“Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child”: The Ban of Corporal Punishment Fueling Indiscipline among Students

Eric Twum Ampofo – June 2021 Page No.: 01-07

Ghana is a signatory to all International and Regional Conventions and Declarations which protect the child from abuse, meanness and callous treatments. To institutionalize child rights, Ghana through the Ghana Education Service and the Ministry of Education enacted legislations which prohibited the use of corporal punishment in all first and second cycle institutions. However, upon its implementation, there has been an upsurge of students’ unrest in first and second cycle schools in the country. This has become a major source of worry to key stakeholders in education including school heads, school administrators, teachers, parents and even some students. This indeed has ignited the need to explore how the ban of corporal punishment has fueled indiscipline among students. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The target population was 5089 comprising eight schools in the Sekyere South and Sekyere Central Districts in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A sample of 975 students, assistant headmasters (domestic), teachers and guidance and counselling coordinators was arrived via mixed sampling techniques. The study established that the ban of corporal punishment in senior high schools in Ghana has fueled indiscipline acts among students. Also, the study found that there are lots of negative consequences such as vandalism and cheating in exams due to the ban of corporal punishment in schools. Again, the study ascertained that teachers have a negative attitude unlike students who showed a positive attitude towards the ban of corporal punishment. The study therefore submits that to effectively resolve indiscipline problems in schools, the Ministry of Education and the Ghana Education Service must involve relevant stakeholders such as head teachers, teachers, students and parents on alternative disciplinary measures that can effectively deal with indiscipline acts in schools.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2021

  Eric Twum Ampofo
Lecturer, Department of Educational Studies, College of Agriculture Education, Mampong-Ashanti, Akenten Appiah-Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development, Kumasi, Ghana-West Africa

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Eric Twum Ampofo ““Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child”: The Ban of Corporal Punishment Fueling Indiscipline among Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.01-07 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/01-07.pdf

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Effect of Internal Audit Practices On Aggregate Fiscal Discipline of Government Organisations in Nigeria

Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD) – June 2021 Page No.: 08-28

The study examined the effect of internal audit practices on aggregate fiscal discipline of government organizations in Nigeria. The study achieved these specific objectives and more: determination of the effect of risk assessment on aggregate fiscal discipline of public expenditure management. The population of the study consist of 350 staff in the five surveyed government organizations in Nigeria. The study through the use of Monkey Survey, sampled 310 respondents from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA), Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA), Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) and Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and validly used 310 respondents representing 89% response rate for data analysis. Risk assessment, Asset safeguard and Auditor’s independence were used as the dimensions of internal audit practices in this study. The study used Aggregate fiscal discipline as both dependent and measurable variable. The study used a questionnaire to elicit information from the respondents. The study applied descriptive and inferential statistical tools to analyze the data and test the hypotheses with the help of SPSS 22.0. The study found that risk assessment has significant effect on aggregate fiscal discipline; asset safeguard has significant effect on aggregate fiscal discipline and auditors’ independence has no significant effect on aggregate fiscal discipline. The study concludes that the use of internal audit instills aggregate fiscal discipline in government organizations’ staff. As government organizations apply asset safeguard it translates to positive and insignificant effect on aggregate fiscal discipline of government organizations. The study therefore recommends that government organizations’ staff should update their knowledge with respect to internal audit practices. Government organizations should encourage auditor independence in order to boost aggregate fiscal discipline in public sector organizations.

Page(s): 08-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2021

  Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD)
Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD) “Effect of Internal Audit Practices On Aggregate Fiscal Discipline of Government Organisations in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.08-28 June 2021  DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5206

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The Impact of Affect on Second Language Learning: A Mixed Methods Case Study
Charuhasini Wathuge- June 2021 – Page No.: 29-38

Affect includes every aspect related to feelings, emotions, moods, sensations etc. that people encounter in their lives. University students experience a rich variety of such feelings, emotions, moods and sensations in academic settings. They are also frequently subjected to emotional upheaval due to various reasons, specifically within the initial phase of their university life. Emotions experienced by students in academic settings are believed to play a major role in their academic success and achievement. However, the attention given to the role of emotions in educational settings, particularly in Second Language (L2) learning is seemingly at a low level. Therefore, the study explored the impact of academic emotions on L2 learning with a special focus on first year Undergraduate Officer Cadets studying in a defence university in Sri Lanka. This investigation took the form of a case study that subsumes a mixed methods research design. Both quantitative and qualitative methods to gather, analyse and interpret data were integrated at each stage of the study to avoid inherent biases and limitations of using only one method. Results suggested that especially during the first year, the students frequently encounter many adjustment problems due to the nature of their training, language issues and personal attributes. What appeared to be impacted mostly on real learning in this context was intrinsic motivation. Though manifestation of positive emotions inside the classroom was found to have a positive impact on students’ performance, it was exposed that in educational settings where rigorous physical training is a necessity, the will power and determination gained through the experience of negative emotions seemed to assist the students to perform better in classroom activities, presentations and at exams than the impact made by the experience of positive emotions. It is therefore, recommended the university staff members to intervene in assisting the undergraduates in coping with their emotional struggles only in the right place and at the right time, as enough room should be given to the students to learn from their own affective experiences.

Page(s): 29-38                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5601

 Charuhasini Wathuge
General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka

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Charuhasini Wathuge “The Impact of Affect on Second Language Learning: A Mixed Methods Case Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.29-38 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5601

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Legal Protection for Debtors in Standard Contracts Related To the Application of the “Cross Default” Clause in Credit

Ferry Anka- June 2021 Page No.: 39-42

Efforts for stolen asset recovery as a result of criminal acts of corruption are always not an easy task. This is because the corruption offenders have many broad access and they are difficult to reach in terms of hiding or money laundering. Stolen assets recovery from corruption are increasingly difficult to do because the so called save haven has crossed the country’s territorial boundaries and as an organized crime, even corruption often involves corporations as the perpetrator. Method research used normative legal model. Sources of data in this study were secondary data. The data was collected by using literature study and interviews, while the data analysis technique used was qualitative normative methods. The result of this research is that arrangement and position of state attorneys in efforts to recover state assets due to criminal acts of corruption play a very important role. Prosecutors as state lawyers have a role to enforce the law by filing a lawsuit or petition to the Court in the civil field as stipulated by statutory regulations in order to maintain legal order, and protect the interests of the country and government as well as the civil rights of the people.

Page(s): 39-42                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2021

 Ferry Anka
Doctor of Law Program, Universitas Jayabaya, Jakarta-Indonesia

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Ferry Anka, “Legal Protection for Debtors in Standard Contracts Related To the Application of the “Cross Default” Clause in Credit” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.39-42 June 2021  https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/39-42.pdf

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Ascertaining the Optimal Population Growth Threshold for Nigeria’s Economic Development

Supper Roland Okijie, Ubong Edem Effiong – June 2021 Page No.: 43-50

This paper sought to study the demographic dynamics in the Nigerian economy as it affects the development process of the country. The study specifically investigated the determining factors of population growth in Nigeria, along with the effect of infant mortality on fertility rate. The study employed the ordinary least squares regression and threshold regression analysis in achieving the set objectives. The data for the study were obtained from World Development Indicators and they covered the period of 1970 to 2017. The result of the study revealed that the determining factors of population growth in Nigeria are crude birth rate and infant mortality rate. Also, a positive and significant effect of infant mortality on fertility rate was observed. The optimal threshold of crude birth rate was obtained to be 41.62%, while the optimal population growth level that is sustainable for economic development was estimated to be 2.50%. The paper concluded that there is need to maintain an optimal population growth that will be consistent with the available resources is sustainable economic development is to be achieved.

Page(s): 43-50                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2021

  Supper Roland Okijie
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa, Ibom State, Nigeria

  Ubong Edem Effiong
Department of Economics, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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Supper Roland Okijie, Ubong Edem Effiong “Ascertaining the Optimal Population Growth Threshold for Nigeria’s Economic Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.43-50 June 2021  DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5206

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Rethinking Strategic Security: Juxtaposing Kenya’s Participation in Regional Security with Stability in the Horn of Africa Region
Abel Holla- June 2021 – Page No.: 51-54

As the region’s leading influence, Kenya is among the few African countries that have enjoyed relative peace since independence. Kenya’s pivotal role in the greater Horn of Africa has been instrumental in improving regional security. The nation’s influence in the areas of intelligence, counterterrorism, and personal protection has immensely contributed to the war on terror through progressive defeat of prominent extremist organizations and terror groups such as the Al-Shabaab. Moreover, Kenya is the leading hub for technological advancement and innovation within the East Africa region, with a vibrant and progressive economy. With its election as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, Kenya has gained enviable status among nations as an instrumental country in world politics and peace making. This status has increased the country’s position as one that can influence the geopolitics and security situation in greater Horn of Africa region. Thus, Kenya’s capacity to influence and enforce stability in the Horn of Africa has exponentially increased through the years. This article will examine Kenya’s contribution to peace and stability in the Horn of Africa region.

Page(s): 51-54                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5602

 Abel Holla
Chuka University, Kenya

[1] Abdi, A. A. (2012). The Impact of Conflicts in the Horn of Africa. A Case Study of Kenya.
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Abel Holla ” Rethinking Strategic Security: Juxtaposing Kenya’s Participation in Regional Security with Stability in the Horn of Africa Region” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.51-54 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5602

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mothers: the social – psychological consequences and the need for counselling interventions

Samudra Senarath- June 2021 Page No.: 55-60

The World Health Organization declared the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a public health emergency of international concern in 2019. This study focuses on the impact of coronavirus on women who are mothers, in Sri Lanka. The objectives of the study were to identify the psychological and social effects experienced by mothers during periods of lockdown and to evaluate their life experience in the current context. The study sample consisted of 340 mothers from different geographical areas. They were categorized as Working and House Mothers. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographic information, the Health Cube Survey-Coronavirus 2019 (Stueck 2020) and a self-developed questionnaire about social relationships and related problems. The results of the study showed that Coronavirus has life-threatening implications which have an overall negative impact on the mothers’ psychological wellbeing and social life. Both groups of mothers had negative experiences during the lockdown period, and they reported difficult and different experiences. The Working Mothers reported more difficulties than the House Mothers, since they had to undertake several different roles/tasks in the home during lockdown, such as childcare, working from home and online learning/teaching while dealing with turmoil within the family. Both groups reported significant feelings of helplessness, emotional pain and anxiety about the safety of the family. They also experienced feelings of loss with regard to their social relationships and family members, together with feelings of isolation. Both groups of mothers reported significant changes in their lives, including negative emotions of meaninglessness, insecurity, confusion and sadness. However, the House Mothers reported more negative life evaluations than the Working Mothers. They also reported a significant increase in domestic violence during the lockdown period, as compared to the past. Therefore, persons who fall ill with coronavirus and quarantine persons should have access to online counselling and awareness programs to enhance their social and emotional wellbeing and to improve their quality of life. The government and the private sector should invest in resources relating the professionals to offer online or mobile telephone counselling for patients suffering from coronavirus as well as for persons quarantined at home, in order to improve their social and psychological wellbeing.

Page(s): 55-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5603

 Samudra Senarath
Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Colombo

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[22] Van Hoof, E. (2020) Lock Down is the World’s Biggest Psychological Experiment and We will Pay the Price. World Economic Forum: 09 ,April,2020, Available from: from:https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/this is the psychological side of the covid 19 pande mic that were ignoring/..
[23] Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho C.S, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID 19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal Environment Research Public Health 2020; 17: pii: E1729. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051729.
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Samudra Senarath, “Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mothers: the social – psychological consequences and the need for counselling interventions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.55-60 June 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5603

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Ethics and Procurement Performance in State Corporations in Kenya

John Gichuki Kahare, Dennis Chege – June 2021 Page No.: 61-66

Despite the efforts put in by the government to oversee the introduction of the public procurement and disposal act of 2015 and the integrated financial management system, public institutions have continued to lose public funds through dubious procurement practices. The main aim of his study was to assess the influence that ethical practices have on the procurement performance of Kenyan state corporations with a case study of KenGen. A descriptive research design was used for this study. The population for the study included 381 procurement officers, procurement actuarial, and quantity surveyors at KenGen. Probabilistic sampling through the Yamane formula was used to arrive at a sample of 195 respondents. A questionnaire was the main instrument of data collection administered by the researcher inperson. Data collected was then analyzed through descriptive statistics and inferential analysis. Results of the study were presented on tables and interpretation done narratively.The study found that there are bidders present during tenders opening as shown by a mean of 4.14. The study also found a (β=0.319, t=5.281 and p-value=0.001) between tendering transparency and procurement performance. The study concluded that tendering transparency had a positive and significant influence on procurement performance.The study recommended the continuous publication of tenders, continuous appraisal of tenders by auditors, public participation of bidders during the opening of bids by ensuring that tenders are not tampered with during opening.

Page(s): 61-66                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2021

 John Gichuki Kahare
School of Procurement and Logistic, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

 Dennis Chege
School of Procurement and Logistic, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

[1] Amelika, G. (2020). Influence of Compliance with Ethical Procurement Practices on Management of Public Secondary School Resources in Mandera County, Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 132-141. pubs.sciepub.com/education/8/3/2/index.html
[2] Amelika, L. (2019). Ethics Problems and Problems with Ethics: Toward a Pro-Management Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(3), 300-309.
[3] Atkinson, T. F. (2020). Evaluation of methods used for estimating content validity. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 15(2), 214-221.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1551741118302687
[4] Bernstein, N. (2016). Procurement Performance and Operational Efficiency in Telecommunication Industry in Kenya, Sage. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke.
[5] De Angelis, R., Howard, M., & Miemczyk, J. (2018). Supply chain management and the circular economy: towards the circular supply chain. Production Planning & Control, 29(6), 425437. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537287.2018.1449244
[6] Eyo, A. (2017). Corruption and the Challenge to Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP). European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review, 12(3), 253-265.https://epppl.lexxion.eu/article/EPPPL/2017/3/8
[7] Foerstl, K., Schleper, M. C., & Henke, M. (2017). Purchasing and supply management: From efficiency to effectiveness in an integrated supply chain. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 23(4). https://nottingham repository.worktribe.com/preview/966017/Purchasing%20and%20supply%20managem nt.pdf
[8] Hanum, Y., Haddad, A. (2019). ‘Ethical supply chains: analysis, practices and performance measures’, International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 17,(4), 472–497. DOI: 10.1504/IJLSM.2014.061016
[9] Keitany, M. M. &Mukanzi, N. (2017). Role of supplier relationship management on procurement performance in manufacturing sector in Kenya: A case of East African Breweries. International Academic Journal of Procurement and Supply Chain Management, 2 (1), 1-20. iajournals.org/articles/iajpscm_v2_i1_1_20.pdf
[10] Kilonzo, D. (2017). Procurement Ethics and Organizational Performance of Animal Feeds Manufacturing Firms in Kenya. [Masters thesis, JKUATCOHRED].https://www.coursehero.com/file/40793967/Musyoka
[11] Kisang, L., & Kwasira, J. (2015). Assessment of success factors for implementation of public procurement and disposal act in the county government of Uasin Gishu, Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(11), 513- 527.https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= df
[12] Kitheka, S. S. (2018). Influence of Sourcing Ethics on Procurement Performance of State Corporations in Kenya. [Doctoral dissertation, JKUAT-COHRED]. https://strategicjournals.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1001
[13] Makali, J. (2015). Ethics and procurement performance of humanitarian organizations in Kenya. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi].erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/94607
[14] Mbae, L. N. (2014). Public procurement law and procurement performance of county governments in Kenya: Case of Machakos county government. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi]. https://www.scirp.org/reference/referencespapers.aspx?referenceid 2257738
[15] Muhia, J., Waithera, L., & Songole, R. (2017). Factors affecting the procurement of pharmaceutical drugs: a case study of Narok County referral hospital, Kenya. Med ClinRev, 3(4), 20.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/JoyMuhia/publication/322591537_Factors_Affecting_the_Procurement_of_PharmaceuticalDrugs_A_Case_Study_of_Narok_County_Referral_Hospital_Kenya/links/5b505834458 1507a7ae2b09/Factors-Affecting-the-Procurement-of-Pharmaceutical-Drugs-A-CaseStudy-of-Narok-County-Referral-Hospital-Kenya.pdf
[16] Ngovi, K. (2019). Ethics and Fraud in Procurement among Private and Public Organizations in Kenya. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi]. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/108877
[17] Nuseir, E., &Ghandour, K. N. (2019). Public sector procurement and ethical trade: governance and social responsibility in some hidden global supply chains. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 44(2), 242-255. https://rgs-ibg.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tran.12274
[18] Odhiambo, O. V. T. (2016). Evaluation of Fraud Management Strategies Adopted by Manufacturing Companies in Kenya. [Dessertaion, University Of Nairobi].erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/15353/ABSTRACT.pdf?sequen e=3
[19] Republic of Kenya. (2019). Supplies Manual: Government Printer, Nairobi. https://www.health.go.ke/resources/guidelines-and-manuals/
[20] Simiyu, V., Keitany, P., & Mukanzi, C. (2017). Influence of supplier evaluation ethical practice on supply chain performance among G4s transport and logistics firms in western Kenya. American Journal of Educational Research, 15(17), 212-234. strategicjournals.com/index.php/journal/article/view/630/0
[21] Vargas, J. R. C., Mantilla, C. E. M., & de Sousa Jabbour, A. B. L. (2018). Enablers of sustainable supply chain management and its effect on competitive advantage in the Colombian context. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 139, 237-250.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.08.018
[22] White, G. R., Parfitt, S., Lee, C., & Mason‐Jones, R. (2016). Challenges to the development of strategic procurement: A meta‐analysis of organizations in the public and private sectors. Journal of Strategic Change, 25(3), 285-298.DOI:10.1108/JOPP-05-03 2005-B005

John Gichuki Kahare, Dennis Chege “Ethics and Procurement Performance in State Corporations in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.61-66 June 2021  DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5206

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A Biomimicry Study of Interface Design for Kitchenware of Pahang’s National Park

Norfadilah Kamaruddin, Noor Shamsarini Md Isa, Nik Nor Azidah Nik Aziz, Inda Murni Hairul – June 2021 Page No.: 67-70

Sustainable design currently is becoming a more and more popular and foreseeable perspective of viewing products. Besides, a biomimicry is a science work that studies on nature’s ways and then imitates these designs for human problem-solving. Biomimicry moreover can be categories into three different levels: Nature as a model, Nature as a measure, and Nature as a mentor. Thus, the research is carried out by using qualitative research methods to look on how nature’s masterpieces pattern would be used as an interfaces for kitchenware product (ceramic) that further presenting a brand for Pahang’s National Park. The kitchenware design is based on systematic analysis of local nature patterns collected from plants, fish, and flora within the area of Kuala Keniam, Pahang’s National Park.This new set of design kitchenware product visibly significant defines the relationship of nature, and can be applied to practical design to enhance and support visual communication.

Page(s): 67-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2021

  Norfadilah Kamaruddin
Creative Visual Exchange Group, Faculty of Art and Design, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor, PuncakAlam Campus, PuncakAlam, Selangor

  Noor Shamsarini Md Isa
Creative Visual Exchange Group, Faculty of Art and Design, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor, PuncakAlam Campus, PuncakAlam, Selangor

  Nik Nor Azidah Nik Aziz
Creative Visual Exchange Group, Faculty of Art and Design, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor, PuncakAlam Campus, PuncakAlam, Selangor

  Inda Murni Hairul
Creative Visual Exchange Group, Faculty of Art and Design, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor, PuncakAlam Campus, PuncakAlam, Selangor

  Mohd Shariful Hafizal Aminuddin
Creative Visual Exchange Group, Faculty of Art and Design, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor, PuncakAlam Campus, PuncakAlam, Selangor

  Fadli Abdul Razak
Creative Visual Exchange Group, Faculty of Art and Design, UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor, PuncakAlam Campus, PuncakAlam, Selangor

[1] Bohren (1988). Understanding colours in nature. 1(4):214-22. https://doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0749.1988.tb00419.x.
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[4] Endler, J.A. & Mielke, P.P.W. (2005). Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 86: 405–431.
[5] Hempel De Ibarra, N., Giurfa, M. &Vorobyev, M. (2002). Discrimination of coloured patterns by honeybees through chromatic and achromatic cues. J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sensory, Neural, Behav. Physiol. 188: 503–512.
[6] Maia, R. & White, T.E. (2018). Comparing colors using visual models. Behav. Ecol. 29: 649–659.
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Norfadilah Kamaruddin, Noor Shamsarini Md Isa, Nik Nor Azidah Nik Aziz, Inda Murni Hairul
Anuar, Mohd Shariful Hafizal Aminuddin, and Fadli Abdul Razak, “A Biomimicry Study of Interface Design for Kitchenware of Pahang’s National Park” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.67-70 June 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/67-70.pdf

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Assessment of Vessel Turnaround Time in Eastern Nigerian Ports
Monday, E. I., Emenike, G. C. and Ibe C. C.- June 2021 – Page No.: 71-74

The study examined vessel turnaround time in Eastern Nigerian ports. The study adopted a survey research design. Three hundred and eleven questionnaire were administered to operational staff of Eastern Nigerian ports, and oral interviews were conducted using simple random sampling technique across the Ports. A direct emailing system was utilised to administer respondents questionnaire directly and available data obtained were analysed descriptively. The study findings revealed that container terminal performance in Eastern Nigerian ports with regards to vessel turnaround time at its best of 2 days per vessel especially for Onne Port in recent time, followed by Rivers Port, Delta (Warri) Port, and the Calabar Port in that order of efficiency. The PPMC analysis revealed that the rho outcome of 0.798 @ p0.000 <0.05 reveals that there is a strong significant relationship between port infrastructure and vessel turnaround time in Eastern Nigerian ports, which infer that the null hypothesis was rejected and alternate hypothesis was accepted indicating that; there is a significant relationship between port infrastructure and vessel turnaround time in Eastern Nigerian ports. The study concluded that vessel turnaround time has a global standard duration of 24 hours per vessel, hence the need for total improvement across the Eastern Ports. Port managers should improve on port automation orientation of their ports by encouraging the use of efficient work information and communication technology systems in order to improve on vessel turnaround time among others port performance indicators. Port managers should institutionalise port automation that will improve cargo turnaround time in the various sea-port so as to increase the income generation activities of port, thereby improving the nation’s economy.

Page(s): 71-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2021

 Monday, E. I.
Centre for Logistics and Transport Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Emenike, G. C.
Centre for Logistics and Transport Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Ibe C. C.
Centre for Logistics and Transport Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Monday, E. I., Emenike, G. C. and Ibe C. C. ” Assessment of Vessel Turnaround Time in Eastern Nigerian Ports” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.71-74 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/71-74.pdf

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Challenging role of women during disasters: A case of covid-19

Kariwo Edwin and Rugara Tofara- June 2021 Page No.: 75-79

The study was an attempt assesses the role of women during COVID 19 lockdown. From the findings it has been established that when disasters happen, existing inequalities for women and girls and discrimination intensify. Working women who were operating from home have proved to be in a dilemma of balancing work, mother and wife duties under the same roof. Their reproductive and community linked duties remained critical despite the evolution of the covid-19 pandemic. The informal sector has been hard hit as the majority of the middle as well as lower classes of people sorely rely on it for survival. It was exaggerated by the imposed lockdown condition in order to curb the spread of coronavirus. People were not allowed to go to work, go to the markets, cross borders and or visit the malls or entering town if not among the ‘essential service providers’. Female commercial sex workers’ tools of their trade as well as their clients were usually found in the public spaces but the rules of the game made a spontaneous turn making them more vulnerable to risky way of business. There is notable increase in domestic violence as social interaction hours in the home have increased which was alien to most working couples. As a result women have suffered the most.

Page(s): 75-79                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2021

 Kariwo Edwin
Great Zimbabwe University

 Rugara Tofara
Great Zimbabwe University

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Kariwo Edwin and Rugara Tofara, “Challenging role of women during disasters: A case of covid-19” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.75-79 June 2021  https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/75-79.pdf

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Adolescents with Personality Disorders: A Systematic Review

Olubukola Akanni, Prince Jacob – June 2021 Page No.: 80-89

Personality Disorder is a mental health disorder recognized by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Mental Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Personality Disorder refers to personality characteristics that, for a prolonged period, are maladaptive, inflexible, and pervasive in many contexts, causing severe discomfort and disability. The study was DSM-5 lists three clusters of personality disorders with ten specific disorders in those categories. An adolescent must meet the DSM-5 requirements to be diagnosed with a personality disorder. The primary aim of this article is to review research documenting the underlying mental health problems in personality disorders amongst adolescents and, to evaluate research on potential intervention for such disorders.
Eligibility criteria: This systematic review has exclusion and inclusion criteria that were applied to the search results of publication within the last 20 years and included personality and adolescence in the title.
Results: Nineteen studies were considered out of sixty (60) primary studies, of which 19 (31.66%) satisfied the inclusion criteria. The primary studies reviewed personality disorder in childhood/adolescence and the screening for personality disorder in adolescents and impaired functioning from adolescence to adulthood. Personality Disorder was predominately measured using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis II disorders (n = 9), the Diagnostic Interview for GHQ & SIPP (n = 2), and DSM criteria based psychiatric evaluation (n = 8). The primary studies utilized cross-sectional, case-control. Studies comprised a mix of clinical and non-clinical populations and ranged in duration from 10 to 24 years.
Conclusions: Adolescent personality has significant genetics and environmental impact. This systematic review shows that many adolescents display behaviour to a certain degree, making it challenging to differentiate mental health disorder and normal adolescent behaviour from a personality disorder. A significant clue is when adolescents have recurrent issues or defiance and when these behaviours are getting more severe. Adolescents at risk of PDs may also be having substance abuse disorder, including alcohol, which exacerbates depression or anxiety. The self-reported data provided very few cases that met diagnostic requirements for personality disorders in adolescence. Hence, more studiesare still needed.

Page(s): 80-89                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5604

 Olubukola Akanni
Department of Psychology, Atlantic International University, Hawaii, USA

 Prince Jacob
Academic Advisor, Atlantic International University Hawaii, USA

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Olubukola Akanni, Prince Jacob “Adolescents with Personality Disorders: A Systematic Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.80-89 June 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5604

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Mobile Authentication Service (MAS) Scheme and Public Participation in Eradicating Fake Drugs in South-East Nigeria

Chinonye Faith Chinedu-Okeke (PhD), Nnanyelugo Okoro (Prof.), Ijeoma Obi (PhD) – June 2021 Page No.: 90-98

The issue of fake drugs is a global threat, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Thus, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), among other strategies, launched a Mobile Authentication Service (MAS) scheme that enables the public to authenticate drugs at the point of purchase using scratch codes and SMS. The study examined the level of public awareness, knowledge, and use of MAS in eradicating fake drugs in South-East Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed-methods research of Survey and Key Informant Interviews (KII). The data gathered from 400 respondents via a structured questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential analysis, while the transcripts from KII were thematically analysed. The analysed data reveals a low level of awareness, knowledge, and use of MAS among respondents, especially in rural areas. Some challenges faced by the respondents in the use of MAS include a low level of awareness and knowledge of MAS, poor network services, elitist nature of the campaign messages on MAS, and partial access to MAS among drug manufacturers. The data also reveal strategies towards enhancing the operations of MAS to ensure its efficiency in eradicating fake drugs in Nigeria. The study, therefore, concludes that the level of public awareness, knowledge, and use of MAS is relatively low, especially in rural areas. The study found that the use of MAS if enhanced is an efficient scheme in eradicating fake drugs in Nigeria.

Page(s): 90-98                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5605

  Chinonye Faith Chinedu-Okeke (PhD)
Department of Mass Communication, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

  Nnanyelugo Okoro (Prof.)
Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

  Ijeoma Obi (PhD)
Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Nigeria

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Chinonye Faith Chinedu-Okeke (PhD), Nnanyelugo Okoro (Prof.), Ijeoma Obi (PhD), “Mobile Authentication Service (MAS) Scheme and Public Participation in Eradicating Fake Drugs in South-East Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.90-98 June 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5605

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Identification Test of Ability to Understand Multiple Representation in Basic Chemistry I Course: Validity and Reliability
Syahrial Syahrial, Sri Winarni- June 2021 – Page No.: 99-104

The study objective was to determine the validity and reliability of the test items used to measure understanding of multiple representations. For this purpose, quantitative methods are applied. Participants were first-year students of the Chemistry Department, Education and Teacher Training Faculty, Syiah Kuala University, who took the Basic Chemistry course I (specifically solubility, redox, and hydrocarbons). The test was followed voluntarily. Before determining the validity and reliability of each test, the Multiple Representation Understanding Test (MRUT) was developed, which was conducted in five stages. MRUT contains 20 items, and its validity is determined using Pearson Product Moment (PPM). Valid test items are nine where rcount 0.3128-0.7145. The nine-item tests are reliable, and Cronbach alpha ranged from 0.701 to 0.769 (moderate-high).

Page(s): 99-104                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5606

 Syahrial Syahrial
Chemistry Education Department, Syiah Kuala University

 Sri Winarni
Chemistry Education Department, Syiah Kuala University

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Syahrial Syahrial, Sri Winarni ” Identification Test of Ability to Understand Multiple Representation in Basic Chemistry I Course: Validity and Reliability” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.99-104 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5606

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Examining the Transformative Changes Introduced in Educational Assessment: Implications on sustainable development goals in Higher Education
Kudakwashe Manokore, G.N. Shava- June 2021 – Page No.: 105-112

The introduction of the Competence-based Curriculum (CBC) in Zimbabwe meant a shift on the general aims and objectives of the education system as stipulated in the Curriculum Framework for Primary Secondary Education, 2015-2022. The framework quotes post 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and other international conventions as drivers of the educational reforms. Agenda 2030 comprises 17 SDGs. This study focused on sustainable SDG 4.7 and the transformation of education from an academic oriented curriculum to one that is skills-based. The transformation meant changes in the way students were assessed and consequently change in expectations by higher education from the prospective students. However, the administration of public examinations remains a critical measure of the teaching and learning that is taking place in the schools. Advanced level examinations administered by Zimbabwe School Examinations Council (ZIMSEC) are the prime measure of learner success as they act as the chief benchmark for grading, selection and placement of learners into various stations of their destiny. The study qualitatively examined Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education (MoPSE) ZIMSEC assessment framework documents and workshops held between (2017-2020) in which 3 977 stake holders participated. Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Innovation, Science and Technology Development (MHTEISTD) and MoPSE were in agreement with the ESD policies, desired outcomes and direction in which education in Zimbabwe should take. Both ministries introduced and adopted curriculum action plans for sustainable transformation of the education system and have made strides in this regard through Education 5.0 and CBC frameworks. However, MoPSE-ZIMSEC has not been able to fully implement CBC since its inception as a result A-level graduates are proceeding to higher education without some competencies and skills being assessed. There is need to propel coordinated approaches in transforming and implementing educational changes by both ministries to meet the targets for Agenda 2030. Higher education has to strategically position itself to receive the new student, so that efforts made at lower levels in preparing them for the future are not in vein at point of entry.

Page(s): 105-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2021

 Kudakwashe Manokore
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

 G.N. Shava
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

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Kudakwashe Manokore, G.N. Shava “Examining the Transformative Changes Introduced in Educational Assessment: Implications on sustainable development goals in Higher Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.105-112 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/105-112.pdf

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Nigeria’s Implementation of the Ecowas Protocol on Free Movement of Persons – Challenges and Responses

Amaka Jane Ekezie-Joseph- June 2021 Page No.: 113-120

In Africa, regional integration appeared to be a viable means to achieve socio-economic stability and facilitate the integration of the economies of newly independent African countries in the world global economy; with the Abuja treaty of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) now the African Union designating eight Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the building blocks of the African Economic Community (AEC). In West Africa, economic decline and decay were the major catalysts for social change characterised by socio-economic and political turmoil enmeshed in increased poverty, chronic food shortages, expanded indebtedness, worsening balance of payments, and internecine wars (Anadi, 2005). Therefore, in search of new strategies for the attainment of all round sustainable development, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was established for economic revitalization across the West African region and has offered the only practical means for building more viable national economies (Onyia, 1995).

Page(s): 113-120                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2021

 Amaka Jane Ekezie-Joseph
Pan African University, Nigeria

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[7] ECOWAS. (2016). 2016 Annual Report: ECOWAS Common External Tariff(CET) – Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects.Abuja: ECOWAS Commission.
[8] ECOWAS. (2019). Brown Card ECOWAS Insurance. Retrieved from http://www.browncard.org/Objectifs.html
[9] Elumelu, A. (2015). An Assessment of the ECOWAS Protocol on Free Movement. In L. Hamalai, & M. Obadan, 40 Years of ECOWAS (1975-2015) (pp. 258-276). Abuja: National Institute for Legislative Studies.
[10] Esekumemu, V. C. (2014). The Economic Community of West African States: Challenges to the Implementation of the Protocol on Free Movement of Goods, Persons, and Establishment. Developing Country Studies; Vol 4, No 6.
[11] Golub, S., Mbaye, A. A., & Golubski, C. (2019, October Tuesday). The Effect of Nigeria’s Closed Borders on Informal Trade with Benin. Retrieved from Brookings: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2019/10/29/the-effects-of-nigerias-closed-borders-on-informal-trade-with-benin/
[12] Lamptey, A. A. (2012). Rethinking Border Management Strategies in West Africa: Experiences from the Sahel. Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center.
[13] Onuoha, F. (2013). Porous Borders and Boko Haram’s Arms Smuggling Operations in Nigeria. Al Jazeera Centre for Studies.
[14] Onyia, F. O. (1995). NIGERIA AND ECOWAS: A Study of the Obstacles to Nigeria’s Implementation of ECOWAS Protocols.
[15] Ranganathan, R., & Foster, V. (2011). ECOWAS’ Infrastructure – A Regional Perspective. World Bank.
[16] Sowale, A. O. (2018). Economic Community of West African States’ Protocol on Free Movement and the Challenges of Human Trafficking in West Africa. Insight on Africa 10, 215-225.
[17] Touzenis, K. (2012). Free Movement of Persons in the European Union and Economic Community of West African States – A Comparison of Law and Practice. Paris: UNESCO.
[18] Unah, L. (2019, December 2). Nigeria Border Closure Causes Economic Shock. Retrieved February 4, 2020, from African Business: https://africanbusinessmagazine.com/region/west-africa/nigeria-border-closure-causes-economic-shock/

Amaka Jane Ekezie-Joseph, “Nigeria’s Implementation of the Ecowas Protocol on Free Movement of Persons – Challenges and Responses” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.113-120 June 2021  https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/113-120.pdf

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Local Factors Affecting Fertility of Women in Sri Lanka

R.P.G. Amithani, D.S. Rodrigo and C.L. Jayasinghe – June 2021 Page No.: 121-129

Human fertility is a function of various factors that contribute to population dynamics. It may be defined as the actual reproductive performance of a woman. Fertility is a major public health concern because it affects economic productivity, growth of the population and other social facilities. This study aims to find the demographic, socio economic, cultural and health related factors that affect the fertility of reproductive aged women in Sri Lanka. The study was based on a Sri Lankan demographic and health survey (SLDHS) conducted in 2016. The sample consisted of 11, 201 ever married women within reproductive ages ranging from 15 to 49 years. Among the considered social, demographic, cultural and health-related factors, the statistical analysis which was conducted employing chi-square tests and logistic regression models revealed that, socio-demographic factors such as the woman’s residential district, ethnicity, wealth index, education level, occupation, and partner’s education level and working status were found to have a significant effect on odds of having at least the required fertility level for her age at 5% level of significance. The odds of having at least the required fertility level for her age of a woman belonging to the lowest quintile of wealth index was 48.1% more than that of a woman belonging to the highest quintile of wealth index. The results revealed by this study will be beneficial for relevant authorities when organizing awareness programs on fertility for ever married women in Sri Lanka.

Page(s): 121-129                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2021

 R.P.G. Amithani
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 D.S. Rodrigo
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 C.L. Jayasinghe
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

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[6] Kelly‐Weeder, S., & O’Connor, A. (2006). Modifiable risk factors for impaired fertility in women: what nurse practitioners need to know. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 18(6), 268-276.
[7] Koning, A., Kuchenbecker, W., Groen, H., Hoek, A., Land, J., Khan, K., & Mol, B. (2010). Economic consequences of overweight and obesity in infertility: a framework for evaluating the costs and outcomes of fertility care. Human reproduction update, 16(3), 246-254.
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R.P.G. Amithani, D.S. Rodrigo and C.L. Jayasinghe “Local Factors Affecting Fertility of Women in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.121-129 June 2021  URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/121-129.pdf

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Knowledge, attitude and practices among nurses on performance appraisal system at two district hospitals in Mashonaland Central Province in Zimbabwe

Tapfuiwa J Katsinde, Emily Tsododo & Constance S Katsinde – June 2021 Page No.: 130-134

The study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices among nurses on performance appraisal system at two district hospitals in Zimbabwe. A survey design was used. A questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect data. The sample was chosen using the non-probability method of convenience. Data was presented on tables and analyzed using descriptive statistics and themes. The findings showed that some nurses were trained in performance appraisals whilst others were not. Most nurses indicated that they were not adequately trained on the appraisal system. The majority understood the purpose and objectives of the system but they did not have adequate knowledge. The nurses viewed the system as necessary and commented that it has improved their work. However, the process of writing was viewed as stressful and time consuming. Although the system was being practiced in hospitals, most indicated that it was difficult to implement because of pressure of work, lack of knowledge and the paper work involved. The nurses complained that the system has not been followed by an increase in their remuneration. The study recommends the need for a continuous training of nurses on appraisal system. To be viable nurses who do well according to the system should be rewarded appropriately so that they are motivated to work hard. Research on how the system affects relations in hospitals is recommended.

Page(s): 130-134                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2021

  Tapfuiwa J Katsinde
Bindura University of Science Education

  Emily Tsododo
Zimbabwe Open university

  Constance S Katsinde
Bindura University of Science Education

[1] Bandason, B. (2002) Analysis of the Effectiveness of the New Performance Appraisal System in Improving the Performance of Teachers in Centenary District Primary Schools (Unpublished).
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[8] Gabrail, V. (2003) Management. Longman. Singapore.
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[16] The Public Service Commission Review (1995) Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare Statement on Job Evaluation Exercise. Harare.
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Tapfuiwa J Katsinde, Emily Tsododo & Constance S Katsinde, “Knowledge, attitude and practices among nurses on performance appraisal system at two district hospitals in Mashonaland Central Province in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.130-134 June 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/130-134.pdf

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United States-Venezuela Relations and Economic Development From 2017-2020
Dr. Tamunopubo Big-Alabo & Nnenna Sylvia Okafor- June 2021 – Page No.: 135-145

The study examined United States-Venezuela relations and economic development 2017-2020. The theory that was used for the study was the hegemonic theory by Antonio Gramsci. The ex- post facto research design was used for the study. Accordingly, data was sourced through secondary sources like, textbooks, newspaper, journal articles, textbooks, and internet. Qualitatively analyses were used to analyse the data, although figures and tables were presented where required. Evidences drawn from these sources were prudently examined in order to establish a reasonable trend from which inferences were drawn. The study found that Venezuela has promoted new regional cooperation arrangements that deliberately excluded US and that through the executive orders that was issued by Donald Trump the government of Venezuelan has been prohibited from accessing US financial markets. The study suggested among others that US should stop sanctioning Venezuela as these have affected the economic development of Venezuela and United States must not intervene in the activities of Venezuela as this has divided the country which is not healthy for the development of any nation.

Page(s): 135-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2021

 Dr. Tamunopubo Big-Alabo
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Nnenna Sylvia Okafor
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] Anatoly, K. (2019). Venezuela’s collapse is the worst outside of war in decades, economists say. The New York Times.
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[3] Barrett, M. (1997). Ideology, politics, hegemony: From Gramsci to Laclau and Mouffe, Mapping Concept. Ed. Slavoj ZIZEK Verso, London.
[4] Benzaquen, M. (2017). How food in Venezuela went from subsidized too scarce. The New York Times.
[5] Castro, M. et al. (2019). United States recognizes Venezuelan opposition leader as interim president. The Wall Street Journal.
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[7] Corrales, J.& Romero, C. A. (2006). US-Venezuela relations since the 1990s. Caracas: Ediciones.
[8] Corrales, J & Romero, C. A. (1990). US -Venezuelan relations after Hugo Chávez: Why normalization has been impossible. Retrieved 20 March 2021 from http://fride.org/descarga/PB_157_Venezuela.pdf
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[11] Escobari, M. (2019). Made by Maduro: The humanitarian crunch time in Venezuela and US strategic responses. Retrieved 20 June 2020 from http www.brookings.edu/testimonies/made-by-maduro-the-humanitarian-crisis-in-venezuela-and-us-policy-responses/.
[12] Farrer, M. et al. (2019). Venezuela crisis: Maduro claims coup has been defeated as it happened. The Guardian News.
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[16] Massey, D. S. (1988). Economic improvement and global immigration in relative viewpoint. The Populace and Growth Appraisal. 383-413.
[17] Nye, J. S. (2002). The paradox of American power: Why the world’s only superpower can’t go it alone. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[18] Pons, C. & Mayela, R. (2019). Corrected -RPT- insight, how Venezuela turns its useless bank notes into gold. Retrieved 20 March 2021 from https://www.reuters.com/article/venezuela-gold-idUSL1N20506E
[19] Pons, C. (2020). Venezuela companies, awash with cash, find way to move money abroad. Retrieved 20 March 2021 from https://www.reuters.com/journalists/corina-pons
[20] Rampton, R. & Hollands, S. (2018). Trump increases pressure on Venezuela with sanctions on gold. Retrieved 20 March 2021 from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-venezuela-bolton-idUSKCN1N65P6
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[22] Snidal, D. (1986). The limits of hegemonic steadiness assumption. MIT Press, Global Group, Collaboration and Divergence.
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[25] Volgy, T. J., Kanthak, K., Fraizer, D. & Ingersoll, R. S. (2005). Resistance to hegemony within the core. Center for International Security Studies, University of Pittsburgh.
[26] Wright, R. (2004). U.S. and manhood: Leadership is about respect, not just fear. New York Times.

Dr. Tamunopubo Big-Alabo & Nnenna Sylvia Okafor “United States-Venezuela Relations and Economic Development From 2017-2020” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.135-145 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/135-145.pdf

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Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 on Quality in Education, Current Issues in Zimbabwe Higher Education, Educating for the future
G.N. Shava, T. Chasara, O. S. Hahlani- June 2021 – Page No.: 146-154

This article discusses current issues of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) specifically focusing on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG4) on quality in education. The SDGs form part of the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for sustainable development which was unanimously adopted in 2015 by all UN member states as a plan of action for sustainable development. Special focus of the article is on Sustainable Development Goal 4, which is oriented towards the achievement of educational quality within a lifelong framework. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals propose that ESD has the potential to increase knowledge and strategies to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and the needs of society which is the specific focus of SDG4 which strives on quality education. This article critically assesses how Zimbabwe higher education works towards achieving SDG4 which seeks to ensure quality education. In this article I argue that, ESD empowers learners to take informed decisions and responsible actions for environmental integrity, economic viability for present and future generations. Quality, sustainable and development education supports knowledge driven economic growth strategies and poverty eradication by generating new knowledge, building the capacity to assess existing stores of global knowledge and adapt that knowledge to local use. In this article we explore the achievement of SDG4 mapping insights from structure and agency approaches and theoretical view point. The article demonstrates that critical realist theory of structure and agency perspectives can contribute towards enabling and constraining the achievement of ESD. The theoretical view point contributes towards the understanding and achievement of transformation towards sustainability and can help to ensure a deeper understanding of current issues, relating to ESD and specifically on quality higher education.

Page(s): 146-154                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2021

 G.N. Shava
National University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology Education, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

 T. Chasara
National University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology Education, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

 O. S. Hahlani
National University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology Education, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

[1] Archer, M.S. (1995). Realist Theory: the Morphogemetic Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[2] Archer, M.S. (1996). Culture and Agency: The place of culture in Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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[12] Giddens, A. (1984). The Construction of society: Outline of the theory of Structuration. Cambridge. Blackwell policy Press.
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G.N. Shava, T. Chasara, O. S. Hahlani “United States-Venezuela Relations and Economic Development From 2017-2020” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.146-154 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/146-154.pdf

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The use of experiential learning in effective provision of skills to secondary school learners in Zimbabwe
Moyo Lincolyn, Mukomana Saziso- June 2021 – Page No.: 155-159

Practical oriented education was not foreign to indigenous education systems. Precolonial education ideology focused on promoting productivity and practicality. Given current challenges, contemporary education systems can deduct from fertile African cultural heritage to mitigate educational shortfalls promoting unproductivity and unemployment. Contemporary Zimbabwe education, if not most of Africa, from primary to Tertiary level lacks emphasis of practical skills. Yet one can argue that, practical subjects/skills are the foundational cornerstone of sustainable productivity and socioeconomic development. Many curricular obstacles hinder promotion and teaching of diverse practical subjects. At the top of several hindrances is lack of supportive infrastructure for effective practical subjects teaching; and lack of practical subjects teachers given absence of a pro-practicals teacher college education in Zimbabwe. Most persistent hindrance is the history driven ideology associated with practical subjects. The purpose of this qualitative study through analysis of published literature was to determine the cause of above-mentioned hindrances. This study discovered a limited inclination towards practical subjects by the current Zimbabwe education system and related practical subject’s pedagogy. Therefore, one can conclude logically that, limited teaching of practical subjects in most schooling levels highly affects productivity of active citizens contributing towards national sustainable growth. Hence, there is a need for practical subjects’ access diversification at all schooling levels and train relevant teachers towards that end.

Page(s): 155-159                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2021

 Moyo Lincolyn
Lecturer, United College of Education, Department of Theory of Education

 Mukomana Saziso
Lecturer, Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Teacher Education

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Moyo Lincolyn, Mukomana Saziso “The use of experiential learning in effective provision of skills to secondary school learners in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.155-159 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/155-159.pdf

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A Sustainable Zimbabwe University – Industry Collaboration Framework

Stanley Murairwa- June 2021 Page No.: 160-168

The collaboration between a knowledge hub and a product incubator is increasingly perceived as a vehicle to enhance innovation and business incubation through knowledge and technology exchange. This is evidenced by a significant increase in researches that investigate the collaboration phenomenon from different perspectives. However, the body of knowledge is still fragmented and lacking an efficient comprehensive view that can widely be considered as the engine of economic growth. A sample of volunteered (Murairwa, 2015) 12 knowledge hubs and 60 product incubators was selected. The research employed systematic procedures to review the literature and analyse researchers’ perspectives on the collaboration between industry and universities. The research designed a questionnaire with closed and a few open-ended questions and collected data from volunteering knowledge hubs and incubators. The data was analysed in Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). The research discovered key aspects underpinning the collaboration theory. These aspects were integrated into an overarching pragmatic knowledge hub and product incubator collaboration (PKHPIC) framework that can provide a substantial contribution to the understanding of the university – industry collaboration and literature in the research area.

Page(s): 160-168                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5607

 Stanley Murairwa
Africa University, Mutare, Zimbabwe

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Stanley Murairwa, “A Sustainable Zimbabwe University – Industry Collaboration Framework” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.160-168 June 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5607

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Impact of Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanisms on Capital Market Liquidity in Nigeria (2006-2020)

Adeoye, Mary A. and Nasiru, Halimah Y. – June 2021 Page No.: 169-174

This study examined the impacts of monetary policy transmission mechanisms on the liquidity of Nigerian capital market from 2006-2020. The required data were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin. Capital market liquidity is the dependent variable while the independent variables are; treasury bill rate, savings rate, net domestic credit, exchange rate and inflation rate. The Ordinary Least Square multiple regressions with econometric view were used as data analysis techniques. The study found that monetary policy transmission mechanism does not have significant impact on the liquidity of the capital market as against the findings of Akani and Imegi (2017). Also, all the channels of monetary policy transmission mechanisms have positive relationship with capital market liquidity except exchange rate. It therefore recommends that exchange rate should be worked upon so as to enhance the liquidity of Nigerian capital market in view of its negative impact on the capital market liquidity

Page(s): 169-174                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 July 2021

 Adeoye, Mary A.
Department of Management and Accounting, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso Oyo State, Nigeria

 Nasiru, Halimah Y.
Department of Management and Accounting, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso Oyo State, Nigeria

[1] Akani, H. W. (2013). Analysis of Macroeconomic Aggregates on Stock Price in Nigeria: An Application of co-integration and causality Test. International Journal of Academic Research. 1 (3),56-79.
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Adeoye, Mary A. and Nasiru, Halimah Y. “Impact of Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanisms on Capital Market Liquidity in Nigeria (2006-2020)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.169-174 June 2021  URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/169-174.pdf

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Health Information Resources and Clinical Core Skills as Predictors of Medical Doctors Clinical Decision Making in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Alarape, A. A., Adegboye M. O., Ogunniran O. O, Omoba, F. A- June 2021 – Page No.: 175-184

The research investigated the extent of accessibility of various health information sources, assess the extent of versatility of Clinical Core Skills and Clinical Decision Making of Medical Doctors in OAUTH, Ile-Ife. The study employed the descriptive survey research design. The population for the study consisted of all the 822 Medical Doctors of various professional status and specializations in (OAUTH), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Four hundred and eleven (411) Medical Doctors formed the sample for this study. Proportionate sampling technique was used to assigned sample size to each area of specialization to ensure fair representation. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select sampled size assigned to each area of specialization. The survey instrument used to collect data was questionnaire titled “Health Information Resources, Clinical Core Skills and Clinical Decision Making of Medical Doctors (AHIRCCKDM) Data collected were analyzed using appropriate frequency count, mean and standard deviation. The findings indicated that health information resources for clinical decision making were accessible and used to a very high extent. The study concluded that Health Information were accessed and used for Clinical Decision Making among Medical Doctors in OAUTH. The study recommended that the university should make funds available for the OAUTH management to enable her procure modern health information equipment that will enhance easy accessibility of health information and enrich the routine Clinical Decision Making among Medical Doctors in OAUTH.

Page(s): 175-184                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5608

 Alarape, A. A.
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

 Adegboye M. O.
Department of Communication and General Studies, College of Agricultural Management and Rural Development, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

 Ogunniran O. O
Department of Library and Information Science, Adeleke University, Ede, Nigeria

 Omoba, F. A
Hezekiah Oluwasanmi Library, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

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Alarape, A. A., Adegboye M. O., Ogunniran O. O, Omoba, F. A “Health Information Resources and Clinical Core Skills as Predictors of Medical Doctors Clinical Decision Making in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.175-184 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5608

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The Effect of Reward System on Employee Job Satisfaction with Work Motivation as Intervening Variables
Rapat Piter Sony Hutahuruk, Haya Haratika- June 2021 – Page No.: 185-192

The effect Of Reward System on Employee Job Satisfaction With Work Motivation as Intervening Variable. The objectives of this study are: 1). This is to find out how the reward system affects the employee performance of the Procurement of Goods / Services at the Serdang Bedagai Regency Government. 2). To find out how the influence of work motivation on employee performance in the procurement of goods / services at the government of Serdang Bedagai district. 3). This is to find out how the reward system affects the performance of employees in the procurement of goods / services at the Serdang Bedagai Regency Government with work motivation as an intervening variable. This research was conducted in January 2020 at the Office of the Procurement of Goods / Services of the Government of Serdang Bedagai Regency. The results of this study indicate. (1) It can be seen that the magnitude of the adjusted R square value is 0.146 or 14.6%. This shows that if the reward system (X) can explain work motivation (Z) by 14.6%, the remaining 85.4% (100% – 14.6%) is explained by other variables outside of this research model. (2) The results of the t test (partial) show that tcount (1.628) 0.05, It can be concluded that the first hypothesis is rejected, meaning that the reward system variable (X) has no significant on work motivation (Z). (3) The results of the t test (partial) show that the value of t (5.737)> t table (2.034), and the significance value of 0.00 <0.05, it can be concluded that the second hypothesis is accepted, meaning that the reward system (X) has a significant effect on job satisfaction (Y). (4) The results of the path analysis test show that the direct effect of variable X on variable Y is 0.722. Meanwhile, the indirect effect through variable Z is 0.273 x 0.023 = 0.0627. From the calculation results obtained, it shows that the indirect effect through variable Z is smaller than the direct effect on variable Y.

Page(s): 185-192                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 July 2021

 Rapat Piter Sony Hutahuruk
Bina Karya College of Economics, Indonesia

 Haya Haratika
Bina Karya College of Economics, Indonesia

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Rapat Piter Sony Hutahuruk, Haya Haratika “The Effect of Reward System on Employee Job Satisfaction with Work Motivation as Intervening Variables” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.185-192 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/185-192.pdf

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Influence of Process Improvement on Organizational Performance at Consolbase Limited

Onesmus M. Mwilu, Dr. Lawrence Wainaina- June 2021 Page No.: 193-197

The logistical companies have a complex supply chain management (SCM) that requires huge resources to implement because of the scope of internal functions as well as external parties’ operations. This study investigated the influence of process improvement on performance of Consolbase limited. A descriptive design survey was used for the study. The study population was the employees at the Consolbase Limited in the two branches offices. The study used stratified sampling method to sample the respondents. The study sample size was 130 respondents which was determined using Slovenes formula. Piloting was done to determine reliability and validity by use of 10 respondents. The data was collected by the use of questionnaires as the primary data collection instrument. The study established that process management had a positive and significant influence on organizational performance. The study concluded process improvement enables the organization to optimize existing business processes in order to meet best market standards and improve customer experience. The study recommends that the organization should conduct process improvement on a regular basis as a part of a business strategy. Define and deploy strong business processes to engage employees in a valuable way by distributing responsibility and accountability closer to the work itself.

Page(s): 193-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 July 2021

 Onesmus M. Mwilu
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Lawrence Wainaina
Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Onesmus M. Mwilu, Dr. Lawrence Wainaina, “Influence of Process Improvement on Organizational Performance at Consolbase Limited” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.193-197 June 2021  https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/193-197.pdf

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Effect of Innovation Strategies on Performance of Real Estates Firms in Mavoko Sub-County, Kenya

Wambua, Peter Maingi; Stephen M. A. Muathe – June 2021 Page No.: 198-206

For the last 5 years, the real estate in Kenya has been affected negatively by financial crisis that affected the entire world. There has been also a massive expansion of the real estate that calls for innovation and new strategies by the stakeholders in the sector for them to keep abreast with the challenges. Therefore, this study sought to assess the effect of innovation strategies on real estate firms’ performance in Mavoko Sub-County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to; determine how Process Innovation Strategy, Product Differentiation Strategy, Technology Strategy, and Innovative Customer Service Strategy influences performance of real estate firms in Mavoko Sub-County, Kenya. This study used census method since the population was small and the firms were easily accessible. Primary data for this study was collected using copies of questionnaire as its key instrument. SPSS version 25 then aided in analyzing data as it was most apposite and user-friendly for analyzing attitudinal responses that are management related. Data collected was then analyzed through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics and presented using frequency distribution tables and figures. The findings revealed that 90.3% of the total variance in the dependent variable (Performance of Real Estate Firms) could be significantly explained by combined independent variables (Process Innovation Strategy, Product Differentiation Strategy, Technology Strategy, and Innovative Customer Service Strategy). The study therefore concluded that Process Innovation, Product Differentiation, Technology, and Innovative Customer Service Strategies had significant positive effect on the performances of real estate firms in Mavoko Sub-County, Kenya. Therefore, the study recommended that the firms should make use of these strategies so as to boost their performance.

Page(s): 198-206                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 July 2021

 Wambua, Peter Maingi
Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Stephen M. A. Muathe
Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Wambua, Peter Maingi; Stephen M. A. Muathe “Effect of Innovation Strategies on Performance of Real Estates Firms in Mavoko Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.198-206 June 2021  URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/198-206.pdf

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Relevance of New Crop Varieties and the Challenges Faced by Santa Farmers, North West Region of Cameroon
Muluh Prudence Mankah, Tohnain Nobert Lengha, Christopher Mubeteneh Tankou- June 2021 – Page No.: 207-213

This study was designed to analyze the relevance of new crop varieties and the challenges faced by Santa farmers, North West Region of Cameroon. Primary data were collected from 115 farmers involved in the cultivation of new seed varieties using purposive random sampling techniques. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).The results showed that 45.8% of farmers’ main difficulty encountered for cultivating new crop varieties was difficulty in multiplying seeds successfully. Also, 25.2% of farmers complained of not having access to large lands needed for cultivation. Furthermore, the introduction of new crop varieties led to the gradual disappearance of local seeds which automatically changed many people’s eaten habits in Santa. Despite the challenges faced, the study found that 61.6% of farmers adopted new varieties because it increased their productivity. The results equally reported that new crop varieties equally attracted and employed majority (52.3%) of the youths from towns to villages for farming.The study strongly recommends that the government and other stake holders should focus more on providing means to which farmers can be able to multiply seeds successfully. When this is done, then farmers in Santa are sure of having seeds that can be multiplied easily without incurring so much loss. Hence, this will equally help farmers from buying seeds almost every planting season.

Page(s): 207-213                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 July 2021

 Muluh Prudence Mankah
Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Rural Socioeconomics and Agricultural Extension, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Tohnain Nobert Lengha
Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Rural Socioeconomics and Agricultural Extension, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Christopher Mubeteneh Tankou
Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, Department of crop Science, University of Dschang, Cameroon

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Muluh Prudence Mankah, Tohnain Nobert Lengha, Christopher Mubeteneh Tankou “Relevance of New Crop Varieties and the Challenges Faced by Santa Farmers, North West Region of Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.207-213 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/207-213.pdf

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ARIMA Time Series Analysis in Forecasting Daily Stock Price of Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE)
Tasnim Uddin Chowdhury, Md. Shahidul Islam- June 2021 – Page No.: 214-233

The aim of the study is to examine the nature of daily share price and select a suitable ARIMA model to forecast the future daily share price from the previous daily share price of Chittagong Stock exchange (CSE). A random sampling method has been followed to collect the closing price of 60 companies for the period of January 2019 to December 2019 (241 trading days). Durbin-Watson test has been conducted to find the autocorrelation in each of the share prices. Then the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test has been applied to test the stationary of data and the Autocorrelation function (ACF) and Partial Autocorrelation function (PACF) has been calculated to determine the lag value of moving average MA(q) and autocorrelation AR(p)based on Ljung-Box Test Q, root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean absolute percent error and R-square values. After selecting ARIMA (p,d,q) model, forecasted values for each of the shares are calculated for the next 22 trading days of January 2020. Then a comparison has been made between the forecasted prices and the actual share prices by using the Goodness-of-fit Test, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Square Error (MSE) to validate the model. The result shows that the ARIMA model is applicable to forecast the daily share price of CSE.

Page(s): 214-233                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5609

 Tasnim Uddin Chowdhury
Assistant Professor (Finance Discipline), Department of Business Administration, Premier University, Chattogram, Bangladesh

 Md. Shahidul Islam
Divisional Officer, Service Engineering Division, Bangladesh Forest Research Institute, Chattogram, Bangladesh

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Tasnim Uddin Chowdhury, Md. Shahidul Islam “ARIMA Time Series Analysis in Forecasting Daily Stock Price of Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.214-233 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5609

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Analysis of the Influence of Employee Salaries, Job Stability, Job Enrichment on Employee Commitment with Job Satisfaction as Mediation
Muhammad Donal Mon, Herianto Wiranata- June 2021 – Page No.: 234-238

This study aims to examine the effect of employee salary, job stability, and job enrichment on employee commitment to the manufacturing industry in Batam with job satisfaction as mediation. The object of research is employees who work in manufacturing companies in the city of Batam. The sampling technique used random sampling by using questionnaires for data collection by distributing questionnaires directly and partly through google forms, because not all companies and employees can be found directly during this pandemic. The data that has been collected was tested using Smart PLS version 3.0 to test the validity of the reliability and hypothesis testing. The results showed that job stability and job enrichment had no positive and significant effect on employee satisfaction, while salary, job stability and job enrichment and job satisfaction had a positive and significant effect on employee commitment. In the mediation test, job enrichment does not have a positive effect on work commitment with job satisfaction as mediation.The results of this study are expected to be input for business actors in manufacturing companies which are widely available in Batam. Several limitations and recommendations for future research were also included in this study.

Page(s): 234-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 July 2021

 Muhammad Donal Mon
Universitas Internasional Batam (UIB), Indonesia

 Md. Shahidul Islam
Universitas Internasional Batam (UIB), Indonesia

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Muhammad Donal Mon, Herianto Wiranata “Analysis of the Influence of Employee Salaries, Job Stability, Job Enrichment on Employee Commitment with Job Satisfaction as Mediation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.234-238 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/234-238.pdf

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The role of Self-Help Groups’ Structures in Uplifting the Livelihoods of Households in Nyakach Sub County of Kisumu County, Kenya
Paul Okello Atieno, George Moseh, Nicholas K. Ombachi- June 2021 – Page No.: 239-246

Joint liability lending strategy adopted by Self Help Groups (SHGs) has provided a panacea for financial exclusion previously associated with the rural poor. Access to SHG micro-credit by the rural poor enables acquisition of assets for improved production as well as food and better livelihood. However, poverty levels in some regions in Kenya remain high despite the existence of several SHGs. There were about 796 registered self-help groups in Nyakach Sub-County by December 2015. In the study area, poverty level had moved from 18% to 43% in the period up to 2019, representing 238% rise. The situation contradicts evidence from other developed countries across the globe especially parts of Asia and Europe which show that self-help groups have positive influence on the overall development of society. The purpose of the study was to explore how structures of SHGs influence livelihoods of households in Nyakach Sub County, Kenya. Specific objectives were to determine how types of SHGs influence livelihood of households; assess the influence SHG size has on the livelihood of households and to determine how objective based SHGs influence households’ livelihoods. The theory of Collective Action (CA) stipulating that mobilization of groups of vulnerable population to fight a common problem which has been overlooked by responsible public institutions guided the study. Descriptive design was employed on a target population of 9450 from which a sample size of 384 respondents was calculated via Yamane’s formula. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data from the SHG members whereas Key Informant interviews were used to collect data from Divisional Social Services Officers (DSSOs) who were non SHG members. Findings showed that financial and social capitals were the livelihood aspects highly influenced by structures of SHGs and the size and objective-based SHGs had high influence on livelihood of households. The influence of SHG structure on livelihood was significant but small (n=384; r = .427; p < 0.05). It was concluded that the influence of structure was not homogeneous. The study recommended that structures of SHGs should be aligned to contextual conditions of the household members.

Page(s): 239-246                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5610

 Paul Okello Atieno
Kisii University, Kenya

 George Moseh
Muranga University of Technology, Kenya

 Nicholas K. Ombachi
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

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Paul Okello Atieno, George Moseh, Nicholas K. Ombachi “The role of Self-Help Groups’ Structures in Uplifting the Livelihoods of Households in Nyakach Sub County of Kisumu County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.239-246 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5610

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A Logistic Regression Model to Identify Factors Influencing Secondary School Students’ University Attendance Decision in the Southern Part of Sierra Leone

Regina Baby Sesay- June 2021 Page No.: 247-259

University education does not only increase earnings by providing skills that increase the chance of employment opportunities, but also promotes the economic growth of the country concern. For a developing country like Sierra Leone, a step to attain university education is a step towards moving away from poverty. It is therefore the desire of each and every parent to see their children through university level education. However, there are some unavoidable factors that may influence the ability and desire of provincial secondary (high) school students to further their education to university level. In Sierra Leone today, despite the increasing number of school dropouts, no clear-cut research has been carried out to address this great issue of concern. This research work, therefore, used a binary logistic regression modelling technique to identify the main factors influencing students’ decision to attend a university of their choice after secondary (or high) school education. For this purpose, a stratified random sampling method was employed to select 363 respondents proportionately from each of the secondary schools in the Mokonde community, Korie chiefdom, Moyamba District, southern part of Sierra Leone. Data were collected from the selected respondents using structured questionnaires. To further ascertain the appropriateness of the chosen binary logistic regression model, two additional regression models, the proportional odd ordinal logistic regression model and the unconstrained partial proportional odd ordinal logistic regression model were also used in the analysis. However, statistical tests showed that the chosen binary logistic regression model outperformed the two ordinal regression models. Based on the result of the empirical analysis, the gender of the secondary (high) school student; the father’s income level; the mother’s income level; the annual average score and the number of study hours are the main factors influencing student’s university attendance decision in the study area. Male secondary (or high) school students are more likely to attend university than their female counterparts. High school students whose fathers are on a high level income scale are more likely to attend university than those whose fathers are on the low level income scale. Also, the higher the average score of the secondary school student the greater the possibility of the student to enter university and above all, the more hours the student spends on studying his or her academic work, the greater the possibility for the student to enter university.

Page(s): 247-259                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5611

 Regina Baby Sesay
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Technology, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone

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Regina Baby Sesay, “A Logistic Regression Model to Identify Factors Influencing Secondary School Students’ University Attendance Decision in the Southern Part of Sierra Leone” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.247-259 June 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5611

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An assessment on the Provision, Quality and Adequacy of School Welfare Facilities in Lusaka

Kaiko Mubita – June 2021 Page No.: 260-267

This paper assessed the provision, quality and adequacy of welfare facilities in selected schools of Lusaka city. The study used descriptive survey design. To this effect, 5 schools were sampled to participate in this study. Data was collected using focus group discussions and unstructured observation. Data analysis was done through thematic content analysis. The findings revealed that welfare facilities were positively associated with teachers’ and pupils’ performance in schools. The study, therefore, recommended that education policy makers, implementers and all stakeholders must pay much attention to the provision of welfare facilities in schools to cater for teachers, pupils and other school staff. These welfare facilities include clean drinking water, sanitary conveniences, eating facilities, change rooms and so on. More so, these welfare facilities should be adequate and of quality to the users in relation to population of a given school.

Page(s): 260-267                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 July 2021

 Kaiko Mubita
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education

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[19] World Health Organization. (2009). Water, sanitation and hygiene links to health. Facts and figures. WHO, Geneva. Available at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/facts2004/en/index.html

Kaiko Mubita “An assessment on the Provision, Quality and Adequacy of School Welfare Facilities in Lusaka ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.260-267 June 2021  URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/260-267.pdf

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On the Myth and Magic of Apparitions: A Study Based on Mother Mary’s Church in Sri Lanka
Surani Fernando and K.A.A. N Thilakarathna- June 2021 – Page No.: 268-279

The design of this research article is to bring about the overall understanding about a Christian Religious myth on Mother Mary’s appearances or magical revelations at churches to people and how these revelations impacted in creating new religious dogmas. These revelations are being experienced in all over the world from small scale to large scale including Sri Lanka and how people have absorbed these beliefs leading to social changes. The article gives an explanation on the root causes and other reasons that lead to a religious belief or a dogma. The article is constructed contrasting and the connections with the thoughts abided with Mother Mary’s revelations to people. The essay is a qualitative descriptive analysis. The Methodology used is epistemological.

Page(s): 268-279                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 July 2021

 Surani Fernando
B.A, M.SOC (Sociology), University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

 K.A.A. N Thilakarathna
LL.B. (Colombo) LL.M. (KDU), Attorney at Law, Lecturer, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

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Surani Fernando and K.A.A. N Thilakarathna “On the Myth and Magic of Apparitions: A Study Based on Mother Mary’s Church in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.268-279 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/268-279.pdf

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School Facilities and Infrastructure Management in Improving Education Quality
Felia Santika, Sowiyah, Umigiarini Pangestu and Mutiara Nurahlaini- June 2021 – Page No.: 280-285

The purpose of this study is to know the Management of School Facilities and Infrastructure in Improving the Quality of Education. This study uses a comparison journal related to Facilities and Infrastructure in the field of education. Based on the results of a review of libraries from various countries in the world, the authors found that school facilities and infrastructure can improve the quality of education. Therefore, the school is expected to manage the facilities and pre-retirement in meeting the needs. Facilities and infrastructure greatly affect the ability of students in the learning process. It can be said that quality school facilities and infrastructure help attract and retain teachers, support improved student outcomes, and have a positive economic impact on the community. And it can be known that complete school facilities and infrastructure can determine the number of students. Therefore, the role of facilities and infrastructure is very important to attract the attention of the community so that the school has fans. The importance of school facilities and pre-retirement management in improving the quality of education attracts researchers to review, and this article to test how the management of facilities and infrastructure in improving the quality of education.

Page(s): 280-285                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5612

 Felia Santika
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Umigiarini Pangestu
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

 Mutiara Nurahlaini
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

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Felia Santika, Sowiyah, Umigiarini Pangestu and Mutiara Nurahlaini “School Facilities and Infrastructure Management in Improving Education Quality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.280-285 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5612

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The State and the Processes for the Resolution of Chieftaincy Disputes: Taraba State Model
Williams A. Ahmed-Gamgum – June 2021 – Page No.: 286-302

Traditional institutions and rulers have played important roles in development administration of States in Africa. But the politics of each community has also made the institutions not to be free from some kinds of conflicts and the multiplier effects of such conflicts. Consequently, modern government has not ignored the traditional institutions as part of its development programs to ensure that no community under-develops itself and indeed the State as a result of conflict. State Governments in Nigeria have put in place structures and process to follow in resolving chieftaincy disputes. This paper is interested to find out the structure for administering chieftaincy institutions and the path for resolving chieftaincy disputes in Taraba State. The paper sourced its data from secondary and primary sources. The paper finds that whereas there is an elaborate system and machinery for conflict resolution, but some Chieftaincy disputes become protracted before they were resolve and some are still taking longer time to resolve in spite of the political efficacy of the elites in the State. Therefore with the creation of many graded chiefdoms as a measure to resolve Chieftaincy demands and disputes, both the communities that still have outstanding disputes, the Government and people should cooperate, and on the bases of equity and due process in matters of Native law and Custom resolve chieftaincy disputes to serve as deterrent to deviants. This would enable both old and new chiefs to settle down as agents of peace and development administration.

Page(s): 286-302                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 July 2021

 Williams A. Ahmed-Gamgum
Consultancy Services Unit, Taraba State Polytechnic Suntai, Jalingo Campus, P.O. Box 834, Jalingo Post Code: 660262

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Williams A. Ahmed-Gamgum “The State and the Processes for the Resolution of Chieftaincy Disputes: Taraba State Model” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.286-302 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/286-302.pdf

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Procrastination Attitude of the Senior High School Students in Modular Distance Learning Modality
Gel Marie B. Tiboron, Dr. Ronald S. Decano, Mark Van M. Buladaco- June 2021 – Page No.: 303-308

Nowadays, especially in modular modality, students tend to procrastinate or to delay a certain work that needs to be accomplished on a certain deadline. It is a behavioral problem that occurs in every individual. The research design of this study utilized the phenomenological method to determine the Procrastination attitude of the students in a modular distance learning modality in The Rizal Memorial Colleges, Inc. The participants of this study composed of 10 Senior High School students. The data obtained identified emergent themes clustered into three, namely: Diligence, Honesty, and Hope. Based on the results, one of the existing behaviors that any person could have, with or without their knowledge, and became the major problem of everyone, especially to every student, is procrastination. With this, the implications to the teachers were to provide motivations towards their students in order to banish procrastination.

Page(s): 303-308                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5613

 Gel Marie B. Tiboron
Graduate Student, Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management, Davao del Norte State College

 Dr. Ronald S. Decano
Dean, Institute of Advanced Studies, Davao del Norte State College

 Mark Van M. Buladaco
Dean, Institute of Computing, Davao del Norte State College

[1] Abi Bagnes, 2014, procrastination among students, (https://www.scribd.com/document/257003979/Procrastination-Among-High-School-Students-docx?fbclid=IwAR05pcp2hJKysNZPsYHUb0aYoA6XY-beH26rOoBqdinCaicTwa-ccdEffIQ), Dec, 23 2019
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[3] Andrea Jessa D. Reyes, 2017, 9 Reasons Why You Should Study Hard, (http://udyong.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9295%3A9-reasons-why-you-should-study-hard-5798&catid=90&Itemid=1267), December 1, 2019
[4] Becton Loveless, 2019, 10 Habits of Highly Effective Students, (https://www.educationcorner.com/habits-of-successful-students.html), December 1, 2019
[5] Boge, Dominic J., 2007, Understanding and Overcoming procrastination, (https://mcgraw.princeton.edu/understanding-and-overcoming-procrastination), January 22, 2020
[6] Bowman, Jennifer Davis, 2018, Why Students Don’t Do Their Homework – And What You Can Do About It, (https://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/why-students-dont-do-their-homework-and-what-you-can-do-about-it/), January 22, 2020
[7] Dianne M. Tice and Roy F. Baumeister, 2019, Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health, (https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315175775/chapters/10.4324/9781315175775-9), December 1, 2019
[8] Elizabeth Lombardo Ph.D., 2017, 11 Ways to Overcome procrastination, (https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/better-perfect/201703/11-ways-overcome-procrastination?amp), December 1, 2019
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[10] Frank Sonnenberg, 2017, 12reasons why people procrastinate, (https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/12-reasons-why-people-procrastinate-frank-sonnenberg/?trk=mp-reader-card&fbclid=IwAR1AjJambAJyvvgoYIaFgltuoeWCRLfb81mEn6xJ9vncL6JM5iPwqyi_rFY), Dec, 23 2019
[11] Gunn, Jennifer, 2019, Is It Student Laziness or Something More?, (https://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/classroom-resources/academic-procrastination-anxiety/), January 22, 2020
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[16] Lee-Chua, Quenna N., 2011, Dealing with Procrastination among Students, http://school-principal.blogspot.com/2011/06/dealing-with-procrastination-among.html?m=1, January 22, 2020
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Gel Marie B. Tiboron, Dr. Ronald S. Decano, Mark Van M. Buladaco “Procrastination Attitude of the Senior High School Students in Modular Distance Learning Modality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.303-308 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5613

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Exploring Institutional Measures of mitigating Sexual Harassment Cases by Male Teachers: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Luapula Province
Justin Kapya Chilonga and Harrison Daka- June 2021 – Page No.: 309-312

Purpose: This paper seeks to present the study which was conducted to explore the institutional measures of mitigating sexual harassment cases by male teachers in Luapula province. The study was undertaken in the 5randomly selected secondary schools across the province.
Design/methodology/approach: The study used qualitative paradigm in which descriptive survey design was ideal. The descriptive design was chosen in order to come up with more comprehensive, deeper insights from respondents so that a better understanding of the phenomenon under study is enhanced. The study was based on questionnaire and interview guide. Questionnaires were administered to 5 Head teachers, 5 Guidance and counseling teachers and 15teachers while interview guide was used to collect data from 15 pupils.
Findings: The study revealed that, sexual harassment is a serious problem and its mitigation needs not only the attention of the head teacher but the collective effort with the teachers, pupils, stake holders and other interested parties who are involved in the provision of education.
Limitations of the study: The findings of the study focused on the role of the institutions in mitigating sexual harassment of female pupils by male teachers. The findings therefore, cannot be generalized to the male pupils and female teachers because this research only endeavored to address the issue that has raised serious concerns and has drawn the attention of the government, parents, stakeholders, organizations, civil societies and the world at large.
Practical implication: The practical implication is that if sexual harassment in schools is not mitigated, it can lead to psychological trauma in children who are subjected to it, it can also cause risk of death, poor physical and mental health, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) infection, early pregnancy, education problems, loneliness, vagrancy and poor parenting skills later in life. The institutions therefore, should fight hard and mitigate it.
Originality/value: The study supports previous studies which identified that sexual harassment is a serious social problem and advocated for its mitigation. However this paper highlights the divergence views of the respondents on the mitigation of sexual harassment, thereby highlighting on the need to establish policies, breaking the silence in schools and communities and instituting reporting laws on sexual harassment.

Page(s): 309-312                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5614

 Justin Kapya Chilonga
School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka

 Harrison Daka
School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka

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[31] Whitefield, C. (2010). Psychiatric drugs as agents of Trauma; The International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 22 (4) 195 – 207
[32] World Health Organization (2002). Preventing Child Maltreatment in Europe. A Public Health Approach: Policy Briefing. University of Birmingham
[33] World Health Organization (2007). Violence and Injury Prevention Programme, WHO office for Europe.
[34] Zambia Daily Mail, December 3, 2015
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[36] Zwi, K; O’brien, T; Tait, P; Wheeler, D; Williams, D and Woolfenden, S. (2007). School Based Education Programmes for the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: A Systematic Review. http://campbellcollaboration.org/lib/project/28 (Accessed on 20/10/13

Justin Kapya Chilonga and Harrison Daka “Exploring Institutional Measures of mitigating Sexual Harassment Cases by Male Teachers: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Luapula Province” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.309-312 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5614

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State Fragility and Humanitarian Crisis in Syria
Ewelie, C. Justice, Omenihu C. Nwaorgu – June 2021 – Page No.: 313-318

The paper examined state fragility and humanitarian crisis in Syria. The main thesis of the paper is that the more the fragility of the Syrian state, given some extraneous and endogenous factors fuelling the humanitarian crisis in Syria. The paper relied on secondary sources of data and for the purpose of clarity and deeper understanding of the subject matter adopted the Dependency theory as its framework of analysis. One of the assumptions of the dependency theory is that events in one country is conditioned by the actions or inactions of a country in a relationship of unequal exchange. The paper observed that the crescendo of humanitarian crisis in Syria is a result of the adverse politics of state fragility as reinforced by negative external and internal objective conditions. It is recommended in the paper, inter alia, that democratic values should be upheld and good governance should be a sundry principle for the overall interest of Syrians.

Page(s): 313-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 July 2021

 Ewelie, C. Justice
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Omenihu C. Nwaorgu
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Ake, C. (1996). Democracy and development in Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited.
[2] Alisa, W. (2013). Syrian civil war: What you need to know. (www.abcnwes.go.com 31 August).
[3] Albertson, A. & Moran, A. (2017). Untangling the complexity of fragile states. Truman Centre.
[4] Andre-Gunder, F. (1972). The development of underdevelopment. In James D. Cockcroft, Andre Gunder Frank & D. Johnson (eds.), Dependence and underdevelopment. Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, p. 3.
[5] Ayse, B. B. (2014). Alawite and the fate of Syria. In Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspectives, a Publication of History, Ohio State University, U.S.A.
[6] Besley & Persson (2009). State capacity, conflict and development. London: Stockholm University.
[7] Campbell-Saferworld, I. (2015). Rising powers in fragile and conflict-affected states. London: The British Academy, Carlton House Terrace.
[8] Dos Santos, T. (1970). The structure of dependence. The American Economic Review, 60:2, pp 231-236.
[9] Eze, R. C. & Agena, J. E. (2018). Super powers conspiracy and the unending civil war in Syria: An analysis. European Journal of Social Sciences, 56(1), pp. 20-28.
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[14] Khan, M. I. (2017). The fallacy of state fragility indices: Is there a ‘fragility trap’? IOASS Working Paper, 034.
[15] Manuel, M. (2017). Getting better results from assistance to fragile states. ODI Briefing Papers.
[16] Manfreda, P. (2017). Top Reasons for the Uprising in Syria (www.thoughtzo.com 18 August).
[17] Ntete-Nna, N. J. (2004). An Introduction to Political Analysis. Owerri, Springfield Publishers Limited.
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[20] Roberts, A. (2015). Fragile states: A concept with history. The British Academy, 10-11, Carlton House Terrace, London.
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[23] United States of America, Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labour (2016). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.
[24] Wonah, E.I. (2019). Students’ union and politics in Nigeria. Quest Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science, 7 (7), pp 28-32.
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[26] World Vision (2021). Syrian refugee crisis: Facts, FAQs, and how to help. https://www.worldvision.org/refugees-news-stories/syrian-refugee-crisis-facts#:~:text=Now%20in%20its%2011th%20year,displacement%20crisis%20of%20our%20time.&text=About%206.6%20million%20Syrians%20are,in%20Syria%20need%20humanitarian%20assistance.

Ewelie, C. Justice, Omenihu C. Nwaorgu “State Fragility and Humanitarian Crisis in Syria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.313-318 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/313-318.pdf

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Challenges Faced by Administrators in the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Selected Primary Schools in Kitwe District
Fred Chibwe and Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga (PhD) – June 2021 – Page No.: 319-324

The purpose of the study was to investigate the challenges faced by administrators in the implementation of inclusive education in selected primary schools in Kitwe district. In this study, the researcher used a mixed method research design which involved the collection and mixing of both quantitative and qualitative data. Semi-structured questionnaire were used to collect data. This study revealed that, teachers are not properly trained and consequently experience serious challenges when teaching learners with special needs in an inclusive classroom. Secondly, that inclusive education is not properly implemented because the results show that most school buildings do not accommodate children with physical disabilities. The recommendation made in this study was that Head teachers need to be trained with regard to special education in order for them to properly implement inclusive education.

Page(s): 319-324                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 July 2021

 Fred Chibwe
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

 Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga (PhD)
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

[1] Central Statistics Office (2003).Census of population and housing: Lusaka Central Statistics Office
[2] Hoyle E. (2006). The role of a headteacher: London: Routldge and Kegan Paul.
[3] Kato M. (2000). Findings on Children with Disabilities in Primary Schools, Parliament of Uganda Ministry of Education, Uganda (2003):Poverty Eradication through Education, UNESCO.
[4] Kauffman J. M. et al(2004). Enabling or disabling? Observations on Changes in special education: Phi Delta Kappan, April, pp 613-620.
[5] Mafa O. (2012). Challenges of implementing inclusion in Zimbabwe’s education system: Online J. Educ., 1(2), 14-22.
[6] Mandyata, J.M. (2002). Teachers’ views on inclusive Practices: A case of basic schools in Kasama District, Zambia: University of Zambia (Unpublished MEd Dissertation. – UNZA
[7] Moberg A. and Kasonde N. (2001).Moving towards Inclusive Schooling: BESSIP: Lusaka.
[8] Mwangi E.M. and Orodho J.A. (2014).Challenges facing implementation of inclusive education in public primary schools in Nyeri town, Nyericounty: Kenya. J. Educ. Pract., 5(16).
[9] Onya E. (2002).The role of headteachers and MOEST in promoting performance of maths and since subject in secondary schools: Nandi District Secondary school Heads Association Conference. April 2002.
[10] Burbules, N. C., Lord, B. T. and Sherman, A, L.(1982). Equity, Equal Opportunity, andEducation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. Vol. 4, No. 2 , pp. 69-187.
[11] Sibanda P. (2018). A review of the implementation of inclusive education in Zimbabwe: challenges and opportunities. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 7(9), 808-815.
[12] UNESCO (2003).Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Approaches in Education: a Challenge, a vision-Conceptual Paper, Spain Paris.

Fred Chibwe and Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga (PhD) “Challenges Faced by Administrators in the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Selected Primary Schools in Kitwe District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.319-324 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/319-324.pdf

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Beyond the Legalistic and Mechanical Approaches to Conflict Management in Nigeria
Ko, Viashima David- June 2021 – Page No.: 325-330

Multiethnic and religious crises are exposing Nigeria to its greatest existential problem of all time. Calls for separation and self-determination are vociferous among Nigeria’s ethnic, religious, and socio-cultural groups. While Nigeria’s government and well-meaning organizations are engaging the problem, ongoing conversations on the matter focus on the potentials of legalistic and mechanical approaches to conflict management. Ethnic and religious conflicts in Nigeria are resisting these formulations and sustaining the path of destruction, pulverizing economic, social, human, and material resources.
This paper supplements existing perspectives on conflict management in Nigeria with an ontological approach. It defends the need to explore the ego, the self, the I in managing conflicts in Nigeria. With categories and frameworks mined from existentialists philosophers, the paper advocates the development of systematic processes of reorientation based on the existentialist values of intersubjectivity, tolerance, dialogue, understanding, care, and solidarity as a tool against the religious and ethnic crisis in the country.

Page(s): 325-330                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5615

 Ko, Viashima David
Department of Philosophy/University of Ibadan, Nigeria

[1] Adeniyi, M.O. (1993). Religion and Politics: An Eye Bird’s View of Development in Nigeria. In R.D. Abubakar (ed.) Religion and Politics in Nigeria. Ilorin: NASR.
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Asouzu, I. (2011). “Ibuanyidanda” and the Philosophy of Essence. Calabar: University of Calabar Press.
[3] Ayinla, S.A. (2003). Managing Religious Intolerance and Violence in Nigeria, Problems and Solutions. A Paper Presented at the National Conference on Social Problems, Development and the Challenges of Globalization, Organized by Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife.
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[13] Kadayifci-Orellana, S. A., (2009). Ethno-Religious Conflicts: Exploring the Role of Religion in Conflict Resolution. In J. Bercovitch, V. Kremenyuk, and I. W. Zartman (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution. SAGE: London.
[14] Kimenyi, M., Adibe, J. Djiré, M. Jirgi, A., Kergna, A. Deressa, T. Pugliese, J.E. and Westbury, A. (2014) The Impact of Conflict and Political Instability on Agricultural Investments in Mali and Nigeria. Africa Growth Initiative, (17) p13.
[15] Nasr, V. (1998). Religion and global affairs: Secular states and religious oppositions. SAIS Review, 18 (2), 32-37.
[16] Njoku, E. 2020. Exploring Contemporary Counterterrorism and Perspectives of Terrorism Experts to Combat Boko Haram. (Doctoral Dissertation, Walden University) Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Collection.
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Olatunji, O.A. 2005. Reconciling The Self With The Other: An Existentialist Perspective on The Management of Ethnic Conflicts in Africa. Ibadan: Hope Publishers.
[18] Onah, N., Diara, B.C., & Uruko, F. 2017. Ethnoreligious Conflicts in Nigeria: Implications on Women. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5, (8), 61-61
[19] Onouha, F.C. 2012. “Boko Haram: Nigeria’s Extremist Islamic Sect.” Aljazeera center for studies. Retrieved via: http://studies.aljazeera.net
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[29] Wilson, M. 2018. “Nigeria’s Boko Haram attacks in numbers – as lethal as ever.” BBC Monitoring. Retrieved through https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-42735414. Accessed January 20th, 2020.

Ko, Viashima David “Beyond the Legalistic and Mechanical Approaches to Conflict Management in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.325-330 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5615

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The Legal Frameworks in the Fight against Corruption in Nigeria
Dr Aishatu Kyari Sandabe- June 2021 – Page No.: 331-340

Corruption is a cancerous phenomenon that has permeated every facet of society. It has been identified as the main obstacle to the realisation of good governance, sustainable development and millennium development goals. Corruption is an impediment to political, economic and social development, hinders administrative development and performance, impairs economic efficiency, leads to brain drain, discourages foreign investments, undermines effective utilisation of natural resources and hampers transparency. While the manifestation of corruption is without limits, its roots seem to be identifiable in the immoderate inclination for material wealth and power. One of the major catalysts for widespread corruption in Nigeria is the failure in the existing legal frameworks to effectively combat corruption. The methodology adopted were doctrinal and empirical. The objectives of this study are to examine what motivates people to be corrupt, and to analyse the legal frameworks in the fight against corruption, the national, regional and international frameworks will be considered and recommend capital punishment for those guilty of grand and political corruption in order to eradicate this menace.

Page(s): 331-340                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5616

 Dr Aishatu Kyari Sandabe
University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

[1] AMUNDSEN I, Political corruption in Africa: extraction and power preservation (Edward Elgar publishing co. USA 2019)
[2] ANTIGHA B A, PIUS A F, ANTIGHA B U, Corruption as a social problem and its implication on Nigerian society: A review of Anti-corruption policies (Mediterranean Journal of social sciences Vol 4(1) January 2013)
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[15] OLUYITAN F E, Combatting Corruption at the grassroots level in Nigeria. (Palgrave Macmillan 2017)
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[17] OBUAH E, Combatting Corruption in Nigeria: The Nigerian Economic and Financial crime. (vol 12 issue 1 2010)
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[26] The United Nations Convention Against Corruption.

Dr Aishatu Kyari Sandabe “The Legal Frameworks in the Fight against Corruption in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.331-340 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5616

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A study on perception of dance teachers toward online classes
Dr. (Mr.) W.B.A.Vitharana – June 2021 – Page No.: 341-344

The purpose of this study was to investigate out more about impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on the educational system and collect data about it. Within the framework of a survey research design, quantitative and qualitative research approaches were applied in this research. Teachers out of several schools in the Colombo district constitute the study’s target population. The data for this study was collected using a questionnaire with focused on three main areas: (1) teachers’ understanding of the idea of online classrooms; (2) teachers’ perceptions of online classes; and (3) teachers’ perceptions of online classrooms. (2) Teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of integrating online activities in Sri Lankan schools, and (3) Teachers’ perceptions of the challenges and issues in implementing new practices in Sri Lankan schools. Frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the teachers’ responses to the survey. Despite the fact that the concept of online class practices is new to Sri Lankan teachers, the analysis revealed that they are aware of the concept and have positive perceptions of online class practices. They did believe that the use of online classes could have a number of advantages, including changing traditional teaching methods, providing up-to-date subject information, improving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process, increasing students’ interest in learning, incorporating changes in the IT world, and developing teachers’ skills and attitudes to come to terms with major problems. As a result of this study, it is recommended that relevant stakeholders suggest suitable steps to create online classes and ensure their maximum being used in schools.

Page(s): 341-344                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 July 2021

 Dr. (Mr.) W.B.A.Vitharana
Namibia University of Science and Technology

[1] Bower, M. (2019). Technology ‐mediated learning theory. British Journal Education Technology, 50, 1035–1048. 10.1111/bjet.12771.
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[3] Gonzalez, T., de la Rubia, M., Hincz, K., Lopez, M.C., .Subirats, L., Fort, S. (2020, 20). Influence of COVID-19 confinement in students’ performance in higher education. https://doi.org/ 10.35542/osf.io/9zuac
[4] Hewagamage, K. P. (2020). Online Learning in Sri Lanka’s Higher Education Institutions during the coVId-19 Pandemic. Retrieved from https: //www. adb.org/ publications/online-learning-sri-lanka-during-covid-19
[5] Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 3. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the difference – between-emergency-remote-teaching -and-online-learning
[6] Kulal,A, Nayak,A . (2020). A study on perception of teachers and students toward online classes in Dakshina Kannada and Udupi District. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, 15 (3) pp. 285-296.
[7] National Institute of Education. (2021). BEd (Eng. Tech) Department of Teacher Education- Data. Maharagama: NIE.
[8] Sethunga,P.(2014). Study on the Professional Development of Teachers and Teacher Educators in Sri Lanka. Colombo:NEC.
[9] World Health Organization. (2019). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Schools. Retrieved from https://www. who.int/ emergencies/ diseases/ novel- coronavirus- 2019/question-and-answers-hub/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease- covid-19-schools
[10] Wang, C. H., Shannon, D. M., & Ross, M. E. (2013). Students’ characteristics, self-regulated learning, technology self-efficacy, and course outcomes in online learning. Distance Education, 34 (3), 302–323.

Dr. (Mr.) W.B.A.Vitharana “A study on perception of dance teachers toward online classes” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.341-344 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/341-344.pdf

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Principal’s Interpersonal Conflict Management: A Literature Review
Umigiarini Pangestu, Sowiyah, Mutiara Nur Ahlaini, Felia Santika – June 2021 – Page No.: 345-351

The importance of interpersonal conflict management for principals makes researchers interested in making literature reviews. There are many articles that discuss interpersonal conflict management for principals. This article is a literature review that aims to find out the interpersonal conflict management of the principal and the principal’s strategy in managing conflict, so it will give a positive impact on the environment of the school organization. Based on the results of literature reviews from many studies in various countries in the world, it is known that conflict has a positive effect when managed together effectively and can be very useful for the effectiveness of individuals and groups and will affect the sustainability of school organizations. So, we are interested to follow up research related to Interpersonal Conflict Management for the Principal.

Page(s): 345-351                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5617

 Umigiarini Pangestu
Department Teacher Training and Education, Lampung University, Indonesia

Department Teacher Training and Education, Lampung University, Indonesia

 Mutiara Nur Ahlaini
Department Teacher Training and Education, Lampung University, Indonesia

 Felia Santika
Department Teacher Training and Education, Lampung University, Indonesia

Adem, J. (2019). The Practices and Challenges of Conflict Management the Case of Government Secondary Schools in Arada Sub-City. Addis Ababa University,
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Umigiarini Pangestu, Sowiyah, Mutiara Nur Ahlaini, Felia Santika “Principal’s Interpersonal Conflict Management: A Literature Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.345-351 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5617

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Exploring the Factors Influencing the Performance in Biology of Senior High School Students at University of Mindanao, Philippines
Jovany Gleen L. Allawan- June 2021 – Page No.: 352-359

This study used a sequential exploratory strategy of a mixed-method research design aimed to explore the factors and this also aimed to determine the extent of relationship between these factors and performance of Senior High School students in biology. Factor analysis was employed to develop the instrument derived from the interview of the informants for data analysis. The predictor variables were tested whether these predict the performance of student in Biology. Result revealed five factors namely: teaching approach, student-related factors, teaching strategy, teacher’s motivation, and learning resources. The respondent’ mean level of agreement of these factors have an agree qualitative description which means it is oftentimes true for them. Students’ performance in biology was also determine. Grade 11 have a very satisfactory rating while Grade 12 obtain an outstanding qualitative description. Using Spearman’s rho correlation, all factors are not significantly correlated with the students’ performance in biology.

Page(s): 352-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5618

 Jovany Gleen L. Allawan
Graduate, UM-Panabo College, Philippines

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Jovany Gleen L. Allawan “Exploring the Factors Influencing the Performance in Biology of Senior High School Students at University of Mindanao, Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.352-359 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5618

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Analysis of School Boards of Management Competencies in the Management of Funds for Subsidized Secondary Education in Kiminini sub-County in Kenya
Johnson Bulowa, Sarah Likoko- June 2021 – Page No.: 360-362

The study analysed the competencies for the Boards of Management in managing funds for subsidized secondary school education in Kiminini Sub-County in Kenya. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The target population included all the Boards of Management of 68 public secondary schools in Kiminini Sub-County. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 21 headteachers from 21 sampled schools. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. A questionnaire was used in data collection. The study established that current competencies of Boards of Management negatively and significantly influence effectiveness of managing funds in schools.

Page(s): 360-362                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5619

 Johnson Bulowa
Department of Educational Planning and Management, Kibabii University

 Sarah Likoko
Department of Educational Planning and Management, Kibabii University

[1] Momanyi, J &Chumba, S.(2013). Determination of educational projectscompletion time in secondary schools in Kenya; International journal advanced research (2013) Vol.1 issue 3,194-200
[2] Owiti, B.H. (2010) .“Challenges facing management of free primaryeducation in Kenya; A case study of Kedibo division, Kisumu West District, Kenya: Unpublished thesis.
[3] Mutiva.(2004).Assessment of Human and Financial Resources to the Success of an Institution: A Case study of Tongaren division, BungomaNorth District, Kenya.
[4] Ndiangui.(2011). Influence of the Level of Training of Head Teachers andBoards of Management in Financial Management, Segera ward, Laikipia North Sub-County, Laikipia County.

Johnson Bulowa, Sarah Likoko “Analysis of School Boards of Management Competencies in the Management of Funds for Subsidized Secondary Education in Kiminini sub-County in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.360-362 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5619

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Immigration, Integration and Interculturality in Tunisia
Wafa Touihri – June 2021 – Page No.: 363-368

Purpose: Our current study is dedicated to an illustration of the question related to the integration of immigrant students from sub-Saharan Africa within the Tunisian system of higher education.
Our target integration model transcends the functionalist determinist approach; it is not assimilation that fuses all subjects into one single entity nor communitarianism that maintains ethnic barriers above mixture and unanimity.
Methods: This qualitative study was carried out among 100 students enrolled in the top three accessible multicultural private Tunisian universities. To analyze the relations between native immigrant students, we have devoted second criteria forming thus two case studies: there are two groups of students (a group of 50 Tunisian students and another group of 50 students with different sub-Saharan African nationalities.
Results: The process of integrating subjects from different yet similar cultures, in this case, sub-Saharan African students, is an anthropological process seeking to put cultural diversity at the service of an inclusive environment with a new cultural code. The metaphor of the bridge between cultures is no longer valid; the focus is rather on the concept of the salad bowl integrating different cultures. University experience constitutes a key element to achieve professional insertion concerning the future of students.

Page(s): 363-368                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5620

 Wafa Touihri
Department of Sociology of Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Tunis

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Wafa Touihri “Immigration, Integration and Interculturality in Tunisia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.363-368 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5620

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Tertiary Education Trust Fund Policy on Essential Physical Infrastructure and Instructional Materials and Equipment in South East, Nigeria: Assessment
Anorue, Chuks E., Ikediugwu, N. (Prof.) – June 2021 – Page No.: 369-374

The purpose of this study was to assess the Tertiary Education Trust Fund policy implementation for universities improvement in the South – East of Nigeria. The study was guided by four research questions and four hypotheses. The researcher adopted descriptive survey design for the study. The population of the study is 765 staff of the federal and state public universities in South- East, Nigeria. There was no sampling since the number of Heads of Departments, Deans of Faculties, and TET Fund Committees of the Universities was manageable, the entire population was studied. Assessment of TET Fund Policy Implementations for Universities improvement questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The researcher also used a checklist to really ascertain the authenticity of the data provided by the respondents. Data were analyzed using Mean and Standard Deviation to answer the research questions and ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from the results revealed that the extent to which Tertiary Education Trust Fund has implemented policy on provisions of essential physical infrastructure for teaching and learning for the universities improvement in South-East, Nigeria is low and there is significant difference in the mean ratings of the opinion of the respondents. The findings also revealed that the extent to which TET Fund has implemented policy on the provisions of instructional materials and equipments for teaching and learning and is low, and there is no significant differences in the mean ratings of the respondents opinion on the result. The researcher made some recommendations which includes: that TET Fund should diversify its provisions of essential physical infrastructure to cover other areas like provision of administrative blocks, water resource, hostel accommodation, staff quarters and others. TET Fund board of directors should improve to a large extent its policy on the provision of instructional materials and equipment especially in providing items like laboratory apparatuses, personal computers, lap top computers to staff, document cameras, among others.

Page(s): 369-374                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5621

 Anorue, Chuks E.
Department of Educational foundations and Administration, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri (affiliate of University of Nigeria Nsukka)

 Ikediugwu, N. (Prof.)
Department of Educational Management and Policy, faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

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Anorue, Chuks E., Ikediugwu, N. (Prof.) “Tertiary Education Trust Fund Policy on Essential Physical Infrastructure and Instructional Materials and Equipment in South East, Nigeria: Assessment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.369-374 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5621

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Determinants of the Implementation of Day-Wing Policy in Boarding Secondary Schools in Nairobi City County, Kenya
Oteko Malvine Akinyi, Dr. Wilson Muna – June 2021 – Page No.: 375-384

The government of Kenya believes that the major reason for low enrolment in secondary schools is the high cost of secondary education. The number of students proceeding for secondary education had increased in the recent pastal though a big number of students still did not enroll in secondary schools. The policy of introducing day-wing into selected boarding secondary schools in Kenya was put in place to increase enrolment and to ensure 100 percent transition of students from primary to secondary school after the introduction of subsidized day secondary education and free day secondary education. This study aimed at assessing the determinants of implementation of day-wing policy into boarding secondary schools in Nairobi City County. The study adopted the Systems Theory. The study took place in ten boarding secondary schools in Nairobi City County which had the day-wing program. The study employed descriptive research design. The target population included ten school principals, fifteen deputy principals and six hundred teachers. Data collection instruments included use of questionnaires and interview schedule. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequencies, mean and percentage which was presented on graphs, tables and charts. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data which was then presented in prose. Before commencing the study, the researcher sort permission from Kenyatta University, the Ministry of Education and principals of the ten boarding secondary schools implementing the day-wing policy. The study found out the introduction of day-wing on boarding secondary schools had put a lot of pressure on the available resources apart from textbooks which the government supplied in surplus. Cases of indiscipline had also increased. Coordination of activities became hectic and teachers had been overstretched due to too much workload. The study recommended that for the policy to be viable, the government needed to provide boarding schools with physical, human and financial resources to cater for increased number of students.

Page(s): 375-384                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 July 2021

 Oteko Malvine Akinyi
School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Wilson Muna
School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Oteko Malvine Akinyi, Dr. Wilson Muna “Determinants of the Implementation of Day-Wing Policy in Boarding Secondary Schools in Nairobi City County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.375-384 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/375-384.pdf

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Assessment of Effect of Qualitative-Descriptive and Quantitative Evaluation Methods on Mathematics Interest In Primary Schools in Benue-State

Buluku A, Emaikwu S. O. – June 2021 Page No.: 385-390

The study assessed the effectiveness of qualitative-descriptive evaluation method and quantitative evaluation methods on Mathematics interest of Primary School Pupils in Benue State. The design was non randomized control group, pretest – posted research design. 5463pupils of primary five formed the population while 201 pupils were sampled using intact class. Three research questions and one research hypothesis guided the study. Mathematics Interest Inventory (MII) was the instrument used for collecting data. Data analysis was carried out using mean, standard deviation and ANCOVA statistics tool. The findings revealed that; there was significant difference in mean interest of pupils when qualitative-descriptive and quantitative evaluation methods were used with qualitative descriptive group having higher mean of the interest rating. The study concluded that, Pupils interest in Mathematics is higher in the group evaluated using qualitative descriptive evaluation method. Primary School Teachers were therefore encouraged to adopt qualitative descriptive method of evaluation

Page(s): 385-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2021

  Buluku A
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

  Emaikwu S. O.
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

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Buluku A, Emaikwu S. O. “Assessment of Effect of Qualitative-Descriptive and Quantitative Evaluation Methods on Mathematics Interest In Primary Schools in Benue-State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.385-390 June 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/385-390.pdf

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Reasons of Apathy to Pandemic Instructions: Scenario in Bangladesh

Md. Easin Ahmed – June 2021 Page No.: 391-393

Covid-19 has caused much suffering to the world. No nation could get an exemption from this contagion. To reduce impairments, people had to follow instructions given by doctors, health organizations, and governments. This research affirmed massive amount of people had always been apathetic to the given pandemic instructions and their health. This paper’s purpose is to let disaffiliates know why many people are neglecting their life risk within this pandemic. It also may help to take some essential steps to reduce infection and death cases. Applying a total of 10 focus group discussions in May and June of 2020 to almost 80 random participants from roadsides and tea stalls, this paper upholds some basic narratives that demonstrate the scenario of the pandemic in Khulna, Bangladesh. Lacking proper knowledge, Frustration, Financial condition, Communication barriers, and many more reasons are liable for this kind of behavior. The media also played a very significant role. All these suggest that there are some obvious reasons for them to disregard the given instructions.

Page(s): 391-393                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5622

 Md. Easin Ahmed
Khulna University, Bangladesh

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Md. Easin Ahmed, “Reasons of Apathy to Pandemic Instructions: Scenario in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.391-393 June 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5622

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Human Resource Planning and Organizational Performance: A study of Telecom Companies in Port Harcourt A study of Telecom Companies in Port Harcourt

Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu, Nchey, Gabriel Achukwu, Oshogbunu, Esther Ogochukwu, Sokari, Ndomokidem Myra – June 2021 Page No.: 394-398

The study was to investigate the influence of Human resource planning on organizational performance. The objective of this research is to determine the influence of human resource planning on organizational performance in the telecom company in Port Harcourt. The study used a well structured questionnaire to obtain data from 160 top managers and middle level managers. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 was utilized for data analysis and regression analysis for the hypotheses. Findings from the study disclosed. HRP has a significant influence on organizational performance (R=0.563, R2= 0.318, P=0.000). Furthermore, finding suggests that an effective human resource planning such as anticipating manpower factors of job satisfaction, understanding peoples need, utilization, motivation, compensation and training and development packages have the capacity to assist the organization in modifying the behavior, increase creativity and increase its workers level of innovativeness and commitment towards improving organizational performance. It was recommended that Companies should spend more on Human Resources; which can lead towards High performance achievement.

Page(s): 394-398                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2021

 Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu
Department of Petroleum Marketing and Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic of Oil And Gas Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria .

  Nchey, Gabriel Achukwu
Department of management, Ignatuis Ajuru university of Education Rumuolumini, Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria, Nigeria

 Oshogbunu, Esther Ogochukwu
Department of management, Ignatuis Ajuru university of Education Rumuolumini, Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria

  Sokari, Ndomokidem Myra
Department of management, Ignatuis Ajuru university of Education Rumuolumini, Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria

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Nwachukwu, Precious Ikechukwu, Nchey, Gabriel Achukwu, Oshogbunu, Esther Ogochukwu, Sokari, Ndomokidem Myra, “Human Resource Planning and Organizational Performance: A study of Telecom Companies in Port Harcourt” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.394-398 June 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/394-398.pdf

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An Assessment of the Level of Implementation of Procurement Management Practices in the Public Sector

Isidore Komla Zotoo, Rejoice Worlasi Zotoo, Lu zhangping- June 2021 – Page No.: 395-404

This study aimed at assessing the level of implementation of procurement management practices in the public sector of Ghana. To achieve this, the study adopted an exploratory research design and a quantitative research approach. The study further adopted the use of judgement sampling technique and questionnaire were used to select and collect data from 56 employees of the Ghana Revenue Authority.
The findings revealed that, the major procurement management practices GRA engages in during a typical procurement process include transparency, information accessibility and availability and efficiency and effectiveness and these practices were visible during the sourcing, contract management, storage, distribution and disposal, qualification and monitoring and evaluation processes. Additionally, it was found that, the level of compliance to the procurement regulations among employees of GRA during a typical procurement process was high.
The findings further revealed that, the execution of procurement management practices at the GRA, face a number of challenges.
The study recommended that, there is a need for more transparency, punishment for flouting of procurement regulations, less government interferences and clarity in communication for employees and suppliers.

Page(s): 395-404                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5623


 Isidore Komla Zotoo
Jiangsu University, School of Management China

  Rejoice Worlasi Zotoo
Ghana Communication and Technology University, Ghana

 Lu zhangping
Jiangsu University, School of Management China

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Isidore Komla Zotoo, Rejoice Worlasi Zotoo, Lu zhangping “An Assessment of the Level of Implementation of Procurement Management Practices in the Public Sector” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.395-404 June 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5623

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Collaboration within a Supply Chain and Corprate Wellness of Digital TV Firms in Rivers State

Oladapo Taiwo & Kalu, Sylva Ezema- June 2021 – Page No.: 405-412

Surviving and building an advantage in the digital T.V industry depends on how well firms are able to collaborate with other members of their complex supply chain network. This study examined the relationship between collaborative supply chain strategies such as decision synchronization and incentive alignment and Corprate wellness metric, customer patronage. A cross- sectional survey research design was adopted for this study. A population of 36 was adopted, comprising of sales representative, dealer supports and customer care representatives. 36 copies of structured questionnaire was issued out and retrieved. Analysis of the data was done through the use of descriptive tables, charts, and kendall-Tau-b correlation coefficient of the SPSS version 22.0 package. The study concluded that decision synchronization and incentive alignment significantly influence customer patronage. This study recommends that digital T.V firms should imbibe decision synchronization and incentive alignment in order to achieve increased customer patronage.

Page(s): 405-412                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 July 2020


 Oladapo Taiwo
Department of Marketing, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  Kalu, Sylva Ezema
Department of Marketing, University of Port Harcourt

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Oladapo Taiwo & Kalu, Sylva Ezema “Collaboration within a Supply Chain and Corprate Wellness of Digital TV Firms in Rivers State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.405-412 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/405-412.pdf

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Revival of the Concept of Waqf among Scholars in Adamawa State Nigeria
Aminu Yakubu, Salihu Muhammad Abubakar, Malami Muhammad Garba, Fadimatu Ahmad Jika- June 2021 – Page No.: 413-418

Waqf as an Islamic charitable endowment, it has played a dynamic role in the socio-economic activities of Muslims all over the world. Studies have revealed that waqf has worked as an effective tool for improving socio-economic condition in several Muslims countries all over the world. The concept of waqf has been in existence for the long period of time in most Muslim communities. However, in most of the Muslim community the concept is still new in the public. The purpose of this paper is to revive the concept of waqf among scholars in Adamawa state Nigeria, to create awareness among on the substantial role of waqf on socio-economic development and to demand on people both the rich and the middle class to participate in waqf for the advantage of Ummah. The paper adopted qualitative research approach through interview. However, structural interview was conducted with five Islamic scholars in Adamawa state.The findings show that even among the scholars the familiarity of the concept of waqf is partial, majority of the scholars does not know much about developing waqf as well as the economic important of waqf. Therefore, the scholars, intellectuals, and practitioners of waqf have a vivacious role to play in creating awareness and sensitization among scholars on the general concept of waqf and its significant role in humanitarian and economic development of Muslims community.

Page(s): 413-418                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 July 2021

 Aminu Yakubu
Adamawa State Polytechnic School of Continuing Education Islamic Studies Department

  Salihu Muhammad Abubakar
Adamawa State Polytechnic School of Continuing Education Islamic Studies Department

 Malami Muhammad Garba
School for Secondary Education, Arts and Social Sciences, Federal College of Education, Yola Adamawa State

 Fadimatu Ahmad Jika
Adamawa State Polytechnic School of Continuing Education Islamic Studies Department

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Aminu Yakubu, Salihu Muhammad Abubakar, Malami Muhammad Garba, Fadimatu Ahmad Jika “Revival of the Concept of Waqf among Scholars in Adamawa State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-6, pp.413-418 June 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-6/413-418.pdf

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