Mobilising Social Actors for Action in the Campaign Speech of President Paul Biya to the Population of the Far-North Region 29 September 2018

Joefrey Ngha Fuh Nji, PhD – July 2020 Page No.: 01-06

This paper seeks to investigate how Paul Biya uses langauge to galvanise social actors in his campaign speech to the population of the Far-North Region, to mobilise them for action during the Presidential elections on the 7th of October 2018. In this speech he makes use of praise and promise listing, nomination strategies and anthroponym to ignite hope in the people so that they can give him the necessary support on the election day. He sounds more inclusive in his discourse as realised by the use of the pronouns ‘You’, ‘We’ and ‘Us’. Meanwhile to a larger extent it is the personal pronoun ‘I’, and ‘Me’ that predominates. The discourses were mostly focused on development and revamping the area in the economic domain. The results have equally proven that Paul Biya in this campaign speech like in his end of year speeches and February 10th address to the youth is usually replete of praise and promise listing which leaves much to be desired.

Page(s): 01-06                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2020

 Joefrey Ngha Fuh Nji, PhD
The University of Maroua

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Joefrey Ngha Fuh Nji, PhD “Mobilising Social Actors for Action in the Campaign Speech of President Paul Biya to the Population of the Far-North Region 29 September 2018” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.01-06 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/01-06.pdf

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Scaffolding EFL Teachers’ Black Box: Towards a Theoretical Framework of EFL Teachers’ Reading Knowledge

Salah Troudi, Emna Maazoun Zayani – July 2020 Page No.: 07-15

This paper presents an instructional framework for EFL teachers’ knowledge about reading instruction. Grounded in theories of EFL instruction, mainstream, critical literacies and EFL theories of teachers’ knowledge base, the proposed framework provides several dimensions that illustrate the core knowledge base system of an EFL teacher while teaching reading. This framework is meant to boost the understanding of the components of the knowledge that they should acquire. This paper focuses on the idea that EFL teachers are “lifelong learners by nature” (Troudi, 2009: 64). Therefore, it is meant to inform EFL teachers’ pre-service training, in-service practice, and post-service – reflection.

Page(s): 07-15                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2020

 Salah Troudi
University of Exeter, Tunisia

 Emna Maazoun Zayani
University of Sfax, Tunisia

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Salah Troudi, Emna Maazoun Zayani “Scaffolding EFL Teachers’ Black Box: Towards a Theoretical Framework of EFL Teachers’ Reading Knowledge ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.07-15 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/07-15.pdf

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Regional Trade and Economic Growth in West Africa

Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma – July 2020 – Page No.: 16-20

This study examines the potential of regional trade in facilitating the achievement of inclusive development in the West African region. It employs straightforward analysis to examine the nature, composition and dimension of ECOWAS trade within the group and with the rest of the world, vis-à-vis three other Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). From the preliminary study, it can be observed that the growth rate of West African economies is increasing, but the rising economic growth does not translate to improvement in inclusive development, as there was no significant reduction in poverty levels in the region. Further evidence reveals that extra-regional trade of the region is increasing at a very high rate, and also at a disproportionate rate with intra-regional trade, compared with SADC. This indicates the existence of opportunity to boost regional trade for inclusive development through conversion of part of the extra-regional trade into regional trade. However, the study further finds that the region’s exports is dominated by mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials, and imports dominated by machinery, transport equipment, manufactured goods and chemicals, which implies that skilled technical manpower in the manufacturing sector must be available to effectively exploit the opportunity of trade for inclusive development in the region. Thus, the study concludes that, with the shortage of skilled technical manpower to boost the manufacturing sector in the region, achieving inclusive development in West Africa through regional trade might be difficult. It however recommends that West African countries should intensify investment in human capital development and re-invigorate their commitment towards regional industrial policy to foster higher regional trade and enhance inclusive development in the region

Page(s): 16-20                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 July 2020

 Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma
Department of History and Strategic Studies, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike-Ikwo Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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[12]. Söderbom, M., and Teal, F., 2004. “How can Policy towards Manufacturing in Africa reduce poverty? A review of the current evidence from cross-country firm studies,” In Wolmuth, K. A., et al (eds.) “African Entrepreneurship and Private Sector Development,” African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2002/2003. Münster, Germany: Lit Verlag.
[13]. UN-ECLAC, 2014. “International trade and inclusive development: Building synergies”. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) Santiago, September 2014.
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Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma “Regional Trade and Economic Growth in West Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.16-20 July 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/16-20.pdf

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Regional Threat to Security in West and Central Africa

Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma – July 2020 Page No.: 21-26

This study addressed regionalism and the search for solutions to common security challenges in West and Central Africa. It specifically used ECOWAS and ECCAS regional bodies as case studies. Insecurity occasioned by Trans border crime, drug trafficking and terrorism among others are dominant issues in Africa. Both regional bodies have put in place numerous measures to check and control the concomitants crisis in the two regions. Inspite of the effort of regional bodies, insecurity still persist in West and Central Africa, as cases of Fulani and banditry are common issues ravaging Northern Nigeria, while kidnappings were rampant in the south. In central Africa, cases of insecurity were also rampant. This study compares strategies adopted by the two regional bodies to reducing the burden in the regions. The methodology stems from informational gathering and secondary materials. The study provides possible recommendations on ways in which conflict can be reduce in Africa.

Page(s): 21-26                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 July 2020

 Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma
Department of History and Strategic Studies, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike-Ikwo Ebonyi State, Nigeria

[1]. AIT (2018).UN Scribe Gutters Lauds ECOWAS-ECCAS Joint Summit. Retrieved from http://www.aitonline.tv/post-un_scribe_guteres_lauds_ecowas_eccas_joint_summit.
[2]. Reri, R.(2017). Rise of Terrorism in Africa. Retrieved from http://idsa.in/idsacomments/rise_of_terrorism_in_africa_rberi_120517
[3]. Buzzan, B.(19991) Third World Regional Security in Structural and Historical Perspectives (167-89). In Brian, I. Job (Ed). The Security Dilemma. Boulder CO: Lynne Reiner
[4]. Final Communiqué, Joint Summit of ECOWAS and ECCAS Heads of State and government on Peace , Security, Stability and the fight against terrorism and Violent Extremism. Lome 30th July 2018
[5]. International Crisis Group (2011) Implementing Peace and Security architecture (1) Central Africa Report No: 18)
[6]. Kacowitz, A. M., regionalization, globalization, nationalism, convergence divergent or overlapping? Working Paper No262. Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies
[7]. Page, S (2001) Regionalism and/or globalization. In regionalism and regional integration in Africa. A debate of current aspects and issues. Discussion paper 11, Uppsala: Nordic African Institute.
[8]. Sesay, A AND Omotosho, M. (2011) the Politics of Regional Integration in West Africa, Legion: West African Civil Society Institute, 2011)

Ugochukwu Samuel Osisioma “Regional Threat to Security in West and Central Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.21-26 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/21-26.pdf

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Principals’ Leadership Styles as Variables in Mathematics Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Secondary Schools in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State
Oliweh Ifeanyi Solomon, Dr. Anthony G. Ossai – July 2020 – Page No.: 27-31

This research work examines principals’ leadership styles as variables in mathematics teacher’s job satisfaction in secondary schools in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State. The population of the study consists of 450 teachers in the secondary schools in Ukwuani Local Government Area. The sample consists of the teachers – 83 male and 57 female teachers. The simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. To guide the study, three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated and tested. The instruments of the study were the leadership style questionnaire (LSQ) and Mathematics Teachers Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MTJSQ). In analyzing the data descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage) were used to answer the research questions while the chi-square contingency table were used to test the hypotheses at 0.5 level of significance. The result of the study revealed among others, that: The most prevalent principals’ leadership style in secondary schools in Ukwuani Local Government to be Idiographic leadership style.

Page(s): 27-31                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2020

 Oliweh Ifeanyi Solomon
Department of Integrated Science, College of Education, Agbor, Nigeria

 Dr. Anthony G. Ossai
Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Agbor, Nigeria

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Oliweh Ifeanyi Solomon, Dr. Anthony G. Ossai “Principals’ Leadership Styles as Variables in Mathematics Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Secondary Schools in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.27-31 July 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/27-31.pdf

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Comparative Analysis of Agricultural Policies and Farming Co-Operatives in Eastern and Southern Province of Zambia, 1947-64
Martin Chabu – July 2020 – Page No.: 32-52

This study examines a comparative analysis of agricultural policy on the farming co-operatives in Eastern and Southern Province of Zambia, 1947-64. It does this by assessing factors influencing formation of co-operatives in colonial government of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and why it was important and necessary to have co-operatives for marketing African produce. This study further brings out the contributions and impact of co-operatives had on the peasant economy and the nation at large in promoting food security. It also reviews challenges that co-operatives encountered in its quest of promoting rural development. Data was collected by means of a qualitative approach using unpublished, published and oral sources which were also consulted. The findings were analyzed strongly and points to the important role that farming co-operatives societies have played on agricultural development in rural areas. This is clearly reflected in the differential performance in farming co-operative activities and the socio-economic attributes of members and non-members. The results indicated a marked difference among categories in terms of access to agriculture inputs, knowledge, and technology acquisition of material. There was an advantage in the membership of the co-operative than non-members and this boosted agricultural development thereby, offering a viable channel to peasants to come out of vicious cycle of rural poverty.

Page(s): 32-52                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2020

 Martin Chabu
David Livingstione College of Education, Zambia

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[3]. Banda. E.A.M, ‘The Impact of the Petauke Co-operative Marketing Union (PCMU) on the Peasant Economy in Petauke District of Eastern Province of Northern Rhodesia, 1947-164’, in Ackson M. Kanduza (ed) Scio-economic Change in Eastern Zambia: Pre-colonial to the 1980s (Lusaka: Historical Association of Zambia, 1992). Pp. 95-102.
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Martin Chabu “Comparative Analysis of Agricultural Policies and Farming Co-Operatives in Eastern and Southern Province of Zambia, 1947-64” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp. 32-52 July 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/32-52.pdf

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Exploring the Nature and Methods of Orientation and Mobility Taught to Learners with Visual Impairments at Magwero School for the Blind in Eastern Province of Zambia

Martin Chabu, Banda Doreen M – July 2020 Page No.: 53-67

The objectives of the study were to ascertain the method and resources used in the teaching of orientation and mobility to the learners with visual impairments and establish challenges encountered in teaching of Orientation and Mobility skills and determine measures that can be put in place when teaching orientation and mobility to learners with visual impairment.
The sample size included five (5) special education teachers, three (3) School Administrators and five (5) visually impaired learners. The sampling techniques that were used to select the participants were random sampling of which administrators were picked at and purposive sampling technique that was used to pick teachers and VI learners. Random sampling was used in order to avoid biasness and Purposive sampling was used because the results of purposive sampling are usually more accurate than those achieved with an alternative form of sampling. The research design for this study was a Case study. With regard to data collection instruments, the study used self-administered structured interviews and observation checklist to find out the teaching of Orientation and Mobility Skills to learners with Visual Impairments. The data collected in this study was analysed using both qualitative and quantitative methods.
The study found that meeting the unique needs of children with Visual Impairment still continues to be a challenge at Magwero School for the Blind. Children with Visual Impairment face a lot of challenges in mobility which includes; failure to implement O and M Skills effectively which was attributed to shortage of qualified O and M specialist teachers, lack of materials to use, lack of parental involvement, wrong methods used in teaching O and M and generally lack of policy implementation by the Ministry of Education Science, Vocational Training and Early Education (MESVTEE).
In view of these findings, the study recommended that the Ministry of Education should train and employ more specialists’ teachers who are qualified to deliver and meet the needs of children with Visual Impairment and that Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), should design an orientation and mobility syllabus to help learners reach their potential in Orientation and Mobility Skills and other functional areas such as Independent Living.

Page(s): 53-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2020

  Martin Chabu
David Livingstione College of Education, Zambia

  Banda Doreen M
David Livingstione College of Education, Zambia

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Martin Chabu, Banda Doreen M “Exploring the Nature and Methods of Orientation and Mobility Taught to Learners with Visual Impairments at Magwero School for the Blind in Eastern Province of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 8,, pp.53-67 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-7/53-67.pdf

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Is Life Worth Living? Fixtures And Prevalence of Emile Durkheim’s Typology in Online Reported Suicides in Nigeria – Implications for Policy

Ekpechu, Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo (PhD) – July 2020 Page No.: 68-74

This study examined online reported suicides in Nigeria in order to find out the prevalence rate of each of the Emile Durkheim’s types of suicide in the country. Historical research design was used to examine online reported suicides in the country from 2009 to 2018. It was found among other things that Durkheim’s egoistic suicide (n = 9), altruistic suicide (n = 376), anomic suicide (n = 3) and fatalistic suicide (n = 3) fitted into the recurring incidences of suicides in the country (N = 391). Policy should target the control of incidences of altruistic suicide in the country. It was concluded that the most prevalent form of suicide was altruistic suicide.

Page(s): 68-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2020

 Ekpechu, Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo (PhD)
Sociology Department, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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Ekpechu, Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo (PhD) “Is Life Worth Living? Fixtures And Prevalence of Emile Durkheim’s Typology in Online Reported Suicides in Nigeria – Implications for Policy
” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.68-74 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/68-74.pdf

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Child Abuse Types and Manners: It’s Negativity on The Globe

Barr. (Mrs.) Mary L. Effiong, Ph.D., Edidiong Ime Inyang – July 2020 Page No.: 75-86

I. INTRODUCTION
In earnest, children’s maltreatments from parents/caregiver were generally accepted all over the world for centuries perhaps because under English Common Law, children were seen as the sole property of the parents, as such, could enjoy especially fathers, limitless latitude of decisions over penalties/sanctions to be declared on the Child until 1870s, when an eight year old New York orphan, by name Mary Ellen Wilson protested over what she viewed as maltreatment. In fact, American colonies even incorporated same practice into their early Laws in the United State. Until then, animals were more valued and appreciated than children because of American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animal (ASPCA) law. But from the intervention of attorney for the ASPCA, the judge having listened to the evidence of maltreatment in form of frequent beating, wrongful locking in bedroom and of been asked to lie on the bare floor from Mr. Conollys who happens to be Mary’s foster father. Charging them of Assault and Battery, sentenced her fostered mother of a year imprisonment with hard Labour. Then it significant alongside with the publicity of Wilson’s case, led to the establishment of New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Then come the following year, the Legislature passed a statute that authorized such society to file complaints of child abuse with law enforcement agencies. From that period henceforth, children’s welfare became a thing of concerned to all. First of such is the article from Dr. Henry Kemp in the journal of American Medical Association.

Page(s): 75-86                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2020

 Barr. (Mrs.) Mary L. Effiong, Ph.D.
Director, Center for Counselling and Human Development, Obong University, Obong-Ntak, Etim-Ekpo Lga, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria

 Edidiong Ime Inyang
Department of Linguistics and Communication Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Barr. (Mrs.) Mary L. Effiong, Ph.D., Edidiong Ime Inyang “Child Abuse Types and Manners: It’s Negativity on The Globe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.75-86 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/75-86.pdf

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Innovative Library Services (ILS) in Nigeria: Challenges and Way forward

Etebu, Abraham Tabor (Ph.D, CLN, MNLA), Zacchaeus, Choice Meniwoze(CLN) – July 2020 Page No.: 87-94

This study looked at innovative library services (ILS) in the Nigerian context through different ways such as online business support service for starts-up; web design services; blogging service; podcasting service; electronic publishing services; online information search service; short message alerts services; online training and workshops; digital references services; database production/distribution services; online entertainment services; mobile application services and digital marketing service. Data analysis was done using frequency count, percentages, Likert Scale presented in tabular format, mean and standard deviation. Using the four-point Likert type scale, a midpoint mean (criterion Mean) of 2.5 was established and accepted as a positive response point. Inadequate funding, inadequate deployment of ICT infrastructure and resistance to change were some of the challenges identified as hindrances to ILS, while risk taking, collaboration, adequate funding, were some of the way forward found out. The study concluded and recommended that government should strive to adequately fund libraries and provide required ICT infrastructures to boost ILS in Nigeria effectively.

Page(s): 87-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2020

 Etebu, Abraham Tabor (Ph.D, CLN, MNLA)
Department of Library and Information Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Zacchaeus, Choice Meniwoze(CLN)
Library Department, Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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Etebu, Abraham Tabor (Ph.D, CLN, MNLA), Zacchaeus, Choice Meniwoze(CLN), “Innovative Library Services (ILS) in Nigeria: Challenges and Way forward” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.87-94 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/87-94.pdf

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Delinquency in Urban Kenya Secondary Schools: Implications for Parenting

Dr Scolastica Kariuki-Githinji – July 2020 Page No.: 95-101

Adolescents’ delinquency is on the rise in Kenya, yet most of the studies in Kenya have focused on status finding than alleviating the problem among adolescents. This paper is a presentation of the findings on prevalence of adolescents’ delinquency in urban Kenya secondary schools and the implications for parenting. A study was carried out to determine the links between parental behaviors and adolescents’ delinquency with a view to mitigating the parental behaviors associated with teenagers’ anti-social. The research was informed by Baumrind Parenting models theory, Social Control theory and Ego identity versus Role Confusion theory. The study participants comprised 219 female and 191 male students selected through stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The researcher employed self-designed questionnaire and a self-report behavior checklist to gather data which measured adolescents’ perceptions of parents’ behaviors and their delinquent behaviors. A correlational survey design was employed. Parental conflicts significantly positively linked to adolescent non-illegal and generalized delinquency, while parental increased alcohol use positively related to non-illegal and minor-illegal delinquent behaviors at p < .01 (two tailed test). Parenting training, adolescents counselling and behavior surveillance in schools were recommended.

Page(s): 95-101                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2020

 Dr Scolastica Kariuki-Githinji
Department of Education, Daystar University, Nairobi, Kenya

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[23]. Munyo, M. (2013). Youth Crime in Latin America: Key Determinants and Effective Public Policy Responses: Washington, DC: Brookings
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[32]. Siegel, L., & Welsh, C. B (2009). . Juvenile delinquency: Theory practice and law 10th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.
[33]. Arthur, P. J&Waugh R( 2008 ) Status Offenses and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act: The Exception that Swallowed the Rule Retrieved from http://law.seattleu.edu/Documents/sjsj/2009spring/Arthur%20Waugh%208%200.pdf.
[34]. ANPCAN (2002). Child abuse and neglect by parents and care givers. Retrieved from http: / whqlibdoc. who.int/publications.
[35]. Blasik K, (2001). Broward Truancy Intervention Program (Btip) Operational Status Report, http://www.broward.k12.fl.us/research_evaluation/Reports/btip01.pdf
[36]. Kariuki, S.N (2014). Relationship between Adolescents’ Perceptions of Their Parents’ Behaviorsand The Teenagers’ Non-Illegal And Minor- Illegal Delinquency In Nairobi Secondary Schools, Kenya.Retrieved frpmir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/155/browse?rpp=20&order.
[37]. Kindiki, J. N. 2004). School effectiveness in slum contexts: The case of Nairobi, Kenya. Unpublished PhD. Thesis. University of Birmingham, UK.
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[39]. Lerner, R. M., Jacobs, F &Wertlieb, D (2002). Handbook of applied developmental science: Promoting positive child adolescents, and family development through research, policy, and programs. Donald Wertlieb, New York: Sage.
[40]. Muola, J. M., Ndungu, N. M., &Ngesa, F. (2009). The relationship between family functions and juvenile delinquency. A case of NakuruMunicipality.Kenya. African Journals Online. Retrieved from http://www.ajol.infosays
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[42]. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention OJJDP (2014) Juvenile Offenders and Victims.Retrieved fromhttps://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/nr2014/downloads/NR2014.pdf
[43]. Otieno A. O,&Ofulla AVO (2009). Drug Abuse in Kisumu Town, Western Kenya, Great Lakes University of Kisumu.
[44]. Segal, A. U. (2000). Child abuse by the middle class?A study of professionals in India. Retrieved fromhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science.
[45]. Shaughnessy, J.; Zechmeister, E.; Jeanne, Z. (2011). Research methods in psychology (9th ed.). New York, NY:McGraw Hill.
[46]. Siegel, L., & Welsh, C. B (2009). Juvenile delinquency: Theory practice and law 10th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.
[47]. UNDP (2017). “Journey to extremism in Africa: drivers, incentives and the tipping point for recruitment.” United Nations Development Program, New York

Dr Scolastica Kariuki-Githinji “Delinquency in Urban Kenya Secondary Schools: Implications for Parenting ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.95-101 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/95-101.pdf

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A Meta-Analysis on Effects of Mastery Learning Strategy (MLS) on Academic Achievements of Learners

David Arhin, Winifred Bonsu Opoku – July 2020 Page No.: 102-106

The study sought to analyze previous studies on effects of MLS on academic achievements between 2008 and 2020 in connection to purposes, methodologies and findings/recommendations. At the initial stage, we access 13articles electronically for reading purpose yet selected seven for the purpose of meta-analysis. All the studies deployed quantitative method design specifically experimental design. The study revealed and concluded that, MLS has positive effects on learners’ academic achievements and that the empirical evidence from this study warrants a generalization without hesitation. It was also revealed and concluded that, large amount of studies on effects of MLS on academic achievements deployed experimental design. Finally, it was revealed and concluded that, majority of the researchers who have conducted studies into effects of MLS on academic achievements used self-developed tests which have their items validated by experts and also their reliability been estimated with cronbach alpha or test re-test methods. Based on the conclusions, we recommended that teachers and educationalists should embrace the use of MLS. Again, it was suggested to future researchers who deem to replicate a study on effects of MLS on academic achievements should deployed mixed method design in order to assess the qualitative aspect of the purpose of the studies under this meta-analysis. Finally, it was suggested to future researchers to validate their test items or either adopt or adapt test items used by scholars.

Page(s): 102-106                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 July 2020

 David Arhin
Students-Department of Education & Psychology; Faculty of Educational Foundations; University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Winifred Bonsu Opoku
Students-Department of Education & Psychology; Faculty of Educational Foundations; University of Cape Coast, Ghana

[1]. Adeniji, S. M., Ameen, S. K., Dambatta, B. U., & Orilonise, R. (2018). Effect of mastery learning approach on senior school students’ academic performance and retention in circle geometry. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 951-962. Retrieved from www.e-iji.net
[2]. Adeyemi, B. A. (2007). Learning social studies through mastery approach. Educational Research and Review. [Online]. Retrieved on 02/03/2020 from http://www.academicjournals.org/ERR
[3]. Agboghoroma, T. E. (2014). Mastery learning approach on secondary students’ integrated science achievement. British Journal of Education, 2(7), 80-88. Retrieved from www.eajournals.org
[4]. Arhin, D. (2020). Effects of mastery learning strategy on pupils’ mathematics achievement in Asante Akim North district. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology (IJISRT), 5(5), 1034-1040. Retrieved from www.ijisrt.com
[5]. Bala, P. (2019). Effect of mastery learning approach (MLA) on the achievement in mathematics of students with mathematical difficulties. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 24(5), 29-35.
[6]. Block, J. H., & Anderson, L. W. (1975). Mastery learning in classroom instruction. New York: Macmillan.
[7]. Bloom, B. (1968). Learning for mastery. Evaluation comment, 1(2), 1-5. Los Angeles Centre for study of evaluation Instructional Programmes (UCCLA).
[8]. Candler, J. (2010). Brief notices of Haiti: With its condition, resources, and prospects. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
[9]. Elaldi, S. (2016). The effect of mastery learning model with reflective thinking activities on medical students’ academic achievement: An experimental study. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(5), 30-40.
[10]. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
[11]. Haidich, A. B. (2010). Meta-analysis in medical research. Hippokratia, 14(1), 29-37.
[12]. Kalia, A. K. (2005). Effectiveness of mastery learning strategy and inquiry training model on pupils’ achievement in science. Indian Educational Review, 41(1), 76-83.
[13]. Sood, V. (2013). Effect of mastery learning strategies on concept attainment in geometry among high school students. International Journal of Behavioral Social and Movement Sciences, 2(2), 144-155.
[14]. Wambugu, P. W. & Changeiywo, J. M. (2008). Effects of mastery learning approach on secondary school students’ physics achievement. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 4(3), 293-302.
[15]. Yemi, T. M., HjAzid, N. B., & Md Ali, R. (2018). Evaluation of jigsaw strategy and mastery learning (JSML) module versus conventional instruction in teaching mathematics. European Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science, 5(1), 40-51.
[16]. Yemi, T. M. (2018). Mastery learning approach (MLA): Its effects on the students’ mathematics academic achievement. European Journal of Alternative Education Studies, 3(1), 77-88.

David Arhin, Winifred Bonsu Opoku, “A Meta-Analysis on Effects of Mastery Learning Strategy (MLS) on Academic Achievements of Learners” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.102-106 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/102-106.pdf

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Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Stock Market Development and Banking System Liquidity in Nigeria

Anthony E. Ageme- July 2020 Page No.: 107-112

The main goal of this paper is to examine the impact of selected macroeconomic variables on stock market development and banking system liquidity in Nigeria using annualised data from 1986 to 2018. The error correction model was applied in estimating our model while the Johansen cointegration test was employed to determine if cointegrating relationships exist among our variables. We found that inflation, real interest rate and exchange rate had negative impact on stock market development while broad money supply was positively related to stock market development. On the other hand, inflation was found to negative impact on banking system liquidity whereas broad money supply, real interest rate and exchange rate had positive impact on banking system liquidity. We therefore conclude that inflation hinders stock market development and the liquidity of the banking system while broad money supply stimulates both indices. Moreover, while real interest rate and exchange rate were negatively related to stock market development, they were found to be positively associated with the banking system liquidity during the sample period. We recommend that sound monetary policy action is crucial to the growth of the Nigerian stock market as well is the liquidity of the Nigerian banking system. The estimation results further revealed that divergence from long-run equilibrium was being corrected at the speed of 68.34% annually. The results of Johansen indicators cointegration test showed that long-run relationships exist between stock market development, banking system liquidity and the selected macroeconomic variables.

Page(s): 107-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 July 2020

 Anthony E. Ageme
Department of Banking and Finance, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria

[1]. Ahmad, A. U., Abdullah, A., Sulong, Z., &Abdullahi, A. T. (2015). Causal relationship between stock market returns and macroeconomic variables in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities And Social Science, 20(5), 74–96. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-20527496
[2]. Asaolu, T. O., &Ogunmuyiwa, M. S. (2011). An econometric analysis of the impact of macroecomomic variables on stock market movement in Nigeria.Asian Journal of Business Management, 3(1), 72–78.
[3]. Başci, E. S., &Karaca, S. S. (2013). The determinants of stock market index : VAR approach to Turkish stock market. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 3(1), 163–171.
[4]. Elly, O. D., &Oriwo, A. E. (2012).The relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market performance in Kenya.DBA Africa Management Review, 3(1), 38–49.
[5]. Emenike, K. O., &Okwuchukwu, O. (2014).Stock Market Return Volatility and Macroeconomic Variables in Nigeria.International Journal of Empirical Finance, 2(2), 75–82.
[6]. Forson, J. A., &Janrattanagul, J. (2013).Selected macroeconomic variables and stock market movements: Empirical evidence from Thailand.Contemporary Economics, 8(2), 157–174. https://doi.org/10.5709/ce.1897-9254.138
[7]. Issahaku, H., Ustarz, Y., &Domanban, P. B. (2013). Macroeconomic variables and stock market returns in Ghana: Any causal link? Asian Economic and Financial Review, 3(8), 1044–1062.
[8]. Khodaparasti, R. B. (2014). The role of macroeconomic variables in the stock market in iran. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 10, 54–64.
[9]. Kirui, E., Wawire, N. H. W., &Onono, P. O. (2014). Macroeconomic variables, volatility and stock market returns: A case of Nairobi securities exchange, Kenya. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(8), 214–228. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijef.v6n8p214
[10]. Nkechukwu, G., Onyeagba, J., &Okoh, J. (2015). Macroeconomic variables and stock market prices in Nigeria: A cointegration and vector error correction model tests. International Journal of Science and Research, 4(6), 717–724.
[11]. Omorokunwa, O. G., & Ikponmwosa, N. (2014). Macroeconomic variables and stock price volatility in Nigeria. Annals of the University of Petroşani, Economics, 14(1), 259–268.
[12]. Osamwonyi, I. O., &Evbayiro-osagie, E. I. (2012).The relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market index in Nigeria.J Economics, 3(1), 55–63.
[13]. Oseni, I. O., &Nwosa, P. I. (2011). Stock market volatility and macroeconomic variables volatility in Nigeria: An exponential GARCH Approach. European Journal of Business and Management, 3(12), 43–54.
[14]. Pilinkus, D. (2009). Stock market and macroeconomic variables : evidences from Lithuania. Economics & Management, 14, 884–891.
[15]. Talla, J. T. (2013). Impact of macroeconomic variables on the stock market prices of the Stockholm stock exchange (OMXS30).Master’s Thesis, Jonkoping International Business School, Jonkoping University, (May), 1–48

Anthony E. Ageme “Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Stock Market Development and Banking System Liquidity in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.107-112 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/107-112.pdf

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The Factors Affecting the Implementation of 360 Degree Feedback on Organizational Performance for Selected Companies Located in Arusha

Ndalahwa Musa Masanja, PhD, Adelphina Rweyemamu – July 2020 Page No.: 113-121

The study examines the factors affecting the implementation of 360 degree feedback on the organizational performance for selected companies in Arusha. The study had one specific objective. This objective was to determine the factors affecting the implementation of 360 degree feedback as a mechanism to enhance organizational performance for selected companies located in Arusha. The study used quantitative approach where by the research design was descriptive in nature. The targeted population originated from employees from different private companies located in Arusha. The targeted population came from fro various private companies in different sectors to gain a broad perspective of 360 degree feedback in Tanzania. According to the data analysis purported by empirical evidence, we can conclude that there are significant factors affecting organizational performance for selected companies located in Arusha. In this case, the management of private companies should be promote and encourage 360 degree activities and process in the organization..

Page(s): 113-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 July 2020

 Ndalahwa Musa Masanja, PhD
Lecturer-University of Arusha, Tanzania

 Adelphina Rweyemamu
University of Arusha, Tanzania

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[2]. Anand, V, Bardrinath, V., Bharathi, K.S., Manjula, R. & Nallisai, E. (2018). An assessment of 360 degree performance appraisal system-a study with special reference to private banks, International journal of pure and applied mathematics, 119(7), 2717-2728.
[3]. Basu, T. (2015). Integrating 360 degree feedback into performance appraisal tool and Development process, IOSR journal of business and management, 17(1), 50-61.
[4]. Bracken, D.W., Rose, D.S. & Church, A.H. (2016). The evolution and devolution of 360 degree feedback, Industrial and organizational psychology, 9(4), 761-794.
[5]. Cappelli, P. & Conyon, M.J. (2016). What do performance appraisals do? Retrieved on August 5, 2016 from https://www.nber.org/papers/w22400.pdf
[6]. Das, U.K and Panda, J. (2015). A literature review of 360 degree feedback as a tool of leadership Development, International journal of current research, 7(4), 14757-61.
[7]. Denisi, A.S. & Murphy, K.R. (2017). Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress? Journal of applied psychology, 102(3), 421-433.
[8]. Cintron, R. & Flaniken, F. (2018). Performance appraisal: a supervision or leadership tool? International journal of business and social sciences, 2(17), 29-37.
[9]. Gefi, H.Y. (2014). An evaluation of the effectiveness of performance appraisal tools in Tanzanian banking sector: a case of commercial banks in Mwanza city, Unpublished Master dissertation, Open university of Tanzania.
[10]. Gorun, M., Kayar, I. & Varol, B. (2018). 360 degree performance appraisal and feedback System: a study with heads of departments in canakkale Onsekiz Mart university, Goziantep university journal of social sciences, 17(4), 1425-1437.
[11]. Hosain, S. (2016). 360 degree feedback as a technique of performance appraisal: does it really Work, Asian business consortium, 6(1), 21-24.
[12]. Idowu, A.O. (2017). Effectiveness of performance appraisal system and its effect on employee motivation, Nile journal of business and economics, 5, 15-39.
[13]. Japtap, S.P. (2018). 360 degree feedback tools-pros and cons, International journal of Management and commerce innovations, 5(2), 1-4.
[14]. Kanaslan, E.K. & Iyem, C. (2016). Is 360 degree feedback appraisal an effective way of performance Evaluation? International journal of academic research in business and social sciences, 6(5), 172- 182.
[15]. Koofigar, A.H., Ghaziasgar, M., & Karbasian, M. (2014). A 360 degree performance appraisal Model for documents digitalizing firms, Shiraz journal of system management, 2(1), 73-89.
[16]. Lithakong, K.E. (2014). Evaluating the effectiveness of a 360-degree performance appraisal and Feedback in a selected steel organization, Published dissertation, North-west university.
[17]. Nchimbi, A. (2019). Implementation of open performance review and appraisal system in Tanzania local government authorities: some observations and remarks, International journal of African and Asian studies, 53, 32-40.
[18]. Masanja, N.M. (2018). Introduction to business research, 1st ed, Arusha, Tanzania: NMMPrinters.
[19]. Masanja, N.M. (2019). Practical guide to dissertation and thesis writing, Arusha: Tanzania: NMM Printers.
[20]. Masanja, N. M (2019). Human resource manual: a practical guide to human resource practitioners, Arusha, Tanzania: NMM Printers.
[21]. Mpululu, M.M. (2014). The effectiveness of open performance review and appraisal system of Public primary school teachers: a case of mvomero, Master dissertation, Open university of Tanzania.
[22]. Mathias, L.S. (2015). An assessment of the implementation of open performance review and appraisal system in local government authorities: a case of Morogoro municipal council, Masters dissertation, Open university of Tanzania.
[23]. Mohapatra, M. (2015). 360 degree feedback: a review of literature, IJRSI, 2(1), 112-117.
[24]. Ramamoorthy, R. & kavitha, S.F. (2017). The effectiveness of 360 degree performance Appraisal and feedback in hotel green park, Chennai, International journal of pure and Applied mathematics, 116, 16, 285-290.
[25]. Rwechungura, G.J. (2013). The challenges of performance evaluation in public institutions in Tanzania: The case study of prisons corporation sole, Unpublished master dissertation Mzumbe university.
[26]. Shayo, F.A. (2013). The effects of performance appraisal system on employees’ performance in the Tanzania community radios: a case of selected radios in Dar-es-salaam, MBA dissertation, Open University of Tanzania.
[27]. Songstad, N.G., Lindkvist, I., Moland, K.M., Chemhutu, V. & Blystad, A. (2012). Assessing Performance enhancing tools: experiences with the open performance review and appraisal
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Ndalahwa Musa Masanja, PhD, Adelphina Rweyemamu “The Factors Affecting the Implementation of 360 Degree Feedback on Organizational Performance for Selected Companies Located in Arusha” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.113-121 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/113-121.pdf

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Sandwich Mode of Learning: A Just-In-Time Intervention for Making Education Accessible

Jacob Manu, PhD, Eric Twum Ampofo, Robert Ampomah – July 2020 Page No.: 122-127

The purpose of the current study was to identify the perception of Sandwich students on the recognition of the Sandwich programmes, employability of Sandwich graduates and the prospects of the Sandwich programmes. The researchers used descriptive survey as the research design. The questionnaire was planted online on respondents’ WhatsApp platform to collect data on the variables. In all, 220 students were used in the study. At the end of the study, the researchers found that the Sandwich mode of learning has become an integral part of tertiary education. Second, there seem to be some level of discrimination against Sandwich graduates as compared to graduates from the regular mode. Third, the prospects of Sandwich programmes run in institutions, to a greater extent, will be determined by the recognition of the school as well as the ability of its graduates to get employment. The implication for practice is discussed.

Page(s): 122-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 July 2020

 Jacob Manu, PhD
University of Education, Winneba (College of Agriculture Education)

 Eric Twum Ampofo
University of Education, Winneba (College of Agriculture Education)

 Robert Ampomah
University of Education, Winneba (College of Agriculture Education)

[1]. Adesina, A.A (2001) A Glimpse into the future of Part-Time and Sandwich performance in Nigeria. A monograph.
[2]. Afe, J.O. (1990) Sandwich Students Evaluation of Education Courses: A case study of Bendel State University of Education. An unpublished thesis, Benin City.
[3]. Agyemang, R.O., 2020. Embedding sustainable development in teacher education in the central region of Ghana (Doctoral dissertation).
[4]. Akalu, G. A. (2016). Higher education ‘massification’and challenges to the professoriate: Do academics’ conceptions of quality matter? Quality in Higher Education, 22(3), 260-276.
[5]. Albion, P., (2006). Technology leadership. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference of the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (SITE 2006) (pp. 1-7). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
[6]. Aransi, W.O.(2019). Psychosocial and Economic Variables as Correlates of Adults’ Participation into Sandwich Educational Programs in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and e- Learning Research, 6(3), 107-115.
[7]. Borisade, F. T. (2007). Evaluation of sandwich degree programme of universities in the southwestern Nigeria. Unpublished Ph. D Thesis, University of Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.
[8]. Broome, M.E., Halstead, J.A., Pesut, D.J., Rawl, S.M. and Boland, D.L., (2011). Evaluating the outcomes of a distance-accessible PhD program. Journal of Professional Nursing, 27(2), 69-77.
[9]. Dibiase, D. (2000). Is distance education a Faustian bargain? Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 24 (1), 130-136.
[10]. Erichsen, E.A. and Bolliger, D. U.(2011). Towards understanding international graduate student isolation in traditional and online environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59(3), 309-326.
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[17]. Nage-Sibande, B., &Morolong, B. L. (2018). A trend analysis of opportunities and challenges of open and distance learning provision in dual-mode institutions. Distance Education, 39(4), 495-510.
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Jacob Manu, PhD, Eric Twum Ampofo, Robert Ampomah “Sandwich Mode of Learning: A Just-In-Time Intervention for Making Education Accessible” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.122-127 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/122-127.pdf

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School Culture MTs Sabiilul Muttaqien Sukaraja Nuban Batanghari Nuban Sub-District, East Lampung Regency

Desi Budiono, Sudjarwo, Risma M. Sinaga – July 2020 Page No.: 128-130

School culture is a characteristic, character and image of the school in people. This study aims to describe the School Culture at MTs Sabiilul Muttaqien in Sukaraja Nuban, Batanghari Nuban Sub-District, East Lampung Regency.
The approach used in this research is descriptive qualitative approach to the type of phenomenology (Creswell, 2012: 20). The data obtained through informants are soft data, the key informants in this study are: Islam School headmaster, vice headmaster of curriculum, vice headmaster of student student, teachers and students. The instrument in this study is the researcher himself as an instrument. Data analysis in the study is carried out through three activities that occurred simultaneously, namely: data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions/verification.
The results showed that Islam school culture applied at MTs Sabiilul Muttaqien was Sabiilul Muttaqien-style uniforms that were for men wearing green shirts in black pants and rimless-cap and women wearing green shar’i shirts, black skirts and black veil, memorizing the al-Quran as one of the graduation requirements for minimum 1 section al-Quran, carrying out tasmi’ al-Quran every day on the school field before learning in the classroom. Moreover the culture of shame in littering and the culture of discipline by coming on time were applied to all Islam School stakeholders, the culture of respect for teachers by greeting and so on because the MTs Sabiilul Muttaqien was Islam School under the auspices of an organization so that it needed to be instilled surah Ta’lim Muta’alim practice culture, dress culture neatly according to sharia for teachers and students.

Page(s): 128-130                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 July 2020

 Desi Budiono
Master of Social Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Sudjarwo
Master of Social Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Risma M. Sinaga
Master of Social Education, FKIP Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

[1]. Brenda, Tyson. (2008). Changing School Culture : The Role Of Leadership.‎.
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Desi Budiono, Sudjarwo, Risma M. Sinaga “School Culture MTs Sabiilul Muttaqien Sukaraja Nuban Batanghari Nuban Sub-District, East Lampung Regency” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.128-130 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/128-130.pdf

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An Appraisal to Qualities and Quantities of Adult- Education Facilitators for Quality Education in Sokoto State, Nigeria
Jibril Aliyu, Bashar Ibrahim, Kabiru Yahaya Mikailu & Ibrahim Labbo Abdulkadir – July 2020 – Page No.: 131-136

This research is aims at appraising or assessing the qualities and quantities of Adult education facilitators in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The study used descriptive survey designed with a population of 86 respondents which comprises coordinators, HOD and Subjects Facilitators, the finding shows that, government need to improve the quality and quantity of Adult education facilitators, Adult facilitators should use different teaching methods in teaching different subjects, they also, spouse to be competent in using instructional materials, the Management should allow Adult Facilitators to undergo professional training. The research recommended that government should restrict recruiting unqualified Facilitators by making sure that all those to be recruited into recognized Adult Education Centers are graduate of colleges of Education and Universities, government should improve the status of unqualified to becomes qualified, through organizing periodic seminars, workshops, capacity building courses and refresher programs, government should stick in making conducive learning environment for quality education.

Page(s): 131-136                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 July 2020

 Jibril Aliyu
Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria

 Bashar Ibrahim
Shehu Shagari College of Education Sokoto, Nigeria

 Kabiru Yahaya Mikailu
Umar Ali-Shinkafi Polytechnic Sokoto, Nigeria

 Ibrahim Labbo Abdulkadir
Ministry of Science Education Sokoto State, Nigeria

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[19]. Williams, J. (2003). Why great teachers stay. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 71-74.
[20]. Xuehui, A., Emily C. H. &Tanja, S. (2008). Teaching quality and student outcomes: academic Achievement and educational engagement in rural northwest China, Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers.
[21]. Yeager, E. A. (2000). Thoughts on wise practice in the teaching of Social Studies. The official Journal of National council of the Social Studies. 64(6).

Jibril Aliyu, Bashar Ibrahim, Kabiru Yahaya Mikailu & Ibrahim Labbo Abdulkadir “An Appraisal to Qualities and Quantities of Adult- Education Facilitators for Quality Education in Sokoto State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp. 131-136 July 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/131-136.pdf

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Poverty and the Challenges of Security in the North-Eastern Region of Nigeria: A Case Study of Boko Haram Insurgency (2009-2017)

Boris Happy Odalonu, Eberechukwu Faith Obani – July 2020 Page No.: 137-146

Poverty has become an endemic in our society based on certain factors that are human creation. Nigeria has been caught-up in this web due to the nature and character of the state. This paper ex-rayed the relationship between poverty and the emergence of Boko Haram insurgents in the North–East region of Nigeria. Secondary data were used for this paper and the theoretical overview is anchored on relative deprivation and frustration-aggression theories. The paper argues that there are varied factors that gave room to Boko-Haram insurgency. However, poverty is the most prevailing causes of Boko Haram insurgency. The paper reveals that Boko Haram insurgency in the North-East of Nigeria has crippled the economic activities of the region thereby increasing the rate of poverty in Nigeria. It also shows that Boko Haram insurgency is the greatest cause of displacement in the north east. It further shows that Boko Haram activities have not only challenged the security of the Nigerian state but also threatened its unity and economic development. The paper concludes that if these economic and political conditions that led to violent extremism remained unresolved, there will be continued insecurity in Nigeria especially in the North-East region. The paper therefore recommends that Federal Government should sincerely and practically embark on job creation for the unemployed youths, particularly in the troubled region.

Page(s): 137-146                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 July 2020

 Boris Happy Odalonu
Department of Political Science, Federal College of Education Eha-Amufu, Enugu State, Nigeria

 Eberechukwu Faith Obani
Department of Political Science, Federal College of Education Eha-Amufu, Enugu State, Nigeria

[1]. Abubakar, Y. (2015) Analysis of the Economics of Terrorism in Nigeria: Boko Haram and Movement for Emancipation of the Niger Delta in Perspective, Master Thesis Submitted to Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, North Cyprus
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[3]. Agbiboa, D & Maiangwa, B (2014). Nigeria United in Grief; Divided in Response: Religious Terrorism, Boko Haram, and the Dynamics of State Response, African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 14(1),
[4]. Awojobi, O. N. (2014). The Socio-Economic Implications of Boko Haram Insurgency in the North-East of Nigeria, International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 11 (1), 144-150
[5]. Baba, I. (2016). Analysis of Cause and Effect of Boko Haram Insurgency in North-East Nigeria. Journal of Faculty of Graduate Studies University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka .5, 59-72
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[7]. Cheri, L. (2014). Job creation, poverty reduction and conflict resolution in north eastern Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(3), 31–35.
[8]. Chiroma, A. A. (2017) Assessment of the Impact of Boko Haram Insurgency on the Economy of North-East Nigeria”. MSc Thesis. Department of Political Science and Defence Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Nigeria Defence Academy. Kaduna.
[9]. Dauda, M. (2014). The Effect of Boko Haram Crisis on Socioeconomic Activities in Yobe State. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, 1(4), 251-257
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[11]. Durotoye, A. (2015). Economic Consequences and Management of Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria, International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(6), 1247- 1270
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[28]. World Bank and UNHCR, (2016) Regional Assessment of Forced Displacement by the Boko Haram in the Lake Chad Region. Washington, DC 20433, USA

Boris Happy Odalonu, Eberechukwu Faith Obani “Poverty and the Challenges of Security in the North-Eastern Region of Nigeria: A Case Study of Boko Haram Insurgency (2009-2017) ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.137-146 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/137-146.pdf

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Communication in the British Colonial Bamenda Grassfields: Development of Post Offices and Postal Services

Esther B.M. Ngoran, Christian P. Musah – July 2020 Page No.: 147-154

Communication remains a fundamental aspect of man’s life, existence, interactions and evolution. This paper takes off from indigenous African communication (modes and mediums), to examine the enhancement of communication in the British Colonial Bamenda Grassfields. The study based on a vast array of archival and secondary sources, unveils the centrality of the need of a flexible and fluid communication channel in the implementation and effectiveness of the colonial machinery in the Bamenda Grassfields. The study also reveals the readiness and engagement of the indigenes in the development of post offices and postal services as it was a means through which they sustained contacts and affinities with their kith and kin whom most migrated to distant coastal towns in search of jobs and livelihood. The development of post offices and postal agencies was a very popularly welcomed initiative especially amongst the indigenes. One can therefore maintain that the development of post offices and postal services in the Bamenda Grassfields was thanks to the collective efforts of the colonial administration and the indigenes. This also laid the foundation for post-colonial communications services. In fact, most if not all of the vestiges of the British colonial administration in terms of communication channels and services in the Bamenda Grassfields were the first generation of post-independence postal operations and services.

Page(s): 147-154                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2020

 Esther B.M. Ngoran
Faculty of Arts, University of Buea, Cameroon

 Christian P. Musah
Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

National Achieves Buea (NAB)
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Esther B.M. Ngoran, Christian P. Musah “Communication in the British Colonial Bamenda Grassfields: Development of Post Offices and Postal Services” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.147-154 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/147-154.pdf

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Self-Reflexivity: A Must-Have Guide for Judicial Mediators in Indonesia

Fatahillah Abdul Syukur, PhD. – July 2020 Page No.: 155-158

Court-Annexed Mediation is relatively a new institution in the Indonesian legal system. It was initially established in 2003; however, to date, its settlement success rate is still low. One of the major problems is lack of competence of its mediators due to lack of funding to provide sufficient trainings. This paper argues that judicial mediators in Indonesia must also have self-reflexivity when settling disputes because parties come from various cultural backgrounds. The paper examines some aspects that can influence judicial mediators in mediating the process and producing amicable settlements. The author provides his self-reflexibility when assessing his expectations in writing this paper and in the implementation of court-annexed mediation in Indonesia.

Page(s): 155-158                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2020

 Fatahillah Abdul Syukur, PhD.
Faculty of Law, Universitas Pancasila, South Jakarta, Jakarta, 12630, Indonesia

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[19]. Abdul Syukur, F., and Bagshaw, D. (2015) Victim-Offender Mediation for Youth Offenders in Indonesia, Conflict Resolution Quarterly32.
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Fatahillah Abdul Syukur, PhD. “Self-Reflexivity: A Must-Have Guide for Judicial Mediators in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.155-158 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/155-158.pdf

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Examining the Benefits of International Migration Ventures: The Statistics from Ghana

Isaac Addai- July 2020 Page No.: 159-163

The role that international migrants can play in promoting development in their home countries has been at the core of migration research over the past five decades in Africa. There is however rare research conducted, examining the views of these international migrants on the benefits of their migration venture long after returning to their origin country. Using the Respondent Driven Sampling, the paper investigates the views of former international migrants known in the Ghanaian parlance as Burgers as to whether their international migration venture had been beneficial to them long after resettling back home.The mean years after respondents returned to their country of origin is 28. The earliest year of respondents returning was 31 years and the latest year of returning was 25 years as at the time of survey. 69 Burgers representing 90 percent of the respondents surveyed on average of 28 years after returning from an international migration to Ghana the country of origin, view their migration venture as not being beneficial to them. The paper is a pace-setter in promoting theoretical advances in the analysis of the impact of international migration on African countries in general and on Ghana in particular.

Page(s): 159-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2020

  Isaac Addai
University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

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[9]. Anarfi, J. K. and J. Agyei (2009). To Move or Not to Move: The Decision-Making Process of Child Migrants from Northern to Southern Ghana. Independent Migration of Children in Ghana.J. K. Anarfi and S. O. Kwankye. Ghana, Sundel Services: 101-131.
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Isaac Addai, “Examining the Benefits of International Migration Ventures: The Statistics from Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.159-163 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/159-163.pdf

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Fueling Corruption through Budgetary Allocation

Dr. Egiyi, Modesta Amaka, Prof. Eugene O. Nwadialor – July 2020 Page No.: 164-168

Before the discovery of crude oil, agriculture was the mainstay of the Nigerian economy, competing opinions concerning to derivation principle was present but negligible in the revenue allocation. However, the discovery of oil and the emergency of the oil boom in the 1970s made Nigeria solely dependent on the oil sector as a source of export earnings and neglected the other sectors housing over 70 per cent of the productive population of the nation, thus the populace often monitored how the national cake is derived and allocated among federating entities. This increased interest in budgetary allocation thus makes it an increasingly scarce commodity. Different sectors, ministry and arms of government compete for more allocations. In an ideal system, the scarce nature of the allocation breeds health completion and positive economic growth but in Nigeria, it is rather used as means for government workers to amass wealth and perform other unlawful acts.

Page(s): 164-168                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 July 2020

 Dr. Egiyi, Modesta Amaka
Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu State, Nigeria

span class=”html-tag”> Pisirai Cuthbert
Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu State, Nigeria

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Dr. Egiyi, Modesta Amaka, Prof. Eugene O. Nwadialor “Fueling Corruption through Budgetary Allocation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.164-168 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/164-168.pdf

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Students’ Perception, Learning Styles and Learning Depth in High-Stakes WASSCE Mathematics: The Washback Perspective and Economic Implications

SAMA, Roseline, ANOCHIWA, Lasbrey – July 2020 Page No.: 169-178

This study investigated the washback effects of the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination on students learning depth in Mathematics. The participants comprised of 600 Senior Secondary three students, randomly selected from 30 senior secondary schools in Ebonyi state. The predictor variables are students’ perception and students’ learning styles while students’ learning depth in Mathematics is the criterion variable Three validated instruments namely; Students’ Perception Questionnaire (SPQ), r = 0.771 , Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ), r = 0.882 and Mathematics Learning Task (MLT), r = 0.893 were used to collect data. Three research questions were posed and data collected were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression models. Research results shows that there was a low negative but significant correlation between each of the predictor variables (students’ perception, r = – 0.164, p < 0.05 and learning styles, r = - 0.097, p < 0.05) and the criterion variable (learning depth). However, students’ perception of the WASSCE was found to be the most potent factor in predicting students’ learning depth in Mathematics (Beta =-0.148, t =0.002, P<0.005). Again, results also show that there is a joint influence of the predictor variables on students learning depth in Mathematics and it is statistically significant but with allow predictive power of 2.9%. In view of the findings of this research, it is recommended that Learning styles that will lead to In-depth mathematical knowledge such as active learning strategy should be adopted by students preparing for the WASSCME.

Page(s): 169-178                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 July 2020

 SAMA, Roseline
Institute of Education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 ANOCHIWA, Lasbrey
Federal University, Ndufu Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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SAMA, Roseline, ANOCHIWA, Lasbrey “Students’ Perception, Learning Styles and Learning Depth in High-Stakes WASSCE Mathematics: The Washback Perspective and Economic Implications” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.169-178 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/169-178.pdf

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Education and Philosophy in Nation Building: A Focus on Nigeria

Emmanuel N. Ogu, OP & Frederick Ifeanyi Obananya, OP – July 2020 Page No.: 179-183

The centrality of education and philosophy in nation building cannot be over emphasized. Education when rightly conceived forms the intellectual, moral, technical, and religious dimensions of the human person. Integral education makes the human person aware of his role in the society and hence to use his/her inner mind in its conscious acts of reflection and judgment for the interest of the common good. This study focuses on the necessity of education and philosophy in nation building with focus on Nigeria. Instead of leadership, it argues that the problem of Nigeria is the inadequacy of (informal) education and narratives for the pursuit of excellence – because education and storytelling impart basic human values. It proposes that the system and purpose of education should be re-visited. Children should be taught that they are trained to be a part in solving the problems of humanity, and stories of heroes should be fashioned for them as role models. Certificates should not be overemphasized above competence nor should certification be neglected. Further research is needed to fashion what it means to be Nigerian and who our heroes are.

Page(s): 179-183                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 July 2020

 Emmanuel N. Ogu, OP
Dominican University Ibadan, Nigeria

 Frederick Ifeanyi Obananya, OP
Dominican University Ibadan, Nigeria

[1]. Aquinas, Thomas (1947). Summa Theologiae. Transl. by Fathers of the English Dominican Province. Benziger Bros edition.
[2]. _______________ (1961). Commentary on the Metaphysics of Aristotle. Transl. by John P. Rowan. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company.
[3]. Anthony Akinwale (2017) “On the Inextricable Relationship between Politics and the Common Good.” In Joseph Ekong (Ed.) Politics and the Common Good, Aquinas’ Day Series, vol. 5. (pp. 1-8). Ibadan: The Michael Dempsey Center for Social and Religious Research.
[4]. ________________ (2016), “Philosophy and Leadership” The Dominican Institute President’s advice to the Philosophy graduating class of 2016 as found in their Year book titled The Sages.
[5]. _________________ (2019) “Catholic Theology in Africa.” In Lewis Ayres et al. (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Catholic Theology, (pp. 890 – 904). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[6]. Aristotle (1941). Metaphysics. Trans. W. D. Ross. New York: Random House.
[7]. Daniel, Soni et al, (2020, January 24) “Nigeria Drops Point in Global Corruption Index, Ranked 146 out of 180 Countries,” Vanguard. https://www.vanguardngr.com/2020/01/nigeria-drops-point-in-global-corruption-index-ranked-146-out-of-180-countries/
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[13]. Plato, Republic (1956). Trans. Charles M. Bakewell. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons..
[14]. Reith, Herman (1958). The Metaphysics of St. Thomas Aquinas. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company.
[15]. Schall, James V. (2001). On the Unseriousness of Human Affairs. Wilmington: ISI Books.

Emmanuel N. Ogu, OP & Frederick Ifeanyi Obananya, OP, “Education and Philosophy in Nation Building: A Focus on Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.179-183 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/179-183.pdf

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Assessment of the Extent of People’s Participation in Socio-Economic Projects for Community Development in Rwanda. Rubavu District

Dr. Rwabutogo Zogeye Marcel (PhD), Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD) – July 2020 Page No.: 184-191

The study attempted to assess the extent of people’ participation in socio-economic projects for community development in Rubavu district, Rwanda. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey designusing both quantitative and qualitative research approaches on 302 respondents. It was revealed that, the extent to which people participate in socio-economic projects is still at the low level of participation because many projects implemented in different sectors are conceived by planners at the district level, thus local people are not participating actively in their own development and do not know the role they should play in these different activities. The study recommended that the enhancement of the level of people’s participation in socio-economic projects for their development is crucial by involving people in the whole process of socio-economic projects since the identification of needs, formulation of projects up to their closure instead of leaving them in the hands of planners, administrators and community elites at the district level. This would be possible by putting more emphasis on Empowered people and Empowered Participatory Governance.

Page(s): 184-191                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2020

 Dr. Rwabutogo Zogeye Marcel (PhD)
Kigali Independent University, ULK, Rwanda

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD)
Kigali Independent University, ULK, Rwanda

[1]. Assiimwe, A. & Nakanyike, B. M. (2007). Decentralisation and Transformation of Governance in Uganda. Kampala: Fountain Publishers. Azfar, O.et al.(1999).
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[5]. Castillo, C.T. (1983). How Participatory is Participatory Development: A Review of the Philippines Experience: Manilla, Philippines Institutes for Development Studies.
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[14]. Mwene, C. (2006). An Assessment of Political Participation and Empowerment Through Non-Governmental Organizations’ Development Work Among the Rural Poor. The Case of World Vision International in Gwembe valley.
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[23]. World Bank (1996). The World Bank Participation sourcebook. Washington: World Bank.

Dr. Rwabutogo Zogeye Marcel(PhD), Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD) “Assessment of the Extent of People’s Participation in Socio-Economic Projects for Community Development in Rwanda. Rubavu District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.184-191 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/184-191.pdf

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The Relationship between Classroom Management and Students’ Mathematics Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Makindye Division, Kampala, Uganda

Kayindu Vincent, Asmaa Elsayed Emara, Sofia Sole Gaite, Nakiyingi Sarah- July 2020 Page No.: 192-197

The study investigated, among other things, the relationship between classroom management and student’s mathematics performance in four public secondary schools, in Makindye Division, Kampala. The respondents were 212 senior four (S.4) students and 12 teachers of Mathematics from four selected schools. Questionnaires, observation checklists and interview guide were used to gather data. Frequency, percentage, means, standard deviations and Pearson Linear correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. The finding was that teachers’ classroom management was not significantly related to students’ performance in mathematics in the studied schools. Based on the findings, the study recommends that as for classroom management, a mathematics teachers need to exhibit flexibility and emphasize roll calls before or after class.

Page(s): 192-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2020

 Kayindu Vincent
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Asmaa Elsayed Emara
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Sofia Sole Gaite
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Nakiyingi Sarah
Kampala International University, Uganda

[1]. Berk, R. (1988).Fifty reasons why student achievement gains does not mean teacher effectiveness. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 1(4) 345–364.
[2]. Brophy, J. (October 1968): Teacher influences on student achievement. American Psychologist, 1069–1077
[3]. Hassan(2008). Effectiveness of classroom interaction in education. Nairobi, Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta Publisher.
[4]. Ifamunyiwa, G. (2008). Conceptions of mathematics teacher education. London, England: Sage.
[5]. Kumpulainen, K., Wray, Classroom Interaction and Social Learning (2002). Available from http://books.google.com/books.
[6]. Luswata, E. (2017). Teaching methods and students’ performance in Science subjects in Masaka district secondary schools.MED Dissertation, Kampala International University, Uganda.
[7]. Middleton, J.A. and Spanias, P.A.(2013) “Motivation for achievement in Mathematics, Findings Generalization Research”, Journal for Research in Mathematics Education,30(1), 56-66
[8]. Mpama, R. A. (1984). Factors influencing mathematics performance in primary schools’ students in Tanzania: A case study of Mtwara District. MED Dissertation, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
[9]. Muhumuza, P. (2018). Factors affecting secondary school students’ performance in Mathematics. MED Dissertation, Kampala International University, Uganda.

Kayindu Vincent, Asmaa Elsayed Emara, Sofia Sole Gaite, Nakiyingi Sarah “The Relationship between Classroom Management and Students’ Mathematics Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Makindye Division, Kampala, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.192-197 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/192-197.pdf

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Success of Community Participation in Development Planning for Socio-Economic Transformation in Rwanda. Gakenke District

Dr. Rwabutogo Zogeye Marcel(PhD), Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD) – July 2020 Page No.: 198-203

The study attempted to assess the success of community participation in development planning process in Gakenke District in Rwanda. The study adopted a cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research approaches on a sample of 76 respondents. Quantitative data involved the use of descriptive statistics particularly frequencies, percentages and the mean. Findings of revealed that the development planning process remains top-down approach, priorities from the community are rarely taken into account and community participation is often used as a word of fantasy wherein the community has no role to play unless and until a comprehensive detailed plan is prepared by the development authority. The needs and priorities from the community are not taken into account as needed into the district development strategy; this situation contributes certainly to the rate of poverty of the district because implemented projects are not responding necessarily to the direct needs of communities. The study recommended to lighten the top-down approach and reinforce the bottom-up approach through the utilization of the community participation tools, empowering people through capacity building for staffs and local leaders at all levels of the district; equipping them with knowledge, skills and confidence to address their own needs and advocate on their own behalf and improve their capacity for collective activity for more socio-economic transformation results.

Page(s): 198-203                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2020

 Dr. Rwabutogo Zogeye Marcel (PhD)
Kigali Independent University, ULK, Rwanda

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD)
Kigali Independent University, ULK, Rwanda

[1]. Bhebe, A. (2018), Understanding socioeconomic transformation in South Africa. What has not changed two decades into democracy, Johannesburg.
[2]. Burns, D. and al. (2004). Making community participation meaningful: A handbook for development and assessment, Bristol: The Policy Press.
[3]. Dale, R. (2004). Development planning: Concepts and Tools for planners, managers and facilitators, London: Zed Books.
[4]. Gakenke District (2014). District Development Plan 2013-2018, Gakenke:DDP
[5]. Kent, G. (1981). Community-based planning: a better approach to development?Monoa:Honolulu University of Hawaii
[6]. Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research methodology, Methods and techniques, 2nd revised edition, New Delhi: New age international publishers.
[7]. LODA (2017). DDS participatory planning approach: LG Leaflet NO 1 and NO 2 for DDS 2018-2024:Kigali.
[8]. Mansuri, Gh. and Rao, V. (2013). Localizing development: does participation work? Washington D.C: The World Bank.
[9]. McCracken, J.R. (2003). Participatory Development Planning, Johannesburg :CIVICUS & PG exchange.
[10]. Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (2017). The first Planning and Budgeting call circular for 2018/2019 Fiscal year, Kigali: MINECOFIN
[11]. Ministry of Local Government (2008). Community Development Policy, Revised version, Kigali: MINALOC
[12]. Ministry of Local Government (2013). National Strategy for Community Development and Local Economic Development 2013-2018, Kigali: MINALOC
[13]. Never Again Rwanda (2016). Governing with and for Citizens, Lessons from a Post-Genocide Rwanda, Kigali: NAR
[14]. Never Again Rwanda (2018). Local Government Imihigo Process: understanding the factors contributing to low citizen participation, Kigali: NAR
[15]. Republic of Rwanda (2013a). Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy II: 2013-2018:Kigali.
[16]. Republic of Rwanda (2013b). Law No 87 of 11/09/2013 determining the organization and functioning of decentralized administrative entities, Official Gazette no Special of 30/10/2013: Kigali.
[17]. Russell, A.S. (2010). Achieving successful development planning, Strategic hospitality leadership: The Asian initiative, Singapore
[18]. Shapiro, I. (2006). Monitoring and Evaluation, Johannesburg, CIVICUS toolkits.
[19]. SNV (2009). Joint Action Development Forum in Rwanda, Experiences and lessons learned, Kigali: SNV
[20]. World Bank (2003). World Development Report 2004, Making Services Work for poor People, Oxford University Press.
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[21]. Ababio, E.P. (2004). Enhancing community participation in developmental local government for improved service delivery, Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 39 no 2.
[22]. Arnstein, R.S. (1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation, Journal of the American Planning Association, 35: 4, 216 -224.
[23]. Mpango, Ph. (2013). Socio-economic transformation for poverty reduction: Eight key messages for unlocking Tanzania’s Potential, Repoa Brief No. 37
[24]. Naku, D.W.C. and Afrane, S. (2013). Local Community Development and the Participatory Planning Approach: A Review of Theory and Practice, Journal of Social Sciences 5(5): 185-191, St. John’s University of Tanzania
[25]. Njoh, A.J. (2002). Barriers to community participation in Development planning: lessons from the Mutengene (Cameroon) self-help water project, Community Development JournalVol. 37 No 3 July 2002 pp. 233–248, Oxford University Press
[26]. RGB (2018). Good governance and decentralization in Rwanda, Rwanda Governance Review, Vol. 6, Special issue, Kigali.
Reports
[27]. Alweendo, T.K. (2017), The importance of development planning in shaping our development, Namibia University Science Technology, Public Lecture, Windhoek
[28]. Bugingo, E. (2002). Missing the mark? Participation in the PRSP process in Rwanda, Kigali, Christian Aid.
[29]. Danau, D. and Pauly, F. (2017). Resource package on Monotoring and Evaluation Developed for ISSA, SAGO Research and P&F Consulting.
[30]. Kaur, G. (2007). Partipatory approach/ community involvement in planning, 43rd ISOCARP Congress 2007
[31]. Ndima, Z.M. (2012). The Effectiveness of the participatory structures and mechanisms that were introduced by the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM) to Promote Public Participation, The people shall govern: Public participation beyond slogans, Deliberations of the International Conference on public participation, Johannesburg, Gauteng Provincial Legislature.
[32]. NISR (2015), Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey-EICV4, 2013/2014, Kigali, NISR
[33]. NISR (2018). The fifth Integrated Household Living Conditions (EICV5), 2016/17 Rwanda Poverty Profile Report, Kigali, NISR.
[34]. Chauya, I.V. (2015). The effectiveness of community development groups in poverty reduction with regards to individual community members: the case of Likasi area development programme in Mchinji district-Malawi, Masters’ Thesis, University of South Africa
[35]. Fhika, J.R. (2015). Participation of rural community members in rural development in Tanzania, PhD Thesis, University of South Africa.
[36]. Mabula, J.B. (2007). Participatory approach and Development planning process in Maswa district, Shinyanga – Tanzania, Master’s Thesis, Sokoine University of Agriculture.

Dr. Rwabutogo Zogeye Marcel (PhD), Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire (PhD) “Success of Community Participation in Development Planning for Socio-Economic Transformation in Rwanda. Gakenke District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.198-203 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/198-203.pdf

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Principals’ Transformative Leadership Practice of Setting Institutional Direction As a Determinant of Students’ Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya

John M.Kilonzo, Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu, Dr. David M.Mulwa – July 2020 Page No.: 204-209

leadership skills are regarded as the basis of all administrative operations in any organization. The performance of any school is determined by the effectiveness of the principal and the leadership practices put in place. School leadership influences students’ academic performance and therefore understanding how different school leadership practices impact on students’ academic performance is important in setting the institutional direction the members should follow. This study was carried in Machakos county to investigate principals’ transformative leadership practice of setting institutional direction in determining students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Machakos County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population was 331 principals and 3,600 teachers. The study sampled 100 principals and 500 teachers. Data collection instruments included questionnaires for principals and teachers which had both closed and open-ended questions. The instruments were validated through piloting while reliability was achieved through test retest technique. Data was analyzed by use of SPSS. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages and inferential statistics like regression models were used to analyze the quantitative data. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically and presented in in reported version. The results revealed that there was statistically significant relationship between principals’ setting of institutional direction and students’ academic performance which was positive at (r= 0.67) and significant at (p = 0.011). Based on the results, the study concluded that principals’ transformational leadership practice of setting institutional direction influenced students’ academic performance. The study recommended that the principals should increase transformational leadership practice of setting the school direction since it influences students’ academic performance.

Page(s): 204-209                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2020

 John M.Kilonzo
Ph.D Candidate: South Eastern Kenya University

 Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu
Lecturer, South Eastern Kenya University

 Dr. David M.Mulwa
Machakos University

[1]. Akpan, C. P. (2015). Work-related variables as correlates of institutional commitment of secondary school teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 6(3), 315-325.
[2]. Bass, B. M. (2010). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics,18 (3), 19-31.
[3]. Burns, J. M. (2008) Leadership. New York. Harper and Row.
[4]. CDE. (2019). Academic Performance in KCSE .Mitigation Strategies. County Office ,Machakos, 2019.
[5]. Cook, J. W. (2014). Sustainable school leadership: The teachers’ perspective. NCPEA International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 9,1-17.
[6]. Dubrin, A. (2010). Leadership behaviours, attitudes and style. Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills. Mason, OH. Cengage Learning.
[7]. Hall, J., Johnson, S., Wysocki, A. & Kepner, K. (2002). Transformational leadership: The transformation of managers and associates. Florida. University of Florida IFAS Extension.
[8]. Handford, V.& Leithwood, K. (2013). Why teachers trust school leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(2), 194 – 212.
[9]. Hoch, E. J., Bommer, H. W., Dulebohn, H. J.& Wu, D. (2018). Do ethical, authentic, and servant leadership explain variance above and beyond transformational leadership? A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 44 (2), 501-529.
[10]. Kamola, P. M. (2016) Influence of head teacher’s transformational leadership style on teachers’ job commitment in public primary schools in Matinyani Sub County, Kitui County, Kenya (Unpublished Med thesis). Kitui. South Eastern Kenya University.
[11]. Leithwood, K. (2012). Core practices: The four essential components of the leader’s repertoire. In K. Leithwood & K. S. Louis (Eds.), Linking leadership to student learning (pp. 57-67). San Francisco, CA.
[12]. Ling, S. N. & Ibraim, M. S. (2013). Transformational leadership and teacher’s commitment in secondary schools of Sarawak, International Journal of Independent Research and Studies, 2(2), 51-65.
[13]. Makura, M. (2011). Leadership and management styles of female primary schools’ headsand their impact on school’s effectiveness. A case study of Masvingo Education Sub-county in Zimbabwe (Unpublished PhD thesis). Harare. University of Zimbabwe.
[14]. Mei, H. L. & Tsai, F. C. (2014). The effects of the leadership style on the learning motivation of students in elementary schools. Journal of Service Science and Management retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jssm.2014.71001
[15]. Mendez-Keegan, M. (2019). Ttransformational leadership practices and student achievement in diverse urban elementary schools (PhD Thesis). Waden University.
[16]. Muriel, T. C., Ogoti, E., Jepkoech, T.&Momanyi, M. (2015). Influence of head teachers’ democratic leadership style on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Marakwet Sub-County, Kenya. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 2(7), 274-277.
[17]. Nderitu, A. W. (2012) Effects of principals’ transformational leadership characteristics on students’ performance in secondary schools in Nairobi County (Unpublished PhD thesis). Nairobi. University of Nairobi.
[18]. Pokharel, B. (2014). Principal as transformational leader: Getting to know new dimension in school leadership. American Journal of Social Science, 3(6), 61-66
[19]. Sergiovanni, T. J. (2013). Why we should Seek Substitutes for Leadership, Educational Leadership.
[20]. Sun, J. & Leithwood, K. (2015). Direction-setting school leadership practices: A meta-analytical review of evidence about their influence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 26,499-523
[21]. Robinson, V.M., Lioyd J. & Rowe, K. J. (2008). The impact of leadership on school outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5),635 – 574.

John M.Kilonzo, Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu, Dr. David M.Mulwa “Principals’ Transformative Leadership Practice of Setting Institutional Direction As a Determinant of Students’ Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.204-209 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/204-209.pdf

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Effect of Work Stress and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intention in PT. Insan Mandiri Swakarya Call Center Branch of Malang City 1

Siswanto Wijaya Putra- July 2020 Page No.: 210-217

This research was conducted at PT. Swakarya Insan Mandiri Call Center Branch Malang City 1 with a population of 75 employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of job stress and job satisfaction on turnover intention. The research method used is quantitative by collecting, presenting and analyzing data from employees using a questionnaire to respondents. Data analysis techniques in this study are multiple linear regression to determine the effect simultaneously, partially and dominantly. Based on research results the influence of job stress and job satisfaction on turnover intention simultaneously is significant (0.00). The effect of job stress and job satisfaction on turnover intention is partially significant on job stress (0.00) and job satisfaction (0.01). Among the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on turnover intention, the most dominant is job stress at PT. Mandiri Workshops Mandiri Call Center Branch of Malang City 1.

Page(s): 210-217                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2020

 Siswanto Wijaya Putra
College of Economics Kertanegara Malang, Indonesia

[1]. Agustina, Nurassyifa Anggarawati. 2013. Kerja Terhadap Turnover Karyawan Bagian Produksi PT Longvin Indonesia Sukabumi Jawa Barat.
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[3]. Dewi, K. Ayu Budiastiti Purnama Dewi dan I Made Artha Wibawa (2016). Pengaruh Stres Kerja Pada Turnover Intention Yang Dimediasi Kepuasan Kerja Agen Ajb Bumiputera 1912. E-Jurnal Manajemen. Vol 5. No. 6.
[4]. Ghozali, Imam. 2011. Analisis Multivariate SPSS. Semarang : Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro
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[6]. Indriantoro & Suwandi. 2001. Peran Budaya Organisasi terhadap Intense Turnover. vol.08. Universitas Gajah Mada.
[7]. Issa, Dua’a Abdul Rahim Mohammad. Fais Ahmad, dkk. 2013. “Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention Based on Sales Person Standpoint”. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, Volume 14 No. 4:525-531 Malaysia: IDOSI Publications.
[8]. Kreitner dan Kinicki 2010. Perilaku organisasi. Jakarta. Salemba Empat
[9]. Manurung, M. T., Intan ratnawati. 2012. “Analisis Pengaruh Stres Kerja dan Kepuasan Kerja terhadap Turnover Intention Karyawan: Studi pada STIKES Widya Husada Semarang”. Diponegoro Journal of Management, Volume 1 No. 2: 145-157 Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro Semarang.
[10]. Mathis, R.L. dan J.H. Jackson. 2006. Human Resource Management: Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Terjemahan Dian Angelia. Jakarta: Salemba Empat.
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[13]. Sari, Riski Agustina. 2011. “Pengaruh Kompensasi, Lingkungan Kerja, dan Pengambangan Karir terhadap Tingkat Turnover Pegawai PT. Bank Danamon Cabang Palembang”. Jurnal Imiah Magíster Manajemen Universitas Bina Darma. Volume 10 No.10: 1 -12 Palembang: Universitas Bina Darma.
[14]. Veithzal Rivai dan Ella Jauvani 2009. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia untuk Perusahaan. Jakarta : Rajawali Pers
[15]. Waspodo, Agung AWS, Nurul Chotimah Handayani dan Widya Paramita. 2013. Pengaruh Kepuasan Kerja dan Stres Kerja Terhadap Turnover Intention pada karyawan PT. Unitex Di Bogor. JRMSI-Jurnal Riset Manajemen Sains Indonesia. Vol. 4. No: 1 97-115.
[16]. Wibowo. 2014. Perilaku dalam Organisasi. Jakarta : Rajawali Pers

Siswanto Wijaya Putra “Effect of Work Stress and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intention in PT. Insan Mandiri Swakarya Call Center Branch of Malang City 1” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.210-217 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/210-217.pdf

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Influence of Internet Access and ICT Literacy on E-Government Services Utilization by Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya; A Case Study of Kibera in Nairobi County

Renson Awiti, Dr. James Mwikya Reuben – July 2020 Page No.: 218-225

The use of e-government technologies and services is intended to spur businesses through effective and efficient delivery of services and information to the citizens, promote productivity among private and public servants and encourage participation of businesses and citizens in country’s economic growth. The Kenyan government has invested on e-government technologies and despite this the country is crippling with utilization of e-government services. The study objectives were to determine the effect of internet access and information communication technology literacy on e-government services utilization. Amended version of the UTAUT model is used to investigate the factors influencing the e-government services utilization in Kenya. The study target population was 500 businesses. Census sampling technique was employed to collect data from 150 respondents through questionnaires. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the collected data and presented inform of tables, frequencies and percentages. The study results showed that availability of internet access enhances e-government service utilization and information communication technology literacy enables ease of use of e-government platforms.

Page(s): 218-225                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2020

 Renson Awiti
Department of Management and Leadership, Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. James Mwikya Reuben
Department of Management and Leadership, Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

[1]. Abdallah,, S., & Fan , I. (2012). Framework for e-government assessment in developing countries: case study from Sudan. International Journal,, 158-177.
[2]. Altman, S., Valenzi, E., & Hodgetts, R. M. (2015). e-Government Research and Services at an Era of Economic Crisis. Procedia Technology, 144-204.
[3]. Amdan, S. (2016). Data to model the effects of perceived telecommunication service quality and value on the degree of user satisfaction and e-WOM among telecommunications users in North Cyprus. Data in Brief, 37, 164-169.
[4]. Aikins, S. K., & Krane, D. (2010). Are Public Officials Obstacles to Citizen-Centered E-Government? An Examination of Municipal Administrators’ Motivations and Actions. State and Local Government Review, 42(2), 87–103. https://doi.org/10.1177/0160323X10369159
[5]. Bhatnagar, S. (2012). E-Government: Lessons from Implementation in Developing Countries. Regional Development Dialogue, 9.
[6]. Carter, L & Belanger, F (2004).Citizen Adoption of Electronic Government Initiatives. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
[7]. Cooper, S., & Schindler., D. (2003). Step-By-Step Guide to Critiquing Research. Part 2: Qualitative Research. British Journal of Nursing, 12, 738-744.
[8]. David , D. (2005). Applications of Case Study Research. Second Edition. London, UK: Sage Publications.
[9]. Fombrun, C. J. (2009, March 4). “Deal with it”: How coping with e-service innovation affects thecitizens experience. Journal of Business Research, 107-122.
[10]. Gauld, R., Goldfinch, S., and Horsburgh, S. (2010). Do they want it? Do they use it? The `DemandSide’ of e-Government in Australia and New Zealand, Government Information Quarterly, Volume 27, Issue 2, 177-186
[11]. Iqbal, A. (2018, September). Multidisciplinary criteria for the quality of e-learning services design. Computers in Human Behavior, 203, 62-68.
[12]. Jugend, D. (2018). Service quality, perceived value, and citizens’ continuous-use intention regarding e-government: Empirical evidence from China. Information & Management, Volumes 74–75, Pages 54-65.
[13]. Kombo, U., & Tromp, , T. (2009). Quantative Evaluation and Research Methods. California, CA: Sage Publications.
[14]. Kreuger, H. (2000). How to Use Quantative Methods in Evaluation. Newbury Park: Sage Publications Ltd.
[15]. Looi, H.C. (2005) E-Commerce Adoption in Brunei Darussalam: A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Influencing its Adoption. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 15, 6, 1-81.
[16]. Llusar, J. B. (2018, April–June). Modeling travel mode choice of young people with differentiated E-hailing ride services in Kenya. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 21, 99-110.
[17]. Mugenda, O.M. & Mugenda, A.G (2003). Research Methods for Business Student (5th ed.). Prentice Hall: Harlow.
[18]. Mutula, S. M.&Brakel, P. V. (2007). ICT skills readiness for the emerging global digital economy among small businesses in developing countries: Case study of Botswana. Library Hi Tech,Vol 25, Iss 2
[19]. Ocha, M.L. (2011). Factors that Influence adoption and frequency of use of e-commerce By Micro and Small Enterprises in Kisumu, Kenya.Unpublished MBA ResearchProject, University of Nairobi.
[20]. Paillé, P., & Morelos, J. M. (2009, May 20). Service innovation in e-commerce last mile delivery: Mapping the e-customer journey. Journal of Business Research, 220, 1061-1070.
[21]. Peng, S., Song, M., & Xiaofeng, J. (2016, June–July ). E-govenrment and performance: Is innovation speed a missing link? Journal of Business Research, 74–75, 683-690.
[22]. Rogers, E (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.
[23]. Salgado, M. H. (2018). Relationships among open innovation, innovative performance, government support and firm size: Comparing Brazilian firms embracing different levels of radicalism in innovation. Technovation, 74–75, 54-65.
[24]. Simenda, K (2009)Electronic/Mobile government in Africa: progress made and challenges ahead. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. http://www.unpan.org /emgkr_africa
[25]. Suhardi, A. R. (2015, November 25). Renewal of Performance Management System in goverment. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, 448-454.
[26]. Tung, L. &Rieck, O. (2005).Adoption of electronic government services among business organizations in Singapore. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 14(4), 417-440.
[27]. Venkatesh, V., Morris, M., Davis, G., & Davis, F. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478. doi:10.2307/30036540
[28]. Wangeci,M.G. (2006). A study on ICT use in Kenya amongst the MSMEs.Unpublished MBA thesis.Kenyatta University

Renson Awiti, Dr. James Mwikya Reuben “Influence of Internet Access and ICT Literacy on E-Government Services Utilization by Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya; A Case Study of Kibera in Nairobi County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.218-225 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/218-225.pdf

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Adjusting to Deliver Quality Education in Response to COVID-19

Afam Uzorka (PhD), Yakubu Ajiji Makere (PhD) – July 2020 Page No.: 226-227

With school closure across the globe due to coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), students can continue their education through e-learning platforms.

Page(s): 226-227                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2020

 Afam Uzorka (PhD)
Kampala International University Kampala, Uganda

 Yakubu Ajiji Makere (PhD)
Kampala International University Kampala, Uganda

[1]. Prof Russell M Viner, PhD. et al. (2020).School Closure and Management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: a rapid systematic review. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30095-X
[2]. NBS News. President Museveni Orders Closure of Schools and Universities: https://nbs.ug/2020/03/schools-and-universities-to-close-tomorrow/. Accessed on 3rd May 2020
[3]. D. Christopher Brooks and Susan Grajek(2020).Students’ Readiness to Adopt Fully Remote Learning.https://er.educause.edu/blogs/2020/3/students-readiness-to-adopt-fully-remote-learning Accessed on 13th May 2020
[4]. Eze, S.C., Chinedu-Eze, V.C. & Bello, A.O. (2018). The utilisation of e-learning facilities in the educational delivery system of Nigeria: a study of M-University. Int J EducTechnol High Educ 15, 34.https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-018-0116-z
[5]. Ahmed, T. (2010). E-learning as a new technological application in higher education and research: An empirical study and proposed model. The International Academic Research Journal, 2, 2–13.
[6]. Bhuasiri, W., Xaymoungkhoun, O., Zo, H., & Rho, J. (2012). Critical success factors for e-learning in developing countries: A comparative analysis between ICT experts and faculty. Computers & Education, 58, 843–855.
[7]. Munezero, M., Irura, M., Kirongo, B., Etiegni, L., &Suhonen, J. (2016). Challenges and solutions to Providing online courses in Kenya: a lecturer’s perspective at a Kenyan university. TheOnline Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning, 4(1).
[8]. Moakofhi Moakofhi, Oratile Leteane, Tawona Phiri, Thato Pholele,and Perncy Sebalatlheng. (2017). Challenges of introducing e-learning at Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources: Lecturers’ perspective .International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology.(IJEDICT), 2017, Vol. 13, Issue 2, pp. 4-20,
[9]. Afolabi Olaitan O. and Uhomoibhi James. (2020) E-Learning Implementation in Higher Education: Aspects of Infrastructure Development, Challenges and Students Learning Approaches. 15jpic-03 OA&JU eL Implementation in HE-IDC&SSLA

Afam Uzorka (PhD), Yakubu Ajiji Makere (PhD) “Adjusting to Deliver Quality Education in Response to COVID-19” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.226-227 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/226-227.pdf

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Sustainable Banking in Nigeria: Empirical Perspective

Obiekwe, Chinelo Jenevive (Ph. D), Njoku, Ben .O (Ph.D), Okoro, Okoro Kelechi – July 2020 Page No.: 228-231

The quest to increase the share of green sectors to the GDP as well as invest in products and services that reduce climate change has led to adoption of sustainable banking in different countries. This study examined sustainable banking in Nigeria with emphasis on determining whether ATM usage, POS usage and commercial banks’ credit to the agricultural sector, as instruments of sustainable banking, had contributed to the Nigeria economy. Quarterly data collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) for the period 2012-2018 was adopted for the study and the data was analyzed using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method. Findings revealed that ATM usage, POS usage and commercial banks’ credit to agricultural sector had led to increase in Nigeria’s economy. However, the effect of these instruments on the Nigerian economy had not been significant. The implication of this is that although sustainable banking had increased economic growth in Nigeria, but its effect on Nigeria’s economy had not been significant. The study recommended that the Central Bank of Nigeria should make policies that would eliminate frivolous charges on ATM and POS usage as a way of increasing ATM and POS usage which would reduce the use of paper and ensure clean environment in Nigeria.

Page(s): 228-231                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2020

 Obiekwe, Chinelo Jenevive (Ph. D)
Department of Banking and Finance, College of Management Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU), Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

 Njoku, Ben .O (Ph.D)
Department of Banking and Finance, College of Management Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU), Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

 Okoro, Okoro Kelechi
Department of Banking and Finance, College of Management Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU), Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

[1]. Aro-Gordon, S. (2016). Green Banking in Nigeria: The First Steps. Highlights of the presentation at the technical session of the 2nd International Conference on Inclusive Economic Growth and Sustainable Development (SDM-IMD), Mysore, India, 19 November, 2016.
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[4]. Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340.
[5]. Dugelay, E., Asiru, B., Atuluku, A., & Thomas, S. (2017).Sustainable banking as a driver for growth: A survey of Nigerian banks. Retrieved from https://www.deloitte.com
[6]. Gabriel, T., & Rogers, E. M. (1962).Diffusion of Innovation. New York: The Free Press.
[7]. Islam, M. S., & Das, P. C. (2013).Green banking practices in Bangladesh: A study on some selected commercial banks. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 8(3), 39-44.
[8]. KEI (2012).The Economics of Climate Change in Korea. Seoul: Korea Environment Institute (KEI)
[9]. Korshlund, D. (2013). Real Banking for the Real Economy: Comparing Sustainable Bank Performance with the Large Banks in the World. Zeist, The Netherlands: Global Alliance for Banking on Values.
[10]. Noh, H. J. (2010). Strategies of Developing Green Finance. Seoul: Korea Capital Market Institute (KCMI) Publications.
[11]. Oyegule, A., & Weber, O. (2015). Development of Sustainability and Green Banking Regulations: Existing Codes and Practices. The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI), Paper, No. 65.
[12]. Osuala, A. E. (2009). Econometrics: Theory and Problems. Umuahia: Toniprints Services Ltd.
[13]. Siyanbola, T. T. (2013). The effect of cashless banking on Nigerian economy.Canadian Journal of Accounting and Finance, 1(2), 9-19.

Obiekwe, Chinelo Jenevive (Ph. D), Njoku, Ben .O (Ph.D), Okoro, Okoro Kelechi “Sustainable Banking in Nigeria: Empirical Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.228-231 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/228-231.pdf

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Board Behavior and Corporate Performance: A Case of African Guarantee Fund for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Nicole Mueni Muia, Julius Kahuthia Mwangi, John Muhoho – July 2020 Page No.: 232-239

The main purpose of this study was to examine effect of corporate governance on the performance of credit guarantee schemes. The study was guided by the following objectives; to determine effect of board behavior and the performance of credit guarantee schemes. The study was guided by the stewardship theory. The study employed descriptive research design. The target population was 40 staff working at AGF. Census survey was adopted while primary data was used which was collected using questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the data collection instruments was ascertained through pretesting. Descriptive statistics like frequencies and percentages was used to summarize data while inferential statistics such as correlation coefficients was used to test the non-causal relationship between variables while regression analysis was used to test the research hypotheses at 5% significance level with the aid of SPSS version 25. The results were presented using tables and discussion there-off. The research findings indicate that there exist a statistically significant positive relationship between board behavior and the performance of credit guarantee schemes.

Page(s): 232-239                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2020

 Nicole Mueni Muia
Department of Business Studies, St Paul’s University

 Julius Kahuthia Mwangi
Department of Business Studies, St Paul’s University

 John Muhoho
Department of Business Studies, St Paul’s University

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Nicole Mueni Muia, Julius Kahuthia Mwangi, John Muhoho “Board Behavior and Corporate Performance: A Case of African Guarantee Fund for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.232-239 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/232-239.pdf

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Taxation and Manufacturing Sector Output in Nigeria

Etim Osim Etim, Mbobo Erasmus Mbobo, Ihenyen Confidence Joel, David Johnny Ekanem – July 2020 Page No.: 240-249

The study investigated the relationship between taxation and manufacturing output in Nigeria from 1985 to 2018. This is premise on the argument taxation causes disincentive to investment and entrepreneurship. Data were gathered from the published reports of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Federal Inland Revenue Service and National Bureau of Statistics covering the period of the study; ex-post facto research design was adopted. Collected data on manufacturing output, companies’ income tax, personal income tax, value added tax and petroleum profit tax were analysed using ordinary least square technique. The results show the t-statistics (CIT = -0.9025, PIT = 3.4047; VAT = -0.2090; PPT = 1.9113) and p-values (CIT = 0.3775; PIT = 0.0028; VAT = 0.8366; PPT = 0.0701) implying CIT and VAT not statistically significant while PIT and PPT were statistically significant with positive relationship with manufacturing out affirming the theoretical conception that companies’ income tax discourage entrepreneurship. Taking the model as a whole, it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between the variables of study. It was recommended that government should grant more tax incentives to manufacturing sector operators and reform of the tax administrative system.

Page(s): 240-249                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2020

 Etim Osim Etim
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Uyo, Nigeria

 Mbobo Erasmus Mbobo
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Uyo, Nigeria

 Ihenyen Confidence Joel
Department of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Niger-Delta University, Bayalsa State, Nigeria

 David Johnny Ekanem
Department of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Ritman University, Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria

[1]. Abata, M. A. (2014). The Impact of Tax Revenue on Nigerian Economy (Case of Federal Board of Inland Revenue). Journal of Policy and Development Studies, 9(1):109-120.
[2]. Adeyemi, T. A. (2012). The Long-run Effect of Interest Rate on Petroleum Profit Tax in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 17(1):18-26.
[3]. Ajibola, R. (2005). Public Finance: Principles and Practice. Bprint, Lagos, 299p.
[4]. Chigbu, E. E., Akujuobi, K. E. and Appah, E. (2012). An Empirical Study on the Causality between Economic Growth and Taxation in Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Economic Theory, 4(2):29-38.
[5]. Engen, E. and Skinner, J. (2008). Taxation and Economic Growth. National Tax Journal, 49(4):617-642.
[6]. Enyi, P. E. and Uremandie, S. (2012). Working Capital Management, Liquidity and Corporate Profitability among Quoted Firms in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, 2(1):089-113.
[7]. Etim E. O., Nsima, J. Umoffong, and Daniel, O. B. (2020). Demographic and Socio-Economic Factors as Tax Compliance Determinants in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies, May Issue 2020. Available @ https://journals.scholarpublishing.org. Retrieved 21/06/2020.
[8]. Etim, E. O. and Nweze, A. U. (2015). Tax Revenue and Economic Growth in Nigeria. 1st ICAN Academic Conference on Accounting and Finance Proceedings: 1135-1151.
[9]. Gale, W. G. and Samwick, As. A. (2014). Effects of Income Tax Changes on Economic Growth. Economic Studies at Brookings: 1-15.
[10]. Gravelle, J. G. and Marples, D. J. (2014). Tax rates and Economic Growth. Congressional Research Service, 7-5700:1-9. Available @ www.crs.gov.retrived 14/04/2020.
[11]. Gustavo, C. B., Jorge, M. V. and Violeta, V. (2013). Taxation and Economic Growth in Latin America. IDB Working Paper Series No. IDB-WP-431:1-43
[12]. Ifurueze, M. S. and Ekezie, C. A. (2014). The Nigerian Tax System and Economic Growth: A Time Series Analysis. International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research, 2(4):163-169.
[13]. Ihenyen, C. J. and Mieseigha, E. G. (2014). Taxation as an Instrument of Economic Growth (The Nigerian Perspective). Information and Knowledge Management, 4(12):411-423.
[14]. Ilaboya, J. and Mgbame, C. (2012). Direct Tax and Economic Growth in Nigeria. ICAN Journal of Accounting and Finance, 2(1):65-81.
[15]. Kwode, D. (2015). Taxation Rates, Revenue and Economic Growth. International Journal of Accounting and Taxation, 6(3):142-153.
[16]. Lyndon, M. E. and Paymaster, F. B. (2016). Tax Revenue and Nigerian Economic Growth. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 7(12):34-51.
[17]. Marrie, J. N. and Sunde, T. (2010). Economic Growth and Tax Structure in Zimbabwe: 1984-2009. Int. J. Economic Policy in Emerging Economies, x(x):1-15.
[18]. Moranu, C. and Ionita, R. (2014). The Influence of Taxation on Economic Growth. Econometric Evidence from Romania. Journal of Economics Studies, 10(2):284-290.
[19]. Mushkour, M., Jahya, S. and Ali, S. A. (2010). Tax Reform and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis. Pakistan Journal of Economics, 10(1):1283-1289.
[20]. Mutascu, M. I. and Danuletiu, D. C. (2011). Taxes and Economic Growth in Romania: A VAR Approach. Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica, 13(1):94-105.
[21]. Myles, G. (2000). Taxation and Economic Growth in the United Kingdom. Fiscal Studies, 21(1):141-168.
[22]. National Bureau of Statistic (NBS) (2019). Annualized Sectoral Reports in Nigeria, Abuja Federal Printing Press, 879p.
[23]. O’Connor, M. K. (2014). Fiscal Policy, Taxes and Their Impact on Economic Development. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(8):463-469.
[24]. OECD (2008). Taxing Profits in a Global Economy: Domestic and International Issues, Paris, WPS 73, 87p.
[25]. Okafor, R. G. (2012). Tax Revenue Generation and Nigerian Economic Development. European Journal of Business and Management, 4(19):49-55.
[26]. Rohac, D. (2007). Taxation and Economic Growth. Reconciling Intuition and Theory. Institute of Economic Studies Research Paper, 86(2):97-112.
[27]. Scarlett, H. G. (2011). Tax Policy and Economic Growth in Jamaica. Bank of Jamaica Working Paper, 221p.
[28]. Sekou, N. (2015). Taxation and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis on Dynamic Panel Data of Mali. Journal of Public Economics, 89:1027-1043.
[29]. Soyode, L. and Kajola, S. O. (2006). Taxation: Principles and Practice in Nigeria. Silicon Publishing Company, Lagos-Nigeria, 796p.
[30]. Udofot, P. O. and Etim. E. O. (2017). The Effect of Tax Revenue Components from SME and Economic Growth of Nigeria: Available @ https://www.semanticscholar.or>paper-accessed 20/06/2020.
[31]. Udoh, E. E. and Ogbuagu, O. H. (2012). The Effects of Tax Revenue and Economic Growth in Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(6):214-225.

Etim Osim Etim, Mbobo Erasmus Mbobo, Ihenyen Confidence Joel, David Johnny Ekanem “Taxation and Manufacturing Sector Output in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.240-249 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/240-249.pdf

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Evaluation of Distance Education and Widening Access to Higher Education in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

R. Essel, P. Osei-Poku, H. Barton-Essel, A. A. Saah- July 2020 Page No.: 250-256

The Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology is one of the public universities in Ghana which runs distance education. Distance education has come to stay. This is because many people want to climb the educational ladder and due to large numbers of qualified applicants who cannot further their education by attending the traditional university, they opt for distance education. Although the university started running distance education programmes in 2005, no evaluation has been done except a few studies by Osei et al., in (2013) and Badu et al., (2007). In every country, education is of great importance because it plays a major role in the life of the individual and the country as a whole. Whatever manpower the country needs could be attained if the curriculum of the education system is well structured and geared towards its manpower needs.

Page(s): 250-256                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2020

 R. Essel
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

 P. Osei-Poku
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

 H. Barton-Essel
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

 A. A. Saah
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

[1]. Cohen, M. Z., Kahn, D. L., &Steeves, R. H. (2000). Hermeneutic phenomenological research: A practical guide for nurse researchers: Sage Publications.
[2]. Cohen, Y., Haberfeld, Y., & Kristal, T. (2007). Ethnicity and mixed ethnicity: Educational gaps among Israeli-born Jews. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(5), 896-917.
[3]. Dodd, A. W., & Rosenbaum, E. (1986). Learning communities for curriculum and staff development. The Phi Delta Kappan, 67(5), 380-384.
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[11]. Zidderman., A, (2013) Increasing access to higher education through student loans, CES ifo DICE Report 2/2013, pp11-18

R. Essel, P. Osei-Poku, H. Barton-Essel, A. A. Saah “Evaluation of Distance Education and Widening Access to Higher Education in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.250-256 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/250-256.pdf

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Does Public Debt affect Private Investment in Kenya? ARDL Approach

Pollyne Mbithe Mutunga – July 2020 Page No.: 257-261

Private sector investment plays a critical role towards economic growth and development. Private sector provides employment opportunities to almost 80 percent of Kenyan, pays revenue to the government in form of taxes and fees, and accounts for 50 percent of the GDP. Since 2013, Kenya’s appetite for public debt has growth rapidly and this has elicited public debate on the effect of such debts on private investment. However, literature on this issue remains scanty and inconclusive. The study adopts Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model to respond to the question, “How does Kenya’s public debt affect private investment? The study employed time series data covering 1980-2019. The finds that domestic debt has negative effect on private investment only in the short-run. Similar findings are observed with inflation. In addition, external debt crowds out private investment in the long-run and finally, debt service has adverse effect on private investment in both short and long-run. The study recommends better debt management practices as a remedy to the negative effects.

Page(s): 257-261                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2020

 Pollyne Mbithe Mutunga
Machakos University, Machakos, Kenya

[1]. Akomolafe et al, (2015). Public Debt and Private Investment in Nigeria, American Journal of Economics,5(5), 501-507
[2]. Asante, Y. (2000). Determinants of Private Investment Behaviour in Ghana. African Consortium Research Paper. (Nairobi), 2000,
[3]. El-Mahdy, A. M., &Torayeh, N. M. (2009). Debt Sustainability and Economic Growth in Egypt. International Journal of Applied Econometrics and Quantitative Studies, 6 (1), 25-55.
[4]. Fayed (2013), Crowding Out Effect of Public Borrowing: The Case of Egypt,International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 107(1), 1-24
[5]. Kamundia, S.W., Gitahi, S. and Mwilaria, S.M. (2015). The effects of public debt on private investments in Kenya (1980-2013), International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 4 (8), 860-871.
[6]. King’wara, R. (2014). The Impact of Domestic Public Debt on Private Investment in Kenya. Developing Country Studies,4 (22), 88-96
[7]. Kasidi, F., &Makame, S.A. (2013). Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Tanzania. Advances in Management & Applied Economics, 3 (4), 59-82
[8]. Kilindo, A.A.L., 2016. Does Public Investment Determine Private Investment? A Multivariate Cointegration Analysis of Public/Private Investment Linkages In Tanzania. Asian-African Journal f Economics and Econometrics, 16(1), pp.1–12.
[9]. KNBS. (2019). Economic Survey. Nairobi: Government Printer
[10]. Lidiema, C. (2018). Effects of Government Borrowing on Private Investments in Kenya. Working paper Series, Kenya Bankers Association.
[11]. Njuru, S. G., Ombuki, C., Wawire, N., &Okeri, S. (2014). Impact of Government Expenditure on Private Investments in Kenya. Journal of Economics, 2 (8), 30-51
[12]. Okorie G.C, (2013) Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.org ISSN2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.4, No.11, 2013
[13]. Otieno, R. (2015). Financing Options for Development. Geneva: UNCTAD
[14]. Putonoi, S. & Mutuku, J. (2013). Coping with risks through mismatches: domestic and international financial contracts for emerging economies. International Finance, 7(3), 349-392
[15]. Republic of Kenya. (2012). Economic Survey. Nairobi: Government Printer
[16]. Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change. The Journal of Political Economy, 98 (5), 71-102.
[17]. Salyungu, M., and Felician, M. (2019). The Effect of Public Debt on Private Investment in Tanzania, African Journal of Economic Review, 7(I), 109-135
[18]. Saungweme, T., &Mufandaedza, S. (2013). The effects of external debt on poverty in Zimbabwe. An empirical analysis, 1980-2011., 20–27.

Pollyne Mbithe Mutunga “Does Public Debt affect Private Investment in Kenya? ARDL Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.257-261 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/257-261.pdf

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Aspects of Smallholder Livestock Production Affected by the Effects of Climate Change in Njoro Sub-County

Douglas V Muyera, Paul Makenzi, Alexander Kahi – July 2020 Page No.: 262-266

Smallholder livestock production is one of the major means of livelihood supporting many families world over. This system acts as a source of food and financial security to many households therefore sustaining their socio-economic wellbeing as well as that of the nation. However, this support system is under threat due to the negative effects of climate change which are contributing to a decline in the level of smallholder livestock production. For the last 30years, changes in climate have been observed in Njoro sub-county and therefore, this study investigated the effects climate change is having on smallholder livestock production in the area. This was done through determination of the aspects of climate change/variability that have impacted on livestock production and the magnitude of their effect. The study employed a social survey research design, where primary data was collected using questionnaires and participant observation, while secondary data was sourced from journals, books, articles, and agricultural records at the sub-county and county headquarters and from the meteorological department. The study found out that climate change is affecting aspects of smallholder livestock production mostly livestock health, livestock yield, forage availability, and water availability. From the study, it was concluded that, due to the effects of climate change, mainly prolonged droughts and reduced rainfall amounts in the study area, smallholder livestock production farmers in the study area is experiencing increased disease occurrence, reduced livestock yield, reduced forage productivity and reduced water availability. These are having a negative effect in their production system.

Page(s): 262-266                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2020

 Douglas V Muyera
Environmental Science Department, Egerton University

 Paul Makenzi
Environmental Science Department, Egerton University

 Alexander Kahi
Environmental Science Department, Egerton University

[1]. Adams, R. M., Hurd, B. H., Lenhart, S. & Leiry, N. (1998). Effects of global climate change on agriculture: an interpretative review. Climate Research , 19-30.
[2]. Assan, N. (2014). Possible impact and adaptation to climate change in livestock production in Southern Africa. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT) , 104-112.
[3]. Gale, P., Adkin, A., Drew, T. & Woolridge, M. (2008). Predicting the impact of climate change on livestock disease in Great Britain. Veterinary Record, 162 , 214-215.
[4]. Kirimi, J. N., Mwangi, J. G. & Nkurumwa, A. O. (2013). Climate Change Challenges and Adaptation Strategies Among the Pastoralists of Laikipia County Kenya. International Journal of Agriculture and Extension , 20-30.
[5]. Majule, A. E. & Mary, A. L. (2009). Impacts of climate change, variability and adaptation strategies on agriculture in semi arid areas of Tanzania: The case of Manyoni District in Singida Region, Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 3 (8) , 206-218.
[6]. Nassiuma, D. K. (2000). Survey Sampling: Theory and Methods. Njoro: Egerton University Press.
[7]. Ogalleh, S. A., Vogl, C. R., Eitzinger, J. & Hauser, M. (2012). Local Perceptions and Responses to Climate Change and Variability: The Case of Laikipia District, Kenya. Sustainability , 3302-3325.
[8]. Rust, J. M. & Rust, T. (2013). Climate change and Livestock Production: A review with emphasis on Africa. South African Journal of Animal Science , 255-267.
[9]. Smith, B., McNabb, D. & Smithers, J. (1996). Agricultural adaption to climatic varion. Climate change 43 , 7-29.
[10]. Thornton, P., Herrero, M., Freeman, A., Mwai, O., Rege, E., Jones, P. & McDermott, J. (2007). Vulnerability, Climate Change and Livestock – Research Opportunities and Challenges for Poverty Alleviation. Semi-Arid Tropics ejournal , 1-23.
[11]. Thornton, P., Herrero, M., Freeman, A., Mwai, O., Rege, E., Jones, P. & McDermott, J. (2008). Vulnerability, Climate Change and Livestock – Research Opportunities and Challenges for Poverty Alleviation. Nairobi: International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya.
[12]. United State Department of Agriculture. (2013). Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States: Effects and Adaptation. Washington,DC: United State Department of Agriculture.

Douglas V Muyera, Paul Makenzi, Alexander Kahi “Aspects of Smallholder Livestock Production Affected by the Effects of Climate Change in Njoro Sub-County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.262-266 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/262-266.pdf

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Equity Financing and Firm Value in Nigeria

Auwalu Sani Ibrahim, Hadiza Sabo, Sunusi Kabiru, Sharafuddeen Ibrahim Abubakar – July 2020 Page No.: 267-269

This study investigates the influence of equity financing on firm value in Nigeria using panel analysis technique for 12 listed industrial goods enterprises from 2006 to 2016. The estimate reveals that equity finance reduce the capacity of firm value in Nigeria. It is also discovered that the firm size and growth have negative influence on the value of frim. Hence, the study suggests that managers should design appropriate management skills to come up with the efficient capital mix in financing firm business. This could be through taking into consideration of various theoretical application and the weakened nature of the economy in the best combination of capital for viable business operation.

Page(s): 267-269                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2020

 Auwalu Sani Ibrahim
Department of Management Science, Kano State College of Education and Preliminary Studies

 Hadiza Sabo
Department of Management Science, Kano State College of Education and Preliminary Studies

 Sunusi Kabiru
Department of Management Science, Kano State College of Education and Preliminary Studies

 Sharafuddeen Ibrahim Abubakar
Department of Management Science, Kano State College of Education and Preliminary Studies

[1]. Achieng, B. O., Mutur, W., & Joshua Wanjare. (2018). Effect of Equity Financing Options on Financial Performance of Non-Financial Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange, Kenya. Applied Economics and Finance, 5(4).
[2]. Aziz, S., & Abbas, U. (2019). Effect of Debt Financing on Firm Performance: A Study on Non-Financial Sector of Pakistan. Journal of Economics and Commerce, 2(1), 8–15.
[3]. Brealey, R., & Myers, S. . (2003). Principles of Corporate Finance (7th ed.). United Kingdom: McGraw Hill, London UK.
[4]. Kodongo, O., Mokoaleli-Mokoteli, T., & Maina, L. K. (2014). Capital Structure, profitability and firm value: Panel evidence of listed firms in Kenya. Profitability and firm value.
[5]. Masidonda, J. L., Idrus, M. S., Salim, U., & Jumahir, D. (2013). Determinants of Capital Structure and Impact Capital Structure on Firm Value. Journal of Business and Management, 7(3), 23–30.
[6]. Mugenda, M. O., & Mugenda, G. A. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi, Kenya: Laba Graphics Services,.
[7]. Mwangi, L, W., Makau, M, S., & Kosimbei, G. (2014). Relationship between Capital Structure and Performance of Non-Financial Companies Listed In the Nairobi Securities Exchange, Kenya. Global Journal of Contemporary Research in Accounting, Auditing and Business Ethics, 1(2), 72–90.
[8]. Nirajini, A., & Priya, K. . (2013). Impact of capital structure on financial performance of the listed trading companies in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(5), 2250–3153.
[9]. Salerno, D. (2019). Does the private equity financing improve performance in family SMEs? Journal of Family Business Management, 9(1), 110–124. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFBM-12-2017-0046
[10]. Sambo, A. A. (2005). Research Methods in Education. Ibadan: Stiling-Horden Publishers (Nig.) Ltd. Gaaf Building.
[11]. Saunders, M. L., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students. London,UK: Financial Times Prentice Hall Inc.
[12]. Shah, A., & Khan, S. (2014). Determinants of capital structure: Evidence from Pakistani Panel data. International Business Research, 3(4), 265–282.
[13]. Vo, X. V, & Ellis, C. (2017). An empirical investigation of capital structure and firm value in Vietnam. Finance Research Letters, 22, 90–94.

Auwalu Sani Ibrahim, Hadiza Sabo, Sunusi Kabiru, Sharafuddeen Ibrahim Abubakar “Equity Financing and Firm Value in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.267-269 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/267-269.pdf

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Assessing the Preparedness of Law Enforcement Agents in Dealing with White-Collar Crimes in Kenya: A Case of Nairobi City County

Patrick Mwakio, Dr. George Mathenge, Dr. George Maroko – July 2020 Page No.: 270-282

This study sought to assess the preparedness of Law Enforcement Officers in handling white-collar crimes within Nairobi City County. White collar crimes are seen as a major headache for all legitimate governments throughout the world. It also slows down economic growth by discouraging local and foreign investors. The preparedness of the law enforcement agents to combat white-collar crimes is therefore seen as a key element in reassuring members of the society and attracting foreign investment for developing countries The research objectives were to establish the adequacy of current resources available to effectively manage white-collar crimes in Nairobi City County, to explore the competencies of the law enforcement agents in investigating white-collar crimes in Nairobi City County, to examine the challenges encountered by Law enforcement agents face in thwarting white-collar crimes within Nairobi City County and finally to establish the strategies for enhancing the capacity of law enforcement agents in handling white-collar crimes in Nairobi City County. The target population was largely drawn from the Kenya police, Directorate of criminal investigations and the Kenya Anti-corruption commission with a sample size of 371 respondents drawn from the DCI and KPS. This study adopted quantitative and qualitative research methods it used a descriptive survey design. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews. The study was guided by the Rational Choice Theory. Quantitative data was analysed through the SPSStool version 23. The reports from qualitative data were presented using descriptive statistics. This included frequencies, modes, means, variances and standard deviations. Qualitative data was first coded, patterns established themes and finally reported narratively. The study revealed that there was a significant and strong relationship between the four variables and preparedness level to deal with white collar crime, however the enforcement agents in Nairobi County-Kenya were found to be generally ill prepared to fight white collar crime. The study revealed that corruption, tendering and other acts of bribery; money laundering, embezzlement/misappropriation of public funds/resources as the most prevalent crimes. Cyber-hacking and other forms of internet fraud were also perceived to be problematic, yet security agents were inadequately prepared to deal with these kinds of crimes as they lacked resources and the relevant training to enable them to investigate, arrest, and prosecute the culprits. The study further recommended that the government should allocate more funds and resources to enable law enforcement agents procure modern gadgets that track internet activities; the officers/forensic experts need to have proper training and be recruited from the smart people in society who are perceived to be supper intelligent for them to be smart in their investigations; there is also need to strengthen the existing and establish relevant laws (legal and institutional frameworks) aimed at combating corruption related and other economic crimes.

Page(s): 270-282                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 August 2020

 Patrick Mwakio
Kenyatta University, P.O.BOX 42695, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. George Mathenge
Kenyatta University, P.O.BOX 42695, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. George Maroko
Kenyatta University, P.O.BOX 42695, Nairobi, Kenya

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Patrick Mwakio, Dr. George Mathenge, Dr. George Maroko “Assessing the Preparedness of Law Enforcement Agents in Dealing with White-Collar Crimes in Kenya: A Case of Nairobi City County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.270-282 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/270-282.pdf

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A Study of the Challenges Facing the Devolved Governments in Kenya (The Case of Kiambu County Government)

Maria Muthoni Mwihotori, Dr. George C.O Maroko – July 2020 Page No.: 283-297

The purpose of the study was to examine the commitment by the county government in dealing with the challenges facing the implementation of devolved government in Kiambu County, Kenya. The objectives of the study were; to establish the political interference challenges facing the implementation of devolved governments, examine the Administrative challenges, establish how polices and legislation challenges and mismanagement of finances affect the implementation of devolved government in Kiambu County. It further looked into related literature in chapter two and conclusively used descriptive survey research design to investigate the commitment by county government in dealing with these challenges in chapter three. The information collected through simple random sampling was analyzed through various techniques used in descriptive data analysis. The targeted area of study was Kiambu County because it was negatively hitting the headline news immediately after promulgation of the 2010 Constitution of Kenya. A population of 2000 members of the community residing in Kiambu grouped into County Administrators, MCAs and selected members of public such as women groups, youth groups and business people were considered in the study. A sample of 51 members of the groups was used. In conducting this research, the information was collected using questionnaires, interview guide and document analysis. The independent variables included political interference challenges, County Administrative challenges, policies and legislation challenges and mismanagement of finances. The study was guided by Agency and Stewardship Theories. The findings it is hoped would be used to improve the governance methods of Kiambu County and other counties in Kenya. The study found out that politicians were not in support of devolved governance in Kiambu County and that Party affiliations affected decisions being passed by the county assembly. The study further concludes that mismanagement of finances affected implementation of devolved government in Kiambu County. Further demand for huge salaries and allowances by MCAs and public servants, Unhealthy rivalry and poor attitude amongst county leaders, resistance to change and Shortage of qualified human resources were the County Administrative Challenges. The study made the following recommendations: that proper management practices should be effected, politicians should forge unity so as to work together, the government should be more aggressive in the fight against corruption, and finally regulation and legislation should be strengthened to guide on the functions of devolved governments.

Page(s): 283-297                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 August 2020

 Maria Muthoni Mwihotori
MA Governance and Ethics( Mount Kenya University), P. O. Box 295, Githunguri, Kenya

 Dr. George C.O Maroko
Kenyatta University, P.O.BOX 42695, Nairobi, Kenya

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Maria Muthoni Mwihotori, Dr. George C.O Maroko “A Study of the Challenges Facing the Devolved Governments in Kenya (The Case of Kiambu County Government)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.283-297 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/283-297.pdf

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Does Taxation Propel Economic Growth In Nigeria?

Etim Osim Etim, Nsima Johnson Umoffong, Ihenyen Joel Confidence – July 2020 Page No.: 298-306

The study examined the relationship between taxation and economic growth proxy by Per Capita Income (PCI) in Nigeria from 1985 to 2018 data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) for various years on Companies Income Tax (CIT), Personal Income Tax (PIT), Value Added Tax (VAT), Petroleum Profit Tax (PPT) and Per Capita Income (PCI) from Socio-Economic Statistics Report by National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The data were analysed using multiple regression technique. Findings reveal inverse and significant relationship between company income tax and per capita income, while, Personal Income Tax, Value Added Tax Petroleum profit tax shows positive relationship. Thus, the contention as to whether taxation propel economic growth in Nigeria cannot be rightly answered with a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ response since the results from our study were mix. It was recommended that policy makers should focus on tax incentives that would boost investment in the manufacturing sector.

Page(s): 298-306                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 August 2020

 Etim Osim Etim
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Uyo, Uyo-Nigeria

 Nsima Johnson Umoffong
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Uyo, Uyo-Nigeria

 Ihenyen Joel Confidence
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Science, Niger Delta University, Yenegoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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[16]. Lynden, M. E. and Paymaster, F. B. (2016). The Impact of Company Income Tax and Value Added Tax on Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 7(12):113-128.
[17]. Macek, R. (2014). The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth: Available at https://content.sciendo.com Retrieve on 21/4/2020.
[18]. National Tax Policy (2012). Handbook of Federal Ministry of Finance, 78p.
[19]. Ogbonna, G. N. and Appah, E. (2012). Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 4(4): 62-68.
[20]. Ogbonna, G. N. and Appah, E. (2016). Petroleum Income and Nigerian Economy. Empirical Evidence. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN chapter), 1(9): 35-59.
[21]. Olawale, F. and Garvwe, D. (2010). Obstacles to the Growth of New SMEs in South Africa. Available @ academicjournals.org.>article Retrieved 21/4/2020.
[22]. Okafor, R. (2012). Tax Revenue Generation and Nigeria Economic Development. European Journal of Business and Management, 4(19):149-156.
[23]. Populson, B. and Kaplan, J. (2008). State Income Taxes and Economic Growth. Academic of Management Review, 28(1): 12-37.
[24]. Saima, S. (2014). Taxation and Economic Growth. Available @ https://www.researchgate.net>publication.Retrieved 21/4//2020.
[25]. Success, M. J., Success, E. B. and Ifurueze, M. S. (2012). Impact of Petroleum Profit Tax on Economic Development of Nigeria. British Journal of Economic, Finance and Management Sciences, 5(2):60-70.
[26]. Stoilova, D. and Patonov, N. (2012). The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth in 27 European Countries. An Empirical Evidence. Available @ journals.euser.org>articles>Thaci Retrieved 21/4/2020.
[27]. Udofot, P. O. and Etim, E. O. (2017). The Effect of Tax Revenue Components from SMEs and Economic Growth of Nigeria. Available @ https://www.semanticsscholar.org>paper.Retrieved on 24/04/2020.
[28]. World Bank (2011). Review of the Flow of Funds in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector, Washington, D.C. WP/2011/70. Retrieved 24/04/2020.
[29]. Worlu, C. N. and Nkoro, E. (2012). Tax Revenue and Economic Development in Nigeria. A Macroeconomic Approach. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 1(2):211-223.
[30]. Yaya, M. (2013). Crude Oil Prices and Exchange Rates. Causality, Variance Decomposition and Impulse Response. Energy Economic Journal, 44:407-412.

Etim Osim Etim, Nsima Johnson Umoffong, Ihenyen Joel Confidence “Does Taxation Propel Economic Growth In Nigeria?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.298-306 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/298-306.pdf

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Quality Management of Elementary School

Agus Bambang Supriyanto, Sudjarwo, Riswanti Rini – July 2020 Page No.: 307-309

This study aims to analyze and describe quality management planning in primary schools, organizing quality management in primary schools, implementing quality management in primary schools, and evaluating quality management in primary schools. The method used in this research is qualitative with a case study design. The informants of this research are the principal, curriculum waka, school committee, teachers, students, and parents. The results showed that 1) planning the objectives of planning as a reference for quality management in primary schools included efforts to guarantee school quality, mechanisms and systems of school quality, school quality development teams, and procurement of facilities and infrastructure in schools. 2) arrange an effective behavioral relationship about quality management in primary schools including academic programs for school quality management, involvement related to school quality management, organizing school facilities and infrastructure, and distribution of school facilities and infrastructure. 3) implementation of school quality management programs, targets for implementing school quality management achievements, utilization of facilities and infrastructure in school quality management, and constraints related to school quality management. 4) the school management process takes place for school quality, what obstacles are faced with school quality, how to evaluate the implementation of school quality management, and the efforts made to follow up on school quality management.

Page(s): 307-309                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 August 2020

  Agus Bambang Supriyanto
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

  Sudjarwo
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Riswanti Rini
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

[1]. Darmadi. 2018. “Manajemen Produktivitas Kerja Kepala Sekolah dan Fakor-Faktor yang Memengaruhi”. Deepublish: Yogyakarta
[2]. Darmadi. 2018. Membangun Paradigma Baru Kinerja Guru. Guepedia : Bogor
[3]. Nur, M., Harun, C. Z., & Ibrahim, S. (2016). Manajemen Sekolah Dalam Meningkatkan Mutu Pendidikan Pada Sdn Dayah Guci Kabupaten Pidie. Jurnal Administrasi Pendidikan: Program Pascasarjana Unsyiah, 4(1).
[5]. Hermanto, H. (2010). Penyelenggaraan Pendidikan Inklusif MembutuhkanKeseriusan Manajemen Sekolah. JPK (Jurnal Pendidikan Khusus), 6(2).
[6]. Susanto. 2016. Manajemen Peningkatan Kinerja Guru Konsep, Strategi, dan Implementasi. Prenadamedia : Jakarta
[7]. Suwito. 2015. Manajemen Mutu Peantren. Deepublish : Yogyakarta
[8]. Moleong, Lexy J. 2014. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. Remaja Rosdakarya: Bandung
[9]. Sugiyono. 2013. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif. Alfabeta: Bandung

Agus Bambang Supriyanto, Sudjarwo, Riswanti Rini “Quality Management of Elementary School” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.307-309 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/307-309.pdf

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Legislative-Judicial Relations and Budget Implementation in Nigeria

Udoji, Chibuike Raphael, Johnpaul Onyebuchi Nduba, Jude Chiedozie Okwuadimma – July 2020 Page No.: 310-315

Since the return of democracy in 1999, the implementation of the budget in Nigeria has been a major concern. There have been many explanations for the poor performance of the federal government in capital budgets, including the late introduction, execution and adoption of the budget; the late distribution of funds to the federal departments and agencies, and the inadequate use of resources; but little attention has been given to the position of the judiciary in this regard. As a result, this paper examines legislative-judicial ties and the implementation of the budget in Nigeria. The paper collected data from secondary sources. The results of the study shows that the legislature and the judiciary, as institutions, do not perform their functions and duties in regulating the excesses of the executive branch of the government and its MDAs, in particular with respect to the complete execution of the budget enacted into law in Nigeria. The paper, therefore, suggests that the legislature and the judiciary should perform their duties and work effectively to monitor the excesses of the executive branch of the government, in particular, to ensure the full implementation of approved budgets.

Page(s): 310-315                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 August 2020

 Udoji, Chibuike Raphael
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Johnpaul Onyebuchi Nduba
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Jude Chiedozie Okwuadimma
Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

[1]. Aiyede, R. 2005). Executive – Legislature Relations in Nigeria’s Emerging Presidential Democracy. UNILAG Journal of Politics, 2(1), 65-87.
[2]. Almond, G. (1969). Political Development: Analytic and Normative Perspectives. Comparative Political Studies, 1, 449.
[3]. Almond, G. & Powell, B. (1975). Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach. Boston: Little Brown.
[4]. Ayobami, A. (2012, November 24). About 12,000 federal projects abandoned across Nigeria. Premium Times. Retrieved from https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/108450-about-12000-federal-projects-abandoned-across-nigeria.html
[5]. Bassey, A., Raphael, P., Omono, C., & Bassey, U. (2013). An Examination of Causes and Consequences of Conflict Between Legislature and Executive in Cross- River State, Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(1), 179-189.
[6]. Chegwe, B. (2010). Improved Budget Implementation: Key to Nigeria Recovery. Available at http://www.allafrica.com/stories/2009/230768hml
[7]. Edame, E. (2010). Development Economics and Planning in Nigeria. Calabar: Favoured Trust Ltd.
[8]. Edame, G. & Ejue, M. (2013). Budgeting Role, Infrastructural Development and Economic Growth in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2(6), 1-15.
[9]. Ehigiamusoe, U. & Umar, A. (2013). Legislative oversights and Budget Performance in Nigeria: Issues & Policy Options. Journal of Economics and Finance, 1(5), 1-12.
[10]. Eme, O. & Ogbichie, A. (2014). Executive- Legislature Feud in Nigeria: An Examination of Service Chiefs Confirmation. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(12), 1-20.
[11]. Ezeagba, C. & Adigwe, P. (2015). Steaming the Tide of Low Budget Implementation in The Nigerian Public Sector: A Search for Effective Budgeting System. Journal of Policy and Development Studies, 9(2), 27-34.
[12]. Fatile J. & Adejuwon, K. (2016). Legislative-Executive Conflicts and Democratic Governance in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic, International Journal of Innovative Research in Social Sciences and Strategic Management Techniques, 3(1), 91-111.
[13]. Kighir, A. (2012). Budget Reforms and Budget Implementation in Nigeria: A Critical Review of Medium Term Expenditure Framework. IRCAB Journal for Social and Management Science, 2(3), 267-274.
[14]. Lawyer, C. (2013). Budget Preparation and Implementation in the Nigeria Public Sector. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4(16), 50-55.
[15]. Mbah, P. (2007). Executive- Legislative Relations in Nigeria: The Presidency and the National Assembly, 1999- 2006, Nigeria Journal of Social Sciences. 1, 187-210.
[16]. Mogalakwe, M. (2006). The Use of Documentary Research Methods in Social Research. African Sociological Review, 10(1), 221-230.
[17]. Nwaorgu, I. (2015). Effect of Dominant Individual on Budget Implementation in Nigeria: A Content Analysis Perspective. African Research Review, 9(1), 23-29.
[18]. Ogujiuba, K. & Ehigiamusoe, K. (2014). Capital Budget Implementation in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2012 Capital Budget. Journal of Contemporary Economics, 8(3), 299-314.
[19]. Okpala, E. (2014). Medium Term Expenditure Framework and Budget Effectiveness in Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative and Scientific Research, 4(1), 26-32.
[20]. Onigbinde, O. (2014). The Nigerian Budget: Using Creative Technology to Intersect Civic Engagement and Institutional Reform. Journal of Field Action, 11, 1-7.
[21]. Oniore, J. (2014). Budget Implementation and Economic Development in Delta State, Nigeria, 1991- 2010. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(3), 333-344.
[22]. Ukase, P. (2005). Executive- Legislative Conflicts in Nigeria: An Analysis of Contending Issues and Perspectives. Journal of Contemporary Issues and Research. 1(2), 130-139.
[23]. Yogendrin, N. (2005). Relations Between Parliament and the Judiciary, Const Parli. Info. 190:81-87.

Udoji, Chibuike Raphael, Johnpaul Onyebuchi Nduba, Jude Chiedozie Okwuadimma “Legislative-Judicial Relations and Budget Implementation in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.310-315 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/310-315.pdf

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Teacher Unions’ Strategies Enhancing Welfare Benefits for Teachers in Kenya. A Case of Kenya National Union of Teachers

Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu – July 2020 Page No.: 316-318

Teacher unions seek through collective negotiation and bargaining with employers to improve benefits of their members. It is the desire of teachers to benefit from their unions as well as secure protection against unfair labour practices. This study was carried to investigate Teacher unions’ strategies enhancing welfare benefits for teachers in Kenya taking the case of Kenya National Union of Teachers (KNUT). The study used descriptive survey design. The target population was 8320 primary school teachers and nine KNUT branch officials. Stratified sampling and simple random sampling were used to select a sample 830 teachers. Purposive sampling was used to select nine KNUT officials. The study used questionnaire for teachers and interview guide for KNUT officials as the instruments for the study. Content validity of the research instruments was ascertained through piloting of the test items while reliability of the questionnaires and the interviews was ascertained by a test-re-test technique. The data was analyzed by use of SPSS programme. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and presented in frequency tables. Interview guide responses were reported in verbatim. The conclusion of the study was that KNUT was highly involved in enhancing issues concerning the welfare of teachers. The study recommends that the union should diversify motivational programs for teachers to continue promoting the welfare benefits for teachers in Kenya

Page(s): 316-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2020

 Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu
Lecturer, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, School of Education, South Eastern Kenya University

[1]. Donado, A. (2010). How Trade Unions Increase Welfare. Gutenberg School of Management and Economics Discussion Paper Series, No.1010.
[2]. Flanders, A. (2001). Management and union. London: Faber & Faber Press.
[3]. Galor, Z. (2002. Trade Union Enterprises: A New Approach to the Problem of the Relationship between the Trade Unions and Cooperatives. The International Institute: Histadrut, Israel
[4]. Johnson, S. & Donaldson, L. (2006). Effects of Collective Bargaining in Education Quality. Cambridge, M.A: Harvard Education Press.
[5]. Kerchner, C. (2004). The Impact of Collective Bargaining on School Governance. Sussex Urban Society ltd.
[6]. KNUT (2005) Education Policy. Nairobi. Katangi Printing Works.
[7]. KNUT (2008). KNUT Strategic Plan 2008-2013.Nairobi. KNUT Press.
[8]. KNUT (2015). KNUT Strategic Plan 2015-2019.Nairobi. KNUT Press
[9]. Mutuku, K. (2015). Kenya National Union of Teachers’ initiatives influencing provision of quality education in primary schools in Machakos County, Kenya. (Unpublished PhD thesis). The University of Nairobi.
[10]. Murillo, M.V. (2006). Labor Unions and Education Reforms in Latin America. DB Research Network Working Paper
[11]. Reimmers, V.A &Reimmers, F. (2006). The Missing Voice in Education Reforms. Quarterly review of comparative education Massachusetts. United States of America. vol. 112 pp 340-316
[12]. Vaillant, D. (2005). Education Reforms and Teachers Union: Avenues for Action. Paris UNESCO Institute of planning.

Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu “Teacher Unions’ Strategies Enhancing Welfare Benefits for Teachers in Kenya. A Case of Kenya National Union of Teachers” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.316-318 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/316-318.pdf

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The Role of Teacher-Student Interpersonal Relationship in Determining Students’ Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County

Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu – July 2020 Page No.: 319-324

Students’ discipline is an important factor in the attainment of progressive outcomes in institutions of learning. Learning institutions have adversely been affected by cases of student’s indiscipline. Management of students’ discipline through creating a healthy teacher student inter relationship remains a significant panacea to this worrying trend which forms the focus of this study. This study sought to investigate the role of teacher- student interpersonal relationships in students’ discipline in Machakos County, Kenya. The study used descriptive survey design. The sample size was 100 principals, 350 teachers and 380 students. The sample size was obtained by stratified sampling and simple random sampling procedures. The study used questionnaires and interview guide as the research instruments. Pilot study was done on the research instruments. Test-retest technique of reliability was used to test the reliability of the instruments. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and presented in frequency tables. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Pearson Chi Test was used to test the hypothesis of the study. The study revealed that teacher student interpersonal relationships had a significant positive relationship with levels of students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Machakos County at (r) value of 0.831 significant at (p) value of 0.003. From the findings, the study concluded that the role of teacher student interpersonal relationships was critical to students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Machakos County. The study the recommends that educators and education administrators should strive to encourage cordial teacher student interpersonal relationship in their interaction in the school.

Page(s): 319-324                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2020

 Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu
Lecturer, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, School of Education, South Eastern Kenya University

[1]. Adeogun, A. A., & Olisaemeka, B. U. (2011). Influence of school climate on students’ achievement and teachers’ productivity for sustainable development. US-China Education Review, 8(4), 552–557.
[2]. Brand, S., Felner, R., Shim, M., Seitsinger, A., & Dumas, T. (2008). Middle school improvement and reform: Development of validation of a school-level assessment of climate, cultural pluralism and school safety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 570-588.
[3]. Bradshaw, C., Koth, C., Thornton, L., & Leaf, P. (2009). Altering school climate through school- wide positive behavioural interventions and supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115.
[4]. CDE. (2019). Discipline in Schools .Mitigation Strategies.County Office ,Machakos, 2019.
[5]. Fields, B.A. (2011). Productive pedagogies & Discipline: The challenge of aligning teaching and behavior management. University of Southern Queensland.
[6]. Gaustad, J. (1992). School Discipline. Eric Digest 78. December 1992.Harris, G. (2010). Effectiveness of school-based family and children’s skills training for substance abuse prevention among 6–8-year-old rural. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16 (Suppl. 4), S65–S71.
[7]. Kindiki, J. N. (2009). Effectiveness of Communication on Students Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kenya. Education Research Review vol.4 (5) pp. 252 259. Accessed 4 December, 2015.
[8]. Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74, 262-273.
[9]. Kuperminc, G.P., Leadbeater, B.J., & Blatt, S.J., (2001). School social climateand individual differences in vulnerability to psychopathology among middle school students. Journal of School Psychology, 39(2), 141-159.
[10]. Loukas, A., Suzuki, R., & Horton, K. D. (2006). Examining school connectedness as a mediator of school climate effects. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 491-502.
[11]. Marks, H. M. (2000). Student engagement in instructional activity: Patterns in the elementary, middle, and high school years. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 153-184.
[12]. MOE, (2008). Assessment Reports. Machakos County Office.
[13]. Mukharjee, H. (2005). The standards of discipline in secondary schools in Mexico. New York: Longman Publishers Limited.
[14]. Wentzel, K. R. (2009). Peers and academic functioning at school. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Wilcox,
[15]. P., & Clayton, R. R. (2001). A multilevel analysis of school-based weapon possession. Justice Quarterly, 18, 509–541.
[16]. Oosthuizen, I. J., Wolhuter, C.C. & Du Toit, P. (2003). Preventive or punitivedisciplinary measures in South African schools: Which should be favoured Potchefstroom University for CHE. Koers 68 (4). pp. 457-479.
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[18]. Stewart, D. ( 2004). Learner discipline: An Australian perspective. Koers, 69(2), 317-335.
[19]. Squelch, J.M. (2000). Discipline. Pretoria: Centre for Education Law and Education Policy (CELP).

Dr. Gideon M. Kasivu “The Role of Teacher-Student Interpersonal Relationship in Determining Students’ Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.319-324 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/319-324.pdf

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The Mediatory Effect of Voluntary Disclosure on the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance: A Pilot Study

Ibrahim Mohd Al Hamadsheh, Barjoyai Bin Bardai, Abdoul Rahman Mhd Al Jounaidi – July 2020 Page No.: 325-331

The global problem since the past decade is the complete disclosure of financial statements. In fact, the report “profit and loss,” which reflects the company’s operating indicators, is important. The more transparent the report is, the better it is for future and existing investors to make their investment decisions. The more transparent the report is. This means that the more companies reveal the figures included in the financial statement, the more transparency they are. The purpose of a financial statement is to assist transparency and to supply a reliable annual report for more detailed information disclosure. It also promotes the development of accounting standards and financial reporting legislation. There are two forms of financial reporting: mandatory and voluntary reporting. The Mandatory Information Divulging, in particular, represents the key demand of the market for information provided by various laws and regulatory authorities and is regulated by public or professional organizations at the national or regional levels. On the opposite, a voluntary company divulgation that surpasses the divulgation demands is the correct option to divulge users’ annual reports. The researchers’ fundamental curiosity is how voluntary disclosure can improve financial performance and what factors influence the financial performance of the company listed in the Amman Bourse through the structure of corporate governance. The primary objective of the analysis is to analyze, in the annual reports of the Jordanian listed companies, the degree of voluntary disclosure and analyze the connection between corporate governance and financial performance (FP). In the Jordanian context, a research method will be used, namely archiving and method because the nature of the data needed to perform this survey on Jordanian companies stresses the need for secondary information to be an essential source of information because secondary information helps in determining current information. Data collected from 208 manufacturing and service firms in the 2012–2017 Annual Report of Amman Stock Exchange. Moreover, the latest source of information at the time of the research is data from this period. The sample of the study was limited to the service sector and industry, which comprises 208 companies representing 84 percent of the total companies listed in the Amman stock exchange. Version 18 (SPSS) was used in the analysis and this analysis was used as a descriptive analysis. The results showed that BORDIN, BACT, BSIZE, ACS, FOW, and IOW. The results indicate that Board members are the BORDIN Board of Trustees. Support was provided for H02, H03, H04, H05, H06, H07, H09. In contrast, the Audit Committee ‘s independence (ACOM) and government ownership (GOW) are statistically marginal, since their p-values are higher than their usual significance point of 0.05. Consequently, H01 and H08 were rejected. This analysis fills the gap created by past studies identifying these variables that identifying these variables that influence the financial results. The most theoretical effects are for this review. All factors affect financial efficiency, as shown by the results obtained. A financial performance research framework was proposed among listed Jordanian companies and empirical tests were conducted in this study. However, the most practical implications for this analysis are that this work examining the variables from each external factor in order to identify the one most successful in financial performance. The details collected may be incomplete by unreported corporate administration, concealed managing directors, and/or secret ownership rates one of the most significant determinants of this analysis. A significant suggestion for future studies would be the inclusion of more business services in this study that may include in- and out-of-market services. The study concludes that a structural model is developed and tested financially. In conclusion, shareholders and management of the current study will know that the scope of voluntary disclosure is determined by them. This then prevents them from expropriating the company’s property for their own purposes.

Page(s): 325-331                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2020

 Ibrahim Mohd Al Hamadsheh
Department of Accounting, Al-Madina International University, Kualalumpur-Malaysia

 Barjoyai Bin Bardai
Department of Accounting, Al-Madina International University, Kualalumpur-Malaysia

 Abdoul Rahman Mhd Al Jounaidi
Department of Accounting, Al-Madina International University, Kualalumpur-Malaysia

[1]. Abdul. Karim, Raida. Fais, (2017), the impact of internal attributes of corporate governance on firm performance in Pakistan form 2011-2015, Journal of Research in Administrative Sciences V VI(II), 1-4, ISSN: 2305-865X
[2]. Abigail Andriana and Rosinta Ria (2017), The Effect of Good Corporate Governance and Environmental Performance on Financial Performance of the Proper Listed Company on Indonesia Stock Exchange.
[3]. Achoki, I. N., & Shukla, J. (2016). Effect of voluntary disclosure on the financial performance of commercial banks in Rwanda. A study on selected banks in Rwanda. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 5(06), 167-184.
[4]. Ahmed, K., & Nicholls, D. (1994). The impact of non-financial company characteristics on mandatory disclosure compliance in developing countries: The case of Bangladesh.‏
[5]. Al Ayub Ahmed, A. (2012). Disclosure of Financial Reporting and Firm Structure as a Determinant: A Study on the Listed Companies of DSE. ASA University Review, 6 (1), 43-60.
[6]. Al Sawalqa, F. (2014). Corporate Governance Mechanisms and Voluntary Disclosure Compliance: The Case of Banks in Jordan. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences. 4 (2), 373–388.
[7]. Albassam, W. (2014). Corporate governance, voluntary disclosure and financial performance: an empirical analysis of Saudi listed firms using a mixed-methods research design (Doctoral dissertation, University of Glasgow).‏
[8]. Alfraih, M. M., & Almutawa, A. M. (2017). Voluntary disclosure and corporate governance: Empirical evidence from Kuwait. International Journal of law and Management, 59 (2), 217-236.
[9]. Al-Janadi, Y., Rahman, R. A., & Omar, N. H. (2013). Corporate governance mechanisms and voluntary disclosure in Saudi Arabia. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4(4).‏
[10]. Allegrini, M., & Greco, G. (2013). Corporate boards, audit committees and voluntary disclosure: Evidence from Italian listed companies. Journal of Management & Governance, 17(1), 187-216.‏
[11]. Amal Hamrouni, and Miloudi, Ramzi, (2015), Signaling Firm Performance Through Corporate Voluntary Disclosure, The Journal of Applied Business Research – March/April 2015.
[12]. Bebchuk, L. A., & Weisbach, M. S. (2010). The state of corporate governance research. The review of financial studies, 23(3), 939-961.‏
[13]. Bilal, Tufail, S., Khan, J., Abbas, A., & Saeed, A. (2013). The association between firm-specific characteristics and corporate disclosure: Evidence from Pakistan. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business Research, 2(4), pp. 124-134.
[14]. Buzbee, T. M. (1975). A Historical Overview of the American Labor Movement and Its Influence
[15]. Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural equation modeling with Amos: basic concepts, applications, and programming.
[16]. Chaney, P. K., Jeter, D. C., & Shivakumar, L. (2004). Self‐selection of auditors and audit pricing in private firms. The accounting review, 79(1), 51-72.‏
[17]. Chen, C. R., & Steiner, T. L. (2000). Tobin’sq, managerial ownership, and analyst coverage: A nonlinear simultaneous equations model. Journal of Economics and Business, 52(4), 365-382.‏
[18]. Cooke, P. (1999). Small firms, social capital and the enhancement of business performance through innovation programmes. Small business economics, 13(3), 219-234.‏
[19]. Dahawy, K. (2009). Company characteristics and disclosure level: The case of Egypt. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 34, 194-208.
[20]. Dellaportas, S., Thomsen, S., & Conyon, M. (2012). Principles of ethics and corporate governance in financial services. McGraw-Hill Education Australia.‏
[21]. Elmagrhi, M. H., Ntim, C. G., & Wang, Y. (2016). Antecedents of voluntary corporate governance disclosure: A post-2007/08 financial crisis evidence from the influential UK Combined Code. Corporate Governance, 16 (3), 507-538.
[22]. Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics.
[23]. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
[24]. Hossain, M., & Hammami, H. (2009). Voluntary disclosure in the annual reports.
[25]. Ianniello, G., Mainardi, M., & Rossi, F. (2013). Corporate governance and auditor choice. Paper presented at the Bicentenary Conference, Lecce, Italy, September 19-21, 2013.
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Ibrahim Mohd Al Hamadsheh, Barjoyai Bin Bardai, Abdoul Rahman Mhd Al Jounaidi “The Mediatory Effect of Voluntary Disclosure on the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance: A Pilot Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.325-331 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/325-331.pdf

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Parliamentary Turnover in Ghana’s Fourth Republic: Perspectives of Members of Parliament

Harrison Kofi Belley – July 2020 Page No.: 332-336

Since the return to constitutional rule in Ghana in January 1993, the high turnover of parliamentarians in Ghana’s fourth republican parliament has been a source of concern to not only Members of Parliament (MPs) and the leadership of parliament, but to the academia as well. The minority and majority leaders in the seventh parliament of the fourth republic of Ghana have bemoaned this practice where most MPs do not go past one term of parliament. The aim of this study was to examine members of parliament perceptions about impact and implications of the high attrition rate of MPs on the members and parliament as an institution. Data for the study was collected in 2019 through semi-structured interviews conducted with forty-five purposively selected minority and majority MPs of the fourth republic. The findings revealed that the high attrition rate of MPs affects the work of parliament and parliamentarians significantly. Parliamentarians reported that the loss of experience MPs to fresh one affects the quality of work done by the legislative arm of government. They revealed further that the outrageously high attrition rate cannot facilitate the growth of parliament; neither can it grow our parties. They identified: (i) increasing monetization of internal party elections (ii) unfulfilled promises of MPs (iii) pettiness on the part of constituents and party activists as some of the causes of the high attrition rate of parliamentarians in Ghana’s parliament. Given the diversity of opinions on the phenomenon, parliamentarians suggested that the public affairs department should intensive its education on the workings of parliament and its engagement with the general public.

Page(s): 332-336                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2020

 Harrison Kofi Belley
Governance Studies Department, Evangelical Presbyterian University College, P. O. Box HP 678, Ho, Ghana

[1] Alidu, S. (2019). Election Campaign in Ghana’s 2016 National Elections. Ghanaian Politics and Political Communication, 31.
[2] François, A., & Grossman, E. (2015). How to define legislative turnover? The incidence of measures of renewal and levels of analysis. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 21(4), 457-475.
[3] Gyimah-Boadi, E. (2013). Strengthening Democratic Governance in Ghana: Proposals for Intervention and Reform. Report for STAR-Ghana. Accra. www.starghana. Org/userfiles/files/publications/STAR-Ghana, 20, 20.
[4] Lindberg, S. I. (2004). The democratic qualities of competitive elections: participation, competition and legitimacy in Africa. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 42(1), 61-105.
[5] Luna, J. (2019). Political Financing in Developing Countries: A Case from Ghana.
[6] Manow, P. (2007). Electoral rules and legislative turnover: Evidence from Germany’s mixed electoral system. West European Politics, 30(1), 195-207.
[7] Omotola, J. S. (2015). Opposition Merger, Electoral Turnover and Democratisation in Nigeria. Electoral Institute.
[8] Onuigbo, R. A., & Eme, O. (2015). Legislative Turnover in the National Assembly: A Study of the South–East Zone, 1999-2015. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: F Political Science, 15(7), 1-23.
[9] Salvati, E., & Vercesi, M. (2018). Party Organizations and Legislative Turnover. Italian Political Science, 13(1), 82-94.

Harrison Kofi Belley “Parliamentary Turnover in Ghana’s Fourth Republic: Perspectives of Members of Parliament” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.332-336 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/332-336.pdf

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Grassroots Women and Livelihood Opportunities for the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals

AJEDE Salamat Atinuke (PhD) – July 2020 Page No.: 337-342

This analytical study, persuasive type, analyzed the linkages between grassroots women livelihood opportunities and the achievement of the sustainable development goals. The study explains how grassroots women have been playing major role in the production of goods and services particularly the cultivation of farmland. More importantly, the role of women in the production, processing and cultivation of food was emphasized. In spite of all the above, the study argues that, women particularly grassroots women, remain the hardest hit in poverty and hunger due to inadequate means of livelihoods, lack of opportunities for improved livelihood potentials as well as other challenges. Furthermore, in spite of the fact that rural and grassroots women produce most of the world food; they are most often denied land tenure and credits for their business while also contending with other discriminatory practices that negatively impinge on their livelihood opportunities. On the other hand, the new paradigm for development, the SDGs (the Sustainable Development Goals) believes in not leaving anybody behind for the achievement of all the lofty goals. It therefore becomes imperative, that all obstacles and constraints preventing grassroots women from developing their full livelihood potentials be removed or reduced to its barest minimum. And for the SDGs to be achieved, grassroots women must be given the opportunity they need to improve their livelihood potentials as well as enhance their participation in the labor market.

Page(s): 337-342                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 August 2020

 AJEDE Salamat Atinuke (PhD)
Sociological Studies Department, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu Ode, Nigeria

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[4] Amman Alinejad, 2017.Women in Iran are Wearing White on Wednesday .A Publication of the Global Citizens, June, 2017 Edition, New Jersey, U S A.
[5] Fides, M. F., 2016 Why Organized Grassroots Women Matter in the Sustainable Development of Rural Communities. A Publication of the Huairou Commission, the Philippines UN
[6] Fordman, M. (2013) Leading Resilient Development: Grassroots Women’s Priorities, Pritices and Innovation. Groots International, Northumbria University School of the Built and Natural Environment In Conjunction with the United Nations Development Programme 2013
[7] Garuso, C., 2020. The UN Secrtary –General Just Called Gender Inequality ‘’ Stupid’’ A Publication of Global Citizens Online Magazine. https://www globalcitizen.org
[8] Guterres, A. 2020. Leaders To Push To Dismantle Barriers to Gender Equality. A Presentation at the African Union Summit Organized by the African Union Council in Conjunction with the Economic Commission For Africa and the United Nations Women. A Publication of the Communication Section, Economic Commission for Africa, P. O. Box3001, Addis Ababa.
[9] Jahan, S 2020. Report of the Human Development Index. Publication of the Global Citizens Online Magazine https://www globalcitizen.org
[10] Lokpobiri, H. 2017. To boost local production, FG plans to rest issuing of Fish Importation quota. A Publication of the Business Highlights Magazine, 16 August, 2017
[11] Kapur, R. 2019. Livelihood Opportunities In Rural Areas. A Publication of the Research Gate DOI:10.31080/ ASAG. 2019.03.05.49
[12] Mabogunje, A. 2017. Chairman’s Opening Statement. A Presentation at 17th Annual General Meeting of the Ijebu Development for Poverty Reduction. Hertage Hall, AafinAwujale, Ijebu ode, June 2017
[13] Ngoyi, J. P. (2016). Sustainable Development Goals (FROM MDGs –SDGs) Actions towards 2030. A Publication of the Justice Development and Peace Commission JDPC, GRA, Ijebu ode, South/West, Nigeria
[14] Oldfield, Jennifer. (2019) The Problem of Lagging Data for Development and What to do About it A Publication of the United Nations Development Programme. UN Reports, 2019
[15] Shearman, S. 2020, Young Women In Britain Contribute 140 Billion in Unpaid Labour. A Publication of Thomson Reuters Foundation. Global Citizen Online https://www globalcitizen.org
[16] Voicu M and Tufis, P. A., 2012 Trends in gender beliefs in Romania Current Sociology Volume 60 Number 1 Journal of the International Sociological Association. A Publication of SAGE. CPL Group(UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR04YY. http://csl.sagepub.com
[17] Wesley, M. and Dublon, D. 2015 Empowering Women at the Grassroots. A Publication of Stanford SOCIAL INNOVATION Review

AJEDE Salamat Atinuke (PhD) “Grassroots Women and Livelihood Opportunities for the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.337-342 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/337-342.pdf

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Socio-economic Factors determining Teenage Pregnancy in Ede South Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria

Gabriel Olusola OWAGBEMI, Rachael Seun OLUWADARE – July 2020 Page No.: 343-349

The study seeks to examine the socio-economic factors determining teenage pregnancy; its effects on teenage pregnant woman; public attitude to teenage pregnancy and how to reduce teen pregnancy in Ede south local government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Quantitative method of data collection through the use of questionnaire was employed to elicit information from 120 respondents who were randomly selected from the study area. The study found that, 95% of the respondent attributed teen pregnancy to parents’ socio-economic status. Similarly 97.5% of the respondents were of the view that the environment that a child grew could cause teenage pregnancy; Majority of the respondents (84.2%) felt that lack of adequate sex education for a girl child could cause teenage pregnancy. Its effects on a girl-child range from; exposure of a girl child to hardship (95.9%); it truncates a girl child’s ambition (82.5%); The ways to curb teen pregnancies also range from; involvement of parents in their daughters’ sexual affairs (71.7%); public sensitization by government on the danger of teenage pregnancy (94.2%). The test of hypothesis established that public attitude towards teenage pregnancy has a significant positive relationship with the effect of teenage pregnancy [r (118) = 0.02, p < .05], Based on the findings the following recommendations are therefore made; sex education for a girl child at all levels. Mothers should be involved in their daughters' sexual affairs; teenage pregnancy should be discouraged by religious organization, and there should be government sensitisation against teen pregnancy.

Page(s): 343-349                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2020

 Gabriel Olusola OWAGBEMI
Department of Sociology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Rachael Seun OLUWADARE
Department of Human Kinetics & Health Education, Adekunle Ajasin University

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Gabriel Olusola OWAGBEMI, Rachael Seun OLUWADARE “Socio-economic Factors determining Teenage Pregnancy in Ede South Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.343-349 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/343-349.pdf

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Influence of Personality Traits on English Language Performance of Secondary School Students in Oyo

Samuel, Joseph Gana, Adeogun, Rebecca Oluwafeyisayomi, Asokere, Sunday Idowu – July 2020 Page No.: 350-355

The study examined the influence of personality traits on English Language performance of secondary school students in Oyo Town, Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The population of the study comprised all senior secondary school three (SSS 3) in Oyo. Specifically, the study targeted Senior Secondary School three (SSS 3) students from 10 secondary schools in Oyo Town. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 300 respondents from the randomly selected secondary schools in the study area. Adapted questionnaire from John and Srisava (1999) was used to determine the Personality Traits of the sampled respondents and Academic Performance Test extracted from 2017/2018 WASSCE English Language past questions was used to determine the academic performance of the students. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained using Cronbach Alpha. The personality traits scale yielded reliability coefficient values of 0.79. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of percentage and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings of the study revealed that the personality trait that is predominant among the students was openness to experience and followed by extraversion personality traits. The second finding revealed that the level of academic performance of secondary school students in English Language in Oyo town was low. It was recommended among others that teachers, parents and students should be educated on the knowledge of individual differences of which personality trait plays a major role on how one react to issues and academic activities and performance in school.

Page(s): 350-355                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 August 2020

 Samuel, Joseph Gana
Department of Social Sciences Education, University of Ilorin

 Adeogun, Rebecca Oluwafeyisayomi
Department of Social Sciences Education, University of Ilorin

 Asokere, Sunday Idowu
Department of Social Sciences Education, University of Ilorin

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Samuel, Joseph Gana, Adeogun, Rebecca Oluwafeyisayomi, Asokere, Sunday Idowu “Influence of Personality Traits on English Language Performance of Secondary School Students in Oyo ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.350-355 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/350-355.pdf

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Leveraging Parental involvement in the Education of their Children as a Conflict Resolution strategy in selected Secondary Schools, Zambia

Daliso Mwase, Eunifridah Simuyaba, Godfrey Mwewa, Gistered Muleya & Francis Simui – July 2020 Page No.: 356-365

This study explored parental involvement in the education of their children as a conflict resolution strategy in the Kafue district of Lusaka province in Zambia. 28 participants were purposively engaged within a qualitative research methodology to generate evidence. Key among the findings revealed that factors that affected parents’ involvement in education of their children at school were negative attitude, lack of understanding and financial constraints. Similarly, when school authorities are not communicating effectively with parents, it created a vacuum of information which all stakeholders needed. A challenge in some situation was distance, sometimes distance becomes a hindrance for parents to participate in the affairs of the school. Distance to the school was one other contributing factor that affected parents’ involvement in education of their school going children. Thus, the study recommends among others that, Parents should provide their children with basic needs such as food, shelter and clothes, learning materials like exercises books adequate academic and moral attention, unconditional love and the opportunity to develop responsible citizenship. Equally, Teacher should demonstrate friendliness, respect and recognition of parents of students registered in secondary schools in order to encourage them to get involved in school activities. Further, Education policy makers are urged to develop a parental involvement policy in secondary schools to guide practice.

Page(s): 356-365                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 August 2020

 Daliso Mwase
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Eunifridah Simuyaba
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Godfrey Mwewa
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Gistered Muleya
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Francis Simui
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

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Daliso Mwase, Eunifridah Simuyaba, Godfrey Mwewa, Gistered Muleya & Francis Simui “Leveraging Parental involvement in the Education of their Children as a Conflict Resolution strategy in selected Secondary Schools, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.356-365 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/356-365.pdf

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The Development of Creative Learning Based on Student Centered Learning on Post Harvest Physiology and Technology

E. Basuki, Zainuri, R. Widyasari, R. Nofrida, Sukmawaty, and D. A. Setiawati – July 2020 Page No.: 366-369

The new paradigm formed which was the teaching and learning process centered on lecturers (Teacher Centered Learning = TCL) is now a student-centered learning (Student Centered Learning = SCL), which is expected to encourage students to be actively involved in building knowledge, attitude and behavior. In the SCL process, students get the opportunity and facilities to build their own knowledge so that they will gain a deep understanding and ultimately improve their quality The aim of SCL are: 1. Improve the quality of learning. 2. Creating a meaningful and interconnected picture of knowledge, increasing and stimulating student curiosity about knowledge. 3. Developing the potential of students potentially. Development of Creative Learning Based on SCL on Postharvest Physiology and Technology Courses by Learning methods can be interpreted as a method used to implement plans that have been prepared in the form of real and practical activities to achieve learning objectives. Several programs in SCL-based learning that have been implemented and used to implement learning strategies include: (A) Formation of Small Group Discussion, (B). Simulation, (C) Utilization of Information with Discovery Learning (DL).(D). Enabling Self Directed Learning (SDL) . (E). Enabling Cooperative Learning (CL). (F). Motivate for Collaborative Learning (CbL).

Page(s): 366-369                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 August 2020

 E. Basuki
Faculty of Food Technology and Agro-Industry, University of Mataram Jl. Majapahit no 62 Mataram Indonesia 83125

 Zainuri
Faculty of Food Technology and Agro-Industry, University of Mataram Jl. Majapahit no 62 Mataram Indonesia 83125

 R. Widyasari
Faculty of Food Technology and Agro-Industry, University of Mataram Jl. Majapahit no 62 Mataram Indonesia 83125

 R. Nofrida
Faculty of Food Technology and Agro-Industry, University of Mataram Jl. Majapahit no 62 Mataram Indonesia 83125

 Sukmawaty
Faculty of Food Technology and Agro-Industry, University of Mataram Jl. Majapahit no 62 Mataram Indonesia 83125

 D. A. Setiawati
Faculty of Food Technology and Agro-Industry, University of Mataram Jl. Majapahit no 62 Mataram Indonesia 83125

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E. Basuki, Zainuri, R. Widyasari, R. Nofrida, Sukmawaty, and D. A. Setiawati “The Development of Creative Learning Based on Student Centered Learning on Post Harvest Physiology and Technology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.366-369 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/366-369.pdf

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Traditional Institutions and Power Configuration in Contemporary Northern Nigeria: Kano State Emirate Council in Perspective

Mustapha Salihu, Yahaya Yakubu- July 2020 Page No.: 370-376

The study building on the pedestals of the governance theory sought to examine the place of traditional institutions in relation to power configuration in contemporary Northern Nigeria. In this regard, the role of the former Emir of Kano HRH Sanusi Lamido Sanusi in the build up to the February 2019 governorship election in Kano State is examined. Review of relevant literature shows the existence of a consensus across board on the purported political value of traditional institutions. It was duly observed by means of examining prior studies and gazette publications that the open support of the Emir of Kano for the opposition party almost cost the incumbent governor the election, one which he eventually won only after a re-run. To this end, the governor upon re-election initiated legislative amendments that reduced the jurisdiction of the Emir and subsequent deposition of the Emir. The actions of the Kano State government are herewith understood as steps taken checkmate the political influence of the Emir. In lieu, the study recommends for the formal inclusion of traditional institutions as intermediaries between state and society in the event that the neutrality of such institutions can be guaranteed.

Page(s): 370-376                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 August 2020

 Mustapha Salihu
Ph.D. Candidate, International Relations Department, Nile University of Nigeria

 Yahaya Yakubu
Political Science & Int’l Relations, Nile University of Nigeria

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Mustapha Salihu, Yahaya Yakubu “Traditional Institutions and Power Configuration in Contemporary Northern Nigeria: Kano State Emirate Council in Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.370-376 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/370-376.pdf

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Do Central Banks’ repo Transactions and Liquidity Infusions Increase Financial Stability Risks? A Case for Circular Monetary Economics

Henri Kouam – July 2020 Page No.: 377-386

Central banks repo market operations and liquidity infusions occasion a structural liquidity mismatch in bank balance sheets and increase the dependence on central bank liquidity. This paper argues for what I term “Circular Monetary Economics”, an approach to monetary policy that seeks to green and prudentially insulate the design and implementation of liquidity and credit facilities. Circular monetary economics will lessen the probability of cross-asset contamination within financial institutions and contagion within the broader financial system, whilst simultaneously improving the transmissions from changes in the policy rate as well as macro-prudential regimes in the event of a climate or credit-driven financial shock.

Page(s): 377-386                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 August 2020

 Henri Kouam
Fellow in Economics, Nkafu Policy Institute

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Henri Kouam “Do Central Banks’ repo Transactions and Liquidity Infusions Increase Financial Stability Risks? A Case for Circular Monetary Economics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.377-386 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/377-386.pdf

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Relevance of Financial Literacy in Financial Sector Development and Stability in Nigeria

Okere, Peter A. Phd, Mbanasor, Christian O. Phd & Uzokwe, Nnamdi J. Phd – July 2020 Page No.: 387-391

This study was aimed at assessing the relevance of financial literacy in financial sector development and stability in Nigeria. The study theoretically evaluated the relevance of financial literacy in stability and development of financial sector in Nigeria with more reference to the deposit money banks. Financial literacy is a set of skills and knowledge that allows an individual to make informed and effective decisions with all of their financial resources. From the literature, it was observed that financial literacy promotes financial system stability by increasing market demand, equitable use of financial services, improves savings culture and financial discipline, and stimulates economic activity. Financial literacy is essential for a viable financial system which in turn positively affects the economy as a whole. Lack of financial knowledge is the main driver that pulls people away from financial markets. The study therefore recommend that professional bodies like Chartered Institute of Banker of Nigeria (CIBN), Chartered Institute of Loan and Risk Management of Nigeria (CILRMN) etc should expedite more actions to incorporate financial literacy as part of professional training and organize capacity building for members and other target groups. Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in collaborate with the CBN and other stakeholders in the implementation of financial literacy initiatives should continuously carry out in-house training programmes and capacity building for staff who will subsequently educate the customers on products/services being offered especially the terms and conditions, fees, charges and risks associated with such products.

Page(s): 387-391                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 August 2020

 Okere, Peter A. Phd
Banking and Finance Department, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo-Ohaji, Nigeria

 Mbanasor, Christian O. Phd
Banking and Finance Department, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo-Ohaji, Nigeria

 Uzokwe, Nnamdi J. Phd
Banking and Finance Department, Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagwo-Ohaji, Nigeria

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[13]. Onukwugha, A. (2013). CBN Kick-starts Financial Literacy Programme for Nigerians from http://leadership.ng/news/281013/cbn-kick-starts-financial-literacyprogramme-nigerians
[14]. ResearchClue.com website (2013). The Impact of Financial Literacy on Economic Development http://leadership.ng/news/281013/cbn-kick-starts-financial-literacyprogramme-
[15]. Shankari S, Navarathinam K, Suganya R (2014). ‗Financial Literacy towards Banking Products and Services: A survey‘, Int. J. Manage. Res. Rev. 4(3):396-402 ISSN: 2249-7196.

Okere, Peter A. Phd, Mbanasor, Christian O. Phd & Uzokwe, Nnamdi J. Phd “Relevance of Financial Literacy in Financial Sector Development and Stability in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.387-391 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/387-391.pdf

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Errors in Music Copying: A Synchronic Examination

George Asabre Maclean, Emmanuel Obed Acquah – July 2020 Page No.: 392-400

The proliferation of choral groups and the growth of choral musical performances in Ghana have resulted in many gathering of repertoire among the groups, thereby, encouraging music copying practice to create such archives. This practice has exposed the far-reaching effects of errors made in the attempt to write a new musical piece, re-write an existing musical score or score an unwritten tune using either pencil and manuscript or computer technologies. Using exploratory bibliographic research design, 4 musical pieces were purposively and randomly sampled and analysed for wrong placement of pitches on the musical staff, omission of important indications for performance, misleading performance directions or indications and wrong rhythm notation. This phenomenon was examined by using score study in printed sheets and published music books. There is usually direct substitution effect as much as the intention of the composer and performance of the music are concerned. It is therefore recommended that copyists of musical scores take time to verify the originality of the scores in order to reduce errors considerably for distribution, sharing and storage.

Page(s): 392-400                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 August 2020

 George Asabre Maclean
Department of Music Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 Emmanuel Obed Acquah
Department of Music Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

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[12] Methodist Conference Office (1933). The Methodist hymn book. London: MCO City Road
[13] Negus, K., Street, J., & Behr, A. (2017). Copying, copyright and originality: imitation, transformation and popular musicians. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 20(4), 363-380.
[14] Sekyi-Baidoo, J.Y., Amuah, J.A. & Akossah, C. (Eds.). (2006). Methodist Praise. Cape coast: Nyakod Printing Works
[15] Wright, J. L., Oppenheim, D. V., Jameson, D., Pazel, D., & Fuhrer, R. (1997). CyberBand: A”Hands-On” Music Composition Program.In ICMC.

George Asabre Maclean, Emmanuel Obed Acquah “Errors in Music Copying: A Synchronic Examination” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.392-400 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/392-400.pdf

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Impact of Agricultural Policies on the Farming Co-Operatives in Katete District Eastern Province of Zambia, 1964-1991

Chabu Martin – July 2020 Page No.: 401-417

The study establish a historical background as to why co-operative were formed in Katete district Eastern Province of Zambia, as a source of income for bulk of the rural people and social economic consequence of their development. This forms an important historical background and also demonstrates deep roots of the co-operative movement in Zambia. The study also asses the performance of co-operatives and how the agriculture polices impacted on farming co-operatives a period 1964-91. In order to assess the effects of the co-operative movement, the study used data gathered from Katete District, Eastern Province of Zambia from member who once worked in the co-operative societies and non-members of the co-operative societies. Data was collected by means of a qualitative approach using unpublished, published and oral sources which were also consulted. The findings were tentative analyzed strongly and points to the important role that farming co-operatives societies have played on agricultural development in rural areas and this is clearly reflected in the differential performance in farming co-operative activities and the socio-economic attributes of member and non-members. The results indicated a marked difference among categories in terms of access to agriculture inputs, knowledge, and technology acquisition of material. By and large the findings support that the agricultural policies between 1964 and 1991 which was under United National Independence Party (UNIP) were successful in managing co-operatives. There was an advantage in the membership of the co-operative society suggesting co-operatives the catalytic ability of the co-operative movements which boosted agricultural development and thereby, offering a viable channel to peasants to come out of vicious cycle of rural poverty.

Page(s): 401-417                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 August 2020

 Chabu Martin

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Chabu Martin “Impact of Agricultural Policies on the Farming Co-Operatives in Katete District Eastern Province of Zambia, 1964-1991” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.401-417 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/401-417.pdf

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A Case Study on the Interference of Bahasa Melayu (L1) on the Tenses Used in Writing English (L2) Essays among Form Two Secondary Students

Amanpreet Kaur – July 2020 Page No.: 418-425

Writing in English language is one of the most challenging skills faced by English language learners in Malaysia especially if they do not have a good proficiency in the language. This study is to identify tenses transferred negatively and positively from L1 (Bahasa Melayu) to English (L2) essays among Form Two secondary students in one of the national schools in Ipoh, Perak. The design of this study is a qualitative which is appropriate to identify the phenomena. Two types of methods were used to collect data. The data collection instruments were document analysis and interview. To execute the study 24 writing samples were chosen from low proficiency level of students. They were instructed to write about 100 word essays on a given topic in English. The tenses were later corroborated and compared to substantiate the theoretical arguments in the field of language transfer. From the findings, it was found that mother tongue highly interferes in students’ writing in simple present tense, simple past tense and future simple tense. In addition, it was found that the sample employed a translation method although they understand the importance of English language.

Page(s): 418-425                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 August 2020

 Amanpreet Kaur
School of English, Faculty of Social Sciences, Quest International University Perak (QIU), Malaysia

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Amanpreet Kaur “A Case Study on the Interference of Bahasa Melayu (L1) on the Tenses Used in Writing English (L2) Essays among Form Two Secondary Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.418-425 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/418-425.pdf

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A Descriptive Study of Stigmatization of Mental Illness: Findings from Yobe State, Nigeria

Dr. Sabo Saleh Dagona, Khamis Abdulrahman Abba – July 2020 Page No.: 426-431

I. INTRODUCTION

Mental illness is a clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome associated with distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning), or with a significantly increased risk of suffering, death or an important loss of freedom. In addition, the syndrome must not be merely a predictable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, such as the death of a loved one. Whatever its original source, it must be considered a manifestation of a behavioural, psychological or biological dysfunction in the individual (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Mental illness can affect anyone. But some people are more at risk than others due to factors such as age, gender, economic status, disability or substance abuse. When it arises, mental illness reduces the sufferer to a level of helplessness, thereby leading to suffering. It affects the individual’s process of thinking and ability to function, consequently reducing his/her social roles and overall productivity in the community. Mental health problems place a huge burden on the family and the community at large. They are the leading cause of all non-fatal disease worldwide (Whiteford et al., 2013). Mental illness can develop at different stages of an individual’s life. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is evident from very early childhood, when children start school, as their behaviour can be compared to others of the same age, whereas conditions such as schizophrenia can develop in the late teens to early twenties for men and early to late twenties in women, There are no set conditions as to whom mental illness can affect; it often depends on the individuals’ life circumstances and events, just as is the case with physical illness (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Page(s): 426-431                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 August 2020

 Dr. Sabo Saleh Dagona
Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and management Sciences Yobe State University Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Khamis Abdulrahman Abba
Nigeian Army University, Biu Borno State, Nigeria

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Dr. Sabo Saleh Dagona, Khamis Abdulrahman Abba “A Descriptive Study of Stigmatization of Mental Illness: Findings from Yobe State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) vol.4 issue 7, pp.426-431 July 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-4-issue-7/426-431.pdf

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Assessment of Enabling Environment for Public-Private Partnership in Water Supply Management, Lafia Town

Bashayi Obadiah – July 2020 Page No.: 432-440

Governments the world over, especially in developing countries, are experiencing an ever-increasing demand for improved health care, water supply, sanitation, education, housing and so on. The rising population and recent economic crisis in developing countries has affected provision of urban services neither the state nor the private sector alone can efficiently provide adequate water supply for the urban population. This paper therefore assessed enabling environment for partnership in Lafia town. The study population was 263,998 with total household of 20,308 and a sample of 500 representing 2.5% total households was chosen. The study adopt a three-stage stratified sampling method which Lafia town was divided into three Water Board area offices namely Lafia East, Lafia North and Lafia West and a systematic random sampling was used to administer questionnaires. The result of the assessment of shows that PPP is possible in Lafia town and lease contract is more favourable. The study recommends Government should formulate clear legislation and regulatory systems and qualified local, national and regional enterprises should be given the opportunity to compete for PPPs. Finally, PSP is not viewed as a rigid model, rather as a wide range of options which, at a minimum, seek to introduce commercial criteria in pricing, service delivery and/or allocation of resources.

Page(s): 432-440                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 August 2020

 Bashayi Obadiah
B.URP, M.Sc in Urban Management, Principal Lecturer, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia, Nigeria

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