The Impact of Public Librarians’ Leadership Traits on Employee Motivation: Study Based on Public Library Employees in Sri Lanka

Dr. A.W.V. Athukorala – September 2021 – Page No.: 01-07

The success of every business is dependent on both effective management and good leadership. Managers cannot accomplish organizational or managerial performance unless they possess leadership skills. Employee motivation is inextricably linked to a manager’s leadership skills. Public libraries, being service-oriented organizations, require both leaders and excellent managers to fulfill their organizational vision and mission. Librarians are the most significant leaders or managers in the public library sector from a managerial perspective. Librarians’ primary tasks include motivating public library staff to achieve organizational goals as well as personnel achievements. In this context, the objective of this study is to examine how leadership traits of public librarians influence staff motivation and how they affect public library workers’ work performance. This research was carried out after taught of a leadership course for postgraduate students at a higher education institution. The population of this research was made up of students who worked in public libraries. A total of 100 students (n) were included in the sample, all of whom had studied leadership principles as part of their coursework. The study’s sample size was determined using the snowball sampling approach. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were verified prior to statistical analysis, and the cronbach alpha value for the items evaluating the impact of librarian’s’ leadership traits on employee motivation and work performance was discovered as 0.73. Research found that, Employee motivation and achievement are impossible if public librarians do not share their attentiveness and skills with them. The employee suffers when commands, communications, and behaviors are created only on terror, and managements are based on pressure. The research found that there is no numerical relationship Gender, age, and educational credentials are examples of socio-demographic variables. Professions, years spent working in a public library, and the type of leadership they believe motivates them. Further study found that, there is no correlation between public librarians’ socio demographic factors and leadership trails. Public Librarians’ views and actions regarding motivation are mirrored in their motivating behaviors toward workers. The extent to which public library personnel exercise their authority has an impact on their perception of power as a motivator in leadership. The variables that will improve the motivation of public library personnel at work do not differ based on their socio demographic features. Employee success and motivation are not desirable outcomes, and evaluation is not a suggested alternative in this respect. Library staff will be more motivated and their job performance more proliferation if the public librarian is democratic rather than authoritarian, has a specialty in the topic, and has charismatic and interactionist leadership qualities in their actions, words, and interactions.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5901

 Dr. A.W.V. Athukorala
Sri Palee Campus, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

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Dr. A.W.V. Athukorala, “The Impact of Public Librarians’ Leadership Traits on Employee Motivation: Study Based on Public Library Employees in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.01-07 September 2021 DOI:

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Peer Sexual Harassment in Zimbabwe State Universities: A Qualitative Exploratory Study.

Daniel Mawere – September 2021 Page No.: 08-15

The study aimed at exploring and understanding undergraduate female students’ experiences of sexual harassment by male peers on and around university campuses. The hegemonic masculinity perspective and the socio-cultural model combined to inform the study. The population of the study consisted of a purposive sample of 20 female undergraduate students in two state universities. Qualitative in-depth interviews were done to obtain understanding of how peer sexual harassment was experienced by undergraduate female students. Data was collected through one-on-one audio recorded semi-structured interviews. Analysis of data was conducted using a narrative approach. Peer sexual harassment, perpetrated by male students, was a reality in the lives of female undergraduate students. Universities need to invest their efforts in addressing peer sexual harassment. Despite the fact that sexual harassment of female undergraduate students was taking place at the two state universities, victims seldom reported. Undergraduate female students need to be empowered to become more aware of the nature and extent of sexual harassment. A decrease in peer sexual harassment incidences is realizable if universities improve aspects of their climate and culture. The is need for counselling of victims in order to mitigate the negative impact of peer sexual harassment.

Page(s): 08-15                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5902

 Daniel Mawere
Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

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Daniel Mawere. “Peer Sexual Harassment in Zimbabwe State Universities: A Qualitative Exploratory Study.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.08-15 September 2021  DOI:

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Residential Mobility Behaviour amongst Households within Enugu Metropolis: does a change in household income matter?

Ehiemere, Nnamdi D & Professor Ogbuefi, Joseph U. – September 2021 – Page No.: 16-23

Residential mobility behaviour amongst urban households is indicative of households’ response to the need to optimize housing consumption. Social and economic considerations play a significant role and can either encourage or inhibit residential mobility. This research investigated the influence of variations in household income on household residential mobility behaviour in Enugu metropolis between 2007 and 2017. Survey research design was adopted and a sample of 865 households was randomly drawn from the three municipalities which make up Enugu metropolis. Observation checklists were used to collect data on housing conditions while questionnaires were used to elicit responses from households on their demographic data and residential mobility behaviour. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize household demographic data and analyse household residential mobility behaviour. Findings revealed that changes in household income, though negligible for the majority, translated to an 8% increase in households’ demand for flats. Consequently, variations in household income affected the ability of households to optimize housing consumption.

Page(s): 16-23                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5903

 Ehiemere, Nnamdi D
Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus

 Professor Ogbuefi, Joseph U.
Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus

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Ehiemere, Nnamdi D & Professor Ogbuefi, Joseph U., “Residential Mobility Behaviour amongst Households within Enugu Metropolis: does a change in household income matter?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.16-23 September 2021 DOI:

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Rural Women and Family Planning Use in Selected Communities in Oye Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Egbo, Ken Amaechi- September 2021 Page No.: 24-32

Family planning is a program that supports the rights of women and girls to freely choose for themselves, how many children they want to have. Nigeria population was estimated at around 190.88 million people and 410.6 million people by year 2050 all things being equal. Nigeria is currently the most populous country in Africa and the7th most populous nation in the world and projected to be the third country with highest population. Annual population increase is 4.5 million and estimated annual growth rate of 3% per annum. This rapid population growth is alarming and it is primarily sustained by the fertility level in the country. At the moment, Nigeria Total Fertility Rate is 5.5, which is one of the highest TFR in Africa, such rapid population growth and high TFR demand attention. This study is therefore carried out to investigate the family planning practice, knowledge, types and reasons for not using family planning among rural women in Oye and Ilupeju communities in Ekiti State with a view to making necessary recommendations that would improve family planning practices. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Oye and Ilupeju communities in Ekiti State. The target population was women of reproductive age 15 and above in Oye and Ilupeju communities. A convenience sampling technique was used to select the respondents. All data were statistically analyzed, using statistical package for social sciences and statistical test of significance was performed with chi-square test. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study. The main determinant of the use of family planning in Oye and Ilupeju communities is spouse decision making, and most of the respondent have heard and use more than one method of family planning. Indication shows that spouse decision making influences the use of family planning in Oye and Ilupeju communities in Ekiti. Conclusively, recommendation is thereby made for more awareness of men towards the use of family planning in Oye and Ilupeju communities.

Page(s): 24-32                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2021

 Egbo, Ken Amaechi
Department of Criminology and Security Studies, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

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[19] World Health Organization (2013). World Fertility Report: Fertility at the Extreme. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division

Egbo, Ken Amaechi, “Rural Women and Family Planning Use in Selected Communities in Oye Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.24-32 September 2021  URL :

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The HRM Function in Church and Faith Based Organisations in Zimbabwe: Interrogating the current Status and Practices?

Sazane Jethro Ngwenya, Dean Moyo, Theresi Sibanda – September 2021 – Page No.: 33-42

The HRM function has been proven to play a critical role in most regulated social institutions as it provides stability, strategic direction for growth, relevant guidance on industrial relations and effective conflict resolution yet there exist deep and diverse entrenched sectoral opinions on the applicability, efficacy and usefulness of the of human resource function. The paper focuses on the need to understand the current status and practices of the Human Resource Management function in Faith Based organisations in Zimbabwe by highlighting the organisations’ stance and inclinations towards the application, efficacy and usefulness of the Human Resource Management function against the “biblical and spiritual” nature as observed and suggested by some scholars. In addition, the paper endeavours to establish the challenges faced by Faith based organisations as they adapt and adopt the Human Resource Function in their structures and operations. The paper adopts a qualitative paradigm, drawing on the general systems theoretical view point to offer deeper insight into the current status and prevailing practices in the implementation of the Human Resource Management Function in Faith Based or Church based organisations in Zimbabwe. The article provides a detailed description of the way in which the HRM function is utilised in Zimbabwean Faith based or Church organisations. The article also demonstrates how the general systems theory can contribute towards a deeper understanding of the current status and prevailing practices in so far as HRM practices are concerned. The findings of the paper show that the HR function is not given much attention neither is it being practised professionally within Faith based organisations in Zimbabwe. The paper among other recommendations largely recommends that the bible schools should include in the curriculum for the clergy who are the leaders in the church, human resource management modules among other administration courses so as to enlighten the church on the need for professional human resource management.

Page(s): 33-42                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 25 September 2021

Sazane Jethro Ngwenya
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

Dean Moyo
Global Institute Hospitality and Tourism, Zimbabwe

Theresi Sibanda
Joshua Mqabuko Polytechnic College, Zimbabwe

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Sazane Jethro Ngwenya, Dean Moyo, Theresi Sibanda, “The HRM Function in Church and Faith Based Organisations in Zimbabwe: Interrogating the current Status and Practices?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.33-42 September 2021 URL:

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Digitalization of Teaching and Learning: Experiences and Opportunities in Selected Higher Learning Institutions in Zambia

Rose Chikopela, Francis S. Sikanyika, Cynthia N. Kalizinje, Grace Sondashi – September 2021 – Page No.: 43-53

The study was undertaken to analyze higher learning institutions’ e-learning policies post COVID-19. A descriptive research design was used. The sample comprised 10 administrators and 15 lectures in 10 Universities, and 30 students who were randomly selected. Data was collected using questionnaires while analysis of data was done using SPSS to obtain descriptive statistics. The study revealed that Universities have e-learning policies in place and are prepared for digital teaching and learning. The study established that lecturers and students prefer traditional face-to-face learning to e-learning. Though e-learning has opportunities in the COVID-19 era such as time and cost effective, and enhancing learning to a larger crowd outside campus, it is expensive to many institutions of higher learning due to high costs of maintenance of equipment, software and training of staff on online teaching. In addition, learners also find it challenging to use e-learning platforms due to factors such as poor internet connectivity, electricity load shedding which results in prolonged power outage and expensive data bundles in Zambia. The study concludes that e-learning is the safest mode of teaching during this period of COVID-19 and that despite learners favoring the traditional face-to-face learning, they must adapt to e-learning. Therefore, the study recommends that institutions of higher learning create digital technologies at local level such as Personal Learning Network (PLN) and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) which are cost effective and easy to setup.

Page(s): 43-53                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 25 September 2021

Rose Chikopela
Zambia Institute of Special Education, Department of Hearing Impairment, Lusaka, Zambia

Francis S. Sikanyika
Bwalya Mponda Secondary School, Department of Guidance and Counselling, Lunga, Zambia

Cynthia N. Kalizinje
Royal Monze Institute of Medical Evangelism, Department of Philanthropy, Lusaka, Zambia

Grace Sondashi
Libala Secondary School, Department of Guidance and Counselling, Lusaka, Zambia

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Rose Chikopela, Francis S. Sikanyika, Cynthia N. Kalizinje, Grace Sondashi , “Digitalization of Teaching and Learning: Experiences and Opportunities in Selected Higher Learning Institutions in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.43-53 September 2021 URL:

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Education and Years of Experience as Determinants of Coaches’ Training Needs Relating to Coaching and Mentoring Skills for Professional Practice in Benue State

Terkimbi Victor Ikpato, John Ityonande Ityodugh, Tavershima Kparev, Okeke Elizabeth Chidinma, Akpu Emmanuel Emeka, Mary Agajah – September 2021 – Page No.: 54-59

Purpose: This study assessed education and years of experience as determinants of coaching and mentoring skills for professional practice in Benue State to assess the differences in coaching and mentoring skills based on educational qualification and years of experience. Methods: and Materials: The research design that was adopted for this study was survey research design. The Population of the study consisted of all the coaches of Benue State Sports Council Makurdi. One hundred and sixty two (162) coaches of Benue State Sports Council were used for the study. A structured questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection in the study. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse differences in coaches’ level of education in coaching and mentoring skills. The independent sample t-test was used to find out years of experience differences in coaching and mentoring skills. All the analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23) at 0.05 level of significance. Findings: The mean rating by coaches on their training needs ranged between 2.78 and 3.00. The analysis further indicated that, there is a significant difference in the mean ratings of educational level of coaches in Benue State on training needs relating to coaching and mentoring skills (p<0.05).Conversely, there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of years of experience of coaches in Benue State on training needs relating to coaching and mentoring skills (p>0.05). Conclusion: The study concluded that more experienced coaches should be aware that as coaches they are leaders and mentors and should build their capacity to maintain and sustain their wellbeing and that of others for their professional practice.

Page(s): 54-59                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 25 September 2021

Terkimbi Victor Ikpato
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

John Ityonande Ityodugh
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

Tavershima Kparev
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

Okeke Elizabeth Chidinma
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Akpu Emmanuel Emeka
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

Mary Agajah
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

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Terkimbi Victor Ikpato, John Ityonande Ityodugh, Tavershima Kparev, Okeke Elizabeth Chidinma, Akpu Emmanuel Emeka, Mary Agajah, “Education and Years of Experience as Determinants of Coaches’ Training Needs Relating to Coaching and Mentoring Skills for Professional Practice in Benue State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.54-59 September 2021 URL:

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The Influence of Organizational Commitment, Competence, Academic Atmosphere on Motivation and Performance (Study on State Elementary School Teachers in Region 3T: Lagging, Frontier, Outermost)

Alimudin Muhammad, Muhammad Basir-Cyio, Bakri Hasanuddin – September 2021 – Page No.: 60-75

The purpose of this study is to empirically test and explain (1) the effect of organizational commitment on motivation, (2) the effect of Competence on motivation, (3) the influence of the academic atmosphere on motivation, (4) the effect of organizational commitment on performance, (5) the effect of Competence on performance, (6) the effect of the academic atmosphere on performance, and (7) the effect of motivation on performance. This type of research is explanatory research. The research sample is teachers who work in the 3 T region (Lagging, Frontier, Outermost) in Tojo Una-Una Regency, Central Sulawesi Province, and the number of samples is 200 teachers. The data analysis method uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the results show that (1) organizational commitment has a significant effect on motivation, (2) competence has no significant effect on

Page(s): 60-75                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 25 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5908

Alimudin Muhammad
Tadulako University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Palu-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Muhammad Basir-Cyio
Tadulako University, Faculty of Agriculture, Palu-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Bakri Hasanuddin
Tadulako University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Palu-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

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Alimudin Muhammad, Muhammad Basir-Cyio, Bakri Hasanuddin “The Influence of Organizational Commitment, Competence, Academic Atmosphere on Motivation and Performance (Study on State Elementary School Teachers in Region 3T: Lagging, Frontier, Outermost)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.60-75 September 2021 DOI:

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The Democratization Process in Cameroon, Thirty (30) Years after Democratic Transition (1990-2020): Achievements, Challenges, Uncertainties and Prospects

Dr. William Hermann Arrey & Dr. Steve Tametong Nguemo Tsidie – September 2021 – Page No.: 76-82

How to apprehend and describe the democratic process in Cameroon three decades after the democratic transitions of the 90s? This is the question at the heart of this contribution, which aims to highlight the achievements, analyze the contingencies of practice and lay the groundwork for a better entrenchment of democratic culture and the rule of law. Based on the analysis of legal texts and the description of the facts, the study shows that the formal gains of the democratic process are shaken, thirty years later, by numerous crises: institutional crisis; crisis of public freedoms and the rule of law; crisis of electoral democracy. The relaunch of the democratic process necessarily requires a renewal of political leadership, the grooming of certain ‘liberticidal’ laws, the establishment of fair rules for electoral competition, the education of the people in democratic culture and the decisive contribution of the diaspora in the peace and development process of Cameroon.

Page(s): 76-82                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 25 September 2021

Dr. William Hermann Arrey
Senior Lecturer and Chair-Department of Peace and Development Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences and International Relations, Protestant University of Central Africa (PUCA). Yaoundé, Cameroon

Dr. Steve Tametong Nguemo Tsidie
Research Fellow in Democracy and Governance, Nkafu Policy Institute, Yaoundé, Cameroon

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Dr. William Hermann Arrey & Dr. Steve Tametong Nguemo Tsidie, “The Democratization Process in Cameroon, Thirty (30) Years after Democratic Transition (1990-2020): Achievements, Challenges, Uncertainties and Prospects” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.76-82 September 2021 URL:

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Correlating the diversity awareness within the organizations of Bangladesh in the era of industry 4.0-Human resource perspective

Mohammed Kamruzzaman, Sunan Islam – September 2021 – Page No.: 83-97

Organizations strategically adopt various diversity and inclusion initiatives to encourage the diversity approach of a diverse workforce. Many social science authors and HRM scholars mostly focused on studying diversity models in societal/organizational outcomes. This paper aims to study the correlations of mainly four HR practices in Bangladeshi origin organizations, i.e., employee engagement, diversity training, diversity alignment, and mutual respect, with diversity awareness of diverse workforce working in the organizations. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey of a sample size of 218 employees (108 males, 110 females) from Bangladeshi origin organizations. The statistical tools, such as reliability tests, multiple correlations, multiple regressions, ANOVA, and hypotheses tests, were used for data analysis and interpretations. This research finding showed that employee engagement, diversity training, and diversity alignment is significant to diversity awareness except for mutual respect. The present study contributes to the HRM literature by proposing a conceptual framework of how these four independent variables react to diversity awareness. The study highlights the importance of diversity awareness by diverse employees as a competitive advantage to make multi-cultural firms in the era of industry 4.0.

Page(s): 83-97                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 25 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5910

Mohammed Kamruzzaman
Assistant Professor, International University of Business Agriculture and Technology

Sunan Islam
PhD Researcher, Putra Business School, Universiti Putra Malaysia

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Mohammed Kamruzzaman, Sunan Islam , “Correlating the diversity awareness within the organizations of Bangladesh in the era of industry 4.0-Human resource perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.83-97 September 2021 DOI:

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Online Social Presence in E-Learning-Based Librarianship Education and Training Using CMC Tools

Dora Melisa, Pawito, Yulius Slamet – September 2021 – Page No.: 98-102

The Covid-19 pandemic has caused significant changes in the way people live in almost all parts of the world. Among the changes that occur are the patterns of communication and interaction that are currently mostly done online. The National Library of the Republic of Indonesia also implements a policy of communicating and interacting online in the implementation of various activities, one of which is education and training. Since October 2020, the Education and Training Center of the National Library of the Republic of Indonesia has held online e-learning-based librarianship training. The implementation of e-learning-based education and training uses asynchronous and synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication systems to support the learning process. The use of CMC in online learning provides a new communication experience for education and training participants. Changes in communication patterns from face-to-face to computer-mediated also affect the interaction of training participants. This study aims to determine how the fabric of communication and interaction occurs through Computer-Mediated Communication in creating an online social presence. The method used in this research is a case study with a qualitative approach. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and collecting other supporting documents. The results showed that online communication and interaction in e-learning-based librarianship education and training was quite well established. Although it may feel strange at first, over time the training participants can adjust to online communication and interaction patterns. Participants are more comfortable communicating and interacting using a text-based CMC system than face-to-face virtually.

Page(s): 98-102                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2021

 Dora Melisa
Communication Management, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

Communication Management, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Yulius Slamet
Communication Management, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

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Dora Melisa, Pawito, Yulius Slamet, “Online Social Presence in E-Learning-Based Librarianship Education and Training Using CMC Tools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.98-102 September 2021 URL:

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The European Union: An Analysis of Its Organs, Successes and Failures

Eyo, Idorenyin Akabom Ph.D, Akpan, Enobong Bassey LLM – September 2021 – Page No.: 103-114

The idea of a formalized system of European cooperation had been around for centuries. Since the fall of the Roman Empire in A.D. 476, leaders have dreamed of unifying Europe. Conquerors like Charlemagne, Napoleon, and Hitler tried and failed. The European integration process was initiated in the 1950’s largely as a consequence of negative experiences of the founding Member States during and in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. Maintaining peace was a primary objective at the time. It was a long-term goal of States committed to European integration which was made clear by the 1950s when the six original members of the European Economic Community (EEC) expressed their determination in the first recital of the preamble to the Treaty of Rome, ‘to lay the foundations of an even closer union among the peoples.’ This was reaffirmed in 1972 when members expressed their intention to covert ‘their entire relationship into a European Union before the end of the decade.’

Page(s): 103-114                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2021

 Eyo, Idorenyin Akabom Ph.D
Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of Uyo, Nigeria

 Akpan, Enobong Bassey LLM
Faculty of Law, University of Uyo, Nigeria

References are not available

Eyo, Idorenyin Akabom Ph.D, Akpan, Enobong Bassey LLM , “The European Union: An Analysis of Its Organs, Successes and Failures” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.103-114 September 2021 URL:

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Effects of utilization of e-learning on academic staff performance among selected tertiary institutions in Benue State, Nigeria

Uta-Ater, M.T, Nwigwe C.N. and Onwe S.O. – September 2021 – Page No.: 115-121

This study was conducted in three Universities to determine the effects of e-learning status on academic staff performance amongst selected tertiary institutions in Benue State. These were purposively restricted to degree awarding institutions in the State to achieve uniformity in subjects responses. Total number of respondents’ selected using random selection were 263. The population of this study embraced the entire 692, 420 and 205 teaching Staff of Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State University and University of Mkar respectively from the rank of Assistant lecturer to that of professor. Data for the study were collected from primary sources through the aid of a structured questionnaire. Using multi stage sampling technique; a proportion of 20% from each University was selected giving 138, 84 and 41 academic staff for Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State University and University of Mkar respectively to give a total sample of 263 respondents. The study found that, though the utilization of e-learning enhances academic staff performance it’s very much depends on the staff computer literacy, competence, self-interest and available logistics’ in the institutions. The study’s findings imply that e-learning as a strategy for enhancing academic performance needs to be given attention in infrastructures, logistics, improvement in funding and capacity building of staff from its present low status through policies.

Page(s): 115-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2021

 Uta-Ater, M.T
Department of Public Administration, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

 Nwigwe C.N.
Department of Public Administration, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

 Onwe S.O.
Department of Public Administration, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

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Uta-Ater, M.T, Nwigwe C.N. and Onwe S.O., “Effects of utilization of e-learning on academic staff performance among selected tertiary institutions in Benue State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.115-121 September 2021 URL:

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Sustainable Leadership Practices through students-community engagement for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in East Coast Malaysia

Hadijah Ahmad – September 2021 – Page No.: 122-128

The environmental issues has become the growing concern since it is highlighted massively in the Malaysia SDG Voluntary National Review 2017 and Malaysia is ambitious in taking the commitment. The aims of SDG is to tackle the critical issue of pollution, food waste, climate change, illegal trade in wildlife as well as sustainable production and consumption. There are a lot of environmental drives for comprehensive implementation in SDG however, the groundbreaking data tells the strategies formulated by UNESCO in integrating the sustainable education framework to raising the awareness and tapped the sense of responsibility in combating environmental issues and climate change is not enough to spur people sensitivity to take action The late start of SDG integration in the curriculum has a disastrous implication when society does not have the right perspectives in the form of enlightenment of what SDG might hold in the future. To further sheds the light on the real matters is, Malaysian and the attitude of littering is a never ending stories. Lack of sustainable Development Goals (SDG) into curricula and educational programs has been said in the UN. Mohammed in 2018 asserted education as a crucial component to gear the SDG. In addressing the serious impact of pollution and climate change, Malaysian are urged to inculcate the environmental knowledge in students through the environmental education in a more hands-on delivery. Thus, the prime objective formulated is shed light into level of awareness, perception and challenges of sustainable leadership practices through students-community engagement via applied mechanism in shaping future leaders by increasing the number of environmental activist for sustainability practices towards SDG initiatives. This study has been conducted in east coast Malaysia involving 275 students along with 115 participant (community) as the engagement from the society. The study conducted are using survey and semi-structured interview and compliment the need of investigation on awareness, perception and challenges of sustainable leadership practices through SDG action.

Page(s): 122-128                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5914

Department of Social Science, Centre for Human Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Pahang,
Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

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Hadijah Ahmad “Sustainable Leadership Practices through students-community engagement for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in East Coast Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.122-128 September 2021 DOI:

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Decline of the Potency of Igbo Apprenticeship Scheme in Anambra State, Nigeria

Okeke Tabansi Callistus, Osang Paul Abijia – September 2021 – Page No.: 129-135

The study-examined Igbo apprenticeship scheme in Anambra state. Its potency as it were, as it is and will be. The principal motivations of the scheme are the seed capital and mentorship given to the apprentices at the end of their indentureship and generation of employment in the state. But, the potency of the scheme is perceived to be waning. The study therefore seeks to interrogate the perceived decline of the potency of the scheme, utilising the observation method in informal workplaces and trading sites spread across the state. The study discovered that, the unwillingness of young men to take up the businesses of their fathers, study courses that will promote their growth and malicious stealing of their masters money by the apprentices are key factors that led to the decline of the scheme’s potency and the study therefore recommended that young men should key into family businesses so as to promote the heritage of business sustainability being transferred from generation to generation. Again, there should be a well-defined contractual agreement rather than oral agreement between the masters and the intending apprentices so as to protect the job creation intent of the scheme.

Page(s): 129-135                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5915

 Okeke Tabansi Callistus
Department of Economics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Osang Paul Abijia
Department of Economics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Okeke Tabansi Callistus, Osang Paul Abijia, “Decline of the Potency of Igbo Apprenticeship Scheme in Anambra State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.129-135 September 2021 DOI:

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Health Risk Communication and Awareness of Bad Cholesterol Build Up Among Sedentary Workers: A Qualitative Analyses

Chibuike Julius Nwosu, Ugochukwu Chiemezie Chukwuka, Ajagu Lilian Chinazom. – September 2021 Page No.: 136-145

The growing culture of sedentary living has remained a subject of concern in the contemporary time given its grave implication for the health wellbeing of individuals and society at large. Interestingly, research has over time demonstrated that sedentary lifestyle is associated with a host of health risks, including: obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes type two, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, mental health, depression and anxieties among others. However, among health risks of sedentary lifestyle is high cholesterol build-up, also known as hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol is a fatty substance produced in human body; it may be considered good or bad. Research has shown that the build-up of bad cholesterol in human body poses a very serious health risk which causes ones arteries to become thicker, harder and less flexible and as a result slowing down, and sometimes, blocking blood flow to ones heart. This condition literature has shown, often leads to stroke and consequently death. This research work carried out investigation into the awareness of bad cholesterol build up among sedentary workers in universities in the South-East part of Nigeria. The study made use of Key In-depth Informant research design; a qualitative research method. The sample size of 18 key informants was purposively selected and interviewed. The study was anchored on the Health Belief Model. Findings demonstrated that university workers in the South East Nigeria are very aware of health risk communication on bad cholesterol build-up. That these university workers were predominantly aware of bad cholesterol messages through the social media and internet. That a significant number of the university workers were not aware that their work is a predisposing factor towards bad cholesterol build-up. The study discovered that these university workers did not really comply with the health messages on the measures to control bad cholesterol build-up among them. It is against the above finding that the researchers recommended among others that organizations with predominantly sedentary workforce should from time to time invite experts to educate their personnel on cholesterol build-up wellness to enhance their knowledge and/or encourage healthy lifestyles, healthy diets and physical activities. Furthermore, they recommended that messages on bad cholesterol build-up be developed by health campaign managers in a very clear manner for the audiences’ better understanding.

Page(s): 136-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2021

 Chibuike Julius Nwosu
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

  Ugochukwu Chiemezie Chukwuka
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

  Ajagu Lilian Chinazom
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

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Chibuike Julius Nwosu, Ugochukwu Chiemezie Chukwuka, Ajagu Lilian Chinazom, “Health Risk Communication and Awareness of Bad Cholesterol Build Up Among Sedentary Workers: A Qualitative Analyses” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.136-145 September 2021  URL:

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Investigating the Expenditure-Economic Growth Nexus in Nigeria the Presence of Structural Breaks: A Nonlinear ARDL Cointegration Approach

Yusuf Shamsuddeen Nadabo and Suleiman Maigari Salisu – September 2021 Page No.: 146-153

The performance of Nigeria’s economy has not been satisfactory despite the remarkable increase in government spending (expenditure) over the years. This development warrants re-examination of the relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in the presence of structural breaks. The main objective of this study is to re-evaluate the expenditure and growth nexus in Nigeria using the Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag cointegration approach on annual time series data from 1970-2019. The cointegration result revealed asymmetric cointegration between government spending and economic growth (long-run nonlinear relationship). The results also illustrated that a positive change in government spending has a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth while a negative change has no significant impact on economic growth during the study period. In addition, in support of the Keynesian hypothesis, the study found unidirectional causality running from government expenditure to economic growth. Thus, the paper concludes that Nigeria’s economic growth is more responsive to a positive change in government spending than a negative change. Following these findings, the paper recommended increasing government spending to be channeled to provide critical physical infrastructure, human development, Research, and Development (R&D). /p>

Page(s): 146-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5917

 Yusuf Shamsuddeen Nadabo
Department of Economics, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger

 Suleiman Maigari Salisu
Department of Economics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina²

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Yusuf Shamsuddeen Nadabo and Suleiman Maigari Salisu “Investigating the Expenditure-Economic Growth Nexus in Nigeria the Presence of Structural Breaks: A Nonlinear ARDL Cointegration Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.146-153 September 2021  DOI:

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The Role of Radio-Télévision Libre Des Mille Collines in The Rwandan Genocide : An Analysis From The Theoretical Perspectives of Intergroup Threat and Aggression

Gustave Adolphe Messanga & Marios Yannick Duclair Tajeugueu – September 2021 – Page No.: 154-163

This research focuses on the role of Radio-Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM) in the Rwandan genocide. It analyzes the radio broadcasts through the prism of theories of intergroup threat and aggression. In this perspective, this medium is conceived as a manipulative and propagandist agent which participated in the perpetration of mass killings constituting the Rwandan genocide, through the dissemination of the ideology of hatred before and during the genocide and the logistical assistance provided to those involved in the killings. Indeed, RTLM broadcasts were structured in such a way as to present Hutu as victims (intergroup threat), with the aim of justifying the use of violent actions against Tutsi (intergroup aggression). The corpus to be analyzed consists of extracts from RTLM broadcasts selected from transcripts stored at the Montreal Institute of Genocide and Human Rights Studies (MIGS) and at the International Monitor Institute (IMI). These extracts were analyzed with the method of discourse analysis. They reveal that RTLM’s discourse was based on the victimization and glorification of Hutu, as well as the devaluation and demonization of Tutsi. Concretely, the radio broadcasts were structured in such a way as to incite Hutu (past and present victims of injustice) to exterminate Tutsi (the enemies, the “cockroaches” (inyenzi)) and to eradicate them from Rwandan society. They were built around two main themes : threat, which includes elements like propaganda and hatred, intergroup categorization and victimization of Hutu; and aggression which includes the revolutionary vision of Rwanda, the deshumanization of Tutsi, their designation as enemies, and the search for a just and homogeneous society without Tutsi.

Page(s): 154-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5918

 Gustave Adolphe Messanga
Department of Philosophy-Psychology-Sociology, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Marios Yannick Duclair Tajeugueu
Department of Philosophy-Psychology-Sociology, University of Dschang, Cameroon

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Gustave Adolphe Messanga & Marios Yannick Duclair Tajeugueu, “The Role of Radio-Télévision Libre Des Mille Collines in The Rwandan Genocide : An Analysis From The Theoretical Perspectives of Intergroup Threat and Aggression” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.154-163 September 2021 DOI:

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Credibility of an Opinion Poll: The Case of the 2021 General Elections in Zambia

Dr. Oliver Magasu (Phd) – September 2021 – Page No.: 164-168

Zambia went to the polls on 12th August, 2021 to elect the president of the republic of Zambia. The Presidential race seemed tight between the two main political rivals, Dr. Edgar Chagwa Lungu popularly known as ECL of the ruling Patriotic Front (PF) and Mr. Hakainde Hichilema popularly known as HH of the main opposition political party United Party for National Development (UPND). To this effect, wildly different predictions were made for Zambia’s elections. The Political Science Association of Zambia in collaboration with Faraline of the United Kingdom and Media Theory of USA showed that none of the candidates would get the outright 50+1 % of the vote but that ECL would get 40.4% and HH would get 30.33%. The research was done in five (5) provinces. A survey by Afrobarometre which was conducted in all the 10 provinces of Zambia, showed that the support for ECL had declined by 44.8% and that 25.2% said that they would vote for HH. 45.6% refused to answer and said they did not know. Another survey by Zambia Decides tipped ECL to win by 56% landslide over HH who would have 41% of the votes. However, the truth is that HH beat his rival ECL in this election amassing 59.02% of the electoral votes, while ECL managed 38.71% according to the results released by the Electoral Commission of Zambia (ECZ) on 16th August, 2021 from One hundred fifty-five (155) out of One hundred fifty-six (156) constituencies. In this article, it is argued that opinion polls add value to democracy when they are credible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is not to analyse these opinion polls but to give an in-depth understanding of what makes a credible opinion poll.

Page(s): 164-168                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2021

 Dr. Oliver Magasu (Phd)
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

[1] Allison, Simon (Ed) (2021). Two Surveys, Two Wildly Different Predictions for Zambia’s Elections. Mail & Guardian – Africa (9th July, 2021).
[2] Bell, R. (1997). Polls Apart: The 1997 UK Election: Accuracy of Predictions, Research Note 48 1996 -97, Canberra, Parliamentary Library; R. M. Worcester (1995) ‘Lessons from the electorate: What the 1992 British General Election taught British pollsters about the conduct of opinion polls,’ International Social Science Journal, Vol. 47, Iss. 4, December, pp. 539 – 552
[3] Byers, D. (2016). “How Politicians, Pollsters and Media Missed Trump’s Groundswell.” Money.
[4] Cheeseman, N. (2021). ‘How not to Rig an Election: Zambia’s Dodgy Opinion Poll.’ Democracy in Africa, 5th July, 2021
[5] Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D. & Christian, L. M. (2014). Internet, Phone, Mail and Mixed Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
[6] ECZ (2021). Results for the 2021 General Elections. Lusaka: ECZ. https://zambiaelections2021.
[7] ESOMAR (2017). FAQS on Opinion and Election Polls. Amsterdam: ESOMAR
[8] Irwin, G. & Holsteyn, V. (2002). According to the Polls: The influence of Opinion Polls on Expectations. Public Opinion Quarterly. Vol. 66, Issue 1, pp. 92 – 104
[9] Kennedy, C., Blumenthal, M., Clement, S., Clinton, D. J., Durand, C. Franklin. C., McGeeney, K., Miringoff, L., Olson, K. M., Rivers, D., Saad, L., Witt. G. E., & Wlezien, C., (2018). An Evaluation of the 2016 Election Polls in the United States. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 82, Issue 1, spring 2018, pp. 1 – 33.
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[11] Macreadie Rachel (2011). Public Opinion Polls. Research Service, Parliamentary Library; Department of Parliamentary Services.
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[13] Pew Research Center (2015). Random Digit Dealing – Our Standard Method.
[14] Phillppou, N. Andreas (2021). Why Do Polls Fail? The Case of Four US Presidential Elections, Brexit and Two Indian General Elections. Keynote Internet Presentation at the ICSTC 2020, 16 -19th December, India, Department of Statistics, University of Kerala
[15] Seekings, J. & Siachiwena, H. (2021). Voting Preferences among Zambian voters ahead of August 2021 Elections. IDCPPA Working Paper No. 27, June 2021: Institute for Democracy, Citizenship and Public Policy in Africa.
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Dr. Oliver Magasu (Phd), “Credibility of an Opinion Poll: The Case of the 2021 General Elections in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.164-168 September 2021 URL:

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The Antecedents of Financial Behaviour Intention among formal sector workers

Philomina Araba Sam, Professor Siaw Frimpong, Professor Stephen Kendie – September 2021 – Page No.: 169-176

To improve our understanding of personal finance behaviour of workers, the current study sought to examine the impact of financial knowledge, financial attitude, locus of control, descriptive norm and financial self-efficacy on financial behaviour intention. The research employed the reasoned action approach framework by Fishbein & Ajzen, (2010), with formal sector workers in three districts of Ghana as the population. Questionnaires were used to collect data and analysed using SmartPLS. The results of the study revealed that perceived financial knowledge, financial attitude, descriptive norm and locus of control had a significant positive relationship with financial behaviour intention. The assertion that actual financial knowledge and financial self-efficacy influence financial behaviour was not supported. It is recommended that financial education focuses on developing good financial attitudes and beliefs to enhance behavioural change.

Page(s): 169-176                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2021

 Philomina Araba Sam
School of Business, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

  Professor Siaw Frimpong
School of Business, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Professor Stephen Kendie
School of Business, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

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[24] OECD/INFE. (2016). Adult Financial Literacy Competencies CORE COMPETENCIES FRAMEWORK ON.
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[33] Zakaria, R. H., Mohd Jaafar, N. I., & Marican, S. (2012). Financial behaviour and financial position: A structural equation modelling approach. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 12(10), 1396–1402.

Philomina Araba Sam, Professor Siaw Frimpong, Professor Stephen Kendie, “The Antecedents of Financial Behaviour Intention among formal sector workers” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.169-176 September 2021 URL:

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Relationship between Family Cohesion and Teenage Sexual Behavior in Public Secondary Schools in Kajiado County, Kenya

Juliana Anyango Nyaguti, Stephen Asatsa (PhD), Josephine Muthami (PhD) – September 2021 – Page No.: 177-187

This research aimed at examining the relationship between family functioning and teenagers’ sexual behavioral patterns amongst students in public secondary schools in Kajiado West sub-county, Kajiado County, Kenya. The research used survey design with a target population of 6085 students from public secondary schools. Based on Yamane’s formula, the sample size of 375 students was selected by simple random sampling to participate in the study. Data were collected from this sample using standardized questionnaires; the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory (ACSBI-S). Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Independent t-Test and Correlation analysis. The findings indicated that there was statistically significant positive correlation between family cohesion and teenagers’ sexual behavior. Family cohesion had a positive correlation with sexual knowledge at r=.200; p-value= .000. Therefore an increase in family cohesion has a corresponding positive influence on the student sexual knowledge. Family cohesion on the other hand had a positive and significant correlation with sexual interests (r=0.135; p= 0.11). The findings imply that family cohesion could be used in regulating some of the sexual behavior domains of teenagers. ’

Page(s): 177-187                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2021

 Juliana Anyango Nyaguti
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Stephen Asatsa (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Josephine Muthami (PhD)
Department of Psychology, the University of Nairobi

[1] Adair, J. (2006). The efficacy of sexual violence prevention programs: Implications for schools. Journal of school violence, 5(2), 87-97.
[2] CDC (2014). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
[3] CDC (2016). Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas. HIV Surveillance Report, 2015, vol. 27.
[4] Gervais, C., & Jose, P. E. (2020). How Does Family Cohesion Contribute to Youths’ Health? The Mediating Role of Coping Strategies. Family process, 59(4), 1627-1647.
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[6] Friedrich, W.N., Lysne, M., Sim, L., & Shamos, S. (2004). Assessing sexual behavior in high-risk adolescents with the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory. Child Maltreatment, 9(3), 239-250.
[7] Kirby, D. (2012, June 29). Impact of Sex Education on the Sexual Behaviour of Young People. Retrieved May 15, 2015, from http://whttp.// paper.pdf
[8] Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Yen, C. F., Lin, H. C., & Yang, M. J. (2007). Factors predictive for incidence and remission of internet addiction in young adolescents: a prospective study. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(4), 545-551.
[9] Mora, C., & Monteiro, S. (2010). Vulnerability to STIs/HIV: sociability and the life trajectories of young women who have sex with women in Rio de Janeiro. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 12(1), 115-124.
[10] Muhammad, N. A., Tohid, H., Omar, K., & Shamsuddin, K. (2017). Gender Difference in the Influence of Family Interaction and Parenting Behaviors on Youth Sexual Intention. Social Sciences, 6(3), 105.
[11] National Center for Health Statistics (2010). National Survey for Family Growth. Retrieved from
[12] Obare, F., Odwe, G., &Birungi, H. (2016). Adolescent sexual and reproductive health situation: Insights from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey.
[13] Okigbo, C. C., Kabiru, C. W., Mumah, J. N., Mojola, S. A., &Beguy, D. (2015). Influence of parental factors on adolescents’ transition to first sexual intercourse in Nairobi, Kenya: a longitudinal study. Reproductive health, 12(1), 73.
[14] Oladipupo-Okorie, B. O., &Viatonu, O. (2014). Influence of Family Characteristics and Cultural norms on Pre-marital sex among secondary school students in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 10(5).
[15] Setyadani, A. S. (2013). Reproductive Health Behaviour on Street Children with Active Sex in Semarang City. Journal of Public Health, 9(1), 30-36.
[16] Theuri, J., Mwangi, B. N., & Muriithi, W (2017). Influence of Societal and Government Policies Ecological Factors on Risk Taking Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Kajiado North Sub-County, Kajiado County, Kenya.
[17] Tolera, F. H., Girma, E., Mamo, A., & Babure, Z. K. (2019). Risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among high and preparatory school youth, East Wollega, Ethiopia, 2017: A cross-sectional study design. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 11(1), 1-12.

Juliana Anyango Nyaguti, Stephen Asatsa (PhD), Josephine Muthami (PhD) , “Relationship between Family Cohesion and Teenage Sexual Behavior in Public Secondary Schools in Kajiado County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.177-187 September 2021 URL:

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Factors Influencing Sachet Table Water Marketing in Gombe State, Nigeria

Hamidu, K., Panwal, E. F., Saleh, A., Joseph, M. and Tarki, S. K. – September 2021 – Page No.: 188-190

The study examined the factors influencing sachet table water marketing in Gombe state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used. Gombe state 70 sachet table water marketing enterprises were purposively selected. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis with X1= Cost of holding stock, X2= Cost of obtaining stock, X3= Cost of stock, X4= Physical stock, X5= Replenishment, X6= Safety stock, X7= Maximum stock, X8= Reorder level, X9= Unfulfilled request, X10= Lead time as parameters used. Where the result reveals that cost of holding stock (X1) and cost of stock (X3) were statistically significant at p<0.01; replenishment order (X5) was significant at 1%; R2 was 0.974 and F-value 202.509***. The citizens of Gombe were recommended to engage in sachet table water marketing as it could be a profitable venture.

Page(s): 188-190                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2021

 Hamidu, K.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Kashere, P.M.B 0182, Gombe State – Nigeria

  Panwal, E. F.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Kashere, P.M.B 0182, Gombe State – Nigeria

  Saleh, A.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Kashere, P.M.B 0182, Gombe State – Nigeria

  Joseph, M.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Kashere, P.M.B 0182, Gombe State – Nigeria

  Tarki, S. K.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Kashere, P.M.B 0182, Gombe State – Nigeria

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Hamidu, K., Panwal, E. F., Saleh, A., Joseph, M. and Tarki, S. K., “Factors Influencing Sachet Table Water Marketing in Gombe State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.188-190 September 2021 URL:

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Influence of iTax System on Service Delivery at the Kenya Revenue Authority

Samuel Otieno John – September 2021 – Page No.: 191-197

iTax system provides a convenient and efficient way of improving revenue collection and transparency in fiscal administration. This study aimed at determining the effect of the itax system on service delivery by the Kenya Revenue Authority in Eldoret Station. The study used a stratified random sampling technique to sample 37 Kenya Revenue Authority employees in Eldoret stations. The data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and regression techniques. The empirical results of the study showed that iTax stability was statistically significant with a (p-value =0.003), iTax security had a significant association with service delivery (p-value=0.001), and iTax technical skills also had a substantial relationship with service delivery with a (p-value =.066). The study concluded that iTax systems affect service delivery at KRA in Eldoret station due to a robust statistical association between the iTax systems and service delivery. The study recommended that the Kenya Revenue Authority should establish tight policy measures to curb the issues associated with iTax insecurity and finally employ staff with technical knowledge and skills on the iTax system.

Page(s): 191-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5923

 Samuel Otieno John
Department of Agricultural Economics and Natural Resource Management, Moi University, Kenya

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[6] Geetha, R., & Sekar, M. (2012). E-Filing of Income Tax : Awareness and Satisfaction level of individual Tax payers in Coimbatore city , India. Research Journal of Management Sciences, 1(4), 6–11.
[7] Gitaru, K., (2017). The Impact of System Automation on revenue collection in Kenya (A case study of Simba). The University of Nairobi, Kenya
[8] Hussein, R., Mohamed, N., Ahlan, A. R., Mahmud, M., & Aditiawarman, U. (2010). An Integrated Model on Online Tax Adoption in Malaysia. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(2), 1–16.
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Samuel Otieno John, “Influence of iTax System on Service Delivery at the Kenya Revenue Authority” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.191-197 September 2021 DOI:

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Information Communication Technology Use In Academic Libraries Of Selected Tertiary Institutions In Ghana

Bernard Alando, Francis Nashiru Ewuntomah – September 2021 Page No.: 198-212

Academic libraries are critical contributors to knowledge generation which serve a wide spectrum of knowledge seekers. The shift from print to digital information has a high impact on all components of the academic library system. This study examined the factors affecting ICT usage by academic libraries in selected tertiary institutions in Ghana. A total of eight (8) tertiary institutions were selected for the study, with ninety-six (96) respondents made up of librarians, academic staff and students. Questionnaires were used to elicit the relevant data for the study. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis tools. The findings suggest that, there is a reasonable level of awareness among libraries of academic institutions about the potential benefits of ICT. Despite this, the current usage in most institutions was found to be unsophisticated. The study also identified budget constraints for ICT investment, inadequate commitment by management and erratic supply of electricity as major factors affecting usage. The study therefore concluded that more needs to be done in terms of policy commitment, training and upgrading of ICT infrastructure in order to improve the adoption and usage of ICT in academic libraries in Ghana.

Page(s): 198-212                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5924

 Bernard Alando
University for Development Studies

  Francis Nashiru Ewuntomah
Northern Development Authority

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Bernard Alando, Francis Nashiru Ewuntomah. “Information Communication Technology Use In Academic Libraries Of Selected Tertiary Institutions In Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.198-212 September 2021  DOI:

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Global Business Infrastructure: Assimilation is Ineffective at the Cultural Level

Dr. Herbert J. DeGraffe, Jr. – September 2021 – Page No.: 213-215

Students of the world have diverse opinions on sociocultural issues, reflecting their perspectives. Developing an increased tolerance for the emerging understanding of diversity through various interpretations is compatible with citizenship education. Therefore, an individual, a group, or an organization is the second dimension of diversity control elements. Nevertheless, assimilation is ineffective at the cultural level through the primary dimension, but assimilation is more effective and processed at the second dimension with groups and organizational levels. Thereby the individual does not have to assimilate and lose their identity. Consistent with the broader usage of classical organizational theories, diversity refers to variability in structural, institutional traits within and across dimensional borders of organizations.

Page(s): 213-215                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5925

 Dr. Herbert J. DeGraffe, Jr.
Sports Advertising Associates, Inc. United Management Consortium

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Dr. Herbert J. DeGraffe, Jr., “Global Business Infrastructure: Assimilation is Ineffective at the Cultural Level” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.213-215 September 2021 DOI:

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Personality Factors, Cognitive Distortions, Core Self Evaluation and Health Seeking Behaviour among Residents of Makurdi Metropolis

Rimande Ubandoma Joel, MBBS; Dzer Benjamin Terzungwe, PhD, Tomen Egbe Agu, PhD – September 2021 – Page No.: 216-225

This study investigated personality factors, cognitive distortion, core self-evaluation and health seeking behavior amongst residents of Makurdi metropolis. 138 (45.2%) were male while 167(54.8%) were female. Their ages range from 16-60years. The study employed the survey research design. The Big five inventory, the cognitive distortion questionnaire, core self-evaluation and health protective behavior scale were used for data collection; statistical analysis involved the use of multiple linear regression, simple linear regression and hierarchical multiple regression. Findings indicated that personality factors jointly predicted health seeking behavior among residents of Makurdi metropolis whereas on independent basis, only consciousness and extraversion proved to be significant. Also, cognitive distortions, did not predict health seeking behavior. Core self-evaluation jointly predicted health seeking behavior whereas independently, non-accept, impulse, strategies and clarity predicted health seeking behavior. Finally, personality factors, cognitive distortions and core self-evaluation jointly predicted health seeking behavior. It was recommended that, personality factors of individuals be taken into consideration as it is found to be a significant predictor of health seeking behavior in this study. Finally significant others are encouraged to teach their relations on core self-evaluation as it is found to be a significant predictor of health seeking behavior as reported in this study.

Page(s): 216-225                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2021

 Rimande Ubandoma Joel, MBBS
Department of Public Health, Taraba State University, Jalingo

 Dzer Benjamin Terzungwe, PhD
Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi

 Tomen Egbe Agu, PhD
Department of Public Health, Taraba State University, Jalingo

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Rimande Ubandoma Joel, MBBS; Dzer Benjamin Terzungwe, PhD, Tomen Egbe Agu, PhD, “Personality Factors, Cognitive Distortions, Core Self Evaluation and Health Seeking Behaviour among Residents of Makurdi Metropolis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.216-225 September 2021 URL:

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Relative Effectiveness of Peer Assessment Technique (PAT) in Enhancing Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement and Interest in Economics

Morrison, U. I. (Ph.D), Abanobi, C. C. (Ph.D), Ifemeni, A. L. – September 2021 – Page No.: 226-233

Successful implementation of continuous assessment in schools depends on effective and efficient use of a variety of assessment techniques to determine students’ learning outcomes. Among these various techniques are the peer assessment technique (PAT), teacher assessment technique (TAT) among others. This study examined relative effectiveness of PAT in enhancing secondary school students’ academic achievement and interest in Economics. Six research questions and six null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. 1,750 SS II students in twelve (12) secondary schools in Delta North Education Zone (Ministry of Education, Exams and Standard, Asaba) comprised the population of the study. The sample of this study comprised 107 (49 males and 58 females) SSII students who offered Economics from two co-educational secondary schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area, Delta North Education Zone of Delta State. The instruments for data collection were Economics Achievement Test (EAT) and Economics Interest Inventory (EII). The EAT and EII were validated by subject specialists and measurement and evaluation experts. The reliability coefficients of EAT and EII were 0.95 and 0.81 respectively. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed among others that the mean achievement scores of students exposed to TAT is higher than that of those exposed to PAT and the difference in their mean achievement scores is significant. Students exposed to TAT have more interest than those exposed to PAT but the difference in their mean interest scores is not significant. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that secondary school authorities should use only TAT for assessment of secondary school students’ academic achievement in all secondary schools.

Page(s): 226-233                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5927

 Morrison, U. I. (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Foundations, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Nigeria

 Abanobi, C. C. (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Foundations, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Nigeria

 Ifemeni, A. L
Department of Educational Foundations, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Nigeria

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Morrison, U. I. (Ph.D), Abanobi, C. C. (Ph.D), Ifemeni, A. L., “Relative Effectiveness of Peer Assessment Technique (PAT) in Enhancing Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement and Interest in Economics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.226-233 September 2021 DOI:

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Examining How The Nature And Perceived Benefits Of School Based Restorative Practices Influence Positive Behaviour In Deviant Pupils: A Case Of Selected Secondary Schools Of Kabwe District, Zambia

Eunifridah Simuyaba and Ruth Kapembwa- September 2021 Page No.: 234-243

The current study examined how the nature and perceived benefits of school based restorative practices influenced the behaviour of deviant pupils in selected secondary schools in Kabwe District, Zambia. A qualitative case study with unstructured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among thirty-six participants consisting of two school administrators, ten (teachers and twenty-four pupils. The findings revealed that restorative practices used in schools include manual work, detention, dialogue with parents, counseling, and suspension. The study further revealed that the restorative practices were not helping in influencing positive behavior among pupils but rather making them stubborn and repeating offensive behaviors. This was contrary to the general perspective that restorative practices in schools created a positive school culture and climate that helped pupils to reintegrate into the learning environment. The implication of this was for educational administrators to invest in sensitisations of pupils and training of teachers in restorative practices in order for them to understand and appreciate the logic behind adopting these approaches for ease of implementation and achievement of the desired result. /p>

Page(s): 234-243                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5928

 Eunifridah Simuyaba
The University of Zambia

 Ruth Kapembwa
The University of Zambia

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Eunifridah Simuyaba and Ruth Kapembwa, “Examining How The Nature And Perceived Benefits Of School Based Restorative Practices Influence Positive Behaviour In Deviant Pupils: A Case Of Selected Secondary Schools Of Kabwe District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.234-243 September 2021  DOI:

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The Big Five Personality as a Correlate of Involvement in Violence among Students in Secondary Schools in Nyando Sub-County, Kenya

Omanyo Abraham Otieno, Omae Peter Onderi, Disiye Margaret Awuor – September 2021 – Page No.: 244-256

Involvement in violence among students is a common menace not only in Nyando Sub-county, Kenya but also in the whole world. Establishing a link between the big five personality and involvement in violence could be useful in developing various personality based interventions to involvement in violence. This prompted the present study to investigate both qualitative and quantitative relationship between the big five personality and involvement in violence. The convergent parallel mixed method research design was used. A multistage random sampling was used to generate a sampling size of 418 students. A part from the students, teacher counselors and deputy head teachers were also interviewed in order to triangulate the sources of information. Both self report questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. The results indicated that extraversion and neuroticism were positively correlated to violence at correlation coefficients r = 0.155 and r = 0.102 respectively. While agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were negatively correlated to violence at correlation coefficients r = -0.101, r = -0.425 and r = -0.187 respectively. This implied that as the extroversive and neurotic tendencies rose, the levels of involvement in violence also rose in the population. Conversely as the agreeable, conscientious and openness tendencies rose, the levels of involvement in violence reduced significantly. Therefore to minimize involvement in violence, more interventional measures should be applied to people who display more of extraversion and neuroticism.

Page(s): 244-256                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5929

 Omanyo Abraham Otieno
Department of Psychology, Maseno University, Kenya

 Omae Peter Onderi
Department of Psychology, Maseno University, Kenya

 Disiye Margaret Awuor
Department of Psychology, Maseno University, Kenya

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Omanyo Abraham Otieno, Omae Peter Onderi, Disiye Margaret Awuor, “The Big Five Personality as a Correlate of Involvement in Violence among Students in Secondary Schools in Nyando Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.244-256 September 2021 DOI:

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Paper-Based Records an Obstacle to Service Delivery during Covid-19 Lockdown: A Case of the National Archives of Zimbabwe, Chinhoyi Records Centre

Alex Sibanda, Munyika Sibanda, Edward Mupfururi – September 2021 – Page No.: 257-262

This study examined the repercussion and lessons learnt on failure to automate records at the National Archives of Zimbabwe, Chinhoyi Records centre. The study used a mixed methodology with the intention of triangulating the results. Data were collected from the National Archives of Zimbabwe, Chinhoyi Records centre staff, government departments and other users through interviews, questionnaires, and document analysis. The study sample included six (6) employees from the National Archives of Zimbabwe and four (4) Record Management Supervisors from the government departments who were operating during the lockdown. The purposive sampling technique was employed. The study findings revealed access to records and archives was affected especially at the National Archives of Zimbabwe (NAZ) where the use of electronic technologies is still at its infant stage and automation of records and archives is moving at a snail pace. According to the Constitution of Zimbabwe (2013) under national objectives government units must adopt and implement procedures to develop efficiency and competence. However, this was not the case with the NAZ Chinhoyi Records Centre during Covid-19 lockdown from 29 March 2019 to July 2021. The study findings revealed that Government departments, local authorities and parastatals that were operating during the Covid 19 lockdown failed to access their records on time as the archival institution was temporarily closed in a bid to control the spreading of coronavirus. The study recommends that NAZ need to adopt an Electronic Records Management Systems (ERMS). In addition, the NAZ must also develop a cloud storage for its records as well as making sure that records and archives can be accessed virtually by government departments and other users who deposits their materials at the Centre.

Page(s): 257-262                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2021

 Alex Sibanda
Zimbabwe Open University, Lecturer Department of Information Science and Records Management, Chinhoyi Public Service Training Centre, P.O Box 285 Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe..

 Munyika Sibanda
National Archives of Zimbabwe, Chinhoyi Records Centre: Archivist, Block 4 Old Chinese Complex, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe.

 Edward Mupfururi
Zimbabwe Open University, Administrative Assistant, Zvishavane District Midlands Regional Campus P.O Box 1810 Gweru, Zimbabwe.

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Alex Sibanda, Munyika Sibanda, Edward Mupfururi , “Paper-Based Records an Obstacle to Service Delivery during Covid-19 Lockdown: A Case of the National Archives of Zimbabwe, Chinhoyi Records Centre ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.257-262 September 2021 URL:

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Access to Finance and Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises in Central Uganda

Byakatonda Patrick, Mabonga Eric, Byamukama Eliab Patrick – September 2021 – Page No.: 263-268

This paper sought to establish the effect of Access to finance on sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in central Uganda. A mixed methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) was adopted. Cross-sectional, descriptive and narrative designs were employed by this study. Self-administered questionnaires and key informant interview guide were the main instruments of data collection on a sample of 281 SMEs as determined by Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table for determining sample size. Data was analyzed using SPSS and content analysis. Results revealed that access to finance has a significant effect on business sustainability in central region in Uganda (R Square = .263; beta = .341). SMEs with limited or no access to finance find it difficult to grow and sustainability has remained a challenge; SMEs that have access to finances are able to ensure sustainability. This research study recommends government financing scheme to entrepreneurs/enterprises initiated to provide finances to SMEs in particular, and a financing policy for SMEs should be developed and then the government should provide financing at fair interest rates. Still SMEs should well be classified by status and sector before advancing them with finances.

Page(s): 263-268                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2021

 Byakatonda Patrick
Kampala International University, College of Economics and Management, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

 Mabonga Eric
Kampala International University, College of Economics and Management, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

 Byamukama Eliab Patrick
Kampala International University, College of Economics and Management, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

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Byakatonda Patrick, Mabonga Eric, Byamukama Eliab Patrick , “Access to Finance and Sustainability of Small and Medium Enterprises in Central Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.263-268 September 2021 URL:

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Parent’s Level of Education and pupils’ reading readiness: A case of rural pre-schools in Kenya

Williams Otieno Obilloh – September 2021 – Page No.: 269-272

This study explored the relationship between parents’ level of education and their children’s reading readiness achievement focusing on both parents’ level of education. The study adopted a descriptive research design which allowed for in-depth examination of the study variables. This study employed Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. The study adopted stratified random sampling to sample schools as public and private pre-primary schools, urban and rural schools. Systematic random sampling was used to further select the schools to participate in the study. Finally, 12% of the pupils were randomly chosen to be included in the study. The study selected 96 public Pre-Primary school pupils and 16 private pre-primary school pupils to participate in the study. Questionnaires enabled the researcher to collect data from the parents and reading readiness checklists were utilized to collect data from sampled pupils. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. The findings of the study revealed that the high level of parents education positively contributes to their children’s reading readiness achievement. Large co-relation was found between parents’ level of education and reading readiness achievement. On the basis of the findings, the study recommended introduction of awareness campaigns, use of social media for community education ad adult education programs.

Page(s): 269-272                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 October 2021

 Williams Otieno Obilloh
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

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Williams Otieno Obilloh , “Parent’s Level of Education and pupils’ reading readiness: A case of rural pre-schools in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.269-272 September 2021 URL:

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Diffusion of Innovation and Globalization of New Media in Third World Countries

Barigbon Gbara Nsereka, Ph.D – September 2021 – Page No.: 273-279

New information and communications technologies are among the driving forces of globalization, bringing people together and giving decision-makers unprecedented new tools for development. Through the use of the Internet, webcasting, e-mail, video conferencing, video news release, social media platforms, blogs and other social networking sites, political, cultural and socio-economic messages are built both online and offline and supports that push debates and social movements are reinforced. This paper notes that the newness characteristic of an innovation adoption is related to the knowledge, persuasion, and decision steps of Rogers’ diffusion of the innovation theory process. The paper further contends that globalization of media and the increasing use of new media technologies are reconstructing the nature of the relationship that existed between the media and developing countries. The world is becoming digitalized but because of low diffusion and utilization of new media technologies, the developed nations have advanced into technological revolution, leaving the Third World countries to plod along. This paper identifies several challenges distressing the primary diffusion process of new media innovation in developing countries like Nigeria. Nonetheless, it concludes that so long as the new media plays positive roles in the advancement of global media communication, there is hope for media development in Third world countries.

Page(s): 273-279                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5904

 Barigbon Gbara Nsereka, Ph.D
Associate Professor, Department of Mass Communication, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Barigbon Gbara Nsereka, Ph.D , “Diffusion of Innovation and Globalization of New Media in Third World Countries” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.273-279 September 2021 DOI:

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Assessing Senior Secondary School Physics Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) Components Using Parks’ Pentagon Model

Abubakar Sa’adatu Mohammed (Ph.D) and Johnson Enemi Andrew – September 2021 – Page No.: 280-292

Teaching is not the simple transmission of information but a complex act that require teachers to apply knowledge from multiple domains in order to facilitate students’ learning. This paper reports the first part of a study that explored secondary school physics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) components: (a) Orientations toward Teaching Science, (b) Knowledge of Student Understanding, (c) Knowledge of Instructional Strategies and Representations, (d) Knowledge of Science Curriculum, and (e) Knowledge of Assessment of Science Learning. The research adopted qualitative case study research design within Bauchi metropolis. The population of the study consists of twenty five (25) SS II physics teachers out of which two were sampled purposely. Data sources included classroom observations, semi – structured interviews guide, teacher’s lesson plans, audio recorder and video-taper. Data were analyzed through three different approaches: (a) in-depth analysis of explicit PCK, (b) enumerative approach, and (c) constant comparative method. Data analysis indicated five salient features of the integration of the PCK components: (a) the integration of the components was idiosyncratic and topic-specific; (b) Knowledge of Physics Curriculum and Knowledge of Instructional Strategies and Representations has most limited integration; (c) Knowledge of Students Understanding and Knowledge of Assessment of Physics Learning had high interaction with other components; (d) Knowledge of Assessment of Physics Learning was poorly connected with Knowledge of Student Understanding and Knowledge of Instructional Strategies and Representations than with the other components; and (e) Didactic Orientations toward Teaching Physics directed Knowledge of Instructional Strategies and Representations inhibiting its connection with other components. This study highlights that the quality of PCK depends on the coherence among the components as well as the strength of individual components. From a methodological perspective, this study demonstrates the possibility to make PCK more visible and accessible by mapping PCK components using Pack Pentagon Model.

Page(s): 280-292                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5905

 Abubakar Sa’adatu Mohammed (Ph.D)
Department of Science Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

 Johnson Enemi Andrew
Department of Science Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

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Abubakar Sa’adatu Mohammed (Ph.D) and Johnson Enemi Andrew , “Assessing Senior Secondary School Physics Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) Components Using Parks’ Pentagon Model” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.280-292 September 2021 DOI:

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Examining the effect of financial decentralization on rural roads maintenance and accountability in Kanungu District

Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire, Mubehamwe Janan – September 2021 – Page No.: 293-300

This study sought to examine the effect of financial decentralization on rural roads maintenance and accountability in Kanungu District. The study adopted a cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research approaches on a sample of 104 respondents. Quantitative data involved the use of descriptive statistics particularly frequencies, percentages and the mean. Inferential analysis methods were correlation and regression. The main findings of the study were that financial decentralisation had a positive influence on rural feeder roads maintenance and accountability in Kanungu District. Therefore, it was concluded that financial decentralisation is a necessary requirement for rural feeder roads maintenance. Thus, it was recommended that financial decentralisation should be made apriority in implementation of rural feeder roads maintenance by making sure that financial needs of specific areas, making road projects fit specificities of the local conditions, get people’s input, attract teamwork and win legitimacy and approval of projects by the stakeholders.

Page(s): 293-300                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2021

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire
Department of Science Education, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

 Mubehamwe Janan
Valley University of Science and Technology, Uganda

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Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire, Mubehamwe Janan , “Examining the effect of financial decentralization on rural roads maintenance and accountability in Kanungu District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.293-300 September 2021 URL:

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The Botswana’s Responses to The Zimbabwe Crisis 2008 to 2018

Rawana Meriziki Kazondunge – September 2021 – Page No.: 301-306

Botswana is Zimbabwe’s immediate neighbour sharing a common border of 813 km long. As noted by (Jonas, Mandiyanike and Maundeni (2013), there is a high level of people to people between Botswana and Zimbabwe as such it comes naturally that Botswana takes keen interest in development in Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe Crisis is as old as history can tell, there is debate on when really the problem started or what really probed the current status quo. Others date it to colonial or pre-independence, others to the Ndebele genocide of the 1980s, others to globalization and the 1990s SAPs, others to the Land Reform Act. Thus, this paper examines the responses of the Botswana government to the Zimbabwe Crisis. The responses by Botswana have been divided into categories of positive responses, negative responses and no responses. As to whether the responses were successful the most consensus was that Botswana has been a lone voice in trying to bring Zimbabwe to order. The data was collected through interviews conducted using Computer Mediated Communication (CMC), and experts on international relations and regional integration were targeted for their knowledge on the topic..

Page(s): 301-306                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2021

 Rawana Meriziki Kazondunge
BA Social Sciences University of Botswana; MA Governance and Regional Integration Pan African University

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Rawana Meriziki Kazondunge , “The Botswana’s Responses to The Zimbabwe Crisis 2008 to 2018” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.301-306 September 2021 URL:

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Augmenting Human Minds: Artificial Intelligence and Big Data in Financial Risk Assessment

Lilian Mboya – September 2021 – Page No.: 307-311

The study sought to explore on the role of AI and Big Data on risk assessment in financial institutions. The study adopted a systematic review of literature and secondary data sources to present a qualitative analysis of the key elements of AI and big data and their application in financial risk assessment and management. Peer reviewed journal articles were used to provide essential and relevant information on AI and big data on risk assessment. The study established that machine learning tools were used in predictive analytics and based on big data extracted from databases, the risks managers were able to use regression, classification, clustering, and anomaly detection to carry out fraud detection, portfolio optimization, volatility forecasting and sensitivity analysis. Machine learning was the basic form of AI used in risk assessment in financial institutions in conjunction with big data. Market risks are assessed through portfolio optimization, sensitivity analysis, and volatility forecasting while credit risks are assessed through credit scoring and defaulting prediction. Insurance risks are measured by claims modelling, reserve losses, mortality forecasting, and fraud detection. The study recommended that financial sector should invest in research and development for a specialized AI machines and software to meet the rising needs of cyberspace in the banking systems and mobile banking transactions.

Page(s): 307-311                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2021

 Lilian Mboya
University of South Africa-PhD Scholar

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[3] Ma, L. (2020). Preliminary Study on Credit Risk Management under Internet Finance Based on Big Data Age. Journal Of Physics: Conference Series, 1544, 012168.
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[7] Ozili, P. (2021). Big Data and Artificial Intelligence for Financial Inclusion: Benefits and Issues. SSRN Electronic Journal.
[8] Stasinakis, C., & Sermpinis, G. (2020). Big Data, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: A Transformative Symbiosis in Favour of Financial Technology. SSRN Electronic Journal.
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Lilian Mboya , “Augmenting Human Minds: Artificial Intelligence and Big Data in Financial Risk Assessment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.307-311 September 2021 URL:

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FIRE Leadership: A Case Study of the Blaan Tribe in Municipality of Kiblawan, Davao del Sur.

Roel Jr. D. Apas – September 2021 – Page No.: 312-322

The study was conducted to determine the long-established leadership system of Blaan Tribe on the aspect of Fortification, Integrity, Resiliency, and being Ethical. The tribal leaders were interviewed to determine the constructs of FIRE leadership based on the Blaan tribe Indigenous Knowledge Systems and practices. This study utilized qualitative methods of research using a case study research design employing appreciative inquiry. The design is appropriate since it gives a comprehensive description of an individual case and its analysis. Through in-depth interviews, the researcher has been able to gain knowledge regarding the type of leadership the Blaan has. They have fortified in the sense that leaders find ways, are responsible to their call of duty, and solicit suggestions to their elders to make just decisions. To be served as a role model of the community, the Blaan Leader admits guilt and takes responsibility for the actions he/she has made. Identifying the root cause is practiced to solve problems, and consensus amongst leaders and community members is the culture. Lastly, Blaan Leaders observe the procedural process of settling conflicts, have a moral principle, basing their decision with consensus, and depend on the traditional customary practices.

Page(s): 312-322                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5906

 Roel Jr. D. Apas
Master of Public Administration, Davao del Sur State College, Philippines

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Roel Jr. D. Apas , “FIRE Leadership: A Case Study of the Blaan Tribe in Municipality of Kiblawan, Davao del Sur.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.312-322 September 2021 DOI:

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Using Assorted Fruits to Teach Cultural and Creative Art Concepts in Primary Schools in Nasarawa State

Keswet, Larai Andrew, Pam Gavou Thomas, Pam Jerry Thomas – September 2021 – Page No.: 323-327

This study identified fruits that could be used to teach cultural and creative art concepts in the primary school. The area of the study was Nasarawa State. The research design was survey. Teachers in government and private primary schools formed the respondents. A sample of 200 teachers was randomly selected. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability coefficient of 0.8 was obtained as the overall coefficient for the instrument. The findings of the study revealed that fruits could be used to teach concepts such as colour, shapes, texture, printing, taste, among others. Some recommendations were put forward based on the findings of the study.

Page(s): 323-327                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2021

 Keswet, Larai Andrew
Department of Science and Technology Educational, University of Jos, Nigeria

 Pam Gavou Thomas
Department of Science and Technology Educational, University of Jos, Nigeria

 Pam Jerry Thomas
Department of Science and Technology Educational, University of Jos, Nigeria

[1] Barber, M. 1994. Young People and Their Attitudes to School: an Interim Report of a Research Project in the Centre for Successful Schools, Keele University. Keele: Keele
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Keswet, Larai Andrew, Pam Gavou Thomas, Pam Jerry Thomas , “Using Assorted Fruits to Teach Cultural and Creative Art Concepts in Primary Schools in Nasarawa State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.323-327 September 2021 URL:

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Effect of Early Marriage on the Academic Performance of the Girl-Child in Katsina State: Challenges and Prospects

Mustapha Sherif Abdulkadir (Ph.D), Aliyu Idris Funtuwa (Ph.D), Ahmad Tijjani Ibrahim (Ph.D) – September 2021 – Page No.: 328-343

This research work explored the effect of early marriage on the academic performance of girl-child in Katsina state: Challenges and prospects. The population of the study comprised six Government Girls Secondary Schools in Katsina State. 377 respondents participated; 58-70 students were selected randomly from each six Girls Secondary in the state for this study based on their population size. A self-designed questionnaire titled as Questionnaire on Effect of Early Marriage and Academic Performance (QEEMAP) with r=0.74 Cronbach alpha was used to gathered data on the study. Data collected were analyzed using chi-square, t-test and frequency count and percentage scores. It shed light its effects on girls’ education and academic performance. The findings from respondents and extensive reading of materials related to early Marriage due to various factors including among others, the search for economic survival, protection of young girls, peer group and family pressure, controlling female behaviour and sexuality, wars and civil conflicts, socio-cultural and religious values. It is against this background, recommendations were suggested to deal with the problems, a number of strategies that will provide economic opportunities to young girls, promoting academic performance and education of girls in Katsina State and Nigeria in particular.

Page(s): 328-343                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2021

 Mustapha Sherif Abdulkadir (Ph.D)
Federal College of Education Katsina, P.M.B. 2041 Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria

 Aliyu Idris Funtuwa (Ph.D)
Federal College of Education Katsina, P.M.B. 2041 Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria

 Ahmad Tijjani Ibrahim (Ph.D)
Federal College of Education Katsina, P.M.B. 2041 Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria

[1] Abdul Jimoh, P.A. (2003). Empowering Nigeria Women through Education to enhance National development” in Bakasinawa Journal of Education. F.C.E, Katsina Vol. 1
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[10] Kabeer, N. (2005): Is Microfinance a Magic Bullet for Women’s Empowerment Analysis of findings from south Asia. Economic and Political Weekly.
[11] Kyori, V.A. & Ayodele, J. (2014). The Socio-Economic studies Effect of Early Social Sciences. Vol. 5 No. 14. Pp. 582 – 592
[12] Ladan, S.A. (2012). Relationship between teacher’s perception on self concept and academic performance of primary school pupils in Sokoto South Local Government Area, Sokoto State. Unpublished Phd. thesis.
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[15] Nguyen, M.C. & Wodon, Q. (2012). “Child Marriage, Pregnancies, and The Gender Gap in Education Attainment: An Analysis Based on the Reasons for Dropping out of school”. Mimeo, Washington, DC: The World Bank.
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Mustapha Sherif Abdulkadir (Ph.D), Aliyu Idris Funtuwa (Ph.D), Ahmad Tijjani Ibrahim (Ph.D) , “Effect of Early Marriage on the Academic Performance of the Girl-Child in Katsina State: Challenges and Prospects” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.328-343 September 2021 URL:

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The Equivalent of Dixon’s Take Subtype of Motion-C Verbs in English and Buginese: Dixon Semantic Approach

Nur Hikmah, Hamzah A. Machmoed, Harlinah Sahib – September 2021 – Page No.: 344-349

This research aims to (1) identify the motion-c verbs in English and Buginese based on Dixon’s division of Take subtype, and to (2) investigate and analyze both similarities and differences of motion-c verbs of Take subtype in English and Buginese in term of semantic. The data of this research consist of English and Buginese Language. The first data (English) collected from COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English), and the second data (Buginese) obtained from field research by observing and interviewing. Both data were studied with descriptive and qualitative analysis. The result of this research indicated that (1) there are eight motion-c verbs of Take subtype in English: take, bring, fetch, send, move, raise, steal, and lift. In Buginese data, there are twenty-nine verbs refer to motion-c verbs: mala, majjeppu, mangampai (take); tiwi, mattappi, majjujuug, mangessang, mallempa, makkokkong, mabbiccang, mangule, massoppo, marrenreng, matteteng, matteke, mangepa, maddenge’ (bring); aleng (fetch); makkiring, mappelaluang (send); mesa, lette’, lesse’, soro’ (move); mappenre’ (raise); mennau, majjikkau, mallariang (steal); and mangaka’ (lift). The key differences of motion-c verbs in English and Buginese based on Take subtype can be seen from two aspects: locus role and a stance of moving or the way something moved related to the social culture.

Page(s): 344-349                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5907

 Nur Hikmah
English Language Studies-Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Cultural Sciences – Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

 Hamzah A. Machmoed
English Language Studies-Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Cultural Sciences – Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

 Harlinah Sahib
English Language Studies-Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Cultural Sciences – Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

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Nur Hikmah, Hamzah A. Machmoed, Harlinah Sahib , “The Equivalent of Dixon’s Take Subtype of Motion-C Verbs in English and Buginese: Dixon Semantic Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.344-349 September 2021 DOI:

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Influence of Youth Participation under Decentralization in Local Governments in Uganda

Shaft Nasser Mukwaya, Dr. Richard Asaba Bagonza, Dr. Grace Lubaale – September 2021 – Page No.: 350-357

This paper investigated the Influence of Youth Participation under Decentralization in Local Governments in Uganda. Using a mixed methods approach, convergent and parallel designs were adopted on a sample of 464 participants including 80 respondents for the interviews. Document analysis guides, interview guide and survey questionnaires were the main instruments of data collection. Quantitative results revealed a positive and significant effect on decentralization in Uganda local governments. The results are in agreement with the interviews and document analysis. This study recommends that; The Government of Uganda in line with the provision of Article 32 of the Constitution should empower the youth economically in order to address their historical marginalization and vulnerability, Cooperation, collaboration and partnership should be established between the state and all the non-state actors in the areas of youth development in order to build synergy, share best practices and conducive environment for youth empowerment in all spheres of life consistent with the global trend of private –public partnership, and The state and the non-state actors who are involved in youth development should adopt the strategy of youth mainstreaming and youth inclusion in all policies, programmes, project, laws and other initiatives in order to ensure that the contemporary interests and concerns of the youth are planned for by all the national, regional and local players.

Page(s): 350-357                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2021

 Shaft Nasser Mukwaya
Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

 Dr. Richard Asaba Bagonza
Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

 Dr. Grace Lubaale
Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

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Shaft Nasser Mukwaya, Dr. Richard Asaba Bagonza, Dr. Grace Lubaale , “Influence of Youth Participation under Decentralization in Local Governments in Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.350-357 September 2021 URL:

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Influence of Conflict Resolution Styles on Marital Stability among Married Individuals at St. Monica Catholic Church, Kitengela, Kajiado County, Kenya

Flora Nduta Njui, Dr. Rose Gichuki, Fr. Hubert Pinto – September 2021 – Page No.: 358-365

Conflict is normal in close relationships like marriage. For the marital relationship to be stable, it is important to understand the cause of the conflict, the conflict resolution behavior and its impact on the marital relationship. Data was collected from 106 females and 94 males aged between 20 and 60 years at St. Monica Catholic Church, Kitengela County Assembly Ward in Kajiado County, Kenya using the Thomas Kilmans Conflict resolution styles questionnaire. The study used a descriptive correlational research design, data collected through stratified and random sampling and analysed by use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results showed that the conflict resolution styles; accommodation, collaboration, competition, compromise, avoidance have a significant effect on the marital relationship. Collaboration was also correlated with the highest relationship stability while Avoidance showed a negative correlation suggesting that the continued use may result in reduced marital stability. There was a very slight difference in the ratio of conflict resolution patterns used by male and female. Results showed that children and money were the most common causes of conflict among couples and age at marriage was correlated with marital stability. The study recommends that conflict resolution skills are important in the stability of marital relationship and should be incorporated in premarital counselling in churches and other institutions. There is also need to create awareness to groups and families periodically on conflict and conflict resolution.

Page(s): 358-365                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2021

 Flora Nduta Njui
Department of Counselling Psychology, Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Rose Gichuki
Department of Counselling Psychology, Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

 Fr. Hubert Pinto
Department of Counselling Psychology, Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

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[17] Thomas, K. W., & Kilmann, R. H. (2008). Thomas Kilmann conflict mode instrument. CA: Mountain View, CPP, Inc.

Flora Nduta Njui, Dr. Rose Gichuki, Fr. Hubert Pinto, “Influence of Conflict Resolution Styles on Marital Stability among Married Individuals at St. Monica Catholic Church, Kitengela, Kajiado County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.358-365 September 2021 URL:

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International Community Interventions in Somalia’s Conflicts to Promote peace and Security: Amisom Case

Abdullahi Sh-Mohamed Hussein – September 2021 – Page No.: 366-369

Since the Somali government got independence in 1960, the international community intervention in Somalia was existed both politically military and humanitarian. Somalia has entered a new era in its contemporary history, which has taken on a regrettable and destructive character in the areas of security, peace and stability 1991 after collapse of Somali. Therefore. This research examines whether the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) has met its current strategic objectives and, if so, what impact it has had on Somalia’s broader political and security dynamics. The organization is now in its eleventh year of operation. AMISOM is one of a larger group of international actors attempting to restore stability to the country. This constellation highlights the benefits and drawbacks of collaborations in modern peacekeeping missions. It also emphasizes the importance of good coordination among various actors, particularly the Somali government, the African Union (AU), the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), and some major bilateral partners, such as the United States and the United Kingdom. As a result, AMISOM is in an unfortunate position. This study will use the quantitative method of information conducted in the literature review and further discussion with Somali government officials Amisom and the other experts. Amongst the techniques that will be used in this study, will be the purposive sampling technique which will allow the researcher to select certain respondents according to their ability to give information. Therefore, the key informants will be purposively selected from various officials. The study will collect both primary and secondary data. Before conducting these interviews, the researcher will have to design an interview guide that will be used in directing the conversation towards the topic and issues involved in this research. The results will be presented in a Microsoft word document.

Page(s): 366-369                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5909

 Abdullahi Sh-Mohamed Hussein
Master of African Studies and International Relations, Graduate Institute of Social Science, Istanbul Ticaret University, Turkey

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Abdullahi Sh-Mohamed Hussein , “International Community Interventions in Somalia’s Conflicts to Promote peace and Security: Amisom Case” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.366-369 September 2021 DOI:

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Perception of Public Secondary School Students towards Parenting Styles of their Parents: A case of Mwingi Central Sub-County, Kitui County, Kenya

Kiteme June Ndanu, Elijah Ndung’u Macharia (PhD) and Joel Kambi Muriithi (PhD) – September 2021 – Page No.: 370-377

Delinquent behaviours are quite prevalent among learners in Mwingi Central Sub-County (MCS-C), however, very little is known about how parenting styles affect students’ behaviours in this locale despite the learners coming from different families. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the influence of parenting styles on delinquent behavior among students in public secondary schools in Mwingi Central Sub-County, Kitui County (MCS-C, KC), and Kenya. This study aimed at examining the perception of high school students on their parents’ parenting styles. The target population for the study was 36 public secondary schools. A sample of 384 respondents comprising of 192 parents and 192 students were used. Questionnaires and interview schedules was used to gather data. Expert judgment and peer reviews were used to judge the validity of study tools while Cronbach’s Alpha was used to test for reliability. Quantitative data was coded and analyzed with the help of statistical package for social science version 25 to generate frequencies and percentages as well as inferential statistics which was presented in figures and table. The findings in this study on the uninvolved parenting styles on delinquent behaviors on students’ show that many parents do not respond well to the needs of their children and provide little affection, support, or love. Parents rarely set rules and do not offer guidance or expectations for behavior. Another finding of the study shows that an authoritative parenting style usually establishes guidelines to their children. In recommendations, Parents need to evaluate themselves on their roles and failures so as to restore and maintain discipline in their children. They also need to cooperate with teachers and the school administration in order to understand and protect the students out from the delinquent behaviors they may involve in.

Page(s): 370-377                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5911

 Kiteme June Ndanu
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Elijah Ndung’u Macharia (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Joel Kambi Muriithi (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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[11] Nyabuto M. (2014).Influence of PS on adolescent autonomy and self-esteem among Kenyan secondary school students in Wareng District,UasinGishuCounty. pdf?sequence=1
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[13] Timpano, K. Keough, M. Mahaffey, B. Schmidt, N. & Abramowitz, J. (2010). Parenting and obsessive compulsive symptoms: Implications of authoritarian parenting. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly,24(3), 151-164.
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Kiteme June Ndanu, Elijah Ndung’u Macharia (PhD) and Joel Kambi Muriithi (PhD) , “Perception of Public Secondary School Students towards Parenting Styles of their Parents: A case of Mwingi Central Sub-County, Kitui County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.370-377 September 2021 DOI:

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Reliability of Assessing Oral Presentations by the University Professionals

K.T.A.C. Kasthuriratna, R.M.M.P. Rathnayaka, V.N. Kodithuwakkuge, C.K. Beneragama – September 2021 – Page No.: 378-383

The fairness and precision of evaluation of Oral Presentations of students by university professionals have become a debatable subject. The effectiveness of the evaluation of PowerPoint presentations was seriously questioned by the students due to its unreliability of scoring procedure. Therefore, it’s important to establish a planned evaluation system for oral presentation based on PowerPoint, to guarantee the fairness for every student. To minimize the potential biases, most of the universities presently adopt Objective Structured Evaluation systems to enhance the transparency and the reliability of the assessments. In view of that, the present study analysed the biasness of assessing the oral presentations of a student cohort of a university. For this study, mean score of each student received from each examiner was taken. Single-factor ANOVA tests were conducted to analyse variances to compare three examiner groups; professors, senior lecturers and probationary lecturers. Tukey simultaneous test was conducted to identify mean differences in each comparison. Strong evidence of differences among the three examiner groups was present. Within the most senior level of professionals, a greater degree of variance was also identified. In addition, there is a variance within the senior lecturer group while the probationary lecturer group did not reflect any significant variance. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated statistically significant differences in the marks awarded for the PowerPoint presentations of undergraduates as influenced by examiners’ experience and seniority both in between examiners and within the same level of examiners.

Page(s): 378-383                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5912

 Mustapha Sherif Abdulkadir (Ph.D)
189/1, 2nd Lane, Werellawatta, Yakkala, Sri Lanka

 R.M.M.P. Rathnayaka
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

 V.N. Kodithuwakkuge
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

 C.K. Beneragama
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

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K.T.A.C. Kasthuriratna, R.M.M.P. Rathnayaka, V.N. Kodithuwakkuge, C.K. Beneragama , “Reliability of Assessing Oral Presentations by the University Professionals” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.378-383 September 2021 DOI:

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Impact of Covid-19 on Socio-Economics and the Global Justice System

Nisal Pathiraja, Kiyara de Silva- September 2021 Page No.: 384-397

As the end of 2019 drew nearer, the world eagerly awaited the New Year with high expectations, ranging from individual aspirations such as travelling and career related goals, to more general plans such as those pertaining to technology, the economy and society as a whole. These were soon dissipated with the occurrence of various unpleasant events including environmental tragedies and political unrest. The unprecedented outbreak of this virus has led to governments around the world implementing emergency protocols such as quarantine policies and public awareness programs.
This research focuses on how COVID-19 has made a great impact on world society and its’ functioning. Focus will be given to the origins of the virus and how the pandemic has made certain changes to the socio-economic aspect. It has now come to a point where everyone has to live with the virus until it is completely eradicated, this completion cannot be foretold. Therefore, this research will examine on how day to day life style has changed due to this pandemic and the new trends that have emerged from it. Governments are at the center of control; their actions need to be discussed as not all governments respond the same way. Finally, a detailed analysis will be given in relation to the global justice system on how the pandemic has transformed the traditional procedures. Furthermore, emphasis will be given on certain guidelines and recommendations implemented by various states and institutions in the modification and adaptation of the courts.

Page(s): 384-397                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5913

 Nisal Pathiraja
University of London

 Kiyara de Silva
University of London

References are not available.

Nisal Pathiraja, Kiyara de Silva “Impact of Covid-19 on Socio-Economics and the Global Justice System” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.384-397 September 2021  DOI:

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Family Functioning and Psychological Well-Being of Parents Raising Children with Hearing Impairment: A Case Study in Kericho County, Kenya

Nazarine Mbogo, Florence Githuthu (PhD), and Maria Ntaragwe – September 2021 – Page No.: 398-405

Hearing loss may lead to diverse consequences that affect an individual’s quality of life. Parents with children who have any form of impairment bear the burden of providing effective care and support and this results to cases where they feel overwhelmed, disappointed and detached. The purpose of this study was to assess the family functioning on psychological well-being of parents raising children with hearing impairment in Kericho County, Kenya. The study was guided by the McMaster Model Family Functioning (MMFF) theory and it also reviewed the Family Systems theory and Olson Annular theory. Survey research design was used in the study. The target population of the study was 708 participants involving parents of children with hearing impairment and children with hearing impairment from Kericho County with a sample size 70 respondents including; parents and their children with hearing impairments. Data was collected using questionnaires. The findings of the study showed that communication patterns, affective responsiveness, problem-solving impacted on the wellbeing of participants. The study recommends that there should be common language for both the parents and children with hearing impairment in order to enhance effective communication hence parents to learn the Sign Language, to enable them communicate well with their children. The parents should learn how to express their affection to the child with hearing impairment and convey true feelings for their children with ease. Parents should involve children with hearing impairment in the problem solving process in issues that affect them directly. Parents should communicate the expected behaviour and be explicit about consequences that come along with non-compliance.

Page(s): 398-405                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5916

 Nazarine Mbogo
Department of Psychology, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Florence Githuthu (PhD)
Department of Psychology, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Maria Ntaragwe
Department of Psychology, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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Nazarine Mbogo, Florence Githuthu (PhD), and Maria Ntaragwe , “Family Functioning and Psychological Well-Being of Parents Raising Children with Hearing Impairment: A Case Study in Kericho County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.398-405 September 2021 DOI:

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Transition of University Libraries to Adapt to the New Normal: A mid- and post-COVID-19 Response

Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj- September 2021 – Page No.: 406-411

The aim of this research is to examine the response of university libraries during the COVID-19 outbreak and to establish the practices in carrying out their operational procedures, delivery models, implemented tactics and overall functioning. This study adheres to a quantitative approach. Though, during the pandemic, most of the university libraries were physically inaccessible to readers, they continued to adapt practices to interactively disseminate information and services to its users. Libraries were able to introduce and familiarize their users to new technologies and tools that could adequately serve students and faculty. This study reveals that the efforts and innovations of the libraries and librarians were instrumental in keeping alive the library mission, despite the loss of some services. Hence, this research focuses on revealing the practices adapted, their effectiveness, limitations and presents recommendations for the functioning of an efficient post-COVID-19 University Library framework.

Page(s): 406-411                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 October 2017

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5919


 Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj
Eastern University, Sri Lanka

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Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj “Transition of University Libraries to Adapt to the New Normal: A mid- and post-COVID-19 Response” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.406-411 September 2021 DOI:

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Perceived Service Quality and Higher Education Satisfaction of College Students in Panabo City, Philippines

Najah Ranain – Abdulah -September 2021 Page No.: 412-417

The link of satisfaction of students on the quality of services of higher education have been studied for decades, with different degree of relationship established in different contexts. This study aims to contribute to this body of knowledge by determining which attribute of perceived service quality best influence higher education among college students in Panabo City, Philippines. A sample of N=420 students from higher education institutions in Panabo City, Philippines were the main respondents of a structured survey using two instruments on perceived service quality and higher education satisfaction. The respondents demonstrated a high level of perceived service quality and displayed a high level or higher education satisfaction. Furthermore, it revealed a significant correlation between perceived service quality and higher education satisfaction. Moreover, of the five indicators on perceived service quality, service attitude significantly influences higher education satisfaction.

Page(s): 412-417                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2017

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5920

 Najah Ranain – Abdulah
College of Business Administration Education, University of Mindanao, Philippines

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[20] Satici, S. A., & Uysal, R. (2015). Well-being and problematic Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 185-190.
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Najah Ranain – Abdulah, “Perceived Service Quality and Higher Education Satisfaction of College Students in Panabo City, Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.412-417 September 2021  DOI:

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Effect of Supply Chain Resilience on Organizational Performance among Selected Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya

Peter Kosgey – September 2021 – Page No.: 418-422

Every organizational main reason, together with supply chain resilience, ought to eventually lead to improved organizational performance. Those firms that have became resilient endeavor such proactive efforts as an essential or vital point of administrative consideration, are in a better position to enjoy a longer survival with manageability. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of supply chain resilience on organizational performance. The resource-based view theory (RVB) was used to ground this study. Explanatory research design was adopted, of a survey method conducted on selected manufacturing firms in Nairobi. The target population of this study was 478, Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 237 purchasing managers. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test what was hypothesized in the study and specifically to establish the effect between the variables. The statistical results revealed that environmental uncertainty and information management had a positive and significant effect on organizational performance (β = 0.450; p<0.05; β = 0.230; p<0.05). This research in its conclusion showed the existence of interdependence of supply chain resilience with organizational performance. The study recommends that organizations should fully recognize the nature of fundamental inventory network resilience and have proceeded with center around looking for effective changes. Flexibility could be additionally contemplated with regards to dyadic purchaser provider connections.

Page(s): 418-422                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5922

 Peter Kosgey
Lecturer, Graduate School. University of Kigali-Rwanda

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Peter Kosgey, “Effect of Supply Chain Resilience on Organizational Performance among Selected Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.418-422 September 2021 DOI:

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Influence of Indexicals in President Muhammad Buhari’s Speech at the First National Executive Congress (NEC) of All Progressives Congress (APC) At the Party’s Headquarters, Abuja

Abdullahi Muhammad Sani – September 2021 Page No.: 423-428

This work investigates the use of Indexicals in the speech delivered by President Muhammad Buhari at the first national executive summit of All Progressive Congress (APC) held on 14th of July, 2015 at Abuja. Though, Indexicals are expressive words that signal the appropriate use of information in text. They serve to point to objects, personalities and ideas particularly in art works. This paper was targeted at examining the characteristic indexical used as text creating linguistic features in the selected text. The corpus for the study consists of fourteen paragraphs. The method of data analysis was descriptive. The findings show that Indexicals are significant features in the printed text. Pronoun Indexicals point at personalities and topics, while adjectives describe events, and adverbs point at times and manners in which such events occur. The paper, suggests students of ESP and journalists should be encouraged to use Indexicals as they undergo formal writings.

Page(s): 423-428                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2021

 Abdullahi Muhammad Sani
B. A. Ed. (Language Arts), M. A. (ESP)
Department of English Language Education, Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola, Nigeria

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Abdullahi Muhammad Sani “Influence of Indexicals in President Muhammad Buhari’s Speech at the First National Executive Congress (NEC) of All Progressives Congress (APC) At the Party’s Headquarters, Abuja” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.423-428 September 2021  URL:

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Effect of Stakeholders’ Participation on Sustainability of Community Projects in Ruhango District, Rwanda

Jean Baptiste Habumuremyi, Thomas K Tarus – September 2021 – Page No.: 429-433

Stakeholders’ participation is a major concern in this modern global economy whenever it comes to the sustainability of community development projects. The international community is constantly pushing the less developed world to engage community members in deliberations concerning problems that impact their well-being. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of stakeholders’ participation on sustainability of community projects in Rwanda. The study was anchored on sustainability and stakeholder theory. The study adopted descriptive research design with the sample size 401 participants. The results revealed that passive participation and interactive participation had a positive and significant relationship on sustainability of community projects(β = 0.739; p<0.05;β = 0.194; p<0.05). Thus, the study concluded that predictor variables positively and significantly affect sustainability of community projects. Stakeholder participation is a vital activity as it ensures that every member of the project is part of the decision making. The study recommends the community projects needs to increase the extent of extent of passive participation amongst the stakeholders as this will yield better sustainability outcomes. Also there is need to enhance the extent of interactive participation with the stakeholders’ to strengthen their capacities in project management hence greater sustainability for projects success.

Page(s): 429-433                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5926

 Jean Baptiste Habumuremyi
Masters student, Graduate School. University of Kigali-Rwanda

 Thomas K Tarus
Lecturer, Graduate School, University of Kigali-Rwanda

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Jean Baptiste Habumuremyi, Thomas K Tarus, “Effect of Stakeholders’ Participation on Sustainability of Community Projects in Ruhango District, Rwanda ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-9, pp.429-433 September 2021 DOI:

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