities as well as environmental degradation which in turn affects the socioeconomic well-being of the people. The objectives of the study were to; examine the causes of flood in the study area; and assess the effect of flood on the socio-economic well-being of the people in the study area. To achieve the objectives, the study utilized library science method and collected information from secondary source. The paper identified that flood could be caused by natural factor such as heavy rain fall and human factors such as deforestation. The identified effect of flooding on in the study area are that; flood destroy farms land, food and cash crops, Flood causes spread of infestations on soil and water, degradation of agriculture land. Also, flood affect health through spread of water borne disease and negatively affects the education of the people. The way forward to these menace of flood amongst others include; construction of flood ways, construction of dams, reservoirs or retention ponds to hold extra water during times of flooding, Planting vegetation to retain extra water, building of rivers and coastal defenses.

Page(s): 01-04                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 June 2020

 Ekine, Data Irene
Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Talbot, Osaki
Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1]. Aderogba, K. A (2012). Qualitative Studies of Recent Floods and Sustainable Growth and Development of Cities and Towns in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 1(3), 26-36
[2]. Awosika, L. &Folorunsho, R. (20006). Natural anthropogenic hazards in African coastal and ocean environment; Need for holistic and pragmatic early warning system and management approach. http//ieeexplore.ieee.org. Retrieved on 22nd May, 2018.
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[4]. Caroline, C. O., Munyaradzi, C.,Oludolapo, A. O. & Elretha, L.(2019). Impacts of flood disasters in Nigeria: A critical evaluation of health implications and management, Jamba, 11(1), 557.
[5]. Curry, M. D., Larsen, P. G., Mansfield, C. J., & Leonardo, K. D. (2001). Impacts of a flood Disaster on an ambulatory pediatric clinic population.Clinical Pediatrics, 40(10), 571.
[6]. Fabiyi, O.O., &Oloukoi, J. (2013). Indigenous Knowledge System and local adaptation strategies to flooding in coastal rural communities of Nigeria. Journal of Indigenous Social Development, 1(2), 1-19.
[7]. Magbagbeola, I. (2002). Environmental underdevelopment in the Niger Delta; An electric vie in the petroleum industry, economy and the Niger Delta environment (Eds), Orubu, C., Ogisis, D.O and Okoli, R.N., 32-40
[8]. National Bureau of Statistics(NBS, 2018). Statistics Bulletin of Statistics publication, Abuja Nigeria
[9]. National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), (2012).Flood: more than 25, 000 displaced in Benue as many communities remain adamant. Accessed online on the 10thof May 2014 via: http://www.nema.gov.ng/emergency-zones/floods.aspx
[10]. Sajini, F.I. (2011): Population growth, Environmental degradation and human health in Nigeria:Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 8 (4), 187-191.
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[12]. Ukpong, S.J. (1994). Global and Nigerian Environment Problem analysis SIRF, Calabar #rd November

Ekine, Data Irene & Talbot, Osaki “Flood and Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.01-04 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/01-04.pdf

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Contribution of Travel and Tourism Industry in boosting Indian Economy

Dr. S. Dilli, Dr. S. Kishore – June 2020 Page No.: 05-11

Travel and Tourism Industry has flourished in the past few years, significantly contributing to the nation’s Gross Domestic Product, foreign exchange earnings and employment. Many developing countries have seen tourism as the major source of foreign exchange earnings. Tourism industry in India is growing and it has vast potential for generating employment and earning large amount of foreign exchange besides giving a boost to the country’s overall economic and social improvement. In terms of the countries’ share of contribution to global Travel & Tourism growth last year, two countries dominate; one quarter 25% came from China while the USA provided a further 12%. Other major contributors include India with a 6% share, while Turkey, France and Japan each contributed 4% to the sector’s growth in 2018. 2019 was another year of strong growth for the global Travel & Tourism sector reinforcing its role as a driver of economic growth and job creation Moreover, tourism is a multi-dimensional activity, basically a service industry. It would be required that all ways of the central and state government, public-private partnership and voluntary organisations become active partners in endeavour to attain the sustainable growth in tourism in India would become a world player in tourism industry. The present paper elaborates about the contribution of travel and tourism industry in the development of Indian economy.

Page(s): 05-11                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 June 2020

 Dr. S. Dilli
Associate Professor, Department of MBA, Chadhalawada Ramanamma Engineering College (Autonomous), Tirupati-517506, Chittoor Dist., Andhra Pradesh, India

 Dr. S. Kishore
Associate Professor, Department of MBA, Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences (Autonomous), Tirupati-517520, Chittoor Dist., Andhra Pradesh. India

[1]. Cevat Tosan (2001). Challenges of sustainable tourism development in the developing world: the case of Turkey. Tourism Management, Vol 22, Issue.3, pp.289-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00060-1.
[2]. Daniel Santamaria and George Filis (2019). Tourism demand and economic growth in Spain : New insights based on the yield curve. Tourism Management, Vol.75,pp.447-459.
[3]. Jaswal SS (2014). Role of Tourism Industry in India’s Development. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality. Vol.3, Issue.2, DOI: 10.4172/2167-0269.1000126.
[4]. Lateef Ahmed Mir (2014). An Economic Evaluation of Indian Tourism Industry. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Vol. 4, Issue 12.
[5]. Madhusmita Mishra and Prabina Kumar Padha (2012). Emergence of Tourism in the Sustainable growth of India. Commerce and Management, Vol.1, No.8, pp. 161-167.
[6]. Nalini G., and Prashanta Athma (2017). Employability in Tourism Industry in India : An Analysis. International Journal of Management Studies, Vol.4, Issue.3, http://www.researchersworld.com/ijms/
[7]. Shijo O. ( 2016). Economic Impact of tourism in India. International Journal of Social Science, Vol.5, Issue.1.35-46. DOI: 10.5958/2321-5771.2016.00013.2.
[8]. Subash .T. (2015). Tourism in India: Potentials, Challenges & Opportunities, International Journal of research and analytical reviews. Vol 2, Issue 4.
[9]. UNWTO (2020, January, 20). International tourism growth continues to outpace the global economy. https://www.unwto.org/international-tourism-growth-continues-to-outpace-the-economy.
[10]. Vethirajan (2014). Trends and Growth of Tourism Sector in India, International Journal of Research. Vol. 3, Issue 11.
[11]. Vijayaragavan T. (2014). Impact of Tourism in Indian Economy. International Journal of Development Research, Vol 4, Issue 12 .2835-2839.
[12]. World Travel and Tourism Council. (2019). Economic impact report. https://wttc.org/Research/Economic-Impact.
Miscellaneous : Travel and Tourism relevant data cited in this paper are used from the below sources.
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[24]. Transforming our world : The 2030 agenda for sustainable development Report.
[25]. www.sustainabledevelopment.un.org.
[26]. And the other material searched from Google scholar, Wikipedia, Business Standard news etc.,

Dr. S. Dilli, Dr. S. Kishore “Contribution of Travel and Tourism Industry in boosting Indian Economy ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.05-11 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/05-11.pdf

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Benefits and Challenges of Home Garden in Rigachikun District of Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

Ijah, A.A., Ishola, B.F., Ayodele, J.T., Danbaki, C.A., Oladele, O.N., Yahaya, U.F. and Olukotun, O. – June 2020 – Page No.: 12-17

The study was conducted to investigate the benefits and challenges of home garden practice in Rigachikun District Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Data were collected randomly through the use of well structured questionnaire from 40 home gardeners. Descriptive statistics such as mean, percentage, frequency distribution and table were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that majority (57.50%) of the home gardeners were male, while majority (95.00%) of the gardeners are in their working age group of between 21 – 60 years with about 85.00 % of the respondents having over 5 years experience in home gardening. The result further indicated that thirty two crops of different habits and usage were identified to be cultivated in the home gardens. The result indicates that these nine crops; cowpea (87.50%), groundnut (82.50%), maize (75.00%), tomato (70.00 %), millet (65.00%), sorghum (60.00%), onion (57.00%) while pepper (50.00%) and sweet potato (50.00%) were cultivated by the majority of the gardeners. Some of the crops identified in the home gardens are for medicinal purposes. The result showed that some of the benefits of home garden practice include; better nutrition (95%), generate more income (95%), 90.00% of them have home gardens to obtain fresh food items like vegetables, for recreation (77.50 %), for reduction in family food budget (70.00 %) , for preservation of indigenous knowledge and culture (50.00%), environmental benefits/beautification (50.00%), for easing of emotional stress (37.50%), for medicinal purpose (37.50%), relief of mental fatigue, (32.50 %), promoting social justice and equity(27.50%), for important education or learning opportunities ( 20.00%), for empowering women (12.50%) improved mood; satisfaction and pride and increased self-esteem (10%) and courage to do things differently in life (10%) as benefits they derived from home gardens However the practice of home garden in the study area is hampered by constraints such as inadequacy of farm inputs, poor soil fertility and attack of insect pests and diseases. The study therefore, recommends that gardeners should be encouraged to organize cooperative societies so as to pull their resources together to enable them to get enough capital to purchase necessary farm inputs required for home garden and to be able to control pests and disease attacking their crops.

Page(s): 12-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2020

 Ijah, A.A.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanisation, Afaka, Kaduna, Nigeria

 Ishola, B.F.
Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho Hill, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

 Ayodele, J.T.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanisation, Afaka, Kaduna, Nigeria

 Danbaki, C.A.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanisation, Afaka, Kaduna, Nigeria

 Oladele, O.N.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanisation, Afaka, Kaduna, Nigeria

 Yahaya, U.F.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanisation, Afaka, Kaduna, Nigeria

 Olukotun, O.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanisation, Afaka, Kaduna, Nigeria

[1]. Alaimo K. Reischl T.M and Allen J.O .(2010). Community gardening, neighbourhood meetings and social capital. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 497-514.
[2]. Aworinde D. O., Erinoso S. M., Ogundairo B. O. and Olanloye A. O.(2013). Assessment of plants grown and maintained in home gardens in Odeda area Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry Vol. 5(2), pp. 29-36.
[3]. Blake, A., and D. Cloutier-Fisher.( 2009).. “Backyard Bounty: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges of Backyard Garden Sharing Projects.” Local Environment 14 (9): 797–807. doi:10.1080/13549830903166438.
[4]. Buchmann, C. (2009).. “Cuban Home Gardens and their Role in Social–Ecological Resilience.” Human Ecology 37 (6): 705– 721. doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9283-9.
[5]. Calvet-Mir, L., C. Riu-Bosoms, M. González-Puente, I. Ruiz-Mallén, V. Reyes-García, and J. L. Molina. (2016).. “The Transmission of Home Garden Knowledge: Safeguarding Biocultural Diversity and Enhancing Social–Ecological Resilience.” Society and Natural Resources 29 (5): 556–571. doi:10.1080/08941920.2015.1094711.
[6]. Faber M, Benade AJS.(2003). Integrated home gardening and community-based growth monitoring activities to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in a rural village in South Africa. Food Nutrition and Agriculture,32: 2.
[7]. Fernandes ECM and Nair PKR (1986). An evaluation of the structure and function of tropical homegardens. Agr Syst, 21:279–310.
[8]. Federal Ministry of Health.(2005) National Policy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Nigeria. Nutrition and Health Division, Federal Ministry of Health (FMH), 4-32.
[9]. Galhena DH, Freed R, Maredia KM.(2013). Home gardens: A promising approach to enhance household food security and wellbeing. Agriculture and Food Security. ;2(1):1.
[10]. Glover T.D. (2004).. Social capital in the lived experience of community gardeners. Leisure Science, 35 (26) 143-162
[11]. Hoogerbrugge I, and Fresco LO (1993). Homegarden Systems: Agricultural Characteristics and Challenges. London, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development. Gatekeeper Series No. 39.
[12]. Kelechi Igwe, Fortune Agu-Aguiyi and Gloria Nwazuruoke (2014). Social and Economic Implications of Home Gardening on the Livelihood of Farm Households in Abia State, Nigeria Developing Country Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.4, No.1 pp66
[13]. Koyenikan, M. J. (2007). Perception of Home Garden Potential Among Women in Edo South Ecologocal Zone, Nigeria. Available Online: http://www.sabinet.co.za/abstracts/genbeh/genbeh_v5_n1_a3.html. Accessed On: 26th May 2020.
[14]. Kumar, B. M., and P. K. R. Nair. (2004) . “The Enigma of Tropical Homegardens.” Agroforestry Systems 61–62 (1–3): 135–152. doi:10.1023/B:AGFO.0000028995.13227.
[15]. Malkmus, G., Shockey, P and Shockey, S. (2006) The Hallelujah Diet Experience the Optimal Health You were meant to have, Destiny Image Publishers, Inc., USA, 381p
[16]. Mitchell R, Hanstad T(2004). Small Homegarden Plots and Sustainable Livelihoods for the Poor. Rome, Italy: LSP Working Paper 11.
[17]. NPC,(2006):National Population Commission,Federal Office Office of Statisitics. Census 2006.
[18]. Nwaneke,P.K. and Chude, V.O.(2017). Are the Homestead Gardens a Possible Solution to Combating Malnutrition in Nigeria? European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety 7(4): 199-208.
[19]. Patalagsa, M. A., P. Schreinemachers, S. Begum, and S. Begum. (2015). “Sowing Seeds of Empowerment: Effect of Women’s Home Garden Training in Bangladesh.” Agriculture and Food Security 4 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/s40066-015-0044-2.
[20]. Raymond ,Christopher M., Diduck, Alan P. Arjen Buijs., Morrissa Boerchers and Robert Moquin (2018): Exploring the co-benefits (and costs) of home gardening for biodiversity conservation, Local Environment, pp1-16. DOI: 10.1080/13549839.2018.1561657

Ijah, A.A., Ishola, B.F., Ayodele, J.T., Danbaki, C.A., Oladele, O.N., Yahaya, U.F. and Olukotun, O. “Benefits and Challenges of Home Garden in Rigachikun District of Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.12-17 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/12-17.pdf

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Religious Militancy in Bangladesh (2013-2016)

Mohd Amdadul Haque, Sadia Afrin and Foisal Ahmed – June 2020 Page No.: 18-25

Religious militancy has come into focus all over the world after the attacks of the Al Qaeda in 2001 in New York. Militancy denotes the activities of individuals, groups or parties to engage in violence with a particular ideological purpose. Religiously inspired violent extremism and militancy emerged in Bangladesh only in the mid-1990s. But during 2001 to 2006, militancy in Bangladesh got a profound root through links and networks with global militant organizations. After a short break the issue of militancy again has come into forefront in 2013 with old and new networks following the wave of transnational trend. Militant organizations attacked bloggers, foreigners, atheists, priests, non-Muslims and other targeted individuals. Militant attacks and atrocities vehemently attracted global media. However, this paper is an attempt to examine whether there is militancy in Bangladesh or not with the nature of militant attacks and extent of the activities of militant gangs in Bangladesh during the period of 2013 to 2016.

Page(s): 18-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2020

 Mohd Amdadul Haque
Lecturer, Political Science at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science & Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

 Sadia Afrin
Lecturer, Political Science at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science & Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

 Foisal Ahmed
Lecturer, Political Science at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science & Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

[1]. Bashar, I. (2016), Revival of Islamist militancy in Bangladesh, http://www.todayonline.com/, January1 (Accessed on: 22-04-2016)
[2]. Hashmi, T.I. (2004), “Islamic Resurgence in Bangladesh: Genesis, Dynamics, and Implications,” in Limaye et.al. (eds.), Religious Radicalism and Security in South Asia, Hawaii: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies
[3]. Inokoba, P.K. & Imbua, D.L. (2010), Vexation and Militancy in the Niger Delta: The Way Forward, Journal of Human Ecology, 29:2
[4]. Karlekar. H. (2006), Bangladesh: The Next Afghanistan? , New Delhi: Sage Publications
[5]. Mapping Bangladesh’s Political Crisis, (2015), International Crisis Group, Asia Report N°264, 9 February
[6]. Moinul, K. (2011). Islamist militancy in Bangladesh: why it failed to take root, Journal of Policing. Intelligence and Counter Terrorism
[7]. Parvin, N. and Siddiqui, MSH (2011), Religion and Terrorism in Bangladesh: Opinion Survey in Netrokona District, Asian Studies, No. 30, June
[8]. Rahman, M.A. and Kashem, M.B. (2011), Understanding Religious Militancy and Terrorism in Bangladesh (Unpublished), Dhaka: Institute of Cultural Studies
[9]. Riaz, A. (2008), Islamist Militancy in Bangladesh: A Complex Web, New York: Routledge
[10]. Riaz, Ali (2016), Who are the Bangladeshi ‘Islamist Militants’? Perspectives on Terrorism, 10:1 (February 2016)
[11]. Sultan, T. (2016), ‘34 Attacks in 14 Months’ (Translated from Bengali), the ProthomAlo, 27 April

Mohd Amdadul Haque, Sadia Afrin and Foisal Ahmed “Religious Militancy in Bangladesh (2013-2016)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.18-25 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/18-25.pdf

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Conventional and Islamic Bank Stability in Bangladesh using NPL Model

Kh Khaled Kalam, An-Nisha Khatoon – June 2020 Page No.: 26-35

Islamic Banking system is a rapidly growing financial system over the Conventional Banking system in Bangladesh. As the conventional banks are more profit-maximizing regarding based on loan and mortgage. This study focused on the Non-Performing Loan and Efficiency for both Conventional and Islamic Banking sector in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2018. The study evaluates by analyzing Total Asset, Loan to asset, Inflation, Income Diversity, GDP and Cost to income. The last part also analysis the Descriptive, Correlations and Regression for the Data. The study explained that the inflation rate has a significantly negative impact on non-performing loan of the conventional banking system in Bangladesh. On the other hand, Islamic financing system is more efficient and convenient for the Bangladesh environment regarding non-performing loan management.

Page(s): 26-35                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2020

 Kh Khaled Kalam
Finance and Human Resource Management Lecturer, Business School, Shandong Xiehe University, China

 An-Nisha Khatoon
Senior Executive, Training & Operation, Time ASL Training Institute, Times Group, Bangladesh

[1]. Abu Umar Faruq Ahmad and M. Kabir Hassan (2007), Regulation and Performance of Islamic Banking in Bangladesh. International Business Review, Vol. 49(2) 251–277 March–April 2007.
[2]. Basov, S & Bhatti, MI 2016, Islamic Finance in the Light of Modern Economic Theory, Springer.
[3]. Callen, J.L., 2015. A selective critical review of financial accounting research. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 26, pp.157-167.
[4]. Gaddam, L, Al Khathlan,K., &Malik,S. (2009). Commercial banks in Saudi Arabia: a study of financial performance. Journal of International Finance and Economics, 9(1), 15-24.
[5]. Harrison Jr, W.T., Horngren, C.T. and Thomas, C.W., 2014. Financial accounting. Pearson Education.
[6]. Hussain, M, Shahmoradi, A & Turk, R 2016, ‘An overview of Islamic finance’, Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy, vol. 7, no. 01, pp. 88-115.
[7]. Hoyle, J.B., Schaefer, T. and Doupnik, T., 2015. Advanced accounting. McGraw Hill.
[8]. M. Moniruzzaman (2018) Growth and Prospect of Islamic Finance in Bangladesh. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 20, Issue 3. Ver. VIII (March. 2018), PP 10-20
[9]. Macve, R., 2015. A Conceptual Framework for Financial Accounting and Reporting: Vision, Tool, or Threat? Routledge.
[10]. Mansor, F & Bhatti, MI 2016, ‘Evidence of Risk and Return Performance of Islamic Mutual Funds: The Case of Malaysia’, in Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management: An Asian Perspective, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 81-101.
[11]. Mariani Abdul-Majid, David S. Saal and Giuliana Battisti (2009). Efficiency in Islamic and conventional banking: an international comparison. J Prod Anal (2010) 34:25–43.
[12]. Nobes, C., 2014. International classification of financial reporting. Routledge.
[13]. Phillips, F., Libby, R. and Libby, P., 2015. Fundamentals of Financial Accounting. McGraw-Hill Education.
[14]. Pratt, J., 2016. Financial accounting in an economic context. John Wiley & Sons.
[15]. Saunders, MN 2011, Research methods for business students, 5/e, Pearson Education India.
[16]. Schroeder, R.G., Clark, M.W. and Cathey, J.M., 2019. Financial accounting theory and analysis: text and cases. John Wiley & Sons.
[17]. SudinHaron (2008), Determinants of Islamic and conventional deposits in the Malaysian banking system. Managerial Finance 34(9):618-643.
[18]. V. Sundararajan and Luca Errico(2002) Islamic Financial Institutions and Products in the Global Financial System: Key Issues in Risk Management and Challenges Ahea

Kh Khaled Kalam, An-Nisha Khatoon “Conventional and Islamic Bank Stability in Bangladesh using NPL Model
” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.26-35 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/26-35.pdf

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Evaluation of Loggers’ Knowledge of Environmental Consequences of Logging in Kwarra, Wamba L.G.A, Nasarawa State

Adana M.Y, M. K Dahiru, M. Alkali, Nasiru Umar – June 2020 Page No.: 36-39

Evaluation of loggers’ knowledge of environmental consequences of logging in Kwarra, Wamba L.G.A, Nasarawa State. Stratified sampling technique was employed for data collection. The sample points were stratified into 23 villages where each village represents a stratum. The result obtained from the respondents’ knowledge on the impact of logging on the environment revealed that 51.7% of the respondents are aware of the fact that logging can pose significant impact on the environment while 48.3% are ignorant. Out of the number of the respondents that are aware of the impacts or effects of logging on the environment, 44.4% of them cannot say specifically what constitutes the impacts. However, it is also revealed that much of the impacts was related to soil erosion; while degradation, change in the amount of oxygen, absence of some medicinal plants and economic trees accounts for only 4.4%, 2.2%, 2.2% and 2.2% respectively. The study concluded that the Loggers in Kwarra District are not ignorant of the impacts of logging on the environment; despite the knowledge of the impacts, but could not do anything to mitigate the impacts. So, the study recommended that policies and laws that support conservation of natural resources should be fully implemented.

Page(s): 36-39                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 June 2020

 Adana M.Y
Department of Environmental Management, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

 M. K Dahiru
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia, Nigeria

 M. Alkali
Department of Environmental Management, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

 Nasiru Umar
Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

[1]. Akpofure R. (2009): Environmental Science, an Introduction. Kraft Books Limited, Thadan.
[2]. Akwa L, Binbol M, Samaila K and Marcus N (2007): Geographical Perspective on Nasarawa State Oneiwi Printing and Pub. Company Limited, Keffi ,Nasarawa State.
[3]. Alex A. (Dec. 8, 2011): Nigeria loses Nlbn to illegal wood export. Daily trust, P. 49.
[4]. Asthana D.K and Asthana M. (2005):Environmental Problems and Solution. Chand Company Limited, New Delhi.
[5]. Brown K. and David W. (1994): Causes of Tropical Deforestation. UCB Press, VancuovaCauses of Deforestation
[6]. William P. (2008): Principle of Environmental Science, Inquiry andApplication. McGraw Hill Company, New York.
[7]. Jocelyn C. (2010): Environmental Facts Created and Maintained. Saaveld School of Forestry, Canada.
[8]. Julian D. aid Kathrine D. (1996): Dictionary of Natural Resources Management. UBC Press, Canada.Liyah Feb. 7, 2010.
[9]. Odunayo 0. (2006): Introduction to Environmental Issues, Causes Effects and Solutions. Ikofa Commercial Press Ltd. Sholomu.
[10]. Ofomata G.E and Phil-Eze P.O (2001): Environmental Problems and Management In Nigeria 4th ed. Jamoe Enterprises, Enugu, Nigeria.
[11]. Pallavi, B. and Dung, K. (2001): Journal of the Indian School of Remote Sensing; Volume 3 number 1.

Adana M.Y, M. K Dahiru, M. Alkali, Nasiru Umar “Evaluation of Loggers’ Knowledge of Environmental Consequences of Logging in Kwarra, Wamba L.G.A, Nasarawa State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.36-39 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/36-39.pdf

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The Influence of Teachers’ Use Resources on Students’ Attitudes towards Mathematics among Secondary School Students

Mbuthia Ngunjiri – June 2020 Page No.: 40-43

This study examined the influence of teachers’ use of resources on students’ attitudes towards mathematics in Laikipia Country, Kenya. Descriptive research design was utilized in the study. The target population consisted of 8357 Form Four students from 113 secondary schools in the County. Simple randon sampling was employed to select the sample schools, sample classes, and respondents. A sample of 412 respondents consisting of 392 students and 20 mathematics teachers was selected from the sample classes using Krejcie and Morgan’s table of sample sizes. A self –administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Cronbach’s alpha was used to determine the reliability of research instruments. Data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and simple regression analysis at .05 level of significance. The study revealed that teachers’ use of resources makes a significant contribution in the development of students’ attitudes towards mathematics. The study concludes that for development of positive attitudes, teachers should make available a variety of relevant resources in teaching and learning.

Page(s): 40-43                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 June 2020

 Mbuthia Ngunjiri
Laikipia University, Kenya

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Mbuthia Ngunjiri , “The Influence of Teachers’ Use Resources on Students’ Attitudes towards Mathematics among Secondary School Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.40-43 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/40-43.pdf

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Using Technological Tools to Help Improve the Interest and Knowledge of Basic School Students

Samuel Asare, Jennifer Addai – June 2020 Page No.: 44-52

In recent times, some concerns have been expressed about the poor performance of JHS 1 pupils of Bonkrong D/A JHS due to their lack of interest and knowledge in the subject ICT. This concern is very agonizing given the relevance of teaching and learning process. This concern prompted the researcher to embark on the study to make out what’s actually happening in the school with regards to using technological tools in pedagogy. The objective of the study is to assess the importance of integrating technology into teaching and learning at Bonkrong D/A JHS in the Sekyere Central District of the Ashanti Region in Ghana which will help improve the interest and knowledge of pupils in learning ICT in the 21st century. The study employed the action research design and the purposive sampling technique. The population of the research consisted of 30 pupils in JHS 1. The instrument used to identify school-related causes of lack of interest and poor performance of ICT among JHS 1 pupils was questionnaire consisting of eight (8) open ended questions and the collected data was analysed using simple percentage tables.

Page(s): 44-52                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 June 2020

 Samuel Asare
St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

 Jennifer Addai
St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

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Samuel Asare, Jennifer Addai “Using Technological Tools to Help Improve the Interest and Knowledge of Basic School Students ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.44-52 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/44-52.pdf

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Effect of Customer Trust on Customer Loyalty: Case of Second-Tier Microfinance Institutions in Cameroon

Laure FANGUE, Colette SIMO, Jean DOUANLA – June 2020 Page No.: 53-59

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of interpersonal trust on customer loyalty of second-tier microfinance institutions in Cameroon. The study population consists of customer of second-tier microfinance institution. For this purpose, a survey questionnaire was carried out on 372 customers in total. The acquired survey data was evaluated via confirmatory factor analyses, reliability analyses and structural equation. The results show that interpersonal trust affect is positively correlated to the four dimensions of customer loyalty positively.

Page(s): 53-59                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2020

 Laure FANGUE
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Colette SIMO
The Dschang School of Economics and Management, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Jean DOUANLA
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Dschang, Cameroon

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Laure FANGUE, Colette SIMO, Jean DOUANLA, “Effect of Customer Trust on Customer Loyalty: Case of Second-Tier Microfinance Institutions in Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.53-59 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/53-59.pdf

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Suffer Don Finish”, Counting the Cost of Multitparty Upheavals in Bamenda, Cameroon in the 1990s

Godwin Gham Nyinchiah- June 2020 Page No.: 60-71

The history and character of multiparty politics at the local level in Cameroon coincided with the evolution of things in the rest of Africa as affected by the Cold War politics. It took the debilitating effects of the World economic slump of the 1980s and the early 1990s to once more unleash a kind of venomous wave of radical change that blew across Africa with a very high velocity destroying existing conservative forces along its way. Therefore, 1990 marked a watershed in Cameroons’ political history as multiparty politics was re-introduced with the launching of the Social Democratic Front (SDF) or (suffer Don Finish) in Bamenda. Its launching saw the death of six Cameroonians, the militarization and the imposition of a dawn-to-dusk curfew in the town. This paper raises many questions, and sought potential answers as well. How did the people of Bamenda survive the dawn to dusk curfew imposed in the town? How did they feed themselves regularly? How did they go about their businesses in the presence of gun trotting-military men? How did they communicate? How, when and why were the troops eventually withdrawn? What are the long term consequences of these upheavals? Sources will be mostly gotten from ordinary people who were involved and implicated in the processes, newspapers and archives. On the whole, the paper is written from the perspective of the voiceless people.

Page(s): 60-71                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2020

 Godwin Gham Nyinchiah
Department of History, University of Buea, Cameroon

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Godwin Gham Nyinchiah ““Suffer Don Finish”, Counting the Cost of Multitparty Upheavals in Bamenda, Cameroon in the 1990s” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.60-71 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/60-71.pdf

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Utilization of Digital Reference Resources and Services by Postgraduate Students in University Libraries in Benue State, Nigeria

Tofi, Simon Ternenge (CLN), Agada, Eric Ojobo (CLN), Okafor, Chinwe Josephine – June 2020 Page No.: 72-84

The study investigated utilization of digital reference resources and services by postgraduate students in university libraries in Benue State, Nigeria. Four specific objectives with corresponding research questions guided the study. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study comprises nine (9) digital reference librarians and eight hundred and twenty six (826) postgraduate students in universities in Benue State. The sample size of 269 postgraduate students and all the 9 digital reference librarians were used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a self-developed structured questionnaire titled “Utilization of Digital Reference Resources and Services Questionnaire” (UDRRSQ). The reliability of the questionnaire was established using Cronbach Alpha method and a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. Data collected was analyzed using Frequency Counts, Percentages, Means and Standard Deviation to answer the research questions. Findings of the study revealed that postgraduate students to a high extent utilize digital reference resources but the extent of utilization of the digital reference services in university libraries in Benue State is low. Further, the finding revealed the challenges that hinder the utilization of digital reference resources and services in university libraries in Benue State to include, lack of fund for purchasing electronic resources, inadequate/irregular power supply, lack of technical know-how, lack of preservation policy and high cost of maintenance of resources among others. The study concluded that, postgraduate students in universities in Benue State to a high extent utilize digital reference resources while the digital reference services are utilized to a low extent. Recommendations were made that, university management should ensure adequate funding of university libraries to enhance the availability of digital reference services, university libraries should provide programmes that could train their students in up-to-date 21st century skills of Information Communication technologies (ICTs) and university and library management should provide in-service training for reference librarians to enable them update their skills in the digital library, among others.

Page(s): 72-84                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2020

 Tofi, Simon Ternenge (CLN)
Benue State School of Nursing, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Agada, Eric Ojobo (CLN)
Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Okafor, Chinwe Josephine
Chief Librarian, Court of Appeal, Headquarters, Abuja, Nigeria

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Tofi, Simon Ternenge (CLN), Agada, Eric Ojobo (CLN), Okafor, Chinwe Josephine “Utilization of Digital Reference Resources and Services by Postgraduate Students in University Libraries in Benue State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.72-84 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/72-84.pdf

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Teachers’ Perception of Transition Preparedness by Learners with Physical Disabilities towards Employment: Joytown, Joyland and Mombasa Special Secondary Schools, Kenya

Lucy Muthoni Marete, Dr. Otube Nelly, Dr. Murugami Margret – June 2020 Page No.: 85-93

The study sought to examine factors affecting teachers’ perception of transition preparedness by learners with physical disabilities (PD) towards employment: Joytown, Joyland and, Mombasa Special Secondary Schools in Kenya. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative research approaches where mixed method design was used to collect and analyze the data. The study was carried out in Joytown in Thika West, Kiambu County, Mombasa Secondary in Mombasa County and Joyland in Kisumu County. Purposive sampling was used to select the three physically handicapped Special Secondary Schools, which were the earliest to be established by missionaries in Kenya. The piloting of the instruments were conducted in Joytown special school to form three learners and all teachers teaching form one and form three who were not included in the main study. An Interview schedule was administered to administrators while the teachers and learners with physical disabilities filled the questionnaires. Self-efficacy theory was used to interpret dynamics specifically for teachers and learners with physical disabilities in the classroom. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze quantitative data while Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis System (CAQDAS) was used to analyze interview schedules. The importance of this study was to create awareness of preparedness by teachers to enable learners with physical disabilities to transit to employment enhanced by teachers’ teaching strategies, availability of resources and knowledge of pre-vocational activities that enhanced their perception towards learners with physical disabilities. After the findings, the researcher recommended that the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) should develop curriculum contents, which will suit the needs of learners with special needs including those with physical disabilities. The findings may enhance appropriate pre-vocational skills for learners with physical disabilities because it has a futuristic relevance, widens the scope of individual economic activities, and reduces the burden of dependency on others. Further, it hopes to provide educational planners and policy-makers with a framework on which policies can improve the quality of teaching special needs education hence facilitate transition preparedness towards employment for learners with physical disabilities

Page(s): 85-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2020

 Lucy Muthoni Marete
Kenyatta University, Department of Special Needs Education, P.O BOX 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Otube Nelly
Kenyatta University, Department of Special Needs Education, P.O BOX 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Murugami Margret
Kenyatta University, Department of Special Needs Education, P.O BOX 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

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[16]. Merriam, S.B. (2001). Qualitative research and case study application in education. Revised and Expanded From Case Study Research in Educations San Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass Publishers.
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[19]. National Organization on Disability (2002a). Employment Ratsses of People with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.nod.org/content.cfm?id-13
[20]. Orodho, J.A. (2008). Techniques of Research Proposal and Reports in Education and Social Sciences-KANEZJA HP ENTERPRISES. Nairobi.
[21]. US Commission on Civil Rights (2000). Sharing the Dream: Is the ADA accommodating all? Retrieved on June 21, 2015 http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/ada.htm.
[22]. Wehman, P. &, Kregel, J., (2011). Functional Curriculum for Elementary Middle & Secondary Age Students with Special Needs (3rd). Austin TX: PRO-ED.
[23]. World Health Organization (2011). World Report on Disability. Geneva Switzerland, World Health Organization.

Lucy Muthoni Marete, Dr. Otube Nelly, Dr. Murugami Margret “Teachers’ Perception of Transition Preparedness by Learners with Physical Disabilities towards Employment: Joytown, Joyland and Mombasa Special Secondary Schools, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.85-93 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/85-93.pdf

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Foreign Workers Status in Indonesian Labor Law

Sukhebi Mufea – June 2020 Page No.: 94-96

The background of this research is the issue of foreign workers’ status in Indonesia. The issue that occurred i.e. within the dispute of industrial relationships related to the layoff of the foreign workers by the enterprise. The legal status of such foreign worker, whether the foreign workers constitute permanent workers or casual workers. In addition, about the compensation of the laying off policy that should be received by the foreign workers. Both legal issues occurred because the Act No. 13 of 2003 and its implementation rules did not rule clearly and specifically about the Fixed Term Employment Contract for foreign workers. This research is doctrinal research, based on the normative juridical research method which constitutes theoretical approach through literature study over the applied constitution i.e. Act No 13 of 2003 about Employment especially the one regulating the protection for foreign workers in terms of justice as well as other constitution regulating about foreign workers.

Page(s): 94-96                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2020

 Sukhebi Mufea
Doctor of Law Program, Universitas Jayabaya, Jakarta-Indonesia

[1]. R. V. Puspitasari, A. Harianto, and I. B. O. Ana, “Kepastian Hukum Pengaturan Penggunaan Tenaga Kerja Asing di Indonesia,” Lentera Huk., 2018.
[2]. Solechan, “Kebijakan Penguatan Kewajiban Alih Pengetahuan Tenaga Kerja Asing,” Adm. Law Gov. J., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 196–205, 2018.
[3]. P. Laksono, “PENGAWASAN PERIZINAN TENAGA KERJA ASING,” Supremasi Huk. J. Penelit. Huk., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 74–91, 2018.
[4]. S. N. Anindita, “Perlindungan Hukum Tenaga Kerja Lokal Atas Masuknya TenagaKerja Asing Pasca Berlakunya Perpres No. 20 Tahun 2018,” Jurist-Diction, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1127–1146, 2019.
[5]. C. P. Halim, “Perlindungan Hukum Bagi Tenaga Kerja Asing Terhadap Pelanggaran Perjanjian Kerja Waktu Tertentu (Studi Kasus Putusan Pengadilan Hubungan Industrial Nomor: 274/Pdt.Sus-Phi/2015.Pn.Jkt.Pst Jo Putusan Mahkamah Agung Nomor: 697 K/Pdt.Sus-Phi/2016),” J. Huk. Adigama, 2018.
[6]. V. Prahassacitta, “Dualisme Pandangan Mahkamah Agung mengenai Status Hukum Tenaga Kerja Asing,” J. Yudisial, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 117–135, 2014.
[7]. R. Indonesia, “Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No.13 Tahun 2003 tentang Ketenagakerjaan,” Undang. No.13 Tahun 2003, 2003.

Sukhebi Mufea “Foreign Workers Status in Indonesian Labor Law” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.94-96 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/94-96.pdf

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Consequences of Indiscriminate Disposal of Solid Waste on Environment and Humans’ Health in Nigeria
John, Wajim – June 2020 – Page No.: 97-100

This scholarly study ascertained the consequences of indiscriminate disposal of solid waste on environment and humans’ health in Nigeria. The indiscriminate disposal of solid waste along residential buildings, commercial centres (such as markets, shops, shopping malls, super market, kiosks), roads, on drainages, streets is very disgusting; and these indiscriminate disposal of wastes in Nigeria causes great environmental hazards and serious outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, typhoid and malaria including the annual rituals of flooding in Nigeria due to blockage of canals as a result of anthropogenic activities and carelessness that affects the free flow of water ; and all the aforesaid are associated to the indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes by humans. Secondary sources of data collection were used for this scholarly article. Amongst other recommendations, it is recommended that government should reinforce waste collection and disposal systems in every state within Nigeria as well as to strengthen and enforce the appropriate laws against indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes; Public campaign on the dire consequences of indiscriminate solid waste disposal on humans’ health and environment should be organized by the government and non-governmental organizations; and monthly sanitation should be strictly adhere to in order to curtail the littering of our environment.

Page(s): 97-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2020

 John, Wajim
Department of Sociology, Federal University, Wukari, 200 Katsina-Ala Road, P.M.B 1020 Wukari, Nigeria

[1]. Abdullahi, I. et al., (2014). Environmental Impact of Indiscriminate Waste Disposal: A Case Study of Nigerian Air Force Base Kaduna. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS), 1 (1).
[2]. Abul, S. (2010). Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Disposal a Mangwaneni Dumpsite in Manzini: Swaziland. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12(7): 64-78.
[3]. Achi, H. A et al., (2012). Disposal Sites and Transport Route Selection Using Geographic Information System & Remote Sensing in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Global Journal of Human Social Science Geography and Environmental Geosciences, 12(12): 14-24.
[4]. Anyanwu, N. C & Adefila, J. O. (2014). The Nature and Management of Solid Waste in Karu Nasarawa State, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(11).
[5]. Baran, P.A. (1959). Reflections and Under-consumption in the Allocation of Economic Resources: Essays by Moses Abramovitz and Others. Stanford University Press: Stanford. pp 52-64.
[6]. Cunningham, W.P., & Cunningham, M.A. (2002). Principles of Environmental Science: Enquiry and Applications (1st ed). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
[7]. Emily, W. (2004). Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries: Nigeria, a Case Study, (New York; USA), P.4.
[8]. Foday, P. S., Xiangbin, Y & Quangyen, T. (2013). Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Disposal in Developing Cities: A Case Study of Granville Brook Dumpsite, Freetown, Sierra Leone.J. Env’tal Prot., 4: 665-670.
[9]. Frosch, R. A. (1996). Toward the End of Waste: Reflections on a New Ecology for Industry. Daedalus, 125(3):199-212.
[10]. Hoornweg, Daniel & Laura T. (1999). What a Waste: Solid Waste Management in Asia. Working Paper Series, Urban Development Sector Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region, pp.5.
[11]. Isa, A. A. (2006). Demographic Trends and Human Development in Nigeria. Commandant National War College Inaugural Lecture to participants of NWC Course 15, Abuja, Nigeria.
[12]. Kumar, J. (2007). Solid Waste Management Cell. All India Institute of Local Self Government (AIILSG), West, Mumbai – 400 058 (India).
[13]. Lox, F. (1994). Waste Management – Life Cycle Analysis of Packaging. Final Report. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek, Belgian Packaging Institute, XI/A/4.
[14]. Nguyen, P. T., Matsui, Y and Fujiwara, T. (2011). Assessment of Plastics Waste Generation and Its Potential Recycling of Household Waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam. Env’tal. Moni. Asoc 175(1- 4):23-35.
[15]. Oyediran, A. B. (2004). War on filth (Ibadan: Oluben Printers), pp.11.
[16]. Pongrácz, E. (1998). The Environmental Effects of Packaging. Licentiate Thesis, Tampere University of Technology; Tampere, Finland.
[17]. Rimberg, D. (1975). Municipal waste management. Noyes Data Corporation, USA.
[18]. Salam, A. (2010). Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Disposal at Mangwaneni Dumpsite in Manzini: Swaziland. J. Sust. Dev. Afri., 12(7): 23-45.
[19]. UNEP, (1989). Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Adopted March, 22. 1989.
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[21]. World Bank, (2005). Waste Management in China: Issues and Recommendations. East AsiaInfrastructureDevelopment.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/_ob=RedirectURL&_method=externalObjLink&_locator=url&_issn=092B&_targetURL=http:% 253%252%252%go.worldbank.org%252F2HOV M07ZGO
[22]. Yongsi, H. B. N., et al. (2008). Environmental Sanitation and Health Risks in Tropical Urban Settings: Case Study of Household Refuse and Diarrheal in Yaounde Cameroon. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences. 3(3): 220-228.

John, Wajim “Consequences of Indiscriminate Disposal of Solid Waste on Environment and Humans’ Health in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp. 97-100 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/97-100.pdf

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Should the Supreme Court Review its Judgments? An Examination of the Grounds for Appeal of Nigeria’s Apex Court Ruling on the 2019 Imo State Gubernatorial Elections

Mustapha Salihu – June 2020 Page No.: 101-105

The study set out the examine the grounds upon which the Supreme Court of Nigeria is been asked to review a judgment it gave on January 14, 2020 in respect to case Ihedioha Vs. Uzodinma. In a watershed judgment the supreme court unfilled the electoral victory of Governor Emeka Ihedioha of Imo mandating that the Independent National Electoral Commission issue a certificate of return to Senator Hope Uzodinma who came fourth in the polls at the rightful winner of the electoral bout on some technical incoherencies that characterized the conduct of the election. Rightly, so Ihedioha approached the apex court praying it reverse it decision. Upon review of relevant cases and sections of the Constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 as amended, it was observed that while the apex court has sometimes in the past reviewed its own ruling, there were no specific provision exists which gives the Supreme Court power to set aside its obviously bad judgement in Uzodinma & Anor. v. Ihedioha & 2 Ors that the Court cannot set it aside is necessarily flawed. The Court retains such power under its inherent powers. It is not given by the 1999 Constitution. It is inherent in it. It is, however, recognized under section 6(6) of the said Constitution which affirms that it cannot be taken away.

Page(s): 101-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2020

 Mustapha Salihu
Ph.D. Candidate, Nile University of Nigeria

[1]. Akande J.O. (2000). The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 with annotations. Lagos, M.J Professional Publishers, 2000.
[2]. Daniel, O. (2020, January 21). The Powers that Be . Daily Post Nigeria , p. 1.
[3]. Ese, M. (2006). Nigerian Constitutional Law. Lagos, Princeton Publishers Co.
[4]. Federal Government of Nigeria. (1999). Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 as amended.Abuja: FGN.
[5]. Ibrahim, S. (2016). Background to Legal Practice in Nigeria . International Journal of Politics and Law, Vol. 7. No. 2. Pp. 23-37.
[6]. Nigeria, F. G. (1999). 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as Amended . Abuja : Federal Government of Nigeria.
[7]. Nwabueze B. O. (1982). A Constitutional History of Nigeria. London: C Hurst & Co Publishers.
[8]. Okolo, M. (2014). The Supreme Court and Judgement Review Appeals in contemporary Nigeria . Beijing Law Review , Vol. 16. No. 2. Pp. 12-28. .
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[10]. Onoja, R. (2000). Supreme Court and the Legality of Judgment Review in Nigeria . Lagos : Sunshine Publishing House .
[11]. Solomon. U. (2016). Developments in Nigerian Constitutional Law., International Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 12. No. 1. Pp. 1-16.

Mustapha Salihu “Should the Supreme Court Review its Judgments? An Examination of the Grounds for Appeal of Nigeria’s Apex Court Ruling on the 2019 Imo State Gubernatorial Elections ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.101-105 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/101-105.pdf

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Phenomenological Perspectives of Shame in an Academic Setting in Sri Lanka

Abeyweera, G.H. – June 2020 Page No.: 106-109

This paper essentially deals with the Phenomenological perspectives of ‘shame’ in an academic setting in the context of Sri Lanka with a view to provide a description where the study is confined to numerically four subjects of which around main subject, the three other subjects were moving around. Phenomenology covenants with the science of phenomena concentrating the study of consciousness and the object of direct experience. Phenomenology also has a close association with psychology and philosophy. However, psychology plays a crucial role to play on phenomenology of shame. Thus, this papers aims at providing a description on phenomenological perspectives on shame in relations to academic setting of Sri Lanka.

Page(s): 106-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2020

 Abeyweera, G.H.
Department of English Language Teaching, Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka

[1]. Cerbone, D.R. (2004). Understanding Phenomenology: Routledge Publication, London
[2]. Heidegger, M. (1982).The Basic Problems of Phenomenology: Indiana University Press
[3]. Karlsson, G. (2009). The Experience of Guilt and Shame: A Phenomenological- Psychological Study: Springer Publication
[4]. M.M. Ponty (1998). Phenomenology of Perception: Routledge Publication
[5]. Pietersma, H. (2000). Phenomenological Epistemology: Oxford University Press, Oxford
[6]. Sholl, J. (2019). How to Deal with Shame: Article referred to https://experiencelife.com/article/shutting-shame-down/
[7]. Thevenaz, P. (1962). What is Phenomenology: And Other Essays: Chicago Publications Ltd.

Abeyweera, G.H. “Phenomenological Perspectives of Shame in an Academic Setting in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.106-109 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/106-109.pdf

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Repositioning the Nigerian Foreign Policy for the Coming Multi-World Order

Susan Doofan Albert-Makyur – June 2020 Page No.: 110-115

Nigeria’s foreign policy is afro-centric in nature, with focus significantly on the prosperity and non-interference approach to its fellow African countries. Nigeria has supported her counterparts in difficult times to achieve success. But the rivalry, lack of support, and persistent pull-down syndrome, Nigeria has experienced over the decades in Africa, has prevented Nigeria from achieving the desired potentials of becoming a developed and renowned regional hegemon. As the present international structure changes towards a totally new structure, conceptualized as a multi-world order, the need to reposition the Nigerian foreign policy to reflect her domestic interest is imperative. Although the idea of a multi-world order stands contrary to the Nigerian foreign policy, the coming multi-world order is one that, economic partnerships, diplomatic ties, and international alliances between divergent actors in complex division and gatherings are needed to achieve economic growth. However, each perspective directs to a credible future, neither captures fully what the future holds. The qualitative method of data used critically examined the genesis of the current international structure as one with multiple ‘orders’ embedded within a whole international arena. The theoretical predictions show that with the ‘multi-order world’, the liberal order will continue, and may even be strengthened domestically but its international reach will be greatly reduced. The paper argued, the solution to the multi-world order is the urgent need for Nigerian foreign policy-makers and scholars to note that the coming multi-world order will be radically unalike, requiring new mental thinkers and strengthen institutions and the acceptance of variety in both power and doctrine in order to survive. It concludes that the challenge ahead is to forge and sustain existing and new forms of relationships to manage the multi-order world.

Page(s): 110-115                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2020

 Susan Doofan Albert-Makyur
Department of Political Science & International Relations and Diplomacy, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

[1]. Acharya, A. Antoni E. Goodman, L.W (2019), Reshaping Global Order in the 21st Century: G-Plus Leadership in a Multiplex World; China & World Economy / 63–78, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2019
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[4]. Buzan, B. (2001), The English School:an underexploited resource in IR, Review of International Studies 27:3-474http://www.polis.leedsac.uk/research/international-relations-security/english-school/ (accessed November 25, 2019).
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[7]. Haass, R. (2019), How a World Order Ends: And What Comes in Its Wake. Foreign Affairs, New York Vol. 98, Iss. 1, (Jan/Feb 2019): 22.
[8]. Idahosa & Adebayo. (2017), Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia www.wwjmrd.com International Journal Peer Reviewed Journal: 4.25 e-ISSN: 2454-6615
[9]. Inamete, U. (1990), Foreign policy decision-making system and Nigerian foreign policy during the Buhari era.Round Table, 00358533, April 90, Vol. 79, Issue 314
[10]. Lodgaard, S. (2019), Arms Control and World Order, Journal for Peace and Nuclear Disarmament, 2:1, 1-18, DOI: 10.1080/25751654.2019.1631243
[11]. McGlinchey, S. Walters, R. &Scheinpflug, C. (2017), the International Relations Theory. E-International Relations www.E-IR.info Bristol, England
[12]. Mladen, L. (2017), Institute for Political Studies, Belgrade; Received: 31 August 2017.Croatian Political Science Review, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2017, pp. 143-160
[13]. Odey, I. (2016),Nigeria’s Foreign Policy since 1960:Issues, Challenges, And Milestones. By Academia.edu, Access May20,2020
[14]. Ojo, O. (2019), Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under the Administration of President Muhammadu Buhari: An Overview (2015-2017) News Agency of Nigeria and Pulse Nigeria.
[15]. Robert W. M. (2019), Editor for IR Theory and Practice blog on E-IR
[16]. Ritika, P. & Harsh V. P. (2018), Raisin Files; Debating disruption in the world order
[17]. Schulze, P.W. (2017), the teething problems of a multipolar world order. Reichenau, Austria.www.research.org published December 31, 2017 Access June 2, 2020
[18]. Taylor, I. (1998), China’s foreign policy towards Africa
[19]. Uzu, V. (2008), Evolution of the Nigeria foreign policy by Academia.edu
[20]. Wintour, P. (2019), UK could boost military support to help Nigeria defeat Boko Haram. The Guardian Weekly, Wednesday May 1, 2019.

Susan Doofan Albert-Makyur “Repositioning the Nigerian Foreign Policy for the Coming Multi-World Order” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.110-115 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/110-115.pdf

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Using an Improvised Game Board to Solve Algebraic Expressions: A Case of a Ghanaian Basic School

Samuel Amoh Gyampoh, Nelson Opoku-Mensah, Grace Sefah- June 2020 Page No.: 116-125

The research which is conducted for pupils of Kyiremfaso Anglican Primary six (6) is an action research and aimed at helping the pupils in adding algebraic expressions using an improvised game board. The population consisted of 34 pupils from basic six, of which thirteen (13) were girls and the remaining 21 were boys but only 20 pupils were selected and used as the target group through simple random sampling technique. Efforts were made by the researcher to find the interventions to the problem identified. Based on the objectives stated, the researcher observed and tested the pupils in order to be certain about the true picture of the problem of the pupils’ inability to add algebraic expressions. In analyzing the data, percentage tables were used. After careful analysis of the data obtained, the results revealed some of the causes of the pupils’ inability to add algebraic expressions. Despite the fact that the intervention assisted to solve all the problems, it is suggested that teachers should try as much as possible to use adequate teaching and learning materials in teaching. Also, the use of local language to explain certain aspects should be encouraged. Finally, the researchers recommend that, there should be the need for teachers to attend in-service training and workshops to update themselves in the new system of teaching.

Page(s): 116-125                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2020

  Samuel Amoh Gyampoh
Mathematics/ICT Department, St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

  Nelson Opoku-Mensah
Mathematics/ICT Department, St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

  Grace Sefah
St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong – Ashanti, Ghana

[1]. Apronti, O.D and Asante, J.A. (2001).Teaching Mathematics in Basic Schools. University Press Ghana.
[2]. Asafo-Adjei, R. (2005). Mathematics Methodology for teacher training college (4th edition) Kumasi, B.A. Publication.
[3]. Asafo-Adjei, R. (2002).Teaching Basic Mathematics for Colleges of Education. University Press Ghana.
[4]. Banerjee, R., & S ubramaniam, K. (2012). Evolution of a teaching approach for beginning algebra. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 80(3), 351-367.
[5]. Capraro, M. M. & Joffrion, H. (2006). Algebraic equations: Can middle-school students meaningfully translate from words to mathematical symbols? Reading Psychology, 27, 147–164.
[6]. Carr, W. and Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical: Education knowledge and action research, Lewes: Falmer.
[7]. Dosso, M. K (2001). Comprehensive Notes on Education studies for Teacher Training Colleges.
[8]. Fianu, E. (2005).Principle and Methods of English Language Teaching for Colleges of Education.
[9]. Gerald, R. R., William, T. B., David A. B., Robert C. F. and Virginia P. (1989). Unified Mathematics. U.S.A. Houghton Mifflin Company, One Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108.
[10]. Ghana Education Service (2003).Handbook on Lesson Note Preparation and Teaching and Learning Materials, Ghana.
[11]. Livneh, D., & Linchevski, L. (2007). Algebrification of arithmetic: Developing algebraic structure sense in the context of arithmetic. In J. W. Woo, H. C., Lew, K. S. Park, & D. Y. Seo (Eds). Proceedings of the 31stConference of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (vol. 3, pp. 217-225). Seoul, Korea: International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.
[12]. Katz, V. J. (1993). A history of mathematics: an introduction. New York: HarperCollins.
[13]. Kaufman, J. E. (2015).College Algebra. Boston: PWS-KENT Publishing Company, Inc.
[14]. Kiselman, C. O., &Mouwitz, L. (2008). Matematiktermerförskolan. [Mathematical terms for school]. Gothenburg: National center for mathematical education (NCM), University of Gothenburg.
[15]. MacGregor, M., & Stacey, K. (1997). Students‟ understanding of algebraic notation: 11–15. Educational Studiesin Mathematics, 33(1), 1–19.
[16]. Meyer, J. (2000). Using qualitative methods in health related action research’. British Medical Journal, 320: 178–181.
[17]. Radford, L. (1997). On psychology, historical, epistemology and the teaching of mathematics: towards a socio-cultural history of mathematics. For the Learning of Mathematics, 17(1), 26-33.
[18]. Seng, L. K. (2010). An error analysis of form 2 (grade 7) students in simplifying algebraic expressions: Adescriptive study. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8(1), 139-162.
[19]. Skemp R (1982). The psychology of learning Mathematics, Middle Sex, Rengium Books.
[20]. Tirosh, D., Even, R., & Robinson, N. (1998). Simplifying algebraic expressions: Teacher awareness and teaching approaches. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 35, 51-64.

Samuel Amoh Gyampoh, Nelson Opoku-Mensah, Grace Sefah, “Using an Improvised Game Board to Solve Algebraic Expressions: A Case of a Ghanaian Basic School” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.116-125 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/116-125.pdf

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The Role of Instructional Media and Technology in the Zimbabwean Primary School Curriculum

Mukandi Cosmas, Pisirai Cuthbert, Winnet Chindedza – June 2020 Page No.: 126-133

Curriculum is at the epicentre of any education system (Handbook on curriculum Review 2015-2022). The optimism is premised on the fact that education has the power to transform societies more than any other agent acting singly. Zimbabwe is now using an updated curriculum from early childhood development right across to advanced level. Zimbabwe is a unique country by virtue of having a multiplicity of cultures. Lawton (1973) posits that curriculum is essentially a selection from the culture of a society. In a multi-cultural society like Zimbabwe, it becomes very difficult to deliver instruction and it is further complicated by a centralised curriculum which does not take into account the peculiarities of each setting. The Zimbabwean context, particularly the primary school sector calls for the teacher to be proactive in the delivery of instruction by adapting and adopting the curriculum content to suit the different cultures. The teacher has to look for relevant instructional media and technology (IMT) that suits the level of the learners. The teacher can bring the world into the classroom in her/his quest to concretise taught concepts and simultaneously prepare pupils into the world of work through encooperating relevant IMT. The importance of IMT in the updated curriculum cannot be underestimated. It is the task of this paper to elucidate the role of IMT in the updated primary school curriculum in Zimbabwe, looking at implementation variables currently playing out. Currently, the updated curriculum is in its first seven year cycle ending year 2022.

Page(s): 126-133                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2020

 Mukandi Cosmas
Great Zimbabwe University, School of Education and Culture, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

span class=”html-tag”> Pisirai Cuthbert
Great Zimbabwe University, School of Education and Culture, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

span class=”html-tag”> Winnet Chindedza
Great Zimbabwe University, School of Education and Culture, Masvingo, Zimbabwe

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Mukandi Cosmas, Pisirai Cuthbert, Winnet Chindedza “The Role of Instructional Media and Technology in the Zimbabwean Primary School Curriculum” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.126-133 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/126-133.pdf

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Revisiting the First Battle of Panipat: Logistics, Space and Strategy of Warfare

Priyam Kumar Roy – June 2020 Page No.: 134-139

Knowledge of space helped royal elites to undertake new invasions to obtain and distribute resources among them. Since India was resourceful country as against the Central Asia, being dry and barren in nature, along with other invaders, Babur also invaded India for his political existence depended upon economic solvency and the way Babur followed to capture economic and political heartland was first battle of Panipat which brought forth several lacunas in administrative set up of Delhi Sultanate and downfall. The Mongal tradition of warfare that helped Babur for preparation including various strategy of warfare in medieval era became critical to the Sultanate and came to prove substandard military organisation of indigenous military system. Along with inferiority the prejudice that comatose them in crisis was largely responsible for their downfall. Therefore the style of warfare including role of space, logistics and strategies adopted for “death ground” military operation, to be analysed.

Page(s): 134-139                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2020

 Priyam Kumar Roy
Assistant Professor, Department of History, Kalyani Mahavidyalaya, West Bengal, India

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Priyam Kumar Roy “Revisiting the First Battle of Panipat: Logistics, Space and Strategy of Warfare” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.134-139 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/134-139.pdf

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Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee Productivity (A Study of Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu) Enugu State, Nigeria

Dr. Melletus Uchechukwu Agbo, Meruo Emmanuel Okeoma – June 2020 Page No.: 140-148

This study determined the impact of organizational culture on employee productivity with reference to Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu. Having analyzed the distributed 150 questionnaire to staff of Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu, descriptive survey approach was adopted and analyzed using SPSS regressions. The following findings were made; i) there was positive and significant impact of organizational culture on performance of employees of Nigerian Breweries Plc Enugu. ii) there was positive and significant effect of organizational culture on employee effectiveness of Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu. The study concluded that organizational culture had a great influence on the productivity of employees in organizations which leads to better performance and profitability organizations and it further recommended that management should enforce security measures to protect the interest of the organizations.

Page(s): 140-148                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2020

 Dr. Melletus Uchechukwu Agbo
Department of Business Administration, College of Management Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State Nigeria

 Meruo Emmanuel Okeoma
Department of Business Administration, College of Management Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State Nigeria

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[6]. Nnamani E. & Agu P. (2012).The Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee Performance A Study of Selected Manufacturing Industry in Enugu, Asian Journal of Business Management Studies 3 (2): 13-19.
[7]. Omukaga A. A. (2016). Effects of Organizational Culture on Employee Performance at A Study on Limited, Nairobi, Kenya; A Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Master of Business Administration, School of Business, University of Nairobi
[8]. Salihu A. J., Salihu M. B. R. & Umar M. I.(2016). Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee Performance in Nigeria, International Journal of Novel Research in Marketing Management and Economics, 3(3),48-65).

Dr. Melletus Uchechukwu Agbo, Meruo Emmanuel Okeoma, “Impact of Organizational Culture on Employee Productivity (A Study of Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu) Enugu State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.140-148 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/140-148.pdf

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Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Tea Production in Nandi Hills – Nandi County: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Daniel Kipruto Tuitoek, Clement Cheruiyot Tison, Lydia Jebichii – June 2020 Page No.: 149-163

Tea production has largely spread from its original land of China to so many parts of the world. Since tea was discovered in China, it has travelled the world conquering the thirsts of virtually every country on the planet. Tea is the most popular beverage in the world as well as the healthiest. It has become one of the most important economic activities to the small-scale farmers in Kenya and employs greater population in other related businesses. However, production in this sector doesn’t match the high demand in the market and socio-economic sustainability of the livelihood. This study is therefore set to analyze the technical efficiency in small-scale tea production in Nandi Hills region, Nandi County and suggest the necessary measures that should be adopted by farmers to improve their production efficiency. This study was based in Nandi County from where the primary data was sourced from farmers in the field and was supplemented by secondary data that was also elicited from journals, research reports, Government reports, website among others. Purposive sampling was used to select farmers and was appended by simple random sampling to form a sample frame of 40 farmers. Data was collected from tea farmers between July and September 2014 by use of pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires administered by the researcher. Information on yields and inputs used to grow tea by each household were collected. Descriptive data analysis was used to describe qualitative data while quantitative data was also analyzed using inferential statistics both done by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. This study hypothesized that small-scale tea production is economically inefficient, and its key limitation is the time limit for the study. It also assumed that data collection and analysis were valid and reliable.DEA model was used to determine the technical relationship between inputs and outputs. The study’s significance was to draw out policies and recommendations that may be provided to farmers to improve efficiency in production. The main finding is efficiency scores of tea production varied widely ranging from 0.1093750 to 1.0. Farmers who allocated small parcel of land to tea production were more efficient. Economic factors such as size of land and land allocated to tea significantly determined the level of technical efficiency of tea production in Nandi Hills.

Page(s): 149-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2020

 Daniel Kipruto Tuitoek
Department of Economic, Moi University, Kenya

 Clement Cheruiyot Tison
Department of Economic, Moi University, Kenya

 Lydia Jebichii
Department of Agricultural Economics and Resource Management, Moi University, Kenya

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Daniel Kipruto Tuitoek, Clement Cheruiyot Tison, Lydia Jebichii “Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Tea Production in Nandi Hills – Nandi County: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.149-163 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/149-163.pdf

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Election Management Bodies in Africa: The pity of it all

Paul Otieno Onyalo- June 2020 Page No.: 164-171

Since the (re-) introduction of multiparty politics in Africa in the early 1990s, electoral competition for state power has become the norm and most African countries have held more than three successive elections. However, while election is important part of a political process in a democracy and that every political system participate in election as a symbol of the democracy, experience of how Electoral Management Bodies (EMBs) have managed elections in Africa has revealed that over the years, their independence have been mortgaged by different internal and external interest thereby being used to subvert the will of the people. This has generated a worrying trend of increasing election-related violent conflict that threatens democracy, peace and stability of the continent. Therefore, this research paper uses content analysis to examine the pitfalls of EMBs in managing elections in Africa with empirical evidence from different African Countries. In order to create an institutional strengthening design for EMBs that has high integrity, the paper concludes by proposing a raft of recommendations such as the need to create a framework for mutually cooperative links based on professionalism and impartiality, enabling EMBs to iron out any disputes during the electoral process, thus strengthening electoral administration and management as an investment for consolidating democracy in Africa.

Page(s): 164-171                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2020

 Paul Otieno Onyalo
Pan African University-Institute of Governance Humanities and Social Science

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Paul Otieno Onyalo “Election Management Bodies in Africa: The pity of it all” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.164-171 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/164-171.pdf

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The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the Manufacturing Industry

Sulistiyani, Setyo Riyanto – June 2020 Page No.: 172-175

In the current condition where the situation in all parts of the world is facing a Covid-19 pandemic which is increasingly increasing the number of countries that have been infected with the Covid-19 virus as we know that vaccines have not been found to ward off the virus. This will certainly have an impact on global economic conditions that can kill all business businesses, many superpowers such as the United States and European Union countries have very sophisticated technology and qualified health workers who have not been able to solve the problem of covid-19 virus infection so Many developed countries have to experience economic hardship due to the cessation of all industrial, tourism, trade, mining and banking businesses which resulted in the termination of employment everywhere. The increasing level of poverty thus increasing the level of crime. The purpose of this study is to see the extent of the economic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the global economy which has an impact on the manufacturing industry. Analysis using qualitative methods by conducting virtual interviews with several industrial companies engaged in the manufacturing industry to find out the extent of the impact on business, workplace welfare and work enthusiasm supported by previous studies on matters that affect the business of manufacturing business. From this analysis we can conclude that the manufacturing industry business is strongly influenced by the global economy.

Page(s): 172-175                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2020

 Sulistiyani
Postgraduate Student Program, Mercu Buana University, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Setyo Riyanto
Associate Professor of Mercu Buana University, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Sulistiyani, Setyo Riyanto “The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the Manufacturing Industry” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.172-175 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/172-175.pdf

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The Effects of Conflicts Resulting From Artisanal Gold Mining to the Socio-Economic Lives of the People in Ikolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya

Lilian Machariah, Robert Aengwony and Samson Busalire – June 2020 Page No.: 176-182

Gold mining is a significant sector in the world economy and in at least 34 African Countries. Ikolomani gold mines are found in Kakamega County. Many countries worldwide have had conflicts resulting from artisanal gold mining. Most artisanal gold miners are from socially and economically marginalized communities and turn to mining in order to escape extreme poverty, unemployment and landlessness. Sometimes the gold is present, but in low and unexpected quantities especially considering the depth of the mines. The low quantity of gold is used for sustaining their lives. As a result of this, there are many conflicts from artisanal gold mining. The objective of this study was to examine effects of the conflicts resulting from artisanal gold mining to the socio-economic lives of the people in Ikolomani-Sub County, Kakamega County, Kenya. This study adopted the theory of cumulative and cyclical interdependence as its framework. The theory looks at individuals and their community as caught in a spiral web of opportunity and problems, hence, individuals and community resources are mutually dependent. The study employed descriptive and evaluation research designs. The study established that gold mining affected the socio-economic lives of the people more negatively than positively. The conflicts cause poor financial management (14%), poor health conditions (16%), school dropout (18%), physical and emotional injuries (27%), and environmental degradation (21%). The study recommends that policies should be implemented by the government in the exploring sector in Ikolomani Sub-County which will improve the working relationship among different stakeholders in the gold fields. There is need to improve on the economic amenities in Ikolomani by the government and investor by forging economic partnerships.

Page(s): 176-182                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2020

 Lilian Machariah
Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O BOX, 190-50100 Kakamega, KENYA

 Robert Aengwony
Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O BOX, 190-50100 Kakamega, KENYA

 Samson Busalire
Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O BOX, 190-50100 Kakamega, KENYA

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Lilian Machariah, Robert Aengwony and Samson Busalire “The Effects of Conflicts Resulting From Artisanal Gold Mining to the Socio-Economic Lives of the People in Ikolomani Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.176-182 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/176-182.pdf

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Patriarchal Husbands at the Interface between Local and Global: Changing Gender Roles of Married Men and Women Due to Women’s Migration to Middle Eastern Countries in a Peasant Colonization Scheme in Sri Lanka

Fazeeha Azmi- June 2020 Page No.: 183-193

In many patriarchal societies roles of married men and women are held in high esteems. However, in the context of increasing social and economic changes occurring at both local and global levels they cannot live up to the expectation of such societies. Married women are forced to take up breadwinner roles in many families, mainly due to poverty, unemployment, underemployment, low productivity and inadequate income in the agricultural sector along with the changing conceptualizations of individuals perceived wellbeing. Women’s economic contribution has become critical to the survival and wellbeing of many families. At the same time, opportunities for women’s economic participation are not always restricted to local spheres. It has expanded to global spheres too. In this perspective international migration is an important livelihood, option which mainly decided by global forces along with the local situation. In terms of international migration, Middle Eastern countries have been providing employment opportunities for men and women from their neighbouring countries for more than three decades. Dominated by female migrants, this livelihood option has gained much attention in terms of its social and economic impacts. Based on in depth interviews and focus group discussions, in three types of settlement in a peasant colonization scheme in Sri Lanka this article finds, that due to Middle East migration traditional gender roles of married men and women are undergoing considerable changes in these settlements. This article discusses why women migrate, how their husbands face the new role, how the changing gender roles are viewed by the society and the men whose wives have migrated. Focus group discussions conducted in the settlements identified a complex mix of views regarding the changing gender roles, with considerable difference in terms of age. In depth interviews revealed men are caught in multiple traps, where they could not claim whether they have achieved or empowered. They are confused and uncertain about their new gender roles.

Page(s): 183-193                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2020

 Fazeeha Azmi
Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

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[23]. Wickremasinghe, Maithree (2000). Gender and Development- A Conceptual Paper. Centre For Women’s Research (CENWO)

Fazeeha Azmi “Patriarchal Husbands at the Interface between Local and Global: Changing Gender Roles of Married Men and Women Due to Women’s Migration to Middle Eastern Countries in a Peasant Colonization Scheme in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.183-193 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/183-193.pdf

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Influence of Principals’ Use of Relevant Personnel on Implementation of Performance Appraisal in Public Secondary Schools in Mbooni East Sub County, Makueni County, Kenya

Dominic Mutiso Kimeu, Dr. Janet Mulwa, Dr. Gideon Kasivu – June 2020 Page No.: 194-197

Performance appraisal isa widely used tool for monitoring the performance of personnel employed in learning institutions all over world. The implementation of the appraisal process has often faced challenges due to the inability of teachers to carry out the required duties in learning institutions in Kenya. These challenges have been a great obstacle in implementation of performance appraisal in Public Secondary schools in Mbooni West Sub County thus necessitating the need for an investigation. This study investigated the Influence of Principals’ use of relevant Personnel on implementation of Performance Appraisal in Public Secondary Schools in Mbooni East Sub County, Makueni County, Kenya. The study objective sought to establish the extent to which principals’ use of the relevant personnel influences the implementation of performance appraisal in public secondary schools in Mbooni East Sub County, Makueni County, Kenya. The study used Descriptive survey research design. The target population for the study comprised of all 47 principals and 389 teachers in the Sub county. Stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniqueswere used to select a sample of 119 teachers and 16 principals.Data was collected using questionnaires. Data was analyzed and presented by usefrequency distribution tables and cross tabulation tables. The study established that, use of relevant personnel by principals positively influenced implementation of performance appraisal with 93.7% of principals and 86.6% of the teachers supporting it. The study concluded that use of relevant personnel by principals positively influenced implementation of performance appraisal.The study recommends that, teacher’s employer should considercreating a slot of a staff in every school to appraise the teachers and finalize the appraisal process by keying in the filled Teacher Performance Appraisal and Development tool in the appraisal portal.

Page(s): 194-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2020

 Dominic Mutiso Kimeu
M. Ed Candidate, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Janet Mulwa
Lecturer, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Gideon Kasivu
Lecturer, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

[1]. Dinham, S. (2013). The quality teaching movement in Australia encountersDifficultterrain:A personal perspective. Australian Journal of Education, 57(2), 91-106.://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000494411348584.
[2]. Flemish Government (2007).Development Reports on Performance Management. Flanders ,Brussels.
[3]. Ketelaar, A.( 2007). “Performance Based Arrangements for Senior Civil ServantsOECD Experiences.” Governance Working Paper, OECD, Paris.
[4]. King’oo F, Kasivu G.M & Mwanza R (2019). Influence of Principals’ Performance Contracting on Compliance with Procurement Procedures in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research. Vol 7 No.5 May 2019.
[5]. MOE, (2017). Assessment Reports. Mbooni Sub County Office.
[6]. Motswakae, R J (2004).A study of strategies for the introduction of staff development and appraisal scheme in secondary schools in Scotland and comparisons with comparable developments in Botswana. Unpublished M.Ed. dissertation.Moray House College: Scotland Centre for Education Overseas.
[7]. Ndanbuki BK, Kasivu G M & Mwanza R(2020).Influence of Principals’ Promotion of staff professional development onstudents’ performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) in Public Secondary Schools in Makueni\ County, Kenya IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) e-ISSN: 2320–1959.p- ISSN: 2320–1940 Volume 10, Issue 3 Ser. I (May – June 2020), PP 40-45 www.iosrjournals.org
[8]. OECD (2005), Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining EffectiveTeachers, OECD, Paris.
[9]. Peterson, K. D. (2000). Teacher Evaluation: A comprehensive guide to new directions and practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
[10]. TSC (2015).Teachers Service Commission, Code of Regulations for Teachers, Nairobi: Government Printers.
[11]. TSC, (2016).TSC Report .Nairobi.
[12]. Ruddin, Z. Z. (2005). Employee’s perceptions on the effectiveness of performance appraisal System. Unpublished Master of Education Thesis.Open University Malaysia.
[13]. Wilton, N. (2011). An introduction to Human Resource Management. London:Sage Publication
[14]. World Bank (2005).Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA). Washington. Africa Region.

Dominic Mutiso Kimeu, Dr. Janet Mulwa, Dr. Gideon Kasivu “Influence of Principals’ Use of Relevant Personnel on Implementation of Performance Appraisal in Public Secondary Schools in Mbooni East Sub County, Makueni County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.194-197 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/194-197.pdf

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The Woman’s Face In Uqūd Al-Lujain: Study of Misogynist Hadith

Muhammad Fuad Zain – June 2020 Page No.: 198-202

The book of Uqūd al-Lujain fi Bayan Ḣuqūq al-Zawjain by Shaykh Nawawi al-Jawi al-Bantani is a thin book in the field of fiqh-tasawuf which is often taught in NU madrassa’s which discussabout husband-wife relations, consist of four chapters. In each chapter there are several verses of the Qur’an, hadith, opinions of scholars and Sufi stories that are mostly quoted from the Ihya, ‘Umdat, al-Jawāhir, Syarh Nihayah, al-Asmu’iy, and al-Zawajir. The depiction of a woman’s face in the Uqud al-Lujain thatwomen’s position as the second being after men. This depiction can be seen from the role of women who only carry out domestic activities [cooking, make up, andgiving birth] or sleeping companions. This culture was formed in the beginning of Islam, so that in the present era it is necessary to read and re-understand the books that are less relevant to the times. Regarding whether the traditions in the Uqud al-Lujain contain misagonists or not need to read with hadith criticismand understanding of the hadith.Here Sheikh Nawawi seems to be more inclined to only use hadith criticism, so that there are many traditions that are less positioned more for more women in domestic life.

Page(s): 198-202                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2020

 Muhammad Fuad Zain
Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Purwokerto, Jl. Jend. A Yani No 40 A Purwokerto 53126

Amin, S. M. (2009). Sayyid Ulama Hijaz Biografi Syaikh Nawawi al-Bantani. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pesantren.
[2]. Arwansyah, F. A. S. (2015). Peran Syaikh Nawawi Al-Bantani dalam Penyebaran Islam di Nusantara. Kontekstualita, 30(1), 69–87.
[3]. Bruinessen, M. van. (2012). Kitab Kuning, Pesantren dan Tarekat. Yogyakarta: Gading Publishing.
[4]. Chaidar. (1978). Sejarah Pujangga Islam Syaikh Nawawi Banteni. Jakarta: CV Sarana Utama.
[5]. Daud. (1990). Sunan Abū Daud. Beirūt: Dar al- Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah.
[6]. Djazuli, A. (2017). Kaidah-kaidah Fikih; kaidah-kaidah hukum Islam dalam menyelesaikan masalah-masalah yang praktis (7th ed.). Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.
[7]. Fudhaili, A. (2012). Perempuan di Lembaran Suci. Jakarta: Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia.
[8]. Ma‘lūf, L. (1987). al-Munjid lī al-A‘lām. Beirūt: Maktabah al-Syarqiyyah.
[9]. Nawawi, al-B. (1990). Bahjah al-Wasā’il. Jakarta: al-Hidayah.
[10]. Nawawi, S. (1990). Uqud al-Lujain fii Bayan Huquq al-Zawjain. Surabaya: al-Hidayah.
[11]. Nirwana, D. (2014). Diskursus Studi Hadis Dalam Wacana Islam Kontemporer. Al-Banjari: Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman, 13(2), 178–203. https://doi.org/10.18592/al-banjari.v13i2.397
[12]. Ramayulis. (2011). Sejarah Pendidikan Islam : Napaktilas Perubahan Konsep, Filsafat dan Metodologi Pendidikan Islam dari Era Nabi Saw. sampai Ulama Nusantara. Jakarta: Kalam Mulia.
[13]. Ramli, R. (1399). Sejarah hidup dan Silsilah Syaikh Kiai Nawawi Tanara Banten. Banten: Yayasan al-Nawawi.
[14]. Steenbrink, K. (1994). Beberapa Aspek Tentang Islam Di Indonesia Abad ke-19. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.
[15]. Thahan, M. (n.d.). Taisir Musthalah al-Hadith. Iskadaria: Markaz al-Hadi li Dirasah.
[16]. Zati Nazifah Bt Abdul Rahim & Nur Syahirah Bt Mohd Wazir & Siti Baizura Bt Solihan & Nur Natasya Nabilla Bt Rosman. (2017). Kritikan Goldziher terhadap Riwayat Abu Hurairah: Analisis terhadap Hadith Anjing Tanaman. Journal of Hadith Studies, 2(2), 20–24.

Muhammad Fuad Zain “The Woman’s Face In Uqūd Al-Lujain: Study of Misogynist Hadith” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.198-202 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/198-202.pdf

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The Effectiveness of Social Media Pages of Tourist Spots in Davao De Oro towards Customer Satisfaction

Princess Pataganao, Charissa Jane Padillos, Rhodie Mae Cuyos, Jevannel Borlio, Mark Van Buladaco – June 2020 Page No.: 203-208

Social media is a powerful medium of advertising good things about people and places. Therefore, it is now being used to promote the tourism industry through networking sites where people mostly communicate and meet new ventures. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of social media pages of tourist spots in Davao de Oro towards customer satisfaction. One hundred forty-two (142) respondents took the assessment. The quantitative correlational research design was utilized to investigate if there is a significant relationship between the effectiveness of social media pages of tourist spots and customer satisfaction. Social media pages served as an avenue to faster disseminate the information, especially for the tourism establishments with lesser cost. Significant differences were also identified according to gender, civil status, and the municipality of the respondents.

Page(s): 203-208                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

 Princess Pataganao
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Charissa Jane Padillos
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Rhodie Mae Cuyos
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Jevannel Borlio
Instructor, Institute of Education, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Mark Van Buladaco
Instructor, Institute of Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

[1]. Uttarakhand Tourism Development Master Plan, 2007 – 2022 (2008). Government of India, Government of Uttarakhand, United Nations Development Program and World Tourism Organization, April, 2008.
[2]. Armario, Enrique. (2008). Tourist satisfaction: an analysis of its antecedents. Universidad, Sociedad y Mercados Globales, 2008-01-01, ISBN 978-84-691-5667-4, pags. 367-382.
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[4]. Chen, C., & Chen, F. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31 (1), 29-35.
[5]. Del Siegle “Educational Research Basic” University of Connecticut , available in https://researchbasics.education.uconn.edu/t-test/#
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[11]. “Effect of Social Media on Destination Choice.” allanswers.co.uk. 11 2018. All Answers Ltd. 06 2020
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Princess Pataganao, Charissa Jane Padillos, Rhodie Mae Cuyos, Jevannel Borlio, Mark Van Buladaco “The Effectiveness of Social Media Pages of Tourist Spots in Davao De Oro towards Customer Satisfaction” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.203-208 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/203-208.pdf

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Exploring the Relationship between the Effect of Technology and Employee Performance: The Case of Maryknoll College of Panabo, INC

Aphrodite Gajo, Rhascyrard Siacor, Albert Louie Latoreno, Jevannel Borlio, Mark Van Buladaco – June 2020 Page No.: 209-213

Technology and social media platforms are making changes in many types of work environments. With the advent of technological advancements in the academic realm, it caused both improvements and distractions in the operations. This study investigated the effects of technology, in the form of social media platforms on employee’s performance of a private school, catering to both secondary and tertiary levels. One hundred five (105) respondents returned the request to answer the online survey forms, which represented both the academic and administrative personnel who maneuver the college operations. The study utilized the quantitative non-experimental research design, employing the correlational technique to test if there is a significant relationship between the interplaying variables. Significant differences were also identified when the respondents are grouped according to gender, age group, and designation.
Results revealed a positive correlation between the effects of using technology in the workplace and its employee performance. However, on the strength of the relationship, there is a weak correlation. Thus, we could not proceed with the generation of the model to identify which indicators of effects of technology can significantly influence employee performance.
Nevertheless, this study recommends that the college administration should set rules concerning the responsible utilization of social media platforms as a technological breakthrough on advancing teaching and learning processes. As the usage of this form of technology is affecting the employee performance level, it is suggested that school personnel would craft policies and conduct training for members of the faculty and non-teaching staff on how to maximize social media platforms in the academic workplace.

Page(s): 209-213                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

 Aphrodite Gajo
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Rhascyrard Siacor
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Albert Louie Latoreno
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Jevannel Borlio
Instructor, Institute of Education, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Mark Van Buladaco
Instructor, Institute of Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

[1]. Cigaral, I., 2020. Philippines Climbs In Technological Readiness Ranking. [online] philstar.com.
[2]. Pestano, T., 2020. How Technology Is Changing The Filipino Workplace. [online] Recruitment & Search Agency – Headhunter in the Philippines.
[3]. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. 2020. Technology’S Impact On Workers. [online]
[4]. Daowd, A., 2020. The Impact Of Social Media On The Performance Of Microfinance Institutions In Developing Countries: A Quantitative Approach. [online] Bura.brunel.ac.uk.
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[9]. Ali-Hassan, Hossam & Nevo, Dorit & Wade, Michael. (2015). Linking dimensions of social media use to job performance: The role of social capital. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems. 24. 10.1016/j.jsis.2015.03.001.

Aphrodite Gajo, Rhascyrard Siacor, Albert Louie Latoreno, Jevannel Borlio, Mark Van Buladaco “Exploring the Relationship between the Effect of Technology and Employee Performance: The Case of Maryknoll College of Panabo, INC” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.209-213 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/209-213.pdf

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The Role of Opposition Political Parties in Enhancing Good Governance: A Case of Selected Countries in Africa

Chebii Zephaniah Kiprono – June 2020 Page No.: 214-218

This article focuses on opposition political parties in enhancing good governance. It proceeds to demonstrate the potential of opposition political parties in Africa. It demonstrates the extent to which opposition political parties can promote a culture of good governance, taking several major opposition political parties and events as cases for analysis across the African continent. A desk review of various critical literatures from selected African countries on the topic was undertaken to provide comprehensive understanding. This paper provides a discussion to insights on the role of opposition political parties in enhancing good governance; holding governments in place accountable; serving as a credible alternative to the ruling government; promoting and stimulating debates in parliament; training ground for future leaders; commitment to transparency and capacity building among others. However, in most African countries, being a member of opposition party is a dangerous pursuit due to the harassment, imprisonment, press censorship and the murder of opposition politicians by those in power; as a result, this has curtailed opposition’s performance of its ideal functions. The article concludes that comprehensive policy framework should be undertaken in understanding and appreciating the potential role of opposition political parties in Africa and detail the measures that can allow for stronger parties to have a more significant role in promoting good governance in the 21st century and moving forward.

Page(s): 214-218                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

 Chebii Zephaniah Kiprono
School of Education and Social Science, Department of Humanities and Social Science Education, Alupe University College (Constituent College of Moi University), Po Box 845 (50400) Busia – Kenya

[1]. Carolyn, F. (2005). The Role of Opposition Activity in Evaluating Legislative Behavior. Paper prepared for presentation at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops Granada, Spain April 14-19, 2005
[2]. Charles, M. F. (2016). The Implementation of Modern African Constitutions: Challenges and Prospects. Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press (PULP)
[3]. Chiroro, B. (2006).The Dilemmas of Opposition Political Parties in Southern Africa.Journal of African Elections. Volume 5 No. 1
[4]. Dahl, R. (1971).Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition.New Haven,CT: Yale University Press.
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[6]. Elizabeth, E. (2015). The Encyclopedia of Political Thought,(Ed). DOI: 10.1002/9781118474396.wbept0934.
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[9]. Global Trends (2018). Sub-Sahara Africa: Pitched Contest For Democratization Through 2022. A Global Trends Paper. A Publication of National Intelligence Council
[10]. Hout, W. (2003). ‘Political Parties and Governance’. In MA Mohamed Salih (ed). African Political Parties Evolution, Institutionalization and Governance. London: Pluto Press.
[11]. Huntington, S. (1991).The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century.Norman: Universityof OklahomaPress.
[12]. Joseph, A. (1998). Assessing the Progress of Democracy and Good Governance in Africa: The Ghanaian Case. Ghana
[13]. Kadima, D. (2006).The Politics of Party Coalitions in Africa. Johannesburg: Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA).
[14]. Lise, R. &Nicolas, W. (2007). Opposition Parties in Sub-Saharan Africa. Mario Einaudi Center for International Studies. Working Paper Series. No.12-07
[15]. Mbai, C.O. (2003). Public Service Accountability and Governance in Kenya. Africa Journal of Political Science. Vol. 8 No. 1
[16]. Miraj, H,.&Kazi, A. A. (2011). Problems and Possibilities of Good Governance in Bangladesh: Hurdles to Achieve Sustainable Development.Public Policy and Administration Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5731(Paper) ISSN 2225-0972(Online) Vol.1, No.1, 2011.
[17]. Omar, K. (2015). The Role of Political Parties in Promoting Culture of Good Governance in Egypt Post-2011. The American University in Cairo
[18]. Peter, B. (2008). The Relationship of Accountable Governance and Constitutional Implementation, with Reference to Africa. Journal of Politics and Law. Vol. 1, No. 3
[19]. Rakner, L,.&Nicolas, V, D, W. (2009). “Democratization by Elections? Opposition Weakness in Africa.” Journal of Democracy, No. 3: 108-21.
[20]. Rapoo, T. (2004). ‘Election 2004: Party Campaign Strategies and Tactics’. Election Synopsis 1(3).
[21]. Rugambwa, I. (2010). Enhancing Democracy and Good Governance: The Role of Parliamentary Library and Research Services. World Library and Information Congress: 76th IFLA General Conference and Assembly 10-15 August 2010, Gothenburg, Sweden.
[22]. Staffan, I. L. (2006). Opposition Parties and Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Contemporary African Studies. SSN 0258-9001 print /ISSN 1469-9397online/06/010123-16 DOI: 10.1080/0258900050051494.
[23]. Sulaiman, B. K. (2007).African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of ‘Authoritarian’ Democracies Frontiers of Social Justice in Nigeria.
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[26]. World Bank (1992). Governance and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank,

Chebii Zephaniah Kiprono “The Role of Opposition Political Parties in Enhancing Good Governance: A Case of Selected Countries in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.214-218 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/214-218.pdf

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Exploring the Pertinence of Introduction in Writing as Readers’ Drive in Developing Reading Zeal: A Review

Kolawole Mathew Ogundipe- June 2020 Page No.: 219-224

Some writers are not versed in putting down a strong introduction in their respective writing, or perhaps they are not aware of its importance in writing as a language skill. As a result of this, they occasionally, if not at all times, fail to motivate readers in reading their written or printed information. The writers’ failure to stir up the readers’ interest in reading leads to mind distancing of readers to the contents of such writers’ texts, and in turn, causes the readers’ misunderstanding and confusion in decoding the actual messages in such writing. This paper aims at providing answers to three questions, which are; ‘How important is introduction to writing as a language skill? What are the notions of introduction in writing, or names that can be given to introduction in the context of writing? What strategies can writers use in writing a catchy introduction?’ This paper also takes a picture of the readers’ need of introduction to understanding the exact information of writers in the reading process. Different related studies are reviewed in order to bring out the importance of introduction in writing. This is done by intensive reading of the related literature to the topic. The explanations and instances that are given under different sections of this paper show the inevitability of introduction to writers in the process of putting down ideas, thoughts, feelings, etc.; and also to readers in reading what have been put down in written or printed forms by the writers.

Page(s): 219-224                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

 Kolawole Mathew Ogundipe
Graduate Student, Department of Art Education (English), University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Adedimeji, M. (2013). Essay wring. In Alabi V. A, Babatunde, S.T, Adekola, F.A. (eds.), The Use of English in Higher Education(p.112 &114) . Ilorin: Unilorin Press.
[2]. Alabi, T. (2013). Comprehension of Written Passages. In Alabi, V. A, Babatunde, S.T, Adekola, F.A. (eds.), The Use of English in Higher Education (p.33). Ilorin: Unilorin Press.
[3]. Babatunde, A. (2007). Introduction to Communication. In Olakunle, F. (ed.), Osiele Study Series (p. 8) . Abeokuta: Gavima press.
[4]. The Bible Society of Nigeria (2010). The Topical Heading Holy Bible. Lagos, p 604.
[5]. Ibrahim, B. (2013). Developing Effective Study Habits and Skills. In Alabi, V. A, Babatunde, S.T, Adekola, F.A. (eds.), The Use of English in Higher Education (p. 13-14) . Ilorin: Unilorin Press.
[6]. Meznah, A. (2018). Investigating the negative impact of pragmatic transfer on the acquisition of English Pragmatics as perceived by L2 learners: A review. International Journal of English and Literature, 9(3):19. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/IJEL.
[7]. Mutunga, E.W, & Ong’onda, A.N. (2020). Liturgical Language in ‘Christ is All’ Catholic Prayer Book. International Journal of English and Education, 9(2): 14. Retrieved from ijee.org.vol9_issue_2.
[8]. Onipede, F. M. (2019). Women libration in male-dominated society: A critical discourse analysis of Bayo Adebowale’s “Lonely Days”. International Journal of English Research , 5(1): 110.
[9]. Soyele, R. (2007). Writing. In Olakunle, F. (ed.), Osiele Study Series (p. 276-277). Abeokuta: Gavima Press.
[10]. Telaumbanua, T. A. E, & Umiyati, M. (2019). Readability of Reading Texts in Students Handbook at The Ninth Grade of SMP Negeri1 Telukdalam. International Journal of SystemicFunctionalLinguistics,2(2):71.Doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.22225.ijsfl.2.2.1420.7 1-18.
[11]. The Dictionary of English Grammar, Android Phone Soft Application.
[12]. Tyokase, M. (2007). The Concept of Reading, Types of Reading, Reading Faults and Reading Rate. In Olakunle, F. (ed.), Osiele Study Series (p. 162). Abeokuta: Gavima Press.
[13]. Umiyati, M. (2019). Textual Metafunctions in Donald Trump’s Speech” Recognizing Jerusalem as Israel’s Capital”. International Journal of Systemic Functional Linguistics, 2 (2):55-56. Doi: http://dx.doi.org.10.22225/ijsfl.2.2.1321.55-60

Kolawole Mathew Ogundipe “Exploring the Pertinence of Introduction in Writing as Readers’ Drive in Developing Reading Zeal: A Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.219-224 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/219-224.pdf

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Effect of Money Supply on Economic Growth in Rwanda

Tharcille INGABIRE, Josiane UWINEZA, Marie Laetitia Benimana, Fabrice Musafiri, Gloria Berimana, Nancy Clemence Ishimwe, Noel Nshizirungu – June 2020 Page No.: 225-229

The effect of money supply in enhancing economic growth in Rwanda is investigated in this study. This study aims at assessing the Effect of money supply on economic growth in Rwanda through economic growth (GDP) per capita in Rwanda. The study uses Rwanda National Bank and World Bank data from 2008 to 2018. This study used the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL)-bounds testing to co-integration and Ordinary Least Squares regression technique for analysis of the data to assess the impact of money supply on GDP per capita in Rwanda. The study model is composed of five macroeconomics variables which are Gross Domestic Product per capita, Money supply, Lending Interest Rate, Gross Capital Formation and deposit rate. The study findings Shows a statistical significant positive association between money supply and economic growth in Rwanda both in short run and long run. This study suggests that money supply should be increase at a steady rate by keeping pace with the growth of Rwandan economy.

Page(s): 225-229                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

 Tharcille INGABIRE
Department of Economics, School of Business and Economics, Kigali Independent University

 Josiane UWINEZA
Department of Economics, School of Business and Economics, Kigali Independent University

 Marie Laetitia Benimana
Department of Data Science, African Institute for Mathematical Sciences

 Fabrice Musafiri
Department of Mining Engineering, University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology

 Gloria Berimana
Department of Computer Engineering, University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology

 Nancy Clemence Ishimwe
Mathematics Physics and Geography Combination, Groupe Scolaire de Shyogwe

 Noel Nshizirungu
Department of Economics, College of Natural Sciences, Daegu University, Korea

Weiss L. The Effects of Money Supply on Economic Welfare in the Steady State. Econometrica 1980; 48: 565-576.
[2]. Rudasingwa G, Cho SI. Determinants of the persistence of malaria in Rwanda. Malaria journal 2020; 19: 36.
[3]. Rudasingwa G, Cho SI. Potential risk factors contributing to acute respiratory infections among Under 5 years children in Rwanda. PLoS ONE 2020.
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[5]. Hussain M, Haque M. Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Money Supply and Per Capita GDP Growth Rate in Bangladesh. Journal of Advances in Economics and Finance 2017; 2.
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[7]. Banque Nationale du Rwanda(BNR). Publications and annual reports. 2019.
[8]. World Bank. GDP per capita (current US$). 2019.
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[10]. Chaitip P, Chokethaworn K, Chaiboonsri C, Khounkhalax M. Money Supply Influencing on Economic Growth-wide Phenomena of AEC Open Region. Procedia Economics and Finance 2015; 24: 108-115.
[11]. Ogunmuyiwa M, Ekone F. Money Supply — Economic Growth Nexus in Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences 2010; 22: 199-204.
[12]. Aslam AL. Impact of Money Supply on Sri Lankan Economy: An Econometric Analysis. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 2016; 67: 11-17.

Tharcille INGABIRE, Josiane UWINEZA, Marie Laetitia Benimana, Fabrice Musafiri, Gloria Berimana, Nancy Clemence Ishimwe, Noel Nshizirungu “Effect of Money Supply on Economic Growth in Rwanda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.225-229 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/225-229.pdf

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Teaching and Learning Resources as a Predictor Variable Determining Students’ Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Mbooni West Sub County, Makueni , Kenya: An Investigation of The Involvement of The Principal

Peter M. Mbaluka, Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu, Dr. Janet K. Mulwa – June 2020 Page No.: 230-234

Students’ academic Performance in institutions of learning features prominently in the global education agenda. Educational managers and teachers focuss on use of learning resources to provide quality education. Students’ performance in national examination has declined in Mbooni west Sub County hence the need for an enquiry. This study investigated the influence of Principals’ involvement in provision of teaching and learning resources on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Mbooni West Sub County, Makueni County, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to; Assess the types and adequacy of teaching and learning resources and to determine the influence of Principals’ involvement in provision of teaching and learning resources on students’ academic performance in Mbooni West Sub County, Makueni County. The hypothesis for the study was; There is no statistically significant relationship between principals’ involvement in provision of teaching and learning resources and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Mbooni West Sub County, Makueni County, Kenya. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The target population was all principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Mbooni West Sub County. The study employed stratified sampling technique and random sampling for teachers and census sampling for principals to select 90 teachers and 40 principals. Data was collected using questionnaires. Validity of the research instruments was ascertained through piloting of the test items while reliability of the questionnaires was ascertained by a test-re-test technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS and presented in frequency distribution tables, percentages. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between principals’ involvement in provision of teaching and learning resources and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Mbooni West Sub County, Makueni County. The study established that teaching and learning resources were adequate in public secondary schools in Mbooni West Sub County. The study also revealed that there was statistically significant relationship between principals’ involvement in provision of teaching and students academic in public secondary schools in Mbooni West Sub County, Makueni County at (r) value of 0.834 while (p) value was 0.002.The study concluded that Principals’ involvement in provision of teaching and learning resources influenced students acdemic performance in public secondary schools in Mbooni West Sub County, Makueni County. The study recommended that principals should provide diverse teaching and learning resources to improve and sustained students’ academic performance in schools.

Page(s): 230-234                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

 Peter M. Mbaluka
M. Ed Candidate, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu
Lecturer, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Janet K. Mulwa
Lecturer, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

[1]. Ayeni, C. O. (2014). Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice Journal, 118-125.
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[11]. SCDE. (2019). Academic Performance in KCSE .Mitigation Strategies.Sub County Office ,Mbooni West, 2019.
[12]. Wakoli, M. (2014). Principals’ Management Strategies and Performance of Students in Secondary Schools in Mount Elgon Sub County, Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development., 245-250.

Peter M. Mbaluka, Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu, Dr. Janet K. Mulwa “Teaching and Learning Resources as a Predictor Variable Determining Students’ Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Mbooni West Sub County, Makueni , Kenya: An Investigation of The Involvement of The Principal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.230-234 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/230-234.pdf

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Teacher Training: A Critical Factor in the Implementation of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Public Secondary Schools in Nzaui Sub County in Makueni County, Kenya

Patrice K. Kyule, Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu – June 2020 Page No.: 235-238

Teacher performance appraisal is a key element in management process in institutions of learning. The implementations of performance appraisal amongst teachers largely depend on their level of training which forms the focus of this study. This study discusses teacher training as a critical factor in the implementation of teacher performance appraisal. The study had three specific objectives namely; assessing the status of teacher training on performance appraisal, establishing the type of training attended by teachers on performance appraisal and determining the influence teacher training on the implementation of performance appraisal in public secondary schools in Nzaui Sub County, Makueni County, Kenya. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The target population was all principals and teachers in public secondary schools in Nzaui Sub County, Makueni County. The study employed stratified sampling technique and random sampling for teachers and census sampling for principals to select 140 teachers and 50 principals. Data was collected using questionnaires. Validity of the research instruments was ascertained by piloting of the test items while reliability of the questionnaires was ascertained by a test-re-test technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and presented in frequency distribution tables and percentages. The study established that teacher training on performance appraisal influenced the implementation of their performance appraisal in public secondary schools in Nzaui Sub County, Makueni County. The study recommends that teachers should be adequately trained on performance appraisal practices.

Page(s): 235-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

 Patrice K. Kyule
M. Ed Candidate: South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu
Lecturer, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

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[6]. King’oo F, Kasivu G.M & Mwanza R (2019). Influence of Principals’ Performance Contracting on Compliance with Procurement Procedures in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research. Vol 7 No.5 May 2019.
[7]. Kreitner, R. (2005). Management Strategies and Appraisal Systems. U.S.A: Houghton Miffin Company.
[8]. Mainiero, R., & Tromley, L. A. (2003). Developing Managerial Skill in Organizational Behaviours. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
[9]. Mathias, R. L., & Jackson, J. (2005). Human Resource Management. South-Western: Thompson.
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[18]. TSCSCD. (2018). Effective Imlementation of Performance Appraisal by Principals and Teachers in Nzaui SubCounty. SubCounty Office ,Nzaui.

Patrice K. Kyule, Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu “Teacher Training: A Critical Factor in the Implementation of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Public Secondary Schools in Nzaui Sub County in Makueni County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.235-238 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/235-238.pdf

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Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Mangrove Extents in Hai Phong City, Vietnam

Amena Easmin, Ned Horning – June 2020 Page No.: 239-250

The comprehension of mangrove status is based on the ability to separate plant, land and water objects in remotely sensed data in the view of the reflectivity or radiation of the object. The application of GIS and remote sensing technology to analyze mangrove fluctuations has been widely used in the world. High population growth and migration into coastal areas are found to be one of the most extensive land use changes in recent decades and could result in the destructive of the coastal areas of Hai Phong, Vietnam. Coastal areas are at risk of climate change impact and the future trend of this land use could cause coastal erosion, and land degradation. This study provides an assessment of spatiotemporal changes of mangrove extent using remotely sensed data and identifies the drivers. In this study, Landsat and Sentinel-2 data were utilized to quantify the spatiotemporal changes in land use and land cover (LULCC). The study focused on the periods of 1994-2001, 2001-2010, 2010-2015 and 2015-2018, and decadal changes. Unsupervised classification was selected to determine the land use and land cover. Error-matrix based accuracy assessment was accomplished after ground truthing. Comparing two case study sites, Tien Lang district was found to be the most vulnerable to socio-economic development and natural disaster. This paper demonstrates the congruous development of relevant key drivers of coastal mangrove change, with an emphasis on land use change drivers. This study will be helpful for future research but also illustrates an applicable plan for sustainable mangrove management.

Page(s): 239-250                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2020

 Amena Easmin
Institute of Forestry Research and Development, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietnam

 Ned Horning
Applied Biodiversity Informatic, American Museum of Natural History, USA

U. Bastakoti John Robertson, and Andrea C. Alfaro., “Spatial variation of heavy metals in sediments within a temperate mangrove ecosystem in northern New Zealand.,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 135, pp. 790–800, 2018.
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[3]. A. W. Zulfa and K. Norizah., “Remotely Sensed Imagery Data Application in Mangrove Forest: A Review.,” Pertanika J. Sci. Technol., vol. 26, no. 3, 2018.
[4]. M. M. M. Hossain and Mohammad Mahmudul Islam, Ship breaking activities and its impact on the coastal zone of Chittagong, Bangladesh: Towards sustainable management. Chittagong, Bangladesh: Advocacy & Publication Unit, Young Power in Social Action (YPSA), 2006.
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[9]. V. Chakraborty, S. Sengupta, P. Chaudhuri, and P. Das, “Assessment on removal efficiency of chromium by the isolated manglicolous fungi from Indian Sundarban mangrove forest: Removal and optimization using response surface methodology,” Environ. Technol. Innov., vol. 10, pp. 335–344, 2018.
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Amena Easmin, Ned Horning “Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Mangrove Extents in Hai Phong City, Vietnam” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.239-250 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/239-250.pdf

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The Effect of Work Life Balance on Millennial Generation Turn Over Intention in the Woodworking Industry

Siti Isnatun, Setyo Riyanto – June 2020 Page No.: 251-255

The study aims to determine the effect of employee engagement and work life balance on turnover intentions in woodworking companies in the Greater Jakarta area. Turnover intentions are things that are avoided by a company because they have negative consequences such as high employee training costs, less competent employees because they often experience changes and some other losses. The research method used is a quantitative method with data collection using the existing questionnaire data then analyzed using the SPSS application version 21. The results of this study indicate the influence of work life balance on turnover intention of millennial generation employees both individually and simultaneously.

Page(s): 251-255                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2020

 Siti Isnatun
Postgraduate Program Student, Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Setyo Riyanto
Associate Professor, Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia

[1]. Agus, Dharma. 2013. Manajemen Supervisi. Penerbit : Raja Grafindo Persada, Jakarta.
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[3]. Chemirmir, M. J., Musebe, R., & Nassiuma, B. K. 2018. The Role Of Work Life Balance On Employee Turnover In The Flower Industry In The North Rift Kenya. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities.
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[6]. Fonseca, M., & Verma, A. (2001). Learning and Work Life Balance in Canada: Evidence from the General Social Survey. CIRA XXXVIII Annual Conference in Quebec City. Quebec City.
[7]. Ghozali, I. (2011). Aplikasi Analisis Myultivariate Dengan Program IBM SPSS 19 (5 ed.). Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro.
[8]. Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M., & Shaw, J. D. 2003). The relation between work-family balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(2003), 510-531. Retrieved from Sciencedirect.
[9]. Hassan, M., Akram, A., & Naz, S. 2012. The Relationship between Person Organization Fit, Person-Job-Fit and Turnover Intention in Banking Sector of Pakistan: The Mediating Role of Psychological Climate. International Journal of Human Resource Studies.
[10]. Hoole, C., & Bonnema, J. (2015). Work engagement and meaningful work across generational cohorts.SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 13(1), Art. #681, 11 pages.
[11]. Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2007). The Next 20 Years: How Customer and Workforce Attitudes Will Envolve. Harvard Bussiness Review, 85, 41-52.
[12]. Kultalahti, S., & Vitala, R. (2014). Sufficient Challanges and A Weekend Ahead- Generation Y Describing Motivation at Work. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 27, 569-582.
[13]. Laksono, Bernardus F,W. & Laksono, Wahyu. (2019). Pengaruh Work – Life Balance, Kepuasan Kerja Dan Work Engagement Terhadap Turnover Intentions Dengan Mentoring Sebagai Variabel Moderating Pada Karyawan Hotel Dafam Semarang. Jurnal Magister Manajemen, Universitas Semarang.
[14]. Liyanage, H. M., & Gamage, P. 2017. Factors Influencing the Employee Engagement of the Generation Y Employees. Proceedings of APIIT Business & Technology Conference.
[15]. Malik, M. I., Gomez , S. F., Ahmad, M., & Saif, M. I. (2010). Examining the relationship of work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover in Pakistan [Electronic version]. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 2 (1), 27-33
[16]. Mondy, Wayne. (2008). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Jilid 1. Jakarta: Erlangga
[17]. Nnambooze, B. E., & Parumasur, S. B. (2016). Understanding The Multigenerational Workforce: Are The Generations Significantly Different or Similar? Corporate Ownership and Control, 13, 244-257.
[18]. Panggabean, Mutiara S. (2004). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia
[19]. Setyo Riyanto, Aryanto, E. & Lukertina. 2019. work life balance and its influence on employee engagement “y” generation in courier service industry. International Review of Management and Marketing, 2019, 9(6), 25-31
[20]. Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-Being. New York: Free Press.
[21]. Seniati, d. (2008). Psikologi Eksperimen. Jakarta: Indeks.
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[27]. Setyo Riyanto, et.all. (2019). Gaining a competitive advantage through strategic human resource management in Indonesian construction industry. Management Science Letters 10 (2020) 2021–2028.

Siti Isnatun, Setyo Riyanto “The Effect of Work Life Balance on Millennial Generation Turn Over Intention in the Woodworking Industry” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.251-255 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/251-255.pdf

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A Correlational Study on Nomophobia and Physical Health of Panaboans across Age Groups

Marven Paray, Dominic Tanquiamco, Stephen Kim Kenneth Espinosa, Jevannel Borlio, Mark Van Buladaco – June 2020 Page No.: 256-262

Nomophobia is a growing fear of this modern generation. Technologies such as a mobile phone are most frequently used in this modern era through its advantages but there are also disadvantages. This paper examines the relationship between nomophobia and the physical health of Panaboans across age groups. For this purpose, the sample was drawn from the citizen of Panabo City, which is currently online on social media using a convenient sampling method. The sample comprised of one hundred twenty (N=120), i.e., sixty-three males and fifty-seven females from the age range of 8-25, 26-40, 41-55, and 56-74. The questionnaire was administered to them after procuring informed consent.
The techniques of Pearson r Correlation, Independent T-test, and ANOVA were employed to analyze data. The tool used to calculate the data was SPSS. The results explained that the relationship between nomophobia and physical health status has a negative correlation with an R-value = -0.005. Therefore, the physical health status of Panaboans mainly has minimal evidence of health-related issues about the cause of nomophobia. This research study influences researchers to furthermore investigate its assumptions of nomophobia.

Page(s): 256-262                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2020

 Marven Paray
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Dominic Tanquiamco
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Stephen Kim Kenneth Espinosa
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Jevannel Borlio
Instructor, Institute of Education, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Mark Van Buladaco
Instructor, Institute of Information Technology, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

[1]. J. Bivin, P. Mathew, P. Thulasi, and J. Philip, “Nomophobia-Do We Really Need To Worry About?” pp. 1–5, 2013.
[2]. R. S. Ling and P. E. Pedersen, Mobile communications : re-negotiation of the social sphere. 2005.
[3]. G. Tettamanti et al., “Long-term effect of mobile phone use on sleep quality: Results from the cohort study of mobile phone use and health (COSMOS),” Environ. Int., no. October 2019, p. 105687, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105687.
[4]. J. Bradshaw, V. Dale, and K. Bloor, “Physical health,” Well-Being Child. UK, Fourth Ed., pp. 71–122, 2016, doi: 10.4324/9781315183794-8.
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[7]. A. S. Acharya, A. Prakash, and A. Nigam, “Sampling : Why and How of it ? Anita S Acharya , Anupam Prakash , Pikee Saxena ,” no. May 2014, pp. 3–7, 2013, doi: 10.7713/ijms.2013.0032.
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[13]. A. S. Dongre, I. F. Inamdar, and P. L. Gattani, “Nomophobia : A Study to Evaluate Mobile Phone Dependence and Impact of Cell Phone on Health,” vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 688–693, 2017.
[14]. A. Moreno-guerrero, I. Aznar-d, and C. Pilar, “Do Age , Gender and Poor Diet Influence the Higher Prevalence of Nomophobia among Young People ?,” no. 3, 2020.
[15]. O. Oviedo-trespalacios, S. Nandavar, J. David, A. Newton, D. Demant, and J. G. Phillips, “Problematic Use of Mobile Phones in Australia … Is It Getting Worse ?,” vol. 10, no. March, 2019, doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00105.
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[18]. Christine Kearney, “Cell Phones Pose no Health Risk,” September 18, 2012.

Marven Paray, Dominic Tanquiamco, Stephen Kim Kenneth Espinosa, Jevannel Borlio, Mark Van Buladaco “A Correlational Study on Nomophobia and Physical Health of Panaboans across Age Groups” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.256-262 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/256-262.pdf

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Influence of School Category on Students’ Achievement in Mathematics in Webuye West Sub-County in Kenya

Hesborn Chonge – June 2020 Page No.: 263-265

Stakeholders in the education sector in Kenya have been concerned about the poor performance in science subjects and notably mathematics over the years. Students’ performance in mathematics and science subjects in examinations administered by the Kenya National Examination Council has remained below expectation. This situation does not favor Kenya in its effort toward developing a scientific and technological culture. More often than not, teachers are blamed for the poor performance and even when the blame is directed to a student, explanation is offered only in terms of the students’ cognitive and intellectual ability. Little or no consideration is given to the fact that the category of the school a child goes to can affect ones achievement in Mathematics. As at now, seemingly knowledge of how certain factors like school category relate to student’s achievement in mathematics is not well known. Therefore, this study makes an attempt to contribute towards filling the existing gap.

Page(s): 263-265                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2020

 Hesborn Chonge
Department of Educational Psychology, Moi University, Kenya

[1]. Eisenkopf, G., Hessami, Z., Fischbacher, U., & Ursprung, H. W. (2015). Academic per-formance and single-sex schooling: Evidence from a natural experiment in switzerland. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 115:123–143.
[2]. Elwood,J. & Gipps,C.(1999).Review of Recent Research on the Achievement of Girls in Single-Sex Schools. London: Institute of Education.
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[6]. Saidin, N. and Brahim, M.F. (2013). No girls for me mummy: Providing a positive language learning environment for boys in single gender classes. Procedia-Social and behavioural Sciences, 38 (2012).
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[8]. Spielhofer,T., Benton, T. and Schagen,S.(2004).A study of the effects of school size and single-sex education in English schools. Research Papers in Education, 19,133-159.

Hesborn Chonge “Influence of School Category on Students’ Achievement in Mathematics in Webuye West Sub-County in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.263-265 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/263-265.pdf

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The Relationship of Technology as a Learning Tool to Student Motivation in Education among College Students in Davao Del Norte State College

Philip John L. Paja, Melver A. Serado, Princess D. Romanillos, Dawn D. Aguadera, Mark Van M. Buladaco – June 2020 Page No.: 266-277

Technology becomes more and more integrated with daily life.Educators must take a modern view on the utilization of technology to support inter-connected learning. This modern view holds that technology gives the learner flexibility and the ability to be adaptable in multiple scenarios and within different subject areas [8]. The purpose of this study is to know the relationship of technology as a learning tool that help students’ motivation in education;determine the level of student motivation in education towards the use of technology as a learning tool and find out if there will be significant relationship between technology as learning tool and its impact to the students’ motivation in education among college students.Data gathering was done through the use of questionnaires through an online survey. The questionnaire is divided into three parts namely: demographic proles of college students; focus on the student motivation aspects and; focuses on technology as a learning tool. The participants selected were from the two institutes of Davao del Norte State College that contain larger samples and clustered by the researchers and (54) students total is selected institutes enrolled in their different programs.The correlational research method was used in this study; which purpose is to find out the relationship between two or more variables. Results show that most of the students use technology as their learning tool to boost their student engagement or motivation. Findings indicated that in order to achieve good performance in school, they use technology to help their studies and provided own learning that makes students more equipped;moreover, by into real-world situations, students can understand complex concepts, which will then increase competence. By adding technology into the classroom, teachers can utilize this technology to differentiate instruction, motivate students, and include all skill levels.

Page(s): 266-277                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2020

  Philip John L. Paja
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

  Melver A. Serado
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

  Princess D. Romanillos
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

  Dawn D. Aguadera
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Mark Van M. Buladaco
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Systems, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

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Philip John L. Paja, Melver A. Serado, Princess D. Romanillos, Dawn D. Aguadera, Mark Van M. Buladaco “The Relationship of Technology as a Learning Tool to Student Motivation in Education among College Students in Davao Del Norte State College” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.266-277 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/266-277.pdf

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Analysis of Work-Life Balance Effect on Employee Performance of Nurses in Type B Hospital in Batam City

Antony S – June 2020 Page No.: 278-285

This research was conducted with the aim of knowing the effect of independent variables on employee performance variables mediated by two mediating variables. The independent variable used in this study is Work-Conflict Priority Family and Employee Assistant Program, then the mediation variables used are Competence and Training. The method in this study uses primary data by distributing questionnaires manually and using a google form that is distributed to nurses inpatient type B hospitals in Batam City.175 data sets of this study were processed using Smart Pls 3.0 and SPSS. The results show that there are significant differences between work-family priority conflicts and employee assistant programs on employee performance mediated by competence and training.

Page(s): 278-285                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2020

 Antony S
Management, Universitas Internasional Batam

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Antony S “Analysis of Work-Life Balance Effect on Employee Performance of Nurses in Type B Hospital in Batam City” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.278-285 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/278-285.pdf

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Nurturing a Positively Sensitive and Inclusive Society: A Human Rights Framework for the Protection of Older Persons in Nigeria

Dr Jennifer Heaven Mike – June 2020 Page No.: 286-299

Globally, the population of ageing persons is increasing. It is estimated that there are over 962 million people over the age of 60 in the world who make up 13 per cent of the world global population. Domestically, the number and proportion of those aged 65 years and above make up an approximated 140, 431,70 million which is an approximated 4.3 per cent of the total population in Nigeria. The human right of older people is, however, yet to receive adequate human rights attention, despite the significance of this population. Many older people suffer human rights violations ranging from discrimination, social and political exclusion, poverty, neglect, isolation and undignifying abuse. This is worse for the poorer ones who are forced to live in deplorable accommodation and environments, especially in rural areas or urban ghettos and slums. The government is yet to develop suitable policies, laws and socio-economic and welfare programs that will effectively cater for the human rights interests of the elderly people and the society is not sensitive to their plight. This study examines the human rights-related problems and challenges of older persons and calls for a specific human rights approach to elderly well-being in Nigeria. The study highlights some of the ways which the Nigeria Government can develop lasting and beneficial economic and socio-welfare policies and programmes for older people. It further recommends a human rights-based framework that will meet the economic, health, social, psychological and mental wellbeing, needs and other challenges of aged people.

Page(s): 286-299                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2020

 Dr Jennifer Heaven Mike
American University of Nigeria, Nigeria

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Dr Jennifer Heaven Mike “Nurturing a Positively Sensitive and Inclusive Society: A Human Rights Framework for the Protection of Older Persons in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.286-299 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/286-299.pdf

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The Effect of Problem-Based Learning toward the Upgrading of Student’s Critical Thinking Skills in Geography Study at Class XII Al Kautsar Senior High School Bandar Lampung

Mesiyanto, Trisnaningsih, Pujiati – June 2020 Page No.: 300-304

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of problem-based learning tothe upgrading of students critical thinking skills in Geography study. Design in learning is an experimental One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. Pretest is carried out before learning and posttest is carried out after learning using the Problem-Based Learning model. The conclusion of the research results that problem-based learning has an effect on upgrading students critical thinking skills with tcount = 10,116 ≥ ttable = 2,02. The indicator of students critical thinking skills has upgraded after learning, namely the ability to analyze category has upgraded about 10,32; the ability to synthesize category about 18,09; the ability to make conclusions category about 14,29; the ability to make decision has upgraded about 16,11.

Page(s): 300-304                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2020

 Mesiyanto
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung

 Trisnaningsih
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung

 Pujiati
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung

[1]. Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2014). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Rineke Citra. Jakarta.
[2]. Depdikbud. (2017). Modul Penyusunan Soal Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Direktorat Pembinaan. SMA Kemdikbud. Jakarta.
[3]. Karim, K., & Normaya, N. (2015). Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Siswa dalam Pembelajaran dalam Pembelajaran Matematika dengan Menggunakan Model Jucama di Sekolah Menengah Pertama. EDU-MAT: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 3 (1), 95. https://doi.org/10.20527/edumat.v3i1.634.
[4]. Rusman. (2014). Model-Model Pembelajaran : Mengembangkan Profesionalisme Guru. PT Rajagrafindo Persada. Depok.
[5]. Rusmono. (2017). Strategi Pembelajaran Dengan Problem Based Learning Itu Perlu. Ghalia Indonesia. Bogor.
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[10]. Yunita, A., Salastri Rohiat, Hermansyah Amir. (2018). Analisis Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Mata Pelajaran Kimia Pada Siswa Kelas XI IPA SMAN 1 Kepahiang, Alotrop, 2018: 2(1): 33-38.

Mesiyanto, Trisnaningsih, Pujiati “The Effect of Problem-Based Learning toward the Upgrading of Student’s Critical Thinking Skills in Geography Study at Class XII Al Kautsar Senior High School Bandar Lampung” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.300-304 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/300-304.pdf

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Prevalence of Aggressive Behaviours among Students in Secondary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

Carolyne Otieno Wakoli, Sarah Bundotich – June 2020 Page No.: 305-311

This study aimed at finding out the prevalence of aggressive behaviours among the secondary school students in Kenya. The participants consisted of 22 schools which formulated a total of 308 students. The students’ questionnaire was used to obtain information on interactions to bullying, fighting and destruction. It was established that physical fighting is one of the aggressive behaviours reported in schools world over. With regard to vandalization of school property, most cases of vandalism in schools is manifested in writing on walls, pouring food, burning school buildings, breaking into other students’ boxes and pouring laboratory chemicals. Based on this, the study recommended that there is need for the concerted effort of the individual and the stake-holders are important for the successful transition of adolescents

Page(s): 305-311                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2020

 Carolyne Otieno Wakoli
Alupe University College (Constituent College of Moi University), Kenya

 Sarah Bundotich
Alupe University College (Constituent College of Moi University), Kenya

[1]. Aluede, O. (2011). Managing Bullying problem in Nigeria secondary school: Some counselling interventions for implementation. The African symposium, online journal of the African Educational Research Network, 11(1), 138-144.
[2]. Bailey, A. (2012). The Jamaican adolescents’ perspectives on violence and its effects. West Indian Medical Journal, 60 (2), 65-81.
[3]. Cook, C., Henson, R., & Buckler, C. (2009). Parents and Peers as Social Influences to Determine Antisocial Behaviour. Journal of Youth and adolescence, 38 (9), 1240.
[4]. Gaul, C. (2010). Bullying Survey Reports 50% of High School Students Admit to Violence. (Newsgroup). Retrieved from http://www. Usaliveheadlines.com/ 1849/ bullying- survey- reports- 50- of- high- school- students- admit- to- violence.htm.
[5]. Kahindi, Z. (2012). The Causes of Students’ Unrest in Kaloleni Secondary School in Kilifi District, Coast Province, Kenya. Unpublished Masters Project, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.
[6]. Kagendo, M. (2010). Incidence and Extent of Substance Abuse Among Secondary School Students in Nairobi Province., Implication for Specialised Intervention. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.
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[9]. Makabila, J. S. (2010). Too much talk, but very little reaction. The Saturday standard Ltd.
[10]. Ndibalema, P. (2013). Perceptions about bullying behaviour in secondary schools in Tanzania. The case study of Dodoma Municipality. International Journal of education and research, vol.1(5), 1-16.
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[15]. Yeung, R., & Leadbeater, B. (2009). Adults Make a Difference. The Protective Effects of Parent and Teacher Emotional Support on Emotional Behaviour Problems of Peer- Victimized A adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 80-98

Carolyne Otieno Wakoli, Sarah Bundotich “Prevalence of Aggressive Behaviours among Students in Secondary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.305-311 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/305-311.pdf

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Relationship between Students ‘neighbourhood and Aggressive Behaviour in Secondary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

Carolyne Otieno Wakoli – June 2020 Page No.: 312-318

This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between students’ neighborhood and aggressive behaviour exhibited by secondary school learners. Students are not immune to aggressive behaviour, either as perpetrators or victims because may live in communities with varied behaviors for most of their lives depending on where they come from. The issue of where a student comes from or grows up from is of great concern to educators. The study aims at determining if continual exposure may desensitize students and encourage them to accept aggressive acts as a normal mode of conflict resolution. On the other hand, they may be emotionally damaged by the experiences of violence, repeated harassment or the witness of the death or brutal treatment of relatives. It was noted that the community climate was making a significant contribution to the aggressive behaviour of students in secondary schools

Page(s): 312-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2020

 Carolyne Otieno Wakoli
Alupe University College (Constituent College of Moi University), Kenya

[1]. Akiba, M. (2010). What predicts fear of school violence among U.S adolescents? Teachers College Record, 112 (1) 68-102.
[2]. Azizi, Y. (2012). Aggressive behaviour and the influencing factors at five schools in Jonorbahru.Elixir psychology 42a (2012) 6530-6536.
[3]. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis.Prentice-Hall.
[4]. Bethany, R. (2012). In sight and locus of control as related to aggression in individuals with severe mental illness.The M.C main research journal 2012.University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
[5]. Bronfenbrener, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development Experiment by Nature and Design. New York. Harvard University Press.
[6]. Burton, P. (2008). Dealing with school violence in South Africa.Centre of justice and crime,4.
[7]. Centre for Disease Control (2012). Trends in the prevalence of behaviours that contribute to violence on school property national YRBS: 199-2011.
[8]. Kinyua, W. (2011).Drug and substance abuse in secondary schools and implications for student discipline; a case of Embu Sub-county Kenya.Masters Thesis; Kenyatta University.
[9]. Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970).Determining Sample Size for Research Activities.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610
[10]. Laventhal, T. (2010). Diversity in developmental trajectories across adolescence: Neighbourhood influence. In Lerner R.M., Eds Steinberg L. Handbook of adolescent psychology, 2,188-191, Hoboken, N: Wiley.
[11]. Makabila, J. S. (2010). Too much talk, but very little reaction. The Saturday standard Ltd.
[12]. Maupeu, M.L. (2008). In revisiting post election violence: Carfare, (ed). Dares general election in Kenya, 2007.Dares salaam.Mkukinanyota publishers Ltd.
[13]. Mbuthia, W. (2013).Perceived factors influencing deviant behaviour among the youth in Njathaini community, Nairobi, Kenya.Unpublished master’s thesis, Kenyatta University, Kenya..
[14]. Muchai, L, Mbugua, N, Mumiakha, C. (2014). The influence of perceived Post Election Violence on Academic Performance Among secondary school students in Nakuru County, Kenya.Journal of education vo1. 2 No. 411357,2347-8225.
[15]. Munene, M. (2011).The psychological impact of political violence in children.Journal of education vol 2. No.4 ISSN 2347-8225
[16]. Nwana, K. (2009). School discipline in the East-central state of Nigeria after the civil war in West Africa; West Africa; West African Journal of education vol.1. x N, 3PP 172-200.
[17]. Robers, S. (2012). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2011 (NCES 2012/NL)236021). National centre for education, and bureau of justice statistics Office of justice program.US. Depart of justice. Washington D.C
[18]. Wubs, G.A, Sylvi, K., & Catherine, M. (2010).Dating Violence among school students in Tanzania and South Africa: Prevalence and socio-demographvariation.Scandinavia Journal of Public Health, 37 (2), 75-86 Do1 :10.11 77/1403494808091343.

Carolyne Otieno Wakoli “Relationship between Students ‘neighbourhood and Aggressive Behaviour in Secondary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.312-318 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/312-318.pdf

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The Relationship between Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychological Well-Being in Sudanese Undergraduate Students between Different Gender and Age Cohort

Aisha Hamad Abdel Khalig, Fahad Riaz Choudhry – June 2020 Page No.: 319-325

Psychological well-being is more than just happiness or satisfaction; rather it refers to being able to develop as a person and to being fulfilled and happy, and thus, contributes to the well-being of the community at large. However, since 2014, the issue of psychological well-being in Sudan has become a prodigious concern due to the rising rate of psychological problems among students. Past literature highlighted the recent increase in numbers of Sudanese students who are suffering from psychological issues. In spite that, the research on psychological well-being and personality has undergone extensive empirical review and theoretical evaluation, there is a dearth of empirical studies on the relationship between personality and psychological well-being among Sudanese students. Thus, the current study investigated the relationship between extraversion, neuroticism and psychological well-being of undergraduate students. A correlational research design was used in this study. The study used stratified random sampling procedure to select 382 undergraduate students as the sample of the study. The Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) that measures two dimensions of personality and Ryff’s Psychological Well-being scales were administered. The findings of this study with a p-value =.000 < .01 threshold of alpha showed that there was positive correlation between extraversion and the psychological well-being; the findings further explained with a p-value =.000 < .01 that neuroticism was positively correlated with the psychological well-being of the students.This study contributed to the literature of psychological wellbeing and established the relationships of extraversion, neuroticism and psychological well-being among Sudanese students.

Page(s): 319-325                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2020

 Aisha Hamad Abdel Khalig
Department of Psychology, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge, International Islamic University Malaysia

 Fahad Riaz Choudhry
Department of Psychology, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge, International Islamic University Malaysia

[1]. Adeniyi, W. O., & Onadiji, O. (2016). Influence of psycho-demographic variables on psychological well-being of undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun state.European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 12(13) http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n13p82
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Aisha Hamad Abdel Khalig, Fahad Riaz Choudhry “The Relationship between Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychological Well-Being in Sudanese Undergraduate Students between Different Gender and Age Cohort” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.319-325 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/319-325.pdf

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Gender Discrimination, Organizational Commitment and Enthusiasm among Women in Employment in Rivers State

Udeorah, Sylvester Favor (Ph.D.), Vincent, Moses Owede – June 2020 Page No.: 326-333

A reverse of side-effects of certain after-school activities on students could serve as an alternative means of educational development. Through a multistage procedure involving stratified and systematic techniques, data was collected from 196 secondary students. Weighted third terminal scores for 2015/2016 session and first terminal scores of 20016/2017academic year (making a total of four terms), were analyzed along with student-participants’ responses using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings indicate that as a side effect, street-hawking had a significant negative relationship on participants’ academic performance [r(184)= -0.223, p < .01]; that students who measure high on mobile or internet usage significantly perform less (M=580.43) academically among others. It is submitted that as students’ academic performance decreases due to multiple activities and high interaction with internet, dismal academic performance could be reversed for improved educational development through committed monitoring of parents.

Page(s): 326-333                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2020

 Udeorah, Sylvester Favor (Ph.D.)
Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Vincent, Moses Owede
Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Udeorah, Sylvester Favor (Ph.D.)1, Vincent, Moses Owede “Gender Discrimination, Organizational Commitment and Enthusiasm among Women in Employment in Rivers State ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.326-333 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/326-333.pdf

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Mitigating the Impact of COVID-19 on the Teaching and Learning of Science in the Nigerian Higher Education

Aina, Jacob Kola, Ph. D, Abdulrahman Abdulgafar Opeyemi – June 2020 Page No.: 334-337

The focus of the article is on mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the teaching and learning of science in Nigerian higher institutions. It argued that conventional strategies of teaching are not adequate for teaching science during the pandemic because of the lockdown and social distancing. The script is of the view that e-learning would be the best alternative: however, the various modes of e-learning required face-to-face lecturing, which may not be possible at this period. In light of this, the authors believed the Google Classroom framework, which has been in vogue in many countries of the world could be the best. The paper reviewed the benefits of Google Classroom based on the countries that had used the method. The manuscript mentioned some challenges that can militate against the implementation of the strategy in Nigeria. It was concluded that Google Classroom could be the alternative to science teaching and learning at this period if all the challenges mentioned were mitigated. Finally, the implications of the paper were highlighted.

Page(s): 334-337                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2020

 Aina, Jacob Kola, Ph. D
School of Science, College of Education (Tech.) Lafiagi, Kwara State, Nigeria

 Abdulrahman Abdulgafar Opeyemi
School of Science, College of Education (Tech.) Lafiagi, Kwara State, Nigeria

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Aina, Jacob Kola, Ph. D, Abdulrahman Abdulgafar Opeyemi “Mitigating the Impact of COVID-19 on the Teaching and Learning of Science in the Nigerian Higher Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.334-337 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/334-337.pdf

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Determinants of Social Media Addiction of Employees in Services Sector in Sri Lanka

Perera S.N.M.G., Samaraweera G.R.S.R.C. – June 2020 Page No.: 338-345

Since the introduction of social media into the labour market, the economic ideology on the clear division of time utilities between labour and leisure as explained in the neo classical labour leisure model has been challenged. By today, Services Sector is highly sensitive to the dynamics of social media usage of the country. The main objective of the study is to explore the determinants of Social media addiction of employees in the Services Sector in Sri Lanka since there is a lack of researches done using the considered variables in this research locally and internationally.
Using structured questionnaires from 241 employees who work in the organizations of Services Sector in the Colombo District were selected for the sample in three stages of Stratified sampling technique. The Probit estimation model was adopted to fulfill the main objective. It revealed that Age, Total working hours per week, Being WhatsApp users, Being Instagram users, Being You Tube users, Using social media during 8.00 a.m.- 12.00 noon, Using Social media during 12.00 noon- 4.00 p.m., Social media usage for Professional purposes and social media usage for entertainment purposes are the key determinants of social media addiction of employees.
The researcher has presented some recommendations to control the Social media Addiction of Employees in the Services Sector during working hours in Sri Lanka.

Page(s): 338-345                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2020

 Perera S.N.M.G.
Department of Economics and Statistics, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

 Samaraweera G.R.S.R.C. .
Department of Economics and Statistics, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

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Perera S.N.M.G., Samaraweera G.R.S.R.C. “Determinants of Social Media Addiction of Employees in Services Sector in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.338-345 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/338-345.pdf

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Prospect of Traditional Medicine in the Race for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Vaccine

ADEPOJU Sodiq olakunle- June 2020 Page No.: 346-350

This paper offers an insight into the COVID-19 debacle as it highlights the ravaging impact of the disease and the struggle faced across the globe to overcome it. It took a brief account of the history of Traditional Medicine and its proven efficacy in overcoming all forms of human illnesses across historical milieu. It also adapted a Marxist approach in explaining the strained relationship between Modern and Traditional healthcare practitioners, the failures of the modern healthcare system in meeting the health demands of the people and the many biases and prejudices on Traditional Medicine by the proponents of the Modern Healthcare proponents. It further delved into the potentials of Traditional Medicine in overcoming COVID-19 by identifying some traditional herbs and plants with proven antiviral and immune bosting potentials and recommended the need for genuine efforts at promoting a relationship of cooperation and mutual respect and bridging the equity gap that currently exists.

Page(s): 346-350                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2020

 ADEPOJU Sodiq olakunle
M.Sc. Sociology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Research Executive at Deep Dive Research Limited

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ADEPOJU Sodiq olakunle “Prospect of Traditional Medicine in the Race for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Vaccine” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.346-350 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/346-350.pdf

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Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Peoples Experience of Being Admitted to Hospital

Phil Harper – June 2020 Page No.: 351-356

This article explores issues that a transgender and/ or gender non-confirming individual may face when admitted to hospital, such as being admitted into the wrong ward. The article uses Seedhouse’s ethical grid to critically analysis ethical decision making when admitting a transgender and/ or gender non-confirming individual into a traditional hospital ward. The article then explores language and micro aggressions and their impact on an individual’s identity and selfhood, including, inappropriate naming of wards, such as, women’s health units. The article finally highlights the need for hospitals and healthcare services need to develop transgender and gender non-confirming policies to appropriately care for this demographic.

Page(s): 351-356                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2020

 Phil Harper
Coventry University Group, UK

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Phil Harper “Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Peoples Experience of Being Admitted to Hospital” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.351-356 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/351-356.pdf

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Impact of Social Media for the Improvement of Language Abilities among the Local Users

Sandamali. K. P. S – June 2020 Page No.: 357-359

With the developing technology, people have made different ways to make the things easy and effective. In this sense learning also has become very easily accessible matter for the people and they have started to do it through social media. This is reasonable to call as unknowing learning through social media since the social media make the people to learn through the using and sharing. This study has proved that using social media as an effective tool to learn English language among local users in Sri Lanka and how it benefitted in several sections to make the people aware at least about the language in speaking than the other three sections including writing, listening and reading.

Page(s): 357-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2020

 Sandamali. K. P. S
Institute of Human Resource Advancement, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

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Sandamali. K. P. S “Impact of Social Media for the Improvement of Language Abilities among the Local Users” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.357-359 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/357-359.pdf

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Rural Inhabitants and Patronage of Traditional Medicine: A Study of Pregnant Mothers (Women) in Ona-Ara Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

Adepoju, Sodiq Olakunle, Owumi, B.E. (Ph.D.) – June 2020 Page No.: 360-387

The use of traditional medicine has been on the increase in many developing and industrialized countries. This high use may be due to accessibility, affordability, availability and acceptability by majority of the population especially among the rural dwellers who have a strong perception of its efficacy in overcoming a myriad of health challenges including maternity issues. With the hybrid of quantitative and qualitative research techniques, this study examined Rural Inhabitants and the Utilization of Traditional Medicine among Pregnant Mothers in Ona-Ara Local Government Area of Oyo State. One Hundred and Fifty Five (155) questionnaires were administered among the respondents out of which One Hundred and Forty-Four (144) valid responses were obtained. In addition, twenty-one (21) IDIs and fifteen (15) KIIs were conducted to further ascertain the findings. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis, the result showed that the respondents had positive disposition towards traditional medicine, perceived traditional medicine to be effective in tackling the pregnancy-related challenges, and that traditional medicine does not lead to fetus-maternal complications. Recommendations is that health care providers should take into consideration the prevailing cultural practices in the communities in designing health education and messages that will promote the positive cultural practices and reduce the impact of negative ones among pregnant women. In addition, efforts should be intensified towards explore willingness towards co-operation, assess failures and successes of both health systems and advocate clarity in dosages.

Page(s): 360-387                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2020

 Adepoju, Sodiq Olakunle
Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 Owumi, B.E. (Ph.D.)
Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

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Adepoju, Sodiq Olakunle, Owumi, B.E. (Ph.D.) “Rural Inhabitants and Patronage of Traditional Medicine: A Study of Pregnant Mothers (Women) in Ona-Ara Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.360-387 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/360-387.pdf

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Aspects of Impact of Covid 19 on African Traditional Burial Systems.: The Case of the Bukusu of Kenya’s North-Western Counties

Margaret Nasambu Barasa, Anakalo Shitandi – June 2020 Page No.: 388-397

The conjoining of the unforeseen Covid-19 pandemic on the social fabric of the Africans automatically invokes an assorted mix of analytic and philosophic questions. For example: What are the impacts of covid_19 on the African traditional burial systems pastoral and associated values, customs and traditions? This paper is anchored in the framework of the Sociocultural theory and will attempt an ethnographic analysis establishing the impact of the Covid 19 on the Bukusu nation in Kenya. It is important to point out here that the first Covid 19 death case was a person from Bukusu society in the North western Parts of Kenya. The manner in which the burial was conducted was very different from the normal Bukusu culture and traditions hence the need to study the impact of this corona disease on the African traditional systems. The paper adopted an ethnographic approach in data collection, analysis and interpretation. The qualitative data will involve conducting key informant interviews via phone calls and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in form of Zoom meetings, to explore and hear the experiences of covid_19 on the family members of the deceased and the impact on the social fabric of the said community. Methodological triangulation ensured that the study analysis and recommendations are sound and built on diverse perspectives. The unit of analysis was the individual household which have experienced a Covid 19 death case. The target respondents of the closed/structured survey questionnaires were based on gender (either a woman or a man household head) in an alternating way. While as a pioneering study, this study will enrich our understanding and advances our knowledge around the impacts of covid_19 African Traditional Burial systems, that is important in shaping the changes in terms of culture and traditions. The findings suggest that the understanding of death is fundamental to understanding the social fabric and belief systems of ‘traditional’ societies.

Page(s): 388-397                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2020

 Margaret Nasambu Barasa
Research and Extension, Kisii University, Kenya

 Anakalo Shitandi
Research and Extension, Kisii University, Kenya

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Margaret Nasambu Barasa, Anakalo Shitandi “Aspects of Impact of Covid 19 on African Traditional Burial Systems.: The Case of the Bukusu of Kenya’s North-Western Counties” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.388-397 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/388-397.pdf

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Yam Production in Nassarawa State, Nigeria; an Application of the Constant Elasticity of Substitution Production Function

Park Idisi, Elizabeth Ebukiba, Anwuli Benedicta Obidi – June 2020 Page No.: 398-402

This paper examined the Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES production function in estimating the productivity, efficiency and elasticities of yam production in Nassarawa state, using a multi-stage random sampling procedure. The findings revealed that the mean yam production to be 6776.21kg per farmer, the average land cropped at 2.67 hectare, average capital involved was N44,586.10, the average number of labourers required at 42 manpower and average wage paid to labourers’ was N14345.17. The CES Production function estimated revealed a productivity of 17.94 which shows that the farmers are producing at an efficient level, the optimal distribution of input was 0.226031 of capital is required for 0.773 of labour, while our elasticity of production was 1.0699 shows that the factors capital and labour can be substituted since it is constant and implies that for an improved production, an increase capital utilization and reduction of wages paid for labour to reduce human drudgery which is interest in this research. We therefore recommend an intensification of capital inputs (machinery) use rather than human labour in yam production. Also, there is the need to consider other factors when designing policies to encourage an increase in yam production. Thus, for us to increase productivity there is the need to make policies that will encourage technology applications.

Page(s): 398-402                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2020

 Park Idisi
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Elizabeth Ebukiba
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Anwuli Benedicta Obidi
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Abuja, Nigeria

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Park Idisi, Elizabeth Ebukiba, Anwuli Benedicta Obidi “Yam Production in Nassarawa State, Nigeria; an Application of the Constant Elasticity of Substitution Production Function” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.398-402 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/398-402.pdf

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Changes in Demography and Its Effect on Economic Growth in Developing Economies: Evidence from Selected African Countries

Vincent, M. O. (MSc), Udeorah, S. F. (Ph.D.) – June 2020 Page No.: 403-412

The paper investigated the role played by changes in demography in the growth of African economies during the period 1981-2017. Moreover, a comparative investigation of the effect of changes in demography on growth of selected economies based on the income level (namely high and upper-middle income, lower-middle income, and low income) was also done in this paper. Data for this study were sourced from the World Development Indicator (WDI) published by the World Bank. While, growth in GDP per capita was used to measure economic growth, demographic changes were examined from population dependency ratio, population gender distribution, and urban and rural population. The panel IPS unit root test conducted showed that all the time series for all categories of African countries examined were stationary at levels; hence the fixed/random effect panel regression models were estimated. Based on the result of the Hausman test, only one fixed effect was used to explain the effect of changes in demography on economic growth. First, it was found that age dependency ratio of entire population had a negative significant effect on economic growth among all African countries and lower-middle income countries in Africa. Secondly, age dependency ratio of the aged and young population had positive and significant on economic growth among all African countries and lower-middle income countries in Africa (with the magnitude of age dependency ratio of the young being greater). Thirdly, increase in female population impacted positively and significantly on economic growth among African countries. Fourthly, increase in male population had negative and significant impact on economic growth among all African countries and lower-middle income countries in Africa. Fifthly, increase in rural and urban population impacted positively and significantly on economic growth among African countries, high and upper-middle income countries, and low income countries in Africa. Lastly, while increase in urban population had more impact on economic growth among African countries, increase in rural population had more impact on economic growth among low income African countries. Among others, the study recommended that economic empowerment programmes should concentrate more on the women population as women in African tend to be more enterprising in managing small businesses that has been considered a catalyst for economic growth in the African continent.

Page(s): 403-412                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2020

 Vincent, M. O. (MSc)
Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Udeorah, S. F. (Ph.D.)
Department of Economics, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Vincent, M. O. (MSc), Udeorah, S. F. (Ph.D.) “Changes in Demography and Its Effect on Economic Growth in Developing Economies: Evidence from Selected African Countries” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.403-412 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/403-412.pdf

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Supplier Selection a Strategic Tool of the Purchasing Function: Its Role in Profit Maximization

OKPIGHE, Spencer G. O., OGBOLU, Emeka B. – June 2020 Page No.: 413-417

The profit potentials of a manufacturing firm through an efficient and effective supplier selection process of the purchasing function is high and guaranteed. Profit is the ultimate goal of shareholders in establishing business enterprises. This paper attempt to examine supplier selection a strategic tool of the purchasing function and its role in profit maximization. The authors discussed three dimensions of supplier selection such as negotiation, competitive bidding, and constrains in the contemporary supplier selection process. Since purchasing function is responsible for controlling a dominant share of the company’s revenue. The authors, therefore, recommend that it should be the duty of the purchasing personnel to negotiate, select supplier(s) and execute all company commitments within the purchasing framework to get the optimal profit — right quality at the lowest cost, to develop the satisfactory supply chain and maintain good partnering relationships with suppliers. Thus, to maximize profit, manufacturing firms in Nigeria should adopt a well-organized and functional purchasing systems where the supplier selection process is handled by highly qualified professionals in line with the purchasing ethics, principles, and practice.

Page(s): 413-417                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2020

 OKPIGHE, Spencer G. O.
Department of Marketing, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Nigeria

 OGBOLU, Emeka B.
USAID Global Health Supply Chain Operations Program-Procurement and Supply Management, Abuja, Nigeria

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OKPIGHE, Spencer G. O., OGBOLU, Emeka B. “Supplier Selection a Strategic Tool of the Purchasing Function: Its Role in Profit Maximization” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.413-417 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/413-417.pdf

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Early Childhood Education and Literacy Development: A Perspective of Kenyan Elementary Grades

Dr. Rose Atoni (Ph.D)- June 2020 Page No.: 418-422

The study investigated on the influence of early childhood education on reading ability of grade one children from a Kenyan perspective. The study was guided by the following objectives; to establish the influence of early childhood education on reading ability of grade one children; to determine whether there is a difference between reading ability competence of children who had received early childhood education and those who had not. The study was guided by the innate theory. The following hypothesis was tested; there is no significant difference between mean reading ability scores of children who attended early childhood education development centres and those pupils who did not attend. Experimental design namely pre- test post-test guided the study. The target population was grade one children and grade one teachers of English. Sampling was through the use of simple random sampling .To collect data observation schedule and reading test was used. Data analysis was done by use of percentages, means and frequencies .To test hypothesis; independent samples t- test was used. To determine validity English experts were consulted and for reliability test retest technique was used. The result was that attendance of early childhood education development did not contribute to a child’s reading ability. It was concluded that the preparation a child receives while at grade one was crucial to development of reading competencies.

Page(s): 418-422                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2020

 Dr. Rose Atoni (Ph.D)
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

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Dr. Rose Atoni (Ph.D) “Early Childhood Education and Literacy Development: A Perspective of Kenyan Elementary Grades” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.418-422 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/418-422.pdf

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Effects of Social Media on Purchase Intention and Brand Equity of Marketplace Sites in Indonesia

Dr. Lady, Andrean Kie – June 2020 Page No.: 423-426

Marketplace is a popular term used in Indonesia online shopping experience, which a third party site who consists of many sellers (companies or individuals) selling their products to their customers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of social media on the purchase intention of men’s fashion item on the Marketplace sites. This sample in this study was the customers of men’s fashion items in five largest marketplace sites in Indonesia, they are Tokopedia, Shopee, Lazada, Bukalapak and OLX. The results showed that all hypotheses were significantly positive, except for brand knowledge and perceived persuasiveness on marketplace brand equity; perceived in formativeness on purchase intention; and perceived usefulness as moderator between perceived persuasiveness and marketplace brand equity which are showed insignificant results. These results verify that companies must realize the enormity of the social media impact on the value of the company’s equity, which is a big thrust to trigger purchase intention.

Page(s): 423-426                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2020

 Dr. Lady
Department of Business Management, Universitas Internasional Batam, Indonesia

 Andrean Kie
Department of Business Management, Universitas Internasional Batam, Indonesia

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[18]. Wang, C.-Y. (2017). Quality dimensions in online communities influence purchase intentions. Management Decision, 55(9), 1984–1998. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-11-2016-0822
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Dr. Lady, Andrean Kie “Effects of Social Media on Purchase Intention and Brand Equity of Marketplace Sites in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 6, pp.423-426 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-6/423-426.pdf

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Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Strategy Adaptation for the Global Business of Vodafone Telecommunication Company

Kh Khaled Kalam – June 2020 Page No.: 427-430

Telecommunication service providers, Vodafone adopts acquisitions for expanding the scope and arena of the business. Targeting the aristocratic people looking for high internet speed and accessibility attaches effective positioning on the brand. Product diversification and differentiation is an agent in terms of penetrating into the foreign markets. These techniques are a part of the scientific management theory, which is aimed at increasing the productivity and profitability. Acquisitions can be a means for introducing quality services for the customers through a collaborative performance. The main purpose of this report is to understanding of Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning strategy and its importance in the success or failure of a company. This particular report has been developed with two major segments. In the first segment, the study focused the concept of STP explain it beside why STP is important in the international business area. In the second segment the report covered the issue of changing and adaptation of the STP concept of Vodafone in the international market. In the second part the study also explain that how Vodafone formulate new alternative strategies according to the market demand and vivacity of the global business to survive in the international market.

Page(s): 427-430                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2020

 Kh Khaled Kalam
Lecturer Business School, Shandong Xiehe University, China

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