Intercity Bus Performance and Corporate Social Responsibility among Operators in South-south, Nigeria

Borlo, P.B.L., Ibe, C.C and Emenike G.C.- May 2021 Page No.: 01-07

This study examined the relationship between the Intercity Bus Performance and Corporate Social Responsibility of operators in the capital cities of South South, Nigeria. The operation/management activities of Intercity Bus Service are carried out in a place owned and/or inhabited by people. These activities most times adversely affect the people and the place(s). The host communities expect some compensation for the consequent hazards or ill-experiences they and their environment suffer. This is the community perspective of performance, which unfortunately are often overlooked when business concerns are assessed in the developing countries, like Nigeria. A potent strategy by which the community perspective can be effectual or realised is the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility. In our study of 94 Operators, selected based on experience and functional Bus fleet, oral interview and observation formed the Primary data sources; while published-scholarly works and unpublished operational records at the operators’ head offices and outstations were the main sources of Secondary data. Analysis of data gathered were done descriptively. It was found that, although there was evidence of the implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility projects; the host communities through their leadership, felt that the CSR projects were inadequate, less impactful, unsustainable and unsatisfactory. Conclusively, it was noted that, undermining the community perspective of performance could be tantamount to insensitivity, injustice, cruelty and unfairness to the dignity and welfare of the citizens; the growth and health of the environment of the host communities. Therefore, it was recommended that CSR implementation be more defined and made enforceable by law, amongst other things.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2021

 Borlo, P.B.L.
Centre for Logistics and Transport Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  Ibe, C.C
Centre for Logistics and Transport Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Department of Transport Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

  Emenike G.C.
Centre for Logistics and Transport Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Borlo, P.B.L., Ibe, C.C and Emenike G.C., “Intercity Bus Performance and Corporate Social Responsibility among Operators in South-south, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.01-07 May 2021  URL:

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Education and the Fight against Corruption in Nigeria

Ekechukwu, Peter C – May 2021 Page No.: 08-13

Nigeria, a land that is highly blessed with human and material resources is facing the challenges of bad governance and corruption. These factors are responsible for the high level of under development, economic stagnation and high poverty rate. Corruption has ruined and destroyed all sectors of Nigerian including the education sector which was expected to produce transformed citizens and provide answers to societal challenges. The education sector has failed in her responsibilities to produce individuals who are morally upright with the right types of values and behaviours. Hence, the vicious cycle of corruption and poverty. This paper therefore focused on education and the fight against corruption with a review and discussion of the concept of education, corruption, good governance and its benefits, and the roles of education in fighting corruption. The study concluded that our governments and our educational system have failed us in the fight against corruption and this calls for a rethink on how to start all over again with dedication and passion to save Nigeria from total collapse. The researcher therefore suggested the following among others as the way forward: a change of the mindset of the citizens through the education system and the national orientation agency; stringent punishment for public officers convicted of corruption including naming, shaming and publishing their names in black book to serve as deterrents to others.

Page(s): 08-13                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2021

  Ekechukwu, Peter C
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Ekechukwu, Peter C “Education and the Fight against Corruption in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.08-13 May 2021  URL :

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Working Conditions and Performance of Tertiary Teachers at UM Panabo College

Leavic G. Maghanoy – May 2021 Page No.: 14-21

The main objective of the study is to determine which domain of working conditions best influences the performance of tertiary teachers. The quantitative non-experimental design utilizing correlation technique was used in the study. The respondents of the study were the 45 tertiary teachers of UM Panabo College. Mean, Pearson-r and Regression Analysis were the statistical tools employed to interpret the data gathered. The findings of the study revealed a high level of working conditions of tertiary teachers at UM Panabo College. It was also revealed that the level of performance at UM Panabo College was very high. The test of relationship between variables confirmed significant relationship between working conditions and performance of tertiary teachers at UM Panabo College. Based on the results, there was no specific domain on working conditions that best influences the performance of tertiary teachers of UM Panabo College in its singular capacity. However, all indicators are needed in combination to significantly influence the performance of tertiary teachers at UM Panabo College.

Page(s): 14-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5501

 Leavic G. Maghanoy
Master in Management, Business Professor, The University of Mindanao

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Leavic G. Maghanoy, “Working Conditions and Performance of Tertiary Teachers at UM Panabo College” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.14-21 May 2021  DOI:

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Sixty four years of independence, the status of our Ghanaian Languages

Sampson L.K. Yekple, Iddrisu Alhassan Sibdow – May 2021 Page No.: 22-30

The performance of Ghanaian Languages (GHLs) during the post-colonial Ghana has been in the hands of political parties and their ideological orientation. This paper looks at the trend of performance of the GHLs during the colonial era and arguably challenges the efforts of the successive military and democratic governments over the sixty four years of independence. The declaration of independence and freedom from the colonial masters was expected to grant performance rights to the languages. The paper found that governments paid leap services to the promotion of the GHLs as compared with the Guggisberg’s colonial era. Participation in the enactment and implementation of language policies has been limited to only government appointed elites. The general society equate success in education, employment, respect and prestige to the ability to speak English hence not giving due credit to the GHLs. The paper concludes that Ghana as a sovereign state has not done much after attaining independence though some improvement has been chalked. The paper hence suggest among others, the passing of a bill in parliament which becomes a legislative instrument for the language policy to put finality to the struggle. This instrument will further enjoin the legislature, the judiciary, the executive and the citizenry to perform various roles to ensure better performance of the GHLs in education and media.

Page(s): 22-30                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2021

  Sampson L.K. Yekple
Department of Languages,Ewe Unit,St. Teresa’s College of Education, Hohoe, Ghana

 Iddrisu Alhassan Sibdow
Department of Languages, Dagbani Unit,Tamale College of Education, Tamale, Ghana

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Sampson L.K. Yekple, Iddrisu Alhassan Sibdow “Sixty four years of independence, the status of our Ghanaian Languages” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.22-30 May 2021  URL:

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Prevalence of Relapse amongst Substance Abused Patients in Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital Calabar, Between 2015 to 2019

Dr Umoh, Edet Okon , Inuk, Eyoi Bssey – May 2021 Page No.: 31-41

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of relapse among substance abuse patients in Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Calabar between 2015 and 2019. Having obtained approval from ethical team of the hospital, the study was conducted. Two (2) research questions were raised to guide the study. A retrospective cohort study design was adopted to study a total of 139 substance abused patients’ record from the research area, which was selected using systematic random sampling procedure. Data was collected using a self-developed and validated checklist by Nursing Department of the institution. Data obtained were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentages, while the association between variables was achieved using Chi-square statistical analysis significant at 0.05. Findings from the study revealed that the prevalence of relapse among the patients in Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Calabar between 2015 and 2019 is 23 per cent (n=32) indicating that in every 100 substance abuse patients admitted in the Hospital within these period, 32 experienced relapse. Within this period, the highest occurrence of relapse was recorded in 2016. Also, majority of patients with relapse were male, age ranged between 20 – 29 years, and were re-admitted in the Hospital for 2-3 times. The demographic characteristics that significantly associated with relapse within the period under study were; sex, age, marital status, educational level and occupation. Based on all these findings, it was recommended that clinicians and educators should work together to develop appropriate treatments strategy and after-care programs that will address the issue of substance use, relapse and prevention. .

Page(s): 31-41                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 08 June 2021

  Dr Umoh, Edet Okon
Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

 Inuk, Eyoi Bssey
Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

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Dr Umoh, Edet Okon , Inuk, Eyoi Bssey “Prevalence of Relapse amongst Substance Abused Patients in Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital Calabar, Between 2015 to 2019” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.31-41 May 2021  URL :

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Strengthening Political Interest in Millennial Young Women in Indonesia

Iffah Budiningsih, Masduki Ahmad2 Tryanti Abdulrahman – May 2021 Page No.: 42-47

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of political interest relationships with political competence and political awareness among millennials in Indonesia. Employing a quantitative explanatory method with a survey, 121 female students in 2020 at As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University were involved as the respondents. Further, data analysis used the descriptive analysis of the mean and multiple regression analysis supported by the SPSS program. The results revealed that: a) the average score (mean) of political interest (Y) of millennial young women was still low (2.4475). The average level of political awareness (X1) was relatively moderate (2.9876), and political competence (X2) arrived at a low level (2.3034), with the score range of 1-4; b) political awareness and political competence simultaneously correlate with political interest is positive and strong (R=0.723), that mean political awareness and competence also simultaneously contributed 52.2% to political interest. The other 47.8% is influenced by other factors; c) the mathematical model to boost the political interest of millennial young women by using the factors of political awareness and political competence was Y = 0.610 + 0.286 X1 + 0.427 X2; d) political competence had a higher influence sensitivity than political awareness on the increasing political interest of millennial young women; e) the improvement of political competence of such women in the digital era should utilize technology-based media, namely Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, and the like.

Page(s): 42-47                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 June 2021

 Iffah Budiningsih
Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences, As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta- Indonesia

 Masduki Ahmad
Educational Management Master Program, State University of Jakarta, Jakarta- Indonesia,

  Tryanti Abdulrahman
Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences, As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta-Indonesia

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Iffah Budiningsih, Masduki Ahmad2 Tryanti Abdulrahman, “Strengthening Political Interest in Millennial Young Women in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.42-47 May 2021  URL:

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The Issues, Challenges and Strategies to Strengthen Technical, Vocational Education and Training in Nigeria

Sylvester Chukwutem Onwusa (PhD) – May 2021 Page No.: 48-59

Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) could be a veritable instrument for national economic development in Nigeria. The growing awareness of the need to adapt TVET to meet the rapid global economic requirement is absolutely essential. Thus, TVET is a mechanism that could help for improving the quality of workforce by humanizing their mobility, adaptability and productivity. TVET indirectly could contributes to the enhancement of firms’ competitiveness in the globalized world. This is so because one of the most important features of TVET is its orientation towards the world of work and the emphasis of its curriculum on the acquisition of employable skills. Unfortunately, it is sadly to note that, after many years of existence of Nigeria as nation is seriously threatened with unemployment, poverty, social and economic instability, insecurity, corruption, insurgents, banditry, underdevelopment and unscrupulous leadership amongst others. Nigeria will continually remain a technologically backward and dependent nation if this negative attitudes and ugly trends are not reversed. In order to bring lasting solution to these dreadful and horrible situation in Nigeria. It is important that government should focus on acquisition of employable skills for the youths so as to divert there attention from these social vices that have bedevil the nation. Thus, it is absolutely essential to examine the issues, challenges and strategies to strengthen TVET in Nigeria. It was concluded amongst others, that Nigeria government should look inward and recognize the fact that TVET as the bedrock for meaningfully technological growth and national development. It was recommended that the government, stakeholders, policy makers and TVET providers in Nigeria should focus on TVET quality assurance best practices that have worked in advanced countries around the world. Also the government should adequately fund, plan, implement, and manage TVET programmes in technical institutions in Nigeria. Finally there should be a synergy between the schools-industry linkages where students are trained, mustbe a replica of the environment in which he/she must subsequently work.

Page(s): 48-59                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5502

  Sylvester Chukwutem Onwusa (PhD) Department of Technology and Vocational Education
Faculty of Education, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka

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Sylvester Chukwutem Onwusa (PhD) , “The Issues, Challenges and Strategies to Strengthen Technical, Vocational Education and Training in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.48-59 May 2021  DOI:

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Assessing the Relevance of Community Participation in Local Tourism Activities

Augustine Antwi Boasiako, and Isaac Yeboah – May 2021 Page No.: 60-66

This research attempt to find the level of community participation in the tourism industry at the micro level. Due to the sensitive nature of the research mixed method was used since each correct the anomaly of the other to make it a whole. The analysis was conducted by using descriptive statistics and mean for quantitative method whilst individuals who were opinion leaders were interviewed through recording and later transcribed. The results of the study revealed that as the tourism industry of Ghana becomes more formalized and institutionalized, more local community members gain exposure and proper insights to develop an in-depth understanding of its economic base and potentials. Alsothe results demonstrate that governance and local community’s participation are important component of the tourism development in every community.

Page(s): 60-66                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2021

 Augustine Antwi Boasiako
Dept. of Economics, Marketing and Services, Pentecost University, Accra, Ghana

  Isaac Yeboah
College of Foundation of Professional Studies, Pentecost University, Accra, Ghana

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Augustine Antwi Boasiako, and Isaac Yeboah, “Assessing the Relevance of Community Participation in Local Tourism Activities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.60-66 May 2021  URL:

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Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction among Beauty Salons

Rey Avila Mangarin, Jennifer C. Gonzaga- May 2021 Page No.: 67-72

This study was conducted to determine the significant influence of service quality on customer satisfaction among beauty salons in a certain municipality of Davao del Norte, Philippines. A quantitative non-experimental descriptive-correlational design was employed in the study utilizing a convenient sampling technique among respondents distributed from six beauty salons each with a quota of 50 customers to rate for year 2019. Mean was used to measure the level of service quality and customer satisfaction while linear regression analysis was used in determining what domain of service quality significantly influence customer satisfaction among beauty salons. As a result, service quality was in high level which while customer satisfaction was in moderate level. It was also found out that there is a low positive significant relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction among beauty salons and that 9.06% of the customer satisfaction can be attributed to service quality. Further, only tangibles domain significantly influences customer satisfaction while the rest did not. Thus, service quality is recommended to be enhanced to achieve a high level of customer satisfaction.

Page(s): 67-72                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5503

  Rey Avila Mangarin
The University of Mindanao (Panabo)

 Jennifer C. Gonzaga
Dean of Business Education, Samal Island City College

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Rey Avila Mangarin, Jennifer C. Gonzaga, “Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction among Beauty Salons.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.67-72 May 2021 DOI:

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Education towards Sound Moral Values and Religious Values in Kenya: A Philosophical Perspective

Khisa Alfred Simiyu, Werunga Khisa Stephen- May 2021 Page No.: 73-77

The greatest challenge in the contemporary world today is living a virtuous life. Aristotle provides an approach of engaging children through habitual training in virtue in an organized educational system. Therefore, Education is crucial in orienting the young towards being responsible citizens to contribute to economic, social and political development of the state. In Kenya, educational system has focused all along in providing Religious Education of the mainstream Religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Hindu towards attaining sound morals and religious values. However on assessing the products of 8.4.4 and critically examining the situations within the educational set up for instance: Indiscipline, Riots, Drug and substance use, arson, Teacher attacks by student, radicalization etc., there is need to critically question the goal of education in order provide insights that can inform the theory and practice of pedagogical ethic, student-teacher relationship with the aim of attaining holistic education and training for responsible citizenship. Thus, the paper analyzed the national goals of education, traced the philosophical assumptions on human nature towards achieving the goal, analyzed moral education and religious education. It is therefore recommended that education in Kenya should embrace a multidimensional orientation that ensures the moral development, intellectual growth and skill empowerment of learners towards self realization, an informed freedom and self empowerment to act responsibly as valuable citizens

Page(s): 73-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5504

 Khisa Alfred Simiyu
Department of Educational Foundations Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology P.O Box 190-50100, Kenya

 Werunga Khisa Stephen
Department of Education Management Kibabii University, P.O Box 1699-50200, Kenya

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Khisa Alfred Simiyu, Werunga Khisa Stephen, “Education towards Sound Moral Values and Religious Values in Kenya: A Philosophical Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.73-77 May 2021  DOI:

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Intervention Measures and Teaching Strategies Enhancing Mathematics Teaching to Dyscalculic Learners in Public Day Secondary Schools in Kericho County

Talam Josephine Chepkorir and Jessina Jessica Muthee – May 2021 Page No.: 78-87

The purpose of this study was to investigate interventions measures and teaching strategies enhancing mathematics teaching to dyscalculic learners in public day secondary schools in Kericho county. Guided by Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the study adopted a descriptive design which used mixed model research with both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The study was carried out in Kericho County. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data for the study. The study was carried in 35 randomly selected public day secondary schools in different localities within the County to effectively analyze the methodologies of teaching the subject in the region. Data from the research instruments, namely mathematics teachers’ questionnaires and mathematics students’ questionnaires was coded and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 25) to obtain descriptive statistics. To ensure validity, face and content validity was conducted. Also, the Cronbach Coefficient Formula was applied to guarantee reliability. The findings revealed that 19 out of 300 randomly sampled students, which represent 6.3% of the total sampled students, suffered from dyscalculia. Also, reviewing the previous lessons and maximizing the use of homework were some of the major interventions that helped in enhancing dyscalculic learners’ performance. The study recommends that the government should ensure a conducive classroom environment to enhance performance of dyscalculic students. It should also ensure that schools have enough teachers with special needs skills in all the schools.

Page(s): 78-87                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5505

  Talam Josephine Chepkorir
Department of Early childhood and special Needs Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Jessina Jessica Muthee
Department of Early childhood and special Needs Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Talam Josephine Chepkorir and Jessina Jessica Muthee “Intervention Measures and Teaching Strategies Enhancing Mathematics Teaching to Dyscalculic Learners in Public Day Secondary Schools in Kericho County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.78-87 May 2021  DOI:

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Distance Learning Student Participation in Online Supplementary Courses of a Science Degree Programme – A Pilot Study

K.D.V.F. Siriwardana- May 2021 Page No.: 88-93

This study was conducted in 2018 in distance learning students. The objectives of the study were to: identify the views on the importance/usefulness of Online Supplementary Components on educational experiences of the students at Level 3 (First Year) of the Faculty of Natural Science B.Sc. Degree Programme, identify the student participation in Online Supplementary Components offered by the Faculty of Natural Science at Level 3 in the B.Sc. Degree Programme, identify any associations between Leaner Support Programmes and student participation in Online Supplementary Components at Level 3 of the B.Sc. Degree Programme, identify any associations between geographical regions and student participation in Online Supplementary Components at Level 3 of the B.Sc. Degree Programme.
This is a telephone questionnaire based sample survey, using closed questions. The population of the study was the 1327 students who enrolled to the B.Sc. Degree programme(BSDP) in the academic year 2016/2017 (conducted from 1st March 2017 to 21st February 2018 in the regional centres at Colombo, Kandy, Matara, Jaffna, Anuradhapura, and Batticaloa) in the Faculty of Natural Sciences in the Open University of Sri Lanka. In this study, the On-Line Supplementary Components (OLSC) offered in the discipline based courses at Level 3 in the BSDP were considered. The faculty learner support progamme – Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) was conducted, in all disciplines only in Colombo and Kandy regional centres. Randomly selected 107 students, who were active learners, comprised of 42 students (Kandy -12, Colombo -30) who attended the PASS and 65 students (Anuradhapura -3, Batticaloa -4, Colombo -30, Jaffna -5, Kandy – 17, Matara -6) who did not attend the PASS, were interviewed. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample.
Overall, 94% students agreed that OLSCs are important/useful for their educational experiences. Therefore developing OLSCs for more courses in the BSDPs has to be encouraged. However, majority of students have used the OLSCs to ‘download the past papers’ (82%) and ‘Scheduling /Administrative matters’ (67%). The online participation to some of the activities such as ‘using online supplementary materials’, ‘answering of quizzes’, ‘interacting with the teacher for academic matters’, ‘interacting with the peers for academic matters’ are not at satisfactory levels. Large scale studies are recommended to find out the hidden factors curbing the online participation in these activities and take measures to mitigate them. Found statistically significant positive associations with the Learner Support Programme, PASS and utilising the OLSC (P < 0.05). Further, introducing online components to Leaner Support Programme designed to motivate the students in developing the necessary skills and using educational technology are recommended. Difference in participation of students in OLSCs was evident between regional centres at Colombo and Kandy (p = 0.035). Since the study indicates less online participation in regions away from Colombo, necessary measures, including providing accessibility to communication infrastructure and making awareness on technology, have to be adopted to address the online learning participation of the students in regions remote from the main city

Page(s): 88-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2021

] K.D.V.F. Siriwardana
The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

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K.D.V.F. Siriwardana, “Distance Learning Student Participation in Online Supplementary Courses of a Science Degree Programme – A Pilot Study International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.88-93 May 2021  URL:

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Leadership and Gender, women management: the social realist analytical theoretical view point

G N Shava, T Chasara, F N Tlou. E Mathonsi – May 2021 – Page No.: 94-101

The study leadership from a gender perspective in a rural context in Zimbabwe. The study investigated the challenges faced by female school heads because of their gender in one rural district. Grounded in the qualitative paradigm and using the social realist theoretical analytical framework, a thematic approach was used in analysing qualitative data gathered through semi-structured interviews with ten female school heads. Findings from the study showed that female school heads were not perceived as incompetent and unable by male colleagues only, but also by female staff colleagues as a result of an entrenched culture of male dominance. Among the challenges faced by female principals included: negative attitude from some parents and teachers undermined because of their gender and lack of confidence. The study recommends the mounting of gender awareness workshops with both parents and teachers to sensitive them on gender equity issues. In addition the study calls for mentoring and networking workshops, in service training opportunities and role modelling to be given to female teachers who aspire to, and have potential in leadership so that these female teachers can feel empowered and see that they have the potential executing leadership roles.

Page(s): 94-101                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 June 2021

 G N Shava
National University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology Education, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

 G T Chasara
National University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology Education, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

 F N Tlou
National University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology Education, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

  E Mathonsi
National Universities of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

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G N Shava, T Chasara, F N Tlou. E Mathonsi “Leadership and Gender, women management: the social realist analytical theoretical view point” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.94-101 May 2021 URL:

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The Meaning and Scope of Pragmatics

Che An Bint Abdulghani, Muhammad Abubakar Abdullahi- May 2021 Page No.: 102-105

A traditional criticism has been made, that pragmatics does not have a clear cut focus and in early studies there was tendency to assort those topics without a clear status in linguistics pragmatics. Some complained why that pragmatics is not eligible as an independent field of learning since meaning is already dealt with semantics.
However, there is consensus that pragmatics as a separate study is more than necessary because it handles those meanings that semantics overlook.
This paper therefore, attempts highlighting the meaning and scope of pragmatics. The paper is generally sub-divided into the following sections: introduction, meaning of Pragmatics, Scope of Pragmatics and Conclusion.

Page(s): 102-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2021

 Che An Bint Abdulghani
Faculty: Modern Languages And Communication, University Putra Malaysia (UPM)

  Muhammad Abubakar Abdullahi
College Of General Studies (English Unit), Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic Sokoto, Nigeria

[1] Allan. Keith, Linguistic Meaning. Vol 1. London: Rouikdgu and Regan Paul, 1986 b.
[2] Check font type and font size, it seems there is no consistency.
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Che An Bint Abdulghani, Muhammad Abubakar Abdullahi, “The Meaning and Scope of Pragmatics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.102-105 May 2021  URL :

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The Benefits and Challenges of the Adoption of Digital Publishing by Print Publishers in Nigeria: A Review

Faustina C. Haco-Obasi, Scholastica A.J. Chukwu- May 2021 Page No.: 106-110

The integration of digital technology in book publishing has positive implications and benefits that far outweigh whatever fears and disadvantages that print publishers associate it with. Also, the fact that contemporary information users are largely making use of digital resources is glaring and cannot be disputed. Digital publishing improves book publishing process from the initial stage of text creation to the final stage of distribution and access by readers. Regardless of these benefits, partial or wholesome transition to digital publishing among Nigerian book publishers is hazy. This article is a review of digital publishing in Nigeria; its adoption, benefits and challenges as well as the way forward for indigenous publishers in Nigeria.

Page(s): 106-110                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2021

 Faustina C. Haco-Obasi
The Library, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

  Scholastica A.J. Chukwu
The Library, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

[1] Abegunde, G. O. (2003). Quality Book Production in Nigeria, in Adejuwon (ed.) Ibadan: Codat publications, 2003.
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Faustina C. Haco-Obasi, Scholastica A.J. Chukwu “The Benefits and Challenges of the Adoption of Digital Publishing by Print Publishers in Nigeria: A Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.106-110 May 2021  URL:

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CIOFF (International Council of Organizations of Folklore Festivals and Folk Arts) and Intangible Culture in Surabaya

Alfina Permatasari- May 2021 – Page No.: 111-113

This study is to analyze the role of the International Organization (CIOFF) in the conservation of intangible cultural heritage in the city of Surabaya from 2016-2019. The study used a qualitative descriptive method, the data used is based on what is found that describes an event that occurred in accordance with the facts.The results show that the CIOFF plays a role in preserving, promoting, spreading folklore and culture, contributing to the preservation of intangible cultural identities around the world, one of which is in Surabaya and implementing UNESCO programs related to traditional culture.

Page(s): 111-113                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2021


 Alfina Permatasari
International Relation Department, Social and Political Science Faculty, UPN Veteran JawaTimur Surabaya

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Alfina Permatasari “CIOFF (International Council of Organizations of Folklore Festivals and Folk Arts) and Intangible Culture in Surabaya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.111-113 May 2021 URL:

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Arms Control: The Economic, Military and Political Issues

Benjamin Isah, King Kekwop – May 2021 Page No.: 114-119

The world is washed by the waves or tides of armament. The demand to own weapons of mass destruction in which nuclear weapon is inclusive, is on high increases. Simultaneously, the states in the international system are yearning for the controls of arms which to them will help in the cushioning of war and related security problems in the international system. As a result, many nations have entered in agreement and signed a number of arms control treaty either bilateral or multilateral. With the present of United Nations and other Regional Governmental organizations that serves as an agent of implementation of these treaties and agreement, there is still high proliferation of weapons in the international system which has also increase the rate of insurgency and terrorism. What could be the reason behind this problem despite the arms control international security policy? The answer is within the economic, military and political issues. The paper argued that nations believed that their ability to secure and obtain a weapon of mass destruction and other related weapons is signifies their military strength and therefore, they can go to any length to achieve such an aim. It was also discovered in this research that some nations find it difficult to adhere to the policy of arms control due to internal/domestic political issues. Additionally, it was argued in this manuscript that some nations’ economy depends to a certain level on the production of weapons and military hard-wires. Telling such nations to reduce the or stop that activity is like telling Nigeria and other nations who heavily depend on oil to reduce or stop the production of weapons. In conclusion, it was recommended in the paper that for arms control to take it full cost in the international system, there is need for states to fully cooperate and obey the terms and conditions of treaties of arms control irrespective of the interest in domestic political and economic issues.

Page(s): 114-119                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2021

 Benjamin Isah
University of Jos, Nigeria

 King Kekwop
University of Jos, Nigeria

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Benjamin Isah, King Kekwop “Arms Control: The Economic, Military and Political Issues” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.114-119 May 2021  URL:

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Entrepreneurial Orientation and the Performance of Youth Owned Funded Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Chuka Town (Tharaka-Nithi County) Kenya.

Dr. Gilbert Mugambi Miriti, Ph.D. – May 2021 Page No.: 120-127

Youth owned Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play an important social and economic role among the Kenyan Youth who are unable to find salaried employment in the formal sector. The performance of the sector is therefore a great concern. While there are other factors that contribute to business performance Entrepreneurial Orientation(EO) is recognized among the important factors in business performance and profitability yet it has not been given consideration among the youth owned SMEs interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Performance of Youth owned funded small and medium sized enterprises in Chuka Town of Tharaka-Nithi County. The study used descriptive survey design. The target population was 146 businesses funded and registered by Chuka Youth Office. Respondents were sampled from 48Youth owned SMEs which were funded in food processing with 41 who responded in Chuka Town. Data was collected using a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire to gather perception from the respondents. EO was measured using a scale based on previous studies with innovation, risk taking and pro-active as part of EO dimensions. The study generated both qualitative and quantitative data. The collected data analyzed using inferential and descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that owner/ managers of good performing businesses were supportive and encouraged new ways of doing business and that in the past severalyears businesses had pioneered the development of innovations in the business with respondents’ having introduced new products / services over the past three years implying that the businesses have not only been innovative but also risk taking. On the basis of these findings the following recommendations were made: business should embrace entrepreneurial mindset, CEOs and founders to create necessary environment that would encourage and reward those working in the business to be more innovative, creative, risk taking and persistent in their business pursuit for improved performance and become more competitive. The findings therefore suggest that innovation which is the driving force in entrepreneurship is key to good business performance and development and that funding alone without innovation will not guarantee business growth. The study therefore concludes that entrepreneurship and business training is necessary before funding for the youth to acquire necessary skills and embrace innovation in their business practices.

Page(s): 120-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 June 2021

 Dr. Gilbert Mugambi Miriti, Ph.D.
Department of Business Administration, Chuka University

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Dr. Gilbert Mugambi Miriti, Ph.D. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and the Performance of Youth Owned Funded Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Chuka Town (Tharaka-Nithi County) Kenya.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.120-127 May 2021  URL:

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Effects of Organizational Resource Portfolio on the Performance of Africa Inland Church Theological Training Institutions in Kenya

Munyao, Solomon. M. – May 2021 Page No.: 128-134

Although organizations are started for the purpose of achieving some set objectives, this is not always the case with performance being cited as one of the challenges facing them today. Theological training institutions that are affiliated to Africa Inland Church have not been spared from this challenge of under-performance. Some of the areas that these theological training institutions have not performed well are in the declining number of students joining themand lack of reward system for both students and employees. Other challenges are lack of resources such declining financial support from donors besides lack of information technology infrastructure. This study was anchored on organizational resource portfolio which is an aspect of strategic leadership theory to determine its effects on organizational performance in Africa Inland Church theological training institutions in Kenya. Data was collected using both open and closed ended questionnaires from 219 management members, employees and third year students of Africa Inland Church theological training institutions in Kenya. The study made use of experimental research design while respondents were sampled using multi-stage sampling technique. The study established that organizational resource portfolio had a negative correlation with organizational performance (R=-0.145, p>.01) and contributed to 2.1 percent of the performance in Africa Inland Church theological training institutions in Kenya.

Page(s): 128-134                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2021

  Munyao, Solomon. M.
School of Leadership, Business and Technology, Pan Africa Christian University, P.O. Box 56875-00200, Nairobi, Kenya

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Munyao, Solomon. M. “Effects of Organizational Resource Portfolio on the Performance of Africa Inland Church Theological Training Institutions in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.128-134 May 2021  URL:

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Factors Influencing the Integration of ICT in Resource Planning In Secondary Schools in Mashuuru District, Kajiado County, Kenya

Asibah Everlyne M Kerubo, Joseph Ndungu Karanja, Dr. Githaka Mwangi, Mr. Ferdinand Mbeche- May 2021 Page No.: 135-143

The study sought to investigate factors influencing ICT integration in Resource planning in secondary schools in Mashuuru district, Kajiado County. Specifically, the study sought to establish the availability of ICT infrastructure and the level of training personnel, all in the integration of ICT in resource planning. The study employed descriptive survey design with both qualitative and quantitative approaches targeting 13 secondary schools, 13 school principals, 226 teachers. A sample of 88 respondents was randomly selected and interviewed for argumentation purposes of the study findings. Data was mainly collected using a questionnaire tool. Structured interview were also used in collecting quality data from the Principals. The study established that most schools had desktops, phones, television, laptops, DVD players, projectors and radios. Based on linear regression, availability of ICT infrastructure, R-Squired was 0.224 which explained (22.4%) of the factors influencing integration of ICT in resource planning in schools. The study found out that most teachers were well trained in Microsoft word, emails, Google search and excel with mean average of 3.22, 3.15. 3.30 and 2.73 respectively. Training in power point, access, office tools and quick books showed a low level training with mean average of 2.51, 2.38, 2.19 and 1.83 respectively. The sum mean average for all the variables was 2.66 implying a moderate level of training. This indicates that, in average, teachers in Mashuuru district were moderately trained in ICT use. The regression mode is adjusted R-Squired was 0.145 which explain (14.5%) extent at which training factors influenced integration of ICT, in resource planning in schools. Based on the findings, many schools in Mashuuru district had quite considerable enough ICT infrastructure that can necessitate the utilization of the same resource planning in schools. Quite a good number of teachers were also trained in ICT and this is attributed to the fact that most of the teachers were young. They had the prerequisite skills needed in the use of ICT in schools.

Page(s): 135-143                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2021

 Asibah Everlyne M Kerubo
Department of Education Administration and Planning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Joseph Ndungu Karanja
PhD Student, Department of Education Administration and Planning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Githaka Mwangi
Lecturer in Education Administration and Planning, University of Nairobi, Kikuyu Campus, Kenya

 Mr. Ferdinand Mbeche
Lecturer Department of Education Administration and Planning, University of Nairobi, Kikuyu Campus, Kenya

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Asibah Everlyne M Kerubo, Joseph Ndungu Karanja, Dr. Githaka Mwangi, Mr. Ferdinand Mbeche, “Factors Influencing the Integration of ICT in Resource Planning In Secondary Schools in Mashuuru District, Kajiado County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.135-143 May 2021  URL :

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Personality Disorders and the Five-Factor Model Among filipino Non-Clinical Sample

Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD- April 2021 Page No.: 144-153

This study aimed to explorethe relationship between the personality disorders and five factor modeland their factor structures in a Filipino non-clinical sample. The participants were 828 respondents from various areas in the Philippines. 35.5 % males and 64.3% females. The average age of respondents is 20.29 (SD = 4.83). The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) and the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness Personality Inventory – Revised (NEO-PI R) were used as assessment measures. Eight factors were extracted from a varimax principal components analysis including the 30 NEO-PI-R facets and the 14 PD scales. The results show that the five-factor model is modestly related to personality disorders as described in the DSM IV. There is a modest correspondence between personality disorder and NEO dimensions and facets. Regression analyses showed that NEO domain and facet scores explained a fifth to a third of the variance in PD dimensions.The results lend measured support to the correspondence of personality disorders and FFM theory of personality, however, the breadth of personality disorder pathology is not completely covered by the NEO. It seems then necessary to use additional clinical material, beyond the NEO, to describe personality disorder dimensions.

Page(s): 144-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5506

 Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD
Kinaadman Research Center, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

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Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD, “Personality Disorders and the Five-Factor Model Among filipino Non-Clinical Sample” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.144-153 May 2021  DOI:

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The Effects of Gender and Body Mass Index to Body Image

Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD- May 2021 Page No.: 154-161

This study is investigated how the body image of adolescents is affected by gender and body mass index and the interaction of both. The respondents of this study were 60 College freshmen undergraduate students. Convenience sampling was used in this study to get a preliminary gross estimate of results. Judgment sampling was also used in this study. To investigate the effects of gender and body mass and their interaction effects to body image, two-way analysis of variance was used. The results of this study supported the hypothesis that gender has an effect on body image regardless of body mass index. The resultsdid not support the hypotheses that body mass index has a significant effect on body image regardless of gender as well as the effect of gender on body image depends on body mass index.
It is suggested that other anthropomorphic measures may be used, gender differences in body image also be further examined

Page(s): 154-161                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5507

 Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD
Kinaadman Research Center, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

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Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD, “The Effects of Gender and Body Mass Index to Body Image” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.154-161 May 2021  DOI:

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Does gender predict emotional intelligence among adolescents?

Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD- May 2021 Page No.: 162-167

This study seeks to answer this question: Does gender predict emotional intelligence among adolescents? There were 300 study participants by random sampling.
Of the 300 respondents, 166(55%) were females and 134 (45%) were males. The average age of respondents was19.10 years (SD = 1.956). Emotional intelligence is defined from the standpoint of the Mayer and Salovey EI model: as the ability to “perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional meanings, and to reflectively regulate emotions to promote both better emotion and thought” (Mayer & Salovey,1997, p. 5). The trait meta-mood scale was the first assessment measure developed by the authors who first identified the EI construct. The TMMS was designed to measure individual differences in the processes of emotional regulation, which includes emotional awareness that further involves monitoring, evaluation, and management of feelings. For total EI score, female respondents (n= 166) obtained mean score of 87.64 (SD= 8.87), whereas male respondents (n=134) obtained a mean score of 87.37 (SD= 9.38). For EI subscale emotional attention, females obtained a mean score of 44.67 (SD= 5.68); whereas males obtained a mean score of 43.51 (SD= 6.29). For subscale emotional clarity, females obtained a mean score of 24.20 (SD= 3.85), whereas males obtained a mean score of 25.77 (SD= 3.96). For subscale emotional repair, females obtained a mean score of 15.68 (SD= 2.62), whereas males obtained a mean score of 15.28 (SD= 2.64) .
To test if gender significantly predicts the level of emotional intelligence of college respondents, multiple regression analysis was used. The results of the regression indicate that gender does not explain any of the variance in emotional intelligence (R2=.000, F(1,298)=.070, p=.792). Gender does not significantly predict emotional intelligence among adolescents (β= -.015, p= .525).

Page(s): 162-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5508

 Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD
Kinaadman Research Center, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

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Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD, “Does gender predict emotional intelligence among adolescents?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.162-167 May 2021  DOI:

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Performance of Religious Parents in Providing Sexual-related Information to their Children: The case of Thika West Sub-County, Kiambu County, Kenya.

Christine Muthonikahigi (Ph.D)- May 2021 Page No.: 168-177

The purpose of this study was to find out how Kenyan Religious parents perform in providing sexual-related information to their children. A survey, involving 322 secondary school students in Kiambu County, Kenya was carried out, on five basic sexual-related questions. The students responses on their source of sexual related information was cross tabulated with the demographic information of parents religious denominations. The respondents were asked from which source they learnt names of sexual organs in mother tongue where only 9.6% learnt from parents, 2.8% from religious sources, 6.8% from the school curriculum, 6.8% from the media,26.7% through self-discovery and 47.2% from the peer group. Out of those 9.6%, 1.9% were Catholics, 1.2% were Muslims, 3.1% Pentecostals, and 3.4 Protestants. The second question was the respondents’ source of information about how babies are made, and only 9% and 2.2% responded on parents and religious sources consecutively. The rest 61.5% cited school curriculum, 11.2% self-discovery, 10.9% peer group, and 5.3 % media. Out of the 9% parents, 3.1% were Catholics, 3.1% Protestants, 1.6% Pentecostals, 0.9% Muslims and 0.3% SDAs. The third question was respondents’ source of information about wet dreams where only 2.8% named parents and 3.1% religious sources. The other55% learnt through school curriculum, peer group 22%, self-discovery 14%, and media 3.1%. Out of the 2.8% parents, 0.6 Catholics, 0.9% Protestants, 0.9 Pentecostals and 0.3, Muslims. The fourth question on sources of information about menstruation showed the school curriculum rank highest 56.8%, self-discovery 16.5%, peer group 9%, parents 8.1%, media 6.2% and religious sources 3.4%. Out of the 8.1% parents, 3.4% were Protestants, 2.8 % Catholics, 1.2%Pentecostals and 0.6% Muslims. The fifth question was on the source that calls for abstinence. As expected, Religious leaders led with 35.4%, the school 21.7%, parents 20%, self-10.6%,with media among the lowest at 6.8% and peer 4.6%. Out of the 20% parents 8.7% were Protestants, 7.8% Catholics, 2.8% Pentecostals and 1.6% Muslims. The findings led to the conclusion that although the parents supported by their religious faiths have all the primary rights to inform provide sexual-related information to their children, very little if any is provided. School curriculum provides only what is allowed and it is evident that students continue to source for what they lack from alternative sources like media and peers. It is also clear that media and peer are not encouraging abstention. The study recommends that stakeholder be involved in developing a comprehensive sexuality education program and incorporate it the school’s curriculum for teachers to handle. Failure to do so leaves the youth vulnerable to negative consequences of sexual behavior that hampers self-development and educational goals of the society.

Page(s): 168-177                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5509

 Christine Muthonikahigi (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Foundations, College of Education and External Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Christine Muthonikahigi (Ph.D), “Performance of Religious Parents in Providing Sexual-related Information to their Children: The case of Thika West Sub-County, Kiambu County, Kenya.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.168-177 May 2021  DOI:

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Access to Financial Capital Influencing Women Participation in Artisanal and Small Scale Mining: A Case of Taita Taveta County, Kenya

David Mugo Thiongo, Florence Ondieki-Mwaura & Miriam Omolo- May 2021 Page No.: 178-184

The Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector plays a significant role in the growth development of the Kenyan economy. The ASM sector act as a major source of livelihood for both men and women who engage in the sector. However, women are yet to fully benefit from this sector due to socio-economic factors such as cultural practices, legal framework as well as access to finance constraints. Nevertheless, while empirical evidence seems to be conclusive concerning socio-cultural factors, limited studies have focused on the issue of financial access-the focus of this investigation. We apply a cross-sectional survey design with a target population of 230 women working in ASM sector within Taita Taveta county. Stratified sampling was adopted to select 146 women from whom data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. We establish that accessibility to mining tools and equipment, skills and knowledge on finance affects women participation in the ASM negatively. Provision of credit and knowledge of financial management is very critical towards enhancing women participation in the ASM sector in Taita Taveta.

Page(s): 178-184                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 June 2021

 David Mugo Thiongo
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62,000-00200, Nairobi, Kenya

 Florence Ondieki-Mwaura
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62,000-00200, Nairobi, Kenya

 Miriam Omolo
Programme Director, African Policy Research Institute

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David Mugo Thiongo, Florence Ondieki-Mwaura & Miriam Omolo, “Access to Financial Capital Influencing Women Participation in Artisanal and Small Scale Mining: A Case of Taita Taveta County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.178-184 May 2021  URL :

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A Review of Global Policies Regarding Literacy and Development: Strength and Weaknesses in Relation to Learning Achievements since the 1990 Jomitien Conference

Liambela Muyunda Leakey -May 2021 Page No.: 185-189

Bringing the world close to universal literacy has been a major legacy of the twentieth century. To realize this agenda UNESCO has been at the forefront since 1946. Its focus has been to advance the vision of a literate world for all. Nations worldwide inclusive of multilateral organizations considers Literacy as a driver for sustainable development in that it enables greater participation in the labour market; improved child and family health and nutrition; reduces poverty and expands life opportunities. Beyond its conventional concept as a set of reading, writing and counting skills, literacy is now understood as a means of identification, understanding, interpretation, creation, and communication in an increasingly digital, text-mediated, information-rich and fast-changing world. In light of this, a number of Global policies on Literacy have been formulated. Agreement on the best means of achieving this goal, however, has been very difficult to come by, and a number of literacy program have been shaped by internal and external politics as well as by local exigencies. This article outlines how literacy policies have evolved since the 1990 Jomitien Conference discussing their idealistic aims and intentions. The write up provides an analysis of their impact in relation to enhancing literacy levels and outlining the strength and weaknesses of the policies by focusing on their strength and weaknesses.

Page(s): 185-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 June 2021

 Liambela Muyunda Leakey
Technical and Vocational Teachers College, Luanshya, Zambia

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Liambela Muyunda Leakey , “A Review of Global Policies Regarding Literacy and Development: Strength and Weaknesses in Relation to Learning Achievements since the 1990 Jomitien Conference” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.185-189 May 2021  URL:

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The Effect of Social Media on Spreading Fear and Panic during COVID-19 Pandemic in Sri Lanka

D. A. Akuratiya – May 2021 Page No.: 190-196

People around the world have been directly and indirectly affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Its spread has heavily impacted global health and mental health. The rapid spread, uncertainty, and high death rates due to the corona pandemic created huge fear and panic all over the world. With physical isolation, people heavily rely on social media to seek information regarding this pandemic. This paper presents how social mediaaffected on spreading of fear and panic during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka. An online questionnaire (Google Form) was prepared and conducted with a sample of 102 participants from the Western province in Sri Lanka. Correspondently, data were analyzed using SPSS software. The study reveals that social media has a significant impact on spreading fear and panic related to the COVID-19 outbreak in Sri Lanka, with a potential negative influence on people’s mental health and physical well-being. Facebook is the most used social media network for spreading fear and panic about the COVID-19 outbreak in Sri Lanka. In conclusion, can say that social media has played a crucial role in creating and spreading fear and panic about the COVID-19 outbreak in Sri Lanka.

Page(s): 190-196                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 June 2021

 D. A. Akuratiya
Department of Accountancy, ATI-Dehiwala, SLIATE, Sri Lanka

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D. A. Akuratiya “The Effect of Social Media on Spreading Fear and Panic during COVID-19 Pandemic in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.190-196 May 2021

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Tourism Village Government Program, Characterized By State Defense as the Economic Foundation of National Defense

Kasih Prihantoro, Suhirwan, Anton Iman Santosa, Budi Pramono, Guntur Eko Saputro, Rianto, Lukman Yudho Prakoso – May 2021 Page No.: 197-201

The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted the global, regional and national strategic environment. the economic sector is an area that is greatly affected as a whole. The current condition must immediately find an effective and efficient solution so that it does not become a more serious threat to the defense of the State. The method used in this paper is descriptive qualitative phenomenology using the theory of defense policy implementation by Lukman Yudho Prakoso which states that defense policy implementation can run well if you pay attention to the factors of Integrative, Interactive, Transparency, Controling and Accountability (IITCA). The results showed that the economic handling between the central and regional governments had not yet been integrated, interactive communication was still a major obstacle, with the arrest of the Minister of Social Affairs showing that there were still major problems related to transparency, controlling and accountability factors. The tourism village is one of the programs initiated by the government in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic, which is expected to cause economic activity, especially in the field, so that this program is considered optimal as well to equip the state defense program for all parties involved, so that it is not vulnerable to being infiltrated by parties – irresponsible parties. The conclusion of this paper is in accordance with the theory of Kasih Prihantoro, so that the tourism village program with the character of defending the country as the foundation of the defense economy can run well, an effective and efficient netwok must be built and there must be a party acting as a driver force

Page(s): 197-201                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5510

 Kasih Prihantoro
Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia

Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia

  Anton Iman Santosa
Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia

  Budi Pramono
Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia

  Guntur Eko Saputro
Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia

Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia

  Lukman Yudho Prakoso
Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia

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[3] Dipua, A., Hermawan, R., Puspitawati, D., Harahap, N., Rizanny, D., & Prakoso, L. Y. (2020). An Analysis of The South China Sea Conflict: Indonesia’s Perspectives, Contexts and Recomendations. PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 17(4), 976–990.
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[13] Madrohim, M., & Prakoso, L. Y. (2021). The Total War Strategy Through the Improvement of the Role of National Shipyard in Supporting Main Weapon System of Indonesian Navy. Journal of Social and Political Sciences, 4(1).
[14] Palupi, E., S., DAR, D., Suhardono, E., Sianturi, D., Prakoso, L. Y., & Bangun, E. (2021, March 26). Sea Defense Strategy Strengthening Through Improving The Readiness of Indonesian Naval Vessel Crew (Study: The Health Office of 1st Fleet Command) E.
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Kasih Prihantoro, Suhirwan, Anton Iman Santosa, Budi Pramono, Guntur Eko Saputro, Rianto, Lukman Yudho Prakoso “Tourism Village Government Program, Characterized By State Defense as the Economic Foundation of National Defense ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.197-201 May 2021  DOI:

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Institutional and Legal Mechanisms for Combating Drug Trafficking In Nigeria: A Critical Assessment

Mutiullah A. Olasupo, Maiye B. Olusegun- May 2021 Page No.: 202-207

This study has critically assessed the institutional and legal mechanisms for combating drug trafficking in Nigeria with special attention on the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA). It is worthy to note that drug trafficking remains one of the badly organized crimes that involves individuals of different nationalities with its attendant effects on national and global peace and stability. Drug traffickers no doubt constitute socio-economic cum environmental threats to Nigeria in particular. The quantum of damages has necessitated the need to raise some pertinent questions; what are the major causes of drug trafficking in Nigeria? What are the institutional frameworks that have been put in place to combat the menace of drug trafficking? How can the institutions be strengthened to tackle drug trafficking? To answer the questions, the paper relied on both primary and secondary sources of data. Questionnaires were administered to 386 purposively sampled respondents with 74per cent duly retrieved for analysis. The structural-functionalist theory served as the framework of empirical assessment. In the course of the research findings, it was discovered that the nations of the world have identified drug trafficking as an international crime that requires institutional and legal collaborations to combat; hence the role of the NDLEA in this regards in invaluable. The agency has been in the business of elimination and preventing drug addiction and safeguarding the health of the nation. The laws and institutions to combat drug trafficking are not just of national importance but also, of international necessities. It has been recommended among others the need for an amendment of the NDLEA laws to accommodate the dynamics of the drug trafficking menace, the agency should embark on massive enlightenment campaign to forestall drug trafficking and quackery.

Page(s): 202-207                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 June 2021

 Mutiullah A. Olasupo
Senior Lecturer, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Abuja, Nigeria

  Maiye B. Olusegun
Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Abuja, Nigeria

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Mutiullah A. Olasupo, Maiye B. Olusegun, “Institutional and Legal Mechanisms for Combating Drug Trafficking In Nigeria: A Critical Assessment ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.202-207 May 2021  DOI :

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Factor Affecting for Personal Financial Literacy of Undergraduates

Sudarma Priyadarshani, J.A. Prasansha Kumari- May 2021 Page No.: 208-215

Financial literacy has become an important concepts in the modern global economy. Because of globalization all countries and nations can be deal with each other easily. Having good knowledge about financial concepts is essential to deal with each other in the present economy. The study intends to examine the factors effect on personal financial literacy in Sri Lanka. Data were collected using questionnaire from 125 undergraduate students of five different faculties in University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The study finding reveals that total financial literacy of undergraduates is low. There is a strong positive relationship only between parents’ education level and personal financial literacy.

Page(s): 208-215                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 June 2021

 Sudarma Priyadarshani
Department of Eonomics, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

  J.A. Prasansha Kumari
Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

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Sudarma Priyadarshani, J.A. Prasansha Kumari “Factor Affecting for Personal Financial Literacy of Undergraduates” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.208-215 May 2021  URL:

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The impact of teacher remuneration on the provision of quality education in secondary schools of Zimbabwe

Saziso Mukomana- May 2021 Page No.: 216-221

The study focused on the impact of teacher remuneration on the provision of quality education in secondary schools of Zimbabwe. It looked at a single ignored but most important quality education component: Teachers’ salaries. These salaries in many African countries are way below prevailing inflation rates. In this study the major argument is that, if education is perceived as a key institution for social-political-economic and technological development of any country underpinning sustainable living, why are people who provide such a vital commodity left at the periphery of empowerment? Research findings suggest that, Zimbabwe will never effectively achieve sustainable development goals and quality education if it does not considerately remunerate its teachers, who are in turn when well motivated are capable of being agents of change. Research findings argue that teacher remuneration is interrelated to all aspects of quality education, such that choice to ignore it affect costs and benefits of education in very complex ways. The content of the entry is based on theoretical analysis of published literature sources. Synthesis of analysed information led to the conclusion that, education is key to development but also a very costly enterprise. Within that pivotal enterprise teachers represent the single most important variable to the achievement of functional literacy which is a cornerstone for sustainable development. The study recommends finding mechanisms to improve teachers’ remuneration an obvious centrality for sustainable development.

Page(s): 216-221                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 June 2021

 Saziso Mukomana
Lecturer, Department of Teacher Education, Zimbabwe Open University

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Saziso Mukomana, “The impact of teacher remuneration on the provision of quality education in secondary schools of Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.216-221 May 2021  URL :

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Community Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards Importance and Sustainability of Mangrove Forests: A Case Study of Kuala Langat, Malaysia.

Rosazlin Abdullah, Anis Farhana Hanif, Sahrianisa Toufik., Rozainah Mohd. Zakaria, Wan Rasidah Kadir., Tariq Mubarak Husin, Nur Sa’adah Halim and Aaronn Avit Ajeng- May 2021 Page No.: 222-235

Mangrove forests degradation is happening globally at an alarming rate since the 80’s. Land conversion for human activities is one of many reasons contributing to the issue. The access the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) on the function and conservation of mangrove, data was collected in Kuala Langat, Selangor within the vicinity of Sijangkang Mangrove Recreational Park using in-depth interviews (N = 100) and analysed using using ANOVA and linear regression. Results revealed that the respondents understand the importance of mangrove forests with high total mean knowledge score (80.93±7.77), attitude (75.83±8.51), and average on practice (55.95±11.44). Education is an important indication; resident status will determine the attitude towards the knowledge on the mangrove conservation. The linear regression depicts positive correlation between KAP variables where any changes will affect other variables.

Page(s): 222-235                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5511

 Rosazlin Abdullah
Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya,50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 Anis Farhana Hanif
Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya,50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 Sahrianisa Toufik
Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya,50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 Rozainah Mohd. Zakaria
Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya,50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 Wan Rasidah Kadir.
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia

 Tariq Mubarak Husin
Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia

 Nur Sa’adah Halim
Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya,50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 Aaronn Avit Ajeng
Institute of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya,50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Rosazlin Abdullah, Anis Farhana Hanif, Sahrianisa Toufik., Rozainah Mohd. Zakaria, Wan Rasidah Kadir., Tariq Mubarak Husin, Nur Sa’adah Halim and Aaronn Avit Ajeng, “Community Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards Importance and Sustainability of Mangrove Forests: A Case Study of Kuala Langat, Malaysia.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.222-235 May 2021  DOI:

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The Policy of Law Politics on Corruption Eradication in Indonesia and Its Implementation in Central Sulawesi Province

M. Rum, Muhammad Basir-Cyio, Sulbadana, Nawawi Natsir, & Rahmat Bakri- May 2021 Page No.: 236-243

One of the goals of the establishment of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia which was formulated in the preamble to the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. The aim of advancing the general welfare which is formulated in the preamble to the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia and described in the chapter on state finances and the chapter on the state economy and social welfare is in line with the basic principles of democracy. The practices of corruption, collusion and nepotism in the administration of the state and government are suspected to be one of the causes of the fragility of the joints of the life of the nation and state. The political and economic policies of the New Order government emphasized the aspect of growthversus equalization. This research will examine efforts to eradicate corruption in Indonesia in terms of the design of political-law policies that are associated with the effectiveness of law enforcement based on components of legal substance, legal structure, and legal culture. Look at the background to these problems. This research uses normative legal research. In order to obtain scientific answers to the legal problems being studied, this study uses several approaches. The government of the Republic of Indonesia has shown a real and serious effort in eradicating corruption through the design of legal political policies / development of legal policy directions that enable the eradication of corruption to be carried out effectively, both through the formation of laws and regulations (legal substance) and the formation of state institutions has a role and function, directly or indirectly, in relation to efforts to realize a clean, transparent, accountable, and corruption-free governance. Then the implementation of legal politics to eradicate corruption in Central Sulawesi Province can be seen by the prosecution of a number of cases involving local government elites, both from the executive, legislative, and private sectors. In the aspect of prevention, it is carried out by law enforcement officials through assistance and consultation in the management of national strategic activities / projects. Including the socialization that was carried out to the ranks of local government in order to have an understanding and awareness of the importance of realizing a government that is free of corruption..

Page(s): 236-243                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5512

 M. Rum
Doctoral Study Program, Postgraduate Program, Tadulako University, Jln Soekarno-Hatta Km 09, Palu 94118, Indonesia

  Muhammad Basir-Cyio
Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jln. Soekarno-Hatta, Indonesia

Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Tadulako University, Jln. Soekarno-Hatta Km 09 Palu 94118, Indonesia

  Nawawi Natsir,
Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Tadulako University, Indonesia

 Rahmat Bakri
Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Tadulako University, Jln. Soekarno-Hatta Km 09 Palu 94118, Indonesia

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M. Rum, Muhammad Basir-Cyio, Sulbadana, Nawawi Natsir, & Rahmat Bakri, “The Policy of Law Politics on Corruption Eradication in Indonesia and Its Implementation in Central Sulawesi Province” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.236-243 May 2021  DOI:

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Total War Strategy with Passive Radar Operation
Imam Taufik, Lukman Yudho Prakoso, Helda Risman- May 2021 – Page No.: 244-249

Indonesia as an archipelagic state has an open sea area and the existence of the Indonesian Archipelago Sea Channel (ALKI) which creates vulnerabilities to various possible threats. Balitbang Kemhan RI has developed a passive radar detection tool that can be used for sensing all activities deemed necessary in national defense, especially for preparation in case of universal war. This paper will analyze the implementation of the existing early detection system using the theory of Lukman Yudho Prakoso (2016) which states that public policy in the defense sector can be achieved well if Integrative, Interactive, Transparency, Controling and Accountability (IITCA) factors are respected. The writing method used is descriptive qualitative literature study. The next writer will formulate a strategy so that the total war strategy can be optimal by operating an early detection system using passive radar. The results showed that the IITCA factor had not been fulfilled in the implementation of the existing early detection system operation defense policy, so that the formulation of a universal war strategy with passive radar operation that would later be implemented had to be integrated, interactive, transparent, had a control system and had to be accountable. As a conclusion, the universal war strategy with the operation of passive radar made by the Indonesian Ministry of Defense Balitbang, is very effective in achieving defense objectives in maintaining and protecting the sovereignty of the country, the territorial integrity of the Republic of Indonesia and the safety of the entire nation from all forms of threats

Page(s): 244-249                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5513

 Imam Taufik
Universitas Pertahanan, Indonesia

 Lukman Yudho Prakoso
Universitas Pertahanan, Indonesia

 Helda Risman
Defence University, Indonesia

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Imam Taufik, Lukman Yudho Prakoso, Helda Risman “Total War Strategy with Passive Radar Operation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.24-28 May 2021 DOI:

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On the question of work-life balance in Africa: The case of women administrators in public universities in Ghana

Mary Owusu Obimpeh, PhD- May 2021 Page No.: 250-258

Organizations in their quest to enhance work-life balance have been admonished to institute many human resource interventions including flexible and alternate work schedules. Meanwhile, promoting policies and interventions that facilitate work-life balance require a deeper introspection of effectively diagnosing and assessing the sources of stressors that tend to obstruct this optimal balance. The overarching question underpinning this study is: how does the context of women professionals serve as a ‘catalyst’ or ‘obstruction’ to competing work-life balance? Taking inspiration from the work-life border theory, the study designs a comprehensive framework to assess the sources of work-life conflict among women administrators from three selected public universities of Ghana. Adopting a case study design within qualitative research approach, a total of the 74 respondents are selected, 22 are sampled from each of the three institutions (making a total of 66 from the three institutions), while eight (8) are selected from national institutions and associations. Elite interviews and focus group discussions are the main instruments of primary data collection. Among its key findings, the study underscores how the socio-contextual forces, economic and physiological factors could help serve as a catalyst or obstruction to work-life balance. Beyond these forces which occur on the part of the individual employee, organizational forces and demands of the particular job could help compound or lessen the plight of women administrators in their quest to maintain work-life balance. It is important for organizations and their human resource management outfits to take into account the human resource management information systems very well in all their personnel policies especially how they react with different people.

Page(s): 250-258                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2021

 Mary Owusu Obimpeh, PhD
University of Cape Coast, Ghana

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Mary Owusu Obimpeh, PhD, “On the question of work-life balance in Africa: The case of women administrators in public universities in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.250-258 May 2021  URL :

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Managing records and archives in the absence of a registered professional association. A Zimbabwe case
Ncube Gilbert- May 2021 – Page No.: 259-263

This study focused on establishing how records were being managed in the absence of a registered professional association of records management. In came as a result of evidence that in Zimbabwe there was no registered professional association for records management raising questions on how were ideas shared amongst records and archives professionals. The study is qualitative in nature and convenient sampling technique was used to obtain views on how records management activities were operating in an environment where they do not have a registered professional body. The study probed further to establish what records and archives profession was missing as a result of not having a registered professional body. Study findings showed that records management practices were being conducted guided by the National Archives of Zimbabwe (public sector records) while private organisations had the records personnel deciding individually on records management issues. The study also showed that there was lack of a platform to organise effective seminars and workshops that would discuss issues relating to ethics and professional conduct, curriculum development and continuing professional development. The study went on to establish that the absence of having a registered professional association was affecting the growth of the profession, training of records and archives students and the professional progression. It was recommended that there is need for the existing informal professional associations to register and be the mouth and ears of the records profession in Zimbabwe

Page(s): 259-263                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2021

 Ncube Gilbert
Lecturer, Zimbabwe Open University

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Ncube Gilbert “Managing records and archives in the absence of a registered professional association. A Zimbabwe case” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.24-28 May 2021 URL:

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Emotional Intelligence, Self-efficacy and Occupational Stress of Academic Personnel
Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD- May 2021 – Page No.: 264-276

Stress in the university has a wide-ranging and negative impact on the well-being of a teacher and his or her day-to-day functioning. This is evident in many aspects: physical, psychological, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of functioning.
This study examined the combined effects of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on occupational stress; the relative contribution of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy to occupational stress; and the effect of self-efficacy on the relationship of emotional intelligence and occupational stress. Emotional intelligence is a cross section of inter-related emotional and social competencies, skills, and factors that determine how effectively a person understands and express him/herself, understand others and relate with them and cope with daily demands. Self-efficacy is the belief that one can perform a novel or difficult tasks, or cope with adversity — in various domains of human functioning. Occupational stress, the physical, mental and emotional wear and tear brought about by incongruence between the requirement of the job and the capabilities, resources and needs of the employee to cope with job demands.
This study is a descriptive-correlational study. The results showed consistency with the research hypothesis: EI and self-efficacy has combined effect on occupational stress. The results showed a negative significant correlation between EI and stress, and between self-efficacy and stress. Self-efficacy was found to predict significantly occupational stress, but emotional intelligence did not contribute independently to the prediction of stress. This study demonstrated the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the association of EI and occupational stress. The understanding of the role of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy in teacher stress may lead to preventive intervention efforts to enhance teacher EI and self-efficacy to effectively deal with stress of academic life.

Page(s): 264-276                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5514

 Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD
Kinaadman Research Center, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

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Mary Rachelle R Wapaño, PhD “Emotional Intelligence, Self-efficacy and Occupational Stress of Academic Personnel” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.24-28 May 2021 DOI:

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Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh: A Post-Pandemic Threat Assessment Study
Md. Masudur Rahman, Mst. Sadia Afrin- May 2021 – Page No.: 277-284

This study attempts to find out and assess the post-pandemic threats of food security in Bangladesh pinpointing the key challenges and potential areas for future development. Bangladesh is a densely populated country with a large number of people living below the poverty line. The main challenge of the Government is to feed them meeting their hunger. Though enough food is nowadays available because of sufficient food production in the country, the accessibility of food or proper maintenance of quality of the food or equal distribution of food to all cannot be maintained properly. Besides, COVID-19 pandemic created the situation of food crisis due to lack of accessibility, stability and proper utilization of food. A number of threats from both internal and external sources hamper the desired food security in Bangladesh. Both empirical and secondary data has been analyzed in qualitative method conducting this study. The primary data is collected by conducting Key Informant Interviews (KII) related to food security in Bangladesh. And the secondary data is collected from the previously done literature in relevant field including research articles, books, policy reports, newspapers and so on. This study is attempts to contribute to the policy making and to combat threats towards sustainable food security in post-pandemic situation in Bangladesh.

Page(s): 277-284                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2021

 Md. Masudur Rahman
Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Trishal, Mymensingh-2224, Bangladesh

 Mst. Sadia Afrin
MPhil Researcher, Department of Sociology, University of Dhaka & Assistant Director, A Department of Prime Minister’s Office, Bangladesh

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Md. Masudur Rahman, Mst. Sadia Afrin “Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh: A Post-Pandemic Threat Assessment Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.24-28 May 2021 URL:

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Public Administration – Public Management interface: How Different is the ‘Management’ from the ‘Administration’?

Dr Mary Owusu Obimpeh and Juliana Audria Dankwa- May 2021 Page No.: 285-292

The field of public administration has gone through some evolution and still going through such paradigmatic shifts. Going beyond the traditional public administration, which had been underpinned, by bureaucracy and the quest for democracy and rules, the field evolved to public management with its most popular variant new public management, which puts greater emphasizes on market orientation and adoption of private sector management principles into the public sector. However, to what extent is public management dissimilar with the traditional notion of public administration? Is public management significantly different from public administration? Is it a genuinely new area of academic enquiry or is it merely an old subject that is being dusted off and recycled? Does public management designate a coherent theoretical and methodological approach? Adopting content analysis of extant literature, these cross-cutting questions are adequately addressed in this paper with an emphasis on the nexus between public administration and public management. The paper concludes with the interconnection between the public administration, public management and the emerging approaches.

Page(s): 285-292                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2021

 Dr Mary Owusu Obimpeh
Directorate of Human Resource, University of Cape Coast

  Juliana Audria Dankwa
Centre for International Education, University of Cape Coast

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Dr Mary Owusu Obimpeh and Juliana Audria Dankwa, “Public Administration – Public Management interface: How Different is the ‘Management’ from the ‘Administration’?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.285-292 May 2021 

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Women’s Position in Mediating Family Disputes in Indonesia

Fatahillah Abdul Syukur – May 2021 Page No.: 293-297

Patriarchal culture Indonesia in Indonesia has influenced many aspects of life, including the way of resolving family disputes in the judicial system. The patriarchal mindset is also assumed by most judges (men and women) in the Indonesian courts. This paper aims to critically examine the position of women in mediating family disputes in the Indonesian court-annexed mediation and how patriarchal values influence the conflict resolution processes and outcomes for all parties, particularly women. The studies were taken in two provinces of Indonesia, West Java and West Sumatra.

Page(s): 293-297                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2021

  Fatahillah Abdul Syukur
Faculty of Law, Universitas Pancasila, Jakarta, 12630, Indonesia

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Fatahillah Abdul Syukur “Women’s Position in Mediating Family Disputes in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.293-297 May 2021  URL:

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Effectiveness of Principals Interpersonal Communication: A Literature Review

Mutiara Nur Ahlaini, Sowiyah, Umigiarini Pangestu and Felia Santika – May 2021 Page No.: 298-303

The purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of interpersonal communication of the principal In context of the world. This research uses compare journals related to the effectiveness of interpersonal communication in the sphere of education. Based on the results of a literature review from various countries in the world, the authors found that interpersonal communication can help the school principal in carrying out their duties by communicating in interpersonal with anyone. Therefore, the principal is expected to communicate well in interpersonal to create relationships, openness and trust within the scope of the organization Communication that can be done by the principal is interpersonal communication to create the relationship and trust are invited to communicate. Interpersonal communication can be effective if communication is conducted face-to-front and two-way with openness, clarity, transparency, brief, kindness, concrete, consideration. The importance of the effectiveness of interpersonal communication in education attracts researcher to examine, and this article is to test how the effectiveness of interpersonal communication of the principal in the organization. With the expectation of the principal can develop continuously interpersonal communication to build relationships and trust to anyone.

Page(s): 298-303                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5515

  Mutiara Nur Ahlaini
Department Teacher Training and Education, Lampung University, Indonesia

Department Teacher Training and Education, Lampung University, Indonesia

  Umigiarini Pangestu
Department Teacher Training and Education, Lampung University, Indonesia

  Felia Santika
Department Teacher Training and Education, Lampung University, Indonesia

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Mutiara Nur Ahlaini, Sowiyah, Umigiarini Pangestu and Felia Santika “Effectiveness of Principals Interpersonal Communication: A Literature Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.298-303 May 2021  DOI:

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An Evaluation of Art and Design in Primary Education in Zambia

Lewis B. Chilufya, Isaac S. Chilinda – May 2021 Page No.: 304-309

This article is anchored on a study that evaluated the management of Art and Design in selected schools in Chongwe and Rufunsa districts of Zambia. The overarching goal of the study was to establish what else could be done for children to benefit fully from the subject as they play and make art. The theoretical framework was on the Social Development Theory of Learning, which was developed by Lev Vygotsky. The latter fundamentally proposed that social interaction profoundly influenced cognitive development of children. Based on this understanding, this study demonstrated that through play with art and design, children are likely to develop traits such as creativity, inventiveness, critical and analytical thinking. These traits could equip them for survival in their natural environments as well as instill values in them that would make them good members of their communities. To arrive at this conclusion, questionnaires were used to collect data, which was mainly qualitative. Consequently, thematic analysis was employed to interpret the findings.

Page(s): 304-309                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2021

  Lewis B. Chilufya
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia / Chreso University

 Isaac S. Chilinda
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia / Chreso University

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Lewis B. Chilufya, Isaac S. Chilinda “An Evaluation of Art and Design in Primary Education in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.304-309 May 2021  URL:

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Promoting the Use of Indigenous Languages on Social Media

Mosibudi Aretha Munyadziwa, Elliot Mthembeni Mncwango – May 2021 Page No.: 310-314

This article aimed to analyse the use of indigenous languages on social media in South Africa. The objective was to establish if the use of indigenous languages is promoted on social media. A qualitative approach was used, and a survey was employed for data collection purposes. A sample size of 150 respondents was purposively selected and the respondents were from KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. Five indigenous languages were targeted for the study: isiZulu, siSwati, Sepedi, Tshivenda, and Xitsonga.
The findings revealed that people’s interaction on social media has contributed to the promotion of indigenous languages as more and more people use these languages. It was also found that while most of the respondents prefer using the English language on social media, they code-mix or code-switch between English and their indigenous language. Interestingly, this has resulted in new meanings being assigned to some existing words, and some ‘new’ words being created which are a result of the interface between English and indigenous languages. Another finding was that access to websites that support indigenous languages is limited due to irrelevant and insufficient content on these websites.

Page(s): 310-314                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2021

  Mosibudi Aretha Munyadziwa
Limpopo Province, South Africa

 Elliot Mthembeni Mncwango
Department of General Linguistics & Modern Languages, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001 Kwa-Dlangezwa, 3886, South Africa

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Mosibudi Aretha Munyadziwa, Elliot Mthembeni Mncwango “Promoting the Use of Indigenous Languages on Social Media” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.310-314 May 2021  URL:

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Role of Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizational success

Sivanjali M – May 2021 Page No.: 315-318

Emotional Intelligence (EI) plays a significant role in creating leadership skills and making an effective workplace. Positive work environment will enable everyone to understand each other, manage their own emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, and help to manage relationships within the organization.
The objective was to explore the association of emotional intelligence in leadership and organizational success among the study participants.
Observational study was done among participants for a period of six months. The study was conducted among healthcare professionals, bank employees and self-employed workers in the city of Batticaloa, Sri Lanka (n=9). Two physicians and one nurse were considered in Health care workers. Among bank employees, two of them were in the manager positions and one of them worked in customer service. In self-employed workers’ different categories and stages of employees were considered. One of them was a lawyer, one private tutor and one retail businessman. Content analysis was done manually. Themes identified were career satisfaction and having work-life balance. In all categories of career, stage and nature of career had an influence on career satisfaction and work life balance. Career satisfaction was measured by achieving the targets and feeling peaceful at work place. When we considered career satisfaction 100% of self-employed workers had it and 70% of Health-care workers and Bank employees expressed it. When considering the work life balance 70% of the self-employed workers had work life balance and in other professions less than 50% of them had a good work life balance.
It was proved that employees with higher Emotional Intelligence had career satisfaction; good work life balance and they could lead the organization in a successful way.

Page(s): 315-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5516

 Sivanjali M
Department of Medical Education and Research, Eastern University, Sri Lanka

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[14] Lockwood, N. R. (2003). Work/Life Balance: Challenges and Solutions for Human Resource Management. SHRM Research, 1–10.
[15] McCarthy, A., Cleveland, J. N., Hunter, S., Darcy, C., Grady, G., Aleksić, D., Mihelič, K. K., Černe, M., Škerlavaj, M., HUI, C. S., YEE, C. S., YEN, L. S., CHIE, L. A., YI, L. C., Cegarra-Leiva, D., Eugenia Sánchez-Vidal, M., Cegarra-Navarro, J. G., Life, O. W., Smith, J., … Encyclopedia. (2017). the Impact of Perceived Organizational. Personnel Review, 46(3), 97–108.
[16] Tausig, M., & Fenwick, R. (2001). Unbinding time: Alternate work schedules and work-life balance. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22(2), 101–119.
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Sivanjali M, “Role of Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizational success” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.315-318 May 2021  URL: DOI:

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Exploring the Concept of Containment, Childhood Development and Silence in Alex Michaelides’s Novel The Silent Patient: A Psychoanalytic Critique

Mohammad Afzal Hossain – May 2021 Page No.: 319-324

This paper focuses to appropriate and apply the concepts of “container- contained” and “holding and holding environment” theorized respectively by Wilfred Bion and Donald Winnicott, across the nature of Alicia’s relationships with her father and husband to understand the resultant silence after her husband’s murder in the novel The Silent Patient. The objective of this paper is to explore and investigate how the nature of child Alicia’s relationship with her father impacted her childhood psychic development and how this leads to her husband’s murder from psychoanalytic perspectives of Bion and Winnicott. The childhood development of Alicia has been traced and explored deploying various concepts developed by Freud, Bion,Winnicott and Lacan using in-depth qualitative methods like content analysis and textual analysis. The paper finds that, the nature of Alicia’s relationship with her husband and the murder has interconnectedness with the nature of relationship Alicia had with her father. Alicia didn’t get a containing and holding environment during childhood. The importance of this paper lies in its scope and spectrum of revisiting the reinforced focus on having a contained and safe childhood development.

Page(s): 319-324                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5517

  Mohammad Afzal Hossain
Lecturer, Department of English, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh

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Mohammad Afzal Hossain “Exploring the Concept of Containment, Childhood Development and Silence in Alex Michaelides’s Novel The Silent Patient: A Psychoanalytic Critique” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.319-324 May 2021  DOI:

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Capabilities and Difficulties of Barangay Officials on Local Budgeting Process

Ronel Geraldizo Dagohoy- May 2021 Page No.: 325-335

This study assessed the extent of capabilities and exploredthe encountered difficulties of barangay officials on the local budgeting process in the Municipality of Santo Tomas, Davao del Norte, Philippines. This study used the descriptive method of research with 126 respondents. The research instrument is anchored in the Department of Budget and Management Manual, wherein its reliability was tested through pilot testing. The study revealed that barangay officials can properly perform local budgeting duties and functions along with preparation, authorization, execution, and accountability processes. It also revealed a significant difference in the extent of the capability on local budgeting process of the non-degree holder and degree holder barangay officials. Furthermore, several problems encountered by barangay officials on the local budgeting process were also revealed. This study would serve as a basis for the higher authorities in fiscal administration, particularly those who are responsible for barangay governments in improving the processin budgeting.

Page(s): 325-335                                                                                                                   Date of Publication:22 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5518

 Ronel Geraldizo Dagohoy
Program Chairperson, Bachelor of Public Administration,Institute of Leadership, Entrepreneurship and Good Governance, Davao del Norte State College

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Ronel Geraldizo Dagohoy, “Capabilities and Difficulties of Barangay Officials on Local Budgeting Process .” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.325-335 May 2021  DOI:

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Explaining Risk Perception of Climate Change in Indonesia through Cultural Dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance, Collectivistic, and Long-term Orientation

Victor Matanggaran, Jan M. Gutteling- May 2021 Page No.: 336-345

Risk perception of climate change has believed to be the first step to tackle climate change problems globally. There are many factors to cause people to be aware of climate change risks. However, research on cultural dimensions has rarely been done. This research examines the correlation of cultural dimension uncertainty avoidance, collectivistic, and long-term orientation with risk perception of climate change. The research was conducted in Indonesia as the country with a high score in uncertainty avoidance, collectivistic, and long-term orientation. Data was collected using an online survey Qualtrics and shared in several cities in Indonesia such as the capital city Jakarta, Riau (Sumatera), South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, West Java, East Java, and Jogjakarta (Java). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted on 562 respondents in the survey and found that risk perception of climate change positively correlated to the cultural dimensions of uncertainty avoidance, collectivistic, and long-term orientation. Demography variables such as age, gender, education level, and disaster experiences have no relation to the risk perception of climate change. The result enriches the contribution of cultural dimensions in shaping the risk perception of climate change, and the description of Indonesia’s cultural dimensions and risk perception of climate change..

Page(s): 336-345                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5519

 Victor Matanggaran
Macanga Institute, Mamuju, Indonesia

  Jan M. Gutteling
University of Twente, Netherlands

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Victor Matanggaran, Jan M. Gutteling, “Explaining Risk Perception of Climate Change in Indonesia through Cultural Dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance, Collectivistic, and Long-term Orientation ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.336-345 May 2021  DOI:

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Social barriers hindering women in the performance of Akpi and Adevu musical types in Logba Traditional area in Ghana

Selorm Divine Ndah, Priscilla Walden, Okyere – Twum Ebenezer, Marian Sarpong- May 2021 Page No.: 346-352

Musical types and their performances are means by which artistes in such professions make their living. But in the Logba Traditional area in the Volta region of Ghana where the people are so much enthuse with art and cultural related events, women seems to have been left out or disadvantage when it comes to the performance of some traditional musical ensembles such as Akpi and Adevu. The study sought to find out the barriers that hinder women artistes who want to go into performance of those musical types. The study adopted the qualitative design and made use of interviews and participant observation as some of the tools for gathering data. Sampling methods that were equally used covered purposive, Snowball and Random. The target population for the study comprises music students in the area, cultural coordinators, traditional musicians, and women with musical talents. The study revealed some of the social barriers hindering women when it comes to the performance of Akpi and Adevu musical types as Taboos, superstitions and marital ties. The study is useful to society as it could serve as a reference material for musicians, anthropologies as well as policy makers in the country. The study equally recommended that, cultural festivals should be instituted in the area to help explore talents among all genders. In addition, traditional authorities should perform their rites to eliminate the superstitious and taboos barring women from engaging in the performance the traditional musical types. Besides, music in general should be giving a priority in the educational curriculum so that, it would be well appreciated in society.

Page(s): 346-352                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5520

 Selorm Divine Ndah
SDA College Of Education Creative Arts Department, Asokore – Koforidua, Ghana

  Priscilla Walden
St Monica’s College of Education, Creative Arts Department, Ashanti Mampong, Ghana

  Okyere – Twum Ebenezer
St Monica’s College of Education, Creative Arts Department, Ashanti Mampong, Ghana

  Marian Sarpong
St Monica’s College of Education, Creative Arts Department, Ashanti Mampong, Ghana

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[3] Amuah, I.R, Adum- Atta, K, Arthur, K (2002) Music and Dance for Colleges of Education: Revised edition, principle and practice. Ghana: KRAMAD Publishers
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[15] Lodonu, J (2009) the artistic aspect of indigenous marriage among the Gbi of Ghana. Unpublished Mphil Thesis presented to the school of Graduate Studies, KNUST
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[17] Onovwerosuoke, W.H.K (2007) African Art music for flute: a study of selected works by African composers. Thesis submitted to the graduate faculty of the Louisiana state University and Agricultural and mechanical college. Retrieved from http://

Selorm Divine Ndah, Priscilla Walden, Okyere – Twum Ebenezer, Marian Sarpong, “Social barriers hindering women in the performance of Akpi and Adevu musical types in Logba Traditional area in Ghana ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.346-352 May 2021  DOI:

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Exploring Evolution and Survival of Large age-gap Romantic Heterosexual Relationships involving Older Women and Younger Men in Chipata, Zambia

Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe -May 2021 Page No.: 353-359

Older woman/ younger man romantic relationships are also referred to as ‘May- December’ relationships because one partner is younger/ the younger man while the other partner is older/the older woman. These relationships are now a social reality in both rural and urban societies. No wonder, scholarly interest has been increasingly gaining ground around the subject for the purpose of understanding this social phenomenon. However, evolution and survival of these relationships remain unclear in academic circles. The objective of this study was to find out how large age gap romantic heterosexual relationships involving an older woman and a younger man develop and survive under harsh societal opposition. Using a cross-sectional design with a qualitative approach, the study was conducted in Chipata-Zambia between December 2020 and March, 2021. A total of 10 participants stratified as: 2 younger men married to older women, 4 younger men with a history of intimate relationship with older women, 2 females with relatives/neighbour who were hooked up with older women and 2 males whose younger male friends were cohabiting with aged women. The study used in-depth interview to collect data from participants. This study found that majority of these relationships developed coincidentally. Except in one case, the study found that older women did not pose as ‘assertive seductresses’ ready to defy social norms in order to date younger men. The study however, found that older women’s invitational or male-ego-challenging words, actions and non verbal language influenced the course leading to the formation of romantic relationships with son-like figures. The study also found that age-descripant couples stuck together despite harsh stereotypes when their relationship was characterized by respect, love and appreciation for each other.

Page(s): 353-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5521

 Jordan Tembo
Kalindawalo General Hospital, 560008, Petauke, Eastern Province, Zambia

 Patricia Mambwe
Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Rusangu University, Monze, Zambia

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Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe, “Exploring Evolution and Survival of Large age-gap Romantic Heterosexual Relationships involving Older Women and Younger Men in Chipata, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.353-359 May 2021

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Federal Governance System between the Purpose of Unity and Fear of Disintegration: A Case Study Somalia

Abdiwali Mohamed Sayid, Dr. Lecturer, Başak Özoral – May 2021 Page No.: 360-371

After twenty-one years of military dictatorship, the central government of Somalia collapsed in 1991. The country witnessed severe civil war and led to human suffering. After years of tremendous efforts, the Somali political stakeholders with the support of the international community succeeded to establish a federal government. However, since the adaptation of the federal system in 2004, very little have been achieved in the federalization of the country. This is because of the widespread misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the federal system.. The misunderstanding stems from the strangeness of the system in Somalia, where since the independence Somalis have been familiar with a unitary central government. Sixteen years since the system is officially embraced, the federal constitution is not finished and very significance issues for federation are yet to be agreed upon. This has created continuous conflict and power struggle. For theoretical contribution, this study applied the basic concepts and components of Malcom M. Feeley and Edward Rubin’s theory of “Federal Theory: The political identity and Tragic Compromise” to the Somalia case. The study examined the politicized clan identity and the relative geographical distribution of clans and how these factors compelled to a federal system after the breakout of the civil war.

Page(s): 360-371                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2021

 Abdiwali Mohamed Sayid
Master Student, Institute of Social Science, Department of African Studies and International Relations, Istanbul Commerce University, Istanbul, Turkey

 Dr. Lecturer, Başak Özoral
Lecturer at Political Science and International Relations, Department of African Studies and International Relations, Istanbul Commerce University, Istanbul, Turkey

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Abdiwali Mohamed Sayid, Dr. Lecturer, Başak Özoral “Federal Governance System between the Purpose of Unity and Fear of Disintegration: A Case Study Somalia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.360-371 May 2021  URL:

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Does Parental Involvement Predict Children’s Future Economic Opportunities?

Martins Iyoboyi, Abdul Salam S. Ademola, Viashima Luper Veronica – May 2021 Page No.: 372-377

In this study, a cross-section of 197 civil servants in Katsina State Nigeria was used to determine whether parental involvement predicts children’s future economic opportunities. Focusing on current employment and two strands of parental involvement, and using the binary logit regression, it was found that both parental status and parental style are good predictors of employment. Family income, child’s education, marital status and age were found to be positively related to employment, while gender and level of parental education were found to be insignificant in predicting the employment potential of their children. The study draws attention to the centrality of parental involvement towards improving the future economic opportunities of their children.

Page(s): 372-377                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2021

 Martins Iyoboyi
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

  Abdul Salam S. Ademola
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

  Viashima Luper Veronica
Department of Sociology, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

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Martins Iyoboyi, Abdul Salam S. Ademola, Viashima Luper Veronica “Does Parental Involvement Predict Children’s Future Economic Opportunities? ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.372-377 May 2021  URL:

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Livelihood Coping Strategies among Artisanal Fishing Households on the Shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya

Jared Linus Magego, Christopher Obel Gor, Zackary Kinaro- May 2021 Page No.: 378-382

Developing countries are endowed with abundant natural resources. They are also more reliant on natural resources given their limited technology and inadequate infrastructural development. Despite the abundance of such resources, many rural communities are struggling over access to natural resources including fish. Fishing households are faced with ever-declining fish catches and combined effort of overexploitation. The impacts have been severe, especially among small scale fishing households. Many artisanal fisher folks have lost their mainstream source of livelihoods and have had to struggle with meeting their daily subsistence.Onedominant sources of fishing livelihoods have either collapsed or proving unsustainable for manyhouseholds. Fishing households are adapting to the declining livelihoods by diversifying and complementing their traditional fish-based livelihoods. Furthermore,the available formal institutions either facilitate or impede full realization of the potential of other sectors. The study examined the coping strategies of artisanal fishing households living on the shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya amidst declining fish stocks. It concludes that many small-scale fishing households have adopted various livelihood strategies such as increased effort in fishing, migration, reliance on remittances, subsistence farming, targeting fish species, sand harvesting, wage employment and localized credit mobilization in form of merry-go-rounds.The study recommends that the government needs toput in place sustainable livelihood opportunities to assist fishing households along the shores of Lake Victoria to diversify their survival.

Page(s): 378-382                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2021

 Jared Linus Magego
School of Education, Humanities & Social Sciences, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science & Technology, Kenya

 Christopher Obel Gor
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science & Technology, Kenya

 Zackary Kinaro
School of Spatial Planning & Natural Resource Management, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science & Technology, Kenya

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Jared Linus Magego, Christopher Obel Gor, Zackary Kinaro, “Livelihood Coping Strategies among Artisanal Fishing Households on the Shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.378-382 May 2021  URL :

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The Role of Palestinian Newspapers in Conflict: A Case Study of 2014 Gaza War
Nour T.M. Alhaj, Nazli Ismail, Marthoenis- May 2021 – Page No.: 383-385

Media plays an important role during and after conflict. It reveals the society sufferings from the conflict, either between different countries or sects. This paper analyzed the role of journalism during the 2014 war in Gaza. It explores the content and the opinion of two newspapers, Al-Hayat Al Jadeeda and Al-Resalah, regarding the conflict and war between Palestinians and Israel. The data collected from the official websites of these two newspapers. The content analysis of conflict related reports was conducted to explain the newspapers roles played during the war. Also, some differences in words were analyzed. The results showed that the 2014 war on Gaza was not the first war. The newspapers were satisfied with publishing facts to inform people of what was happened in addition to standing as a witness to the post-war recovery process. Despite the difference in the views of the two newspapers, they both the main goal, which is to expose the practices of the Israeli occupation towards the Palestinians.

Page(s): 383-385                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2021

 Nour T.M. Alhaj
Graduate Program of Disaster Science, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

 Nazli Ismail
Department of Geophysical Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

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Nour T.M. Alhaj, Nazli Ismail, Marthoenis “The Role of Palestinian Newspapers in Conflict: A Case Study of 2014 Gaza War” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.24-28 May 2021 URL:

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Teacher – Pupil Ratio and Teaching of Mathematics Concepts Among primary School Grade Three Pupils in Magarini Sub County, Kenya

Esha Awadh Omar, Mary Jebii Chemagosi (PhD), Robert J. Maneno (PhD) -May 2021 Page No.: 386-390

Teachers have a critical role in the implementation of mathematics curriculum that has an impact on the quality of education for individuals and national future scientific development and innovation. The purpose of the study was to investigate on teacher: pupil ratio and teaching of primary school grade three mathematics concepts in Magarini Sub County, Kenya. The constructivism theory by Jean Piaget’s (1973) guided the study. The study employed descriptive study design. The study had a sample of 12 head teachers and 68 teachers form a target population of 114 head teachers, 180 teachers and selected through stratified and simple random sampling technique. Data was collected by use of questionnaire, interview schedule and observation guide. A pilot study from the neighbouring Malindi Sub County was employed to as certain the instruments validity and reliability. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics; frequencies, means and standard deviation and findings presented in form of tables. Qualitative data was analysed in prose and narrative. The study established thatmost primary schools have a high teacher: pupil ratio that affects the teaching and acquisition of mathematics concepts among grade three pupils.Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) establisheda mean differences between teacher: pupil ratio and the teaching of primary schools pupils grade three mathematics concepts that were statistically significant; implying that teacher: pupil ratio has an influence on pupils acquisition of mathematics concepts. The study recommended that teacher training colleges should emphasize on equipping teachers with required skills, knowledge and attitude in order to improve their professional efficiency and to enable grade three pupils to acquire the desired mathematics concepts. The study suggested a further study to be conducted at other levels of learning on factors affecting performance of mathematics.

Page(s): 386-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2021

 Esha Awadh Omar
Department of Educational Psychology and Special Needs, Pwani University, Kenya

 Mary Jebii Chemagosi (PhD)
Department of Educational Psychology and Special Needs, Pwani University, Kenya

 Robert J. Maneno (PhD)
Department of Educational Psychology and Special Needs, Pwani University, Kenya

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[14] Wekesa, W.P. (2010). An assessment of factors affecting students’ performance in mathematics at K.C.S.E level in secondary schools in Kakamega County, Kenya (Unpublished, PhD thesis) Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Esha Awadh Omar, Mary Jebii Chemagosi (PhD), Robert J. Maneno (PhD), “Teacher – Pupil Ratio and Teaching of Mathematics Concepts Among primary School Grade Three Pupils in Magarini Sub County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.386-390 May 2021  URL:

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Influence of University Administration on Human Resource Utilization and Quality Education

Prof. Mrs. C. E. Edemenang, Dr. Muhammad Adam, Dr. S. S. Sara, Salisu, Salome Audu – May 2021 Page No.: 391-396

This paper examined the Influence of University Administration on Human Resource Utilization and Quality Education Delivery in State Universities in North Eastern Nigeria. Two purposes of the study and corresponding research questions and hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study comprised of 30 academic staff working in the State Universities in the North Central. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample of the study. The instrument used for data collection was “Influence of University Administration on Human Resource Utilization and Quality Education Delivery Questionnaire for Academic Staff” (IUAHRUQED). The reliability of the instrument was 0.791. The findings of the study revealed that there was high positive relationship between improving quality education delivery with low level of human utilization in administration among State Universities. Conclusions and recommendations were made among which arethere is need for the Federal, State and local government to provide adequate class size in order to avoid class over load and excessive assignment for lecturers in order to enhance effectiveness in teaching and learning in the state universities.

Page(s): 391-396                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2021

 Prof. Mrs. C. E. Edemenang
Federal College of Education, Gombe, Nigeria

 Dr. Muhammad Adam
Federal College of Education, Gombe, Nigeria

 Dr. S. S. Sara
Federal College of Education, Gombe, Nigeria

 Salisu, Salome Audu
Federal College of Education, Gombe, Nigeria

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[3] Akindutire, I. O. (2004).Administration of Higher Education. Lagos: Sunray Press.
[4] Amalu, M. N. (2014). Stress from Role Conflict: Consequences for Professional Effectiveness of Secondary School Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria Global Journal of Educational Research II (1); 37-47.
[5] Armstrong, M. (2013). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (13th ed.) London: Kogan page.
[6] Babbie, E. & Mouton, J. (2017).The Practice of Social Research. Cape Town: Oxford University Press
[7] Cheryl, J. C. (2017). Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 2017 23(8): 859-862.Daily Graphics (Nigeria Limited).
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[9] Fasasi, Y. A. (2009). Administratorial Behavior in Educational Organizations. In J.B Babalola& A. O Ayeni, (Eds.) Educational Management: Theories and Tasks 183-194. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria. Federal Government Press.
[10] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013). National Policy on Education (Revised). Lagos:
[11] Iyeke, P. O. (2013). Motivation as a Correlate of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Teachers’ Productivity in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.Journal of Sociology,Psychology and Anthropology in Practice, 5(1): 28-35.
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[13] Kalusi, J. I. (2015). Teacher quality for quality education.Nigerian Journal of educational philosophy, 8 (2): 62-72.
[14] Ojebiyi, O. A. &Adediran, Adekunle, A. (2012). Quality Human Resource Management for Effective Educational System.Journal of EducationalLeadership Administration and Planning (IJELAP) 1 (1); 65-74.
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Prof. Mrs. C. E. Edemenang, Dr. Muhammad Adam, Dr. S. S. Sara, Salisu, Salome Audu “Influence of University Administration on Human Resource Utilization and Quality Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.391-396 May 2021  URL:

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Local Economic Enterprise of Braulio E. Dujali: A Case Study

Romalie F. Galleto, MSDeA – May 2021 Page No.: 397-404

R.A 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991 led to the creation of local economic enterprises whose major purpose is to augment the income of LGU and at the same time support the needs of its local populace. This Case study aimed to determine and compare the management practices in the implementation of the local economic enterprise (LEE) program of the Municipality of Braulio E. Dujali with respect to the policy framework of the LGC of 1991using primary and secondary sources. Descriptive-narrative analysis by Reissman (2008) was used to analyze the data. Braulio E. Dujali is managing three (3) economic enterprises; the Public Market, the Slaughterhouse, and the Public Terminal. Results showed thatin the operation, LEEO ensures quality and people management through weekly regular monitoring. In the marketing aspect, one of their means for market sustainability is to encourage potential investors, both local and non-resident of the municipality. In the financial aspect, the LEE office of Braulio E. Dujali is already financially self-reliant section which means that the expenses in maintenance and operation, including the salaries and wages for their personnel, are already taken from their generated income. Furthermore, the result also pointed out that there is a gap between the implementation of the LEEs and the framework of the DBM- LEE Manual. The lack of manpower resources, small number of customers, and tenants’ inability to pay are three of the major challenges they encounter. The need to come up with a 5-year business plan (BP) is key to address these challenges.

Page(s): 397-404                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5522

 Romalie F. Galleto, MSDeA
Graduate School of Business, University of Southeastern Philippines

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Romalie F. Galleto, MSDeA “Local Economic Enterprise of Braulio E. Dujali: A Case Study ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.397-404 May 2021  DOI:

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Wildlife Treatment as Environmental Education Representative in Burnett’s Work “The Secret Garden (1911)”

Mukarramah, Fathu Rahman, M. Amir P. – May 2021 Page No.: 405-409

This study aims to elaborate on the environmental education reflected in the novel The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett. Thisresearch uses qualitative methods and applies the perspective of environmental education to construct positive values of the close relationships between children and animals. The data derived from the novel itself were to determine environmental education, which contains ethical values towards the environment. This research indicates that educational values performed in this novel provide positive action and behavior of the characters, such as protecting and feeding animals. In addition, allof these activities are positive activities that are able to educate readers about having environmental behavior.

Page(s): 405-409                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5523

Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.

  Fathu Rahman
Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.

  M. Amir P.
Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.

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Mukarramah, Fathu Rahman, M. Amir P. “Wildlife Treatment as Environmental Education Representative in Burnett’s Work “The Secret Garden (1911)”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.405-409 May 2021  DOI:

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Organizational Characteristics and Communication Effectiveness of Solar Companies in Kenya

Emma N. Mwai, Thomas A. Senaji, Wilson Muema – May 2021 Page No.: 410-415

The solar energy sector has been performing poorly in recent years. This poor performance has been attributed to factors such as making poor decisions, implementing inadequate strategies, and ineffective communication. Managers can perform their duties and responsibilities through effective communication. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between communication practices and the effectiveness of communication in solar companies in Kenya. A descriptive research design was adopted for this study through which information from demographic groups was gathered. A sample of 293 respondents drawn from a target population of 1224 was surveyed using a structured questionnaire to collect data. Data analysis was done using SPSS on both descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The study revealed a β=-2.179, Wald =31.683, df=1, which is associated with a p-value of 0.001 and Exp (B) = 0.133 for the Communication channel.It is concluded that communication channels significantly influence the odds of communication effectiveness in solar companies in Kenya. It is recommended that the solar companies use reliable and high-speed communication channels to enhance communication effectiveness among solar companies.

Page(s): 410-415                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5524

  Emma N. Mwai
Kenya Methodist University, School of Business and Economics

  Thomas A. Senaji
The East African University

  Wilson Muema
Kenya Methodist University, School of Business and Economics

[1] Ahmad, H., & Halim, H. (2017). Determining sample size for research activities. Selangor Business Review, 2(1), 20-34.
[2] Amimo, K., Gekara, G. M., & Moronge, M. (2019). Factors affecting effective internal communication among selected hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 6(3), 915-932.
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[8] Lim, J. S., & Greenwood, C. A. (2017). Communicating corporate social responsibility (CSR): Stakeholder responsiveness and engagement strategy to achieve CSR goals. Public Relations Review, 43(4), 768-776.
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Emma N. Mwai, Thomas A. Senaji, Wilson Muema “Organizational Characteristics and Communication Effectiveness of Solar Companies in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.410-415 May 2021  DOI:

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Reconsidering Africa’s Leadership Crisis and Endemic Civil Conflicts

Abel Holla, Linnet Hamasi – May 2021 Page No.: 416-422

In the last hundred years, Africa has remained the axiom for coups d’état and civil conflicts. The insistence of democratically elected leaders to hold on to power has, in some instances, hugely influenced this trend. This article will analyze cases of constitutional violations by African presidents. It attempts to examine the motivation for this prevalent trend. It shall also analyze civil conflicts in African states, examine its possible causes, and identify the linkage between constitutional violations and coups d’état.

Page(s): 416-422                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5525

  Abel Holla
Chuka University, Kenya

  Linnet Hamasi
Chuka University, Kenya

[1]. Wiebusch, M., & Murray, C. (2019). Presidential Term Limits and the African Union. Journal of African Law, 131-160.
[2]. Asiligwa, M. (2018). Liberal Democracy Conundrum: Examining the Impact of Term Limit Extension on Liberal Democracy in Africa. Masters Thesis. Kenya: United States International University.
[3]. Arthur, I. (2015). The Place of Military Coup D’etat in African Politics: The Case of 2013 Egypt Military Coup d’etat. Masters Thesis. Ghana: University of Ghana.
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[8]. Bowd, R. (., & Chikwanha, A. B. (Eds.). (2010, September). Understanding Africa’s Contemporary Conflicts. Origins, Challenges and Peacebuilding. Africa Human Security Initiative.
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[12]. Gassebner, M., Gutmann, J., & Voigt, S. (2016). When to Expect a Coup D’État? An Extreme Bounds Analysis of Coup Determinants. CESifo Working Paper No. 6065. Munich, Germany: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute.
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Abel Holla, Linnet Hamasi “Reconsidering Africa’s Leadership Crisis and Endemic Civil Conflicts” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-5, pp.416-422 May 2021 DOI:

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A Correlational and descriptive study on the economic effect of telecommunication industry in Nigeria

Justin .C. Alugbuo, Emeka Eze – May 2021 Page No.: 423-431

Given Nigeria’s continued preference for telecommunications services and a rise in teledensity, the Nigerian economy remains plagued by low growth, high unemployment, and high business costs and it is against this context, that this study used a dynamic descriptive analysis with the help of the covariance correlation technique to examine the economic effect of telecommunication industry in Nigeria. Empirical investigations on the effect of telecommunication industries operations in Nigeria were conducted based on the concerns raised in the literature review. Results showed that the percentage contribution of telecommunication to GDP, teledensity, and the Consumer Price Index positively influence the Nigerian economy more than foreign direct investment, while manufacturing value added negatively influences the Nigerian economy. The study concluded that, in order to achieve high and sustainable growth, governments and telecommunication industry stakeholders should closely monitor the trend of telecommunication, teledensity, and economic growth in order to formulate and implement policies that will checkmate the downward trend that causes economic growth distortions, and that policy formulations in the midst of other internal and external macro-economic shocks.

Page(s): 423-431                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2021

  Justin .C. Alugbuo
(Lecturers), Department of Economics, College of Management Sciences (COLMAS), Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

  Emeka Eze
(Lecturers), Department of Economics, College of Management Sciences (COLMAS), Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

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[2]. Akanbi, B.E, Adebayo, A.A, and Olomola, P.A.(2015). Analysis of telecommunication service expansion, employment and poverty in Nigeria. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 4(12):1126-1137. ISSN: 2186-8662 – ISDS Article ID: IJDS15011401.
[3]. Ani, W., Ugwunta, D, Eneje, B and Okwo, M.(2014). How telecommunication development aids economic growth: evidence from ITU ICT development index (idi) top five countries for African region. International Journal of Business, Economics and Management,1(2),16-28 ISSN(e): 2312-0916 ISSN(p): 2312-5772
[4]. Atsu, F., Agyei, C., Darbi, W.P and Adjei-Mensah, S.(2013).The impact of telecommunication revenue on economic growth. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 5(2):195-208 Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2040- 0705.DOI 10.1108/AJEMS-10-2011-0076.
[5]. Awoleye, O.M, Okogun,O.A, Ojuloge, B.A, Atoyebi, M.K and Ojo, B.F. (2012). Socio- economic effect of telecommunication growth in Nigeria: an exploratory study. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(2): 256-262
[6]. Badran, M.F.(2012).The impact of Broadband infrastructure on economic growth in some Arab and Emerging Countries. Middle Eastern and North African Economies, electronic journal,14(1):278-310. Middle East Economic Association and Loyola University Chicago, September, 2012,
[7]. David, O.O.(2013). The Effect of Investment in Telecommunication on Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, 2(1),.ISSN 2278-7763
[8]. Eke, C,I., Zakare,S and Yahaya,O.A. (2016). The analysis of the relationship between telecommunication, foreign direct investment and economic growth in Nigeria: 1980 – 2017. Seminal paper presented at the department of economics Nigerian Defence Acedemy, Kaduna
[9]. Haider, H. and Sharif, A. A. (2016). Impact of teledensity on economic growth: A comparative analysis of south Asian countries. International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research. 4(11), 571-581.
[10]. Keil, M., & Johnson, R.D. (2005).Feedback channels: Using social presence theory to compare voice mail to e-mail. Journal of Information Systems Education, 13 (4), 295-302.
[11]. Kuofie, M., Boateng, O., Yellen, R., & Garsombke, P. (2011). Mobile phone providers and economic development in Ghana. Journal of Information Technology & Economic Developmen