Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in Africa

Noël Bouopda, Gael Fokam, Lionel Douanla, August 2021 Page No.: 01-08

The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of intellectual property rights on technological innovation in 24 African countries, 7 of which belong to OAPI, 11 to ARIPO and 6 countries not belonging to any property rigths organization. This study differs from other studies with the use of the World Innovation index instead of the use of inputs and outputs approaches. The number of patents demand deposited by resident and the number of commercial brands is used to capture Intellectual property rights. Using first difference panel data, results show a none significant effect of patents on innovation in Africa and positive and significant effect of commercial brand on innovation. However, the study by Zone shows a positive and significant effect of intellectual property rights on innovation in ARIPO countries.

Page(s): 01-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5801

 Noël Bouopda
Dschang School of Economics and Management, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

 Gael Fokam
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

 Lionel Douanla
Université de Yaoundé2 Soa, Cameroon

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Noël Bouopda, Gael Fokam, Lionel Douanla, “Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.01-08 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5801

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On-Line English Learning in The Perception of Twelfth Grade Students at SMA Negeri 3 Palu

Fikar Febrian, Hasan Basri, Sriati Usman, Anshari Syafar, Aminah Suriaman August 2021 Page No.: 09-15

The study discusses students’ perception over on-line English Learning from the twelfth grade students at SMA Negeri 3 Palu. This study uses qualitative research approach with on-line survey method through Kobbo Collect for collecting the data. 86 twelfth grade students were chosen as the sample from 431 population by using the convenience sampling technique. Two English teachers were involved in this study as secondary data.The data was collected using a 25 items close-ended questionnaire and 25 questions open-ended statement for teachers interview question items divided into 6 variables,The general perception on on-line learning, Students’ achievement, Teachers’ Competence, Learning Media and Tools, Parental Support and Financial. The findings of the study were suggested that on-line English learning based on students’ perception generally still considered far from expected. On-line learning causes a decrease on students’ English grades. The burdensome of homework and project from the English teacher in on-line English learning do not accompanied with good material and media that used by the English teacher. The teacher implies their bad performance due to the fact that there was no training session regarding on-line learning before. The lack of proper electronic devices and powerless internet from the network provider also had both teacher and students. Parents were still lack of understanding regarding the on-line learning process that cause interference during the learning session. Although on-line learning using digital media but somehow, students still have to pay for English books, including a way to provide a good internet connection to successfully conducting on-line learning.

Page(s): 09-15                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5802

 Fikar Febrian
Student at English Education Study Program, Postgraduate School, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Tadulako University

 Hasan Basri
Lecturer at English Education Study Program, Postgraduate School, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Tadulako University

 Sriati Usman
Lecturer at English Education Study Program, Postgraduate School, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Tadulako University

 Anshari Syafar
Lecturer at English Education Study Program, Postgraduate School, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Tadulako University

 Aminah Suriaman
Lecturer at English Education Study Program, Postgraduate School, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Tadulako University

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Fikar Febrian, Hasan Basri, Sriati Usman, Anshari Syafar, Aminah Suriaman, PhD “On-Line English Learning in The Perception of Twelfth Grade Students at SMA Negeri 3 Palu” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.09-15 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5802

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Transparency and Accountability in Government: The Nigerian Experience

Asadu Ikechukwu, Ph.D, Chukwujekwu Charles Onwuka Ph.D -August 2021 Page No.: 16-29

Accountability and transparency have occupied central stage in modern day government as strategies for promoting good governance. As prevailing democratic ingredients in public administration, the concepts have been subjected to diverse interpretations, application and dimensions by scholars, bureaucrats and policy analysts. The study methodically examined the hypothetical underpinnings of the concepts vis-à-vis the pragmatic forms and mechanism drawing from Nigeria political standpoint. Pertinent data generated from documents and interview were subjected to contextual-descriptive analysis to demonstrate that accountability and transparency, both in practice and theory, have political, administrative, legal, financial, economic and social angles and can be enthrone through multifarious inbuilt-bureaucratic cum policy measures such as election, referendum, recall, voice, exit, executive-based mechanism, whistle blowing, ombudsman, freedom of information, assembly process and judicial review. To enhance accountability and transparency in Nigeria there is imperative need for grass roots public enlightenment, strengthening of whistle blowing policy and the judicial institution, capacity building and effective use of freedom of information Act.

Page(s): 16-29                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 August 2021

 Asadu Ikechukwu, Ph.D
Department of Public Administration and Local Government, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Chukwujekwu Charles Onwuka Ph.D
Department of Sociology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Asadu Ikechukwu, Ph.D, Chukwujekwu Charles Onwuka Ph.D “Transparency and Accountability in Government: The Nigerian Experience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.16-29 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/16-29.pdf

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The Effect of Tourism Destination Development, Service Quality on Destination Image and Satisfaction and Its Impact on Tourist Loyalty

Mahmud Lahay, Syamsul Bachri, and Wahyuningsih – August 2021 Page No.: 30-40

The purpose of this study is to empirically test and explain (1) the effect of tourism destination development on the image of tourism destinations, (2) the effect of service quality on the image of tourism destinations (3) the effect of destination image on tourist satisfaction (4) the influence of destination image on tourist loyalty. (5) the effect of satisfaction on tourist loyalty and (6) the effect of service quality on tourist satisfaction in Togean, Tojo Una-Una Regency, Central Sulawesi, and Wakatobi, Wakatobi Regency, Southeast Sulawesi. This type of research uses Explanatory Research. Hypothesis testing using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The number of samples is 198 respondents.

Page(s): 30-40                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5803

 Mahmud Lahay
Tadulako University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

 Syamsul Bachri
Tadulako University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

  Wahyuningsih
Tadulako University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

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Mahmud Lahay, Syamsul Bachri, and Wahyuningsih “The Effect of Tourism Destination Development, Service Quality on Destination Image and Satisfaction and Its Impact on Tourist Loyalty” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.30-40 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5803

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Peer Pressure and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Risky Sexual Behaviour among in-School Adolescents in Makurdi Local Government

Rimande Ubandoma Joel MBBS, Tomen Egbe Agu, PhD, Dzer Benjamin Terzungwe, PhD – August 2021 – Page No.: 41-48

The study “peer pressure and self-efficacy as predictors of risky sexual behavior among in-school adolescents in Makurdi local government” was carried out with the following objectives to find out if; peer pressure will predict risky sexual behaviors among in-school adolescents in Makurdi Local Government, self-efficacy will predict risky sexual behaviors among in-school adolescents in Makurdi Local Government, peer pressure and Self-efficacy will jointly predict risky sexual behaviors among in-school adolescents in Makurdi Local Government. The study was anchored on the Albert Bandura’s social learning / cognitive theory and Dweck and colleagues’ implicit theories of peer relationships. Using the Taro Yamane’s formula, the sample size of the study was 400. The participants were all sampled from Tiley Gyado Secondary School, Jewel Academy, Airforce Secondary School, Elite Secondary School, Pardopas Harmony Secondary School, and Community Secondary school all from Makurdi local government. Of the whole 400 participants age wise, 25(6.3%), 17(4.3%), 72(18%), 127(31.8%), 69(16.5%), 66(16.5%) and 24(6%) participant were 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 years respectively. Regarding participant’s sex, 218 respondents represented by (54.5%) were males while the remaining 182(45.5%) were females. Furthermore, 352(88%) were Christian as 42(12%) were Islam religious wise. Pertaining tribe, Tiv was highly represented with 204(51%) following by Idoma 80(20%) while Igede maintained 67(16.8%) as others constituted 49(12.3%). Also, demographically it was shown that 226(56.5%) were of the junior class (JSS 1-3) while 174(43.5%) represented the senior class (SS 1-3). Findings of the study showed that, peer pressure significantly predicted risky sexual behavior among in-school adolescents in Makurdi metropolis [R = .286 and R2 = .082; F (1, 398) = 35.459; p<.001]; that self-efficacy significantly predicted risky sexual behavior among in-school adolescents in Makurdi metropolis [R = .726 and R2 = .527; F (1, 398) = 443.782; p<.001]; that peer pressure and self-efficacy significantly and jointly predicted risky sexual behavior among in-school adolescents in Makurdi metropolis [R = .730 and R2 = .533; F (2, 397) = 226.576; p<.001]. also findings further showed that there was a significant main effect of tribe on risky sexual behavior among in-school adolescents in Makurdi metropolis [F (3, 389) = 6.046; p<.001]. It was therefore recommended that, care givers and parents should ensure that only positive peer pressures are allowed around students. As the implication of negative peer pressure can result to risky sexual behavior which may result to unwanted pregnancies or being infected with sexually transmitted diseases amongst others; school curriculums and organizations should allow for policies and teachings that will discourage risky sexual behaviors amongst adolescents generally (in-school adolescents especially); there should be a watch on students self-efficacies as it is key to what they (in-school adolescents) do per time.

Page(s): 41-48                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5804

 Rimande Ubandoma Joel MBBS
Department of Public Health, Taraba State University, Jalingo

 Tomen Egbe Agu, PhD
Department of Public Health, Taraba State University, Jalingo

 Dzer Benjamin Terzungwe, PhD
Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi

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Rimande Ubandoma Joel MBBS, Tomen Egbe Agu, PhD, Dzer Benjamin Terzungwe, PhD “Peer Pressure and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Risky Sexual Behaviour among in-School Adolescents in Makurdi Local Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.41-48 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5804

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Geography Teachers’ Perspectives on Research Engagement in Selected Secondary Schools in Serenje District of Central Province of Zambia

Lako Patricia and Kaiko Mubita -August 2021 Page No.: 49-56

The purpose of this study was to establish the views that Geography teachers in selected secondary schools in Serenje district had regarding the importance of teacher research engagement. Interviews were conducted with 14 Geography teachers and two heads of social sciences departments. Purposeful sampling was used to select participants. Two focus group discussions were also conducted with teachers of Geography. The focus was on whether or not teachers of Geography in selected secondary schools in Serenje district viewed research engagement to be important and whether or not they could welcome the integration of teaching and research. Data was analysed thematically. Findings showed that teachers viewed research engagement to be very important for a teacher of Geography. They had a positive view about teaching and research integration.
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Page(s): 49-56                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2021

 Lako Patricia
Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, University of Zambia

 Kaiko Mubita)
Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, University of Zambia

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Lako Patricia and Kaiko Mubita “Geography Teachers’ Perspectives on Research Engagement in Selected Secondary Schools in Serenje District of Central Province of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.49-56 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/49-56.pdf

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Academic Resilience, Social Intelligence, Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta South Senatorial District

Iviemu, Terence Sunny – August 2021 Page No.: 57-92

This study investigated academic resilience, social intelligence, examination anxiety and academic performance among tertiary students in Delta South Senatorial District. to guide the study seven research questions and seven hypotheses were formulated and tested. This study adopted an ex-post facto research design which is correlational. The sample of this study consists of three hundred and seventy-five (375) students drawn from the entire population. The sample was selected using multi-stage sampling technique. The two instruments used for data collection were Academic Resilience, Social Intelligence, Examination Anxiety Questionnaire (ARSIEAQ) and GPA checklist. The face, content and construct validity of the instruments was determined. The reliability of the instruments was also determined and the internal consistency reliability coefficient obtained for Academic Resilience Scale, social intelligence scale and Examination Anxiety scale were 0.86, 0.83 and 0.71 respectively. Data collected were analyzed with Simple correlation, linear regression, multiple linear regression and analysis of covariance at 0.05 level of significance. The major findings of the study showed that The major findings of the study showed that there was a significant strong positive relationship between academic resilience and academic performance of tertiary institution students; there was significant relationship between social intelligence and academic performance of tertiary institution students; there was significant negative relationship between examination and academic performance of tertiary institution students; there was a significant relationship between academic resilience, social intelligence examination anxiety and academic performance of tertiary institution students; there was a significant predictive effect of sex and academic resilience on the academic performance of tertiary institution students; there was a significant predictive effect of sex and social intelligence on the academic performance of tertiary institution students; and there was a significant predictive effect of sex and examination anxiety on the academic performance of tertiary institution students in delta south senatorial district. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that tertiary institutions administration should incorporate academic resilience skill-building into the various course of study and teaching methods, to help students develop the ability to handle academic impediments, challenge, difficulty and stress in academic or school environment.

Page(s): 57-92                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5805

 Iviemu, Terence Sunny
Department of Guidance and Counselling Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

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Iviemu, Terence Sunny “Academic Resilience, Social Intelligence, Examination Anxiety and Academic Performance among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta South Senatorial District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.57-92 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5805

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Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teaching Economics at the Senior High School Level

Emmanuel Baffour Gyau, John Osei-Mensah, George Amonoo, Samuel Akowuah, August 2021 Page No.: 93-103

This study evaluates the effectiveness of teaching economics in some selected senior high schools in the Cape Coast municipality. The teaching of economics at the senior high school level seems to be beset with certain factors and these makes it difficult for teachers as they seek to improve the teaching of Economics in their role in nation building. The study therefore sought to find out how to improve the teaching of economics in the senior high school level. The study was conducted in the central region of Ghana with schools selected from the Cape Coast metropolis. Thirty (30) teachers from seven (7) senior high schools were used in the study. The convenience sampling technique was employed and to gather data, the questionnaire was the instrument used. Percentages and Frequencies were used to analyze the data. The research concluded that, majority of economics teachers are qualified with academic qualification of first degree, sufficient allocation on the time for teaching economics, inadequacy of teaching and learning resources, and teachers use more of the discussion method of teaching. To reduce, if not to eliminate, the factors that affect the effectiveness of teaching economics so as to improve teaching economics in the senior high school, adequate time, qualified teachers, teaching training and better methods of teaching should be employed to make teaching economics in the senior high more effective.

Page(s): 93-103                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5806

 Emmanuel Baffour Gyau
Institute of Science and Technology Information, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

 John Osei-Mensah
Business Department, St. Louis Senior High School, Kumasi, Ghana

 George Amonoo
Social Science Department, Adisadel College, Cape Coast, Ghana

 Samuel Akowuah
School of Management, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

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Emmanuel Baffour Gyau, John Osei-Mensah, George Amonoo, Samuel Akowuah, “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teaching Economics at the Senior High School Level” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.93-103 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5806

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Attitude towards Parents Who Still Practice the Cheng Beng Tradition from a Biblical Perspective

Anna Munanto, Yanto Paulus Hermanto, Tonny Andrian Stefanus August 2021 Page No.: 104-108

Cheng Beng is a ritual performed by ethnic Chinese people to pray for their ancestors who have passed away. Since many Chinese descendants have become Christians, the Cheng Beng tradition often becomes a difference of opinion between families who have embraced Christianity and those who are non-Christians. Therefore, this research is intended to provide insight for Christians to be faithful towards their religion and respectful towards their parents who still practice the Cheng Beng tradition. For this reason, research is carried out that focuses on the principles of evangelical theology to address this matter. This study explores practical ways of behaving, so that it can be implemented for all members of the congregation

Page(s): 104-108                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5807

 Anna Munanto
Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Kharisma – Bandung, Indonesia

 Yanto Paulus Hermanto
Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Kharisma – Bandung, Indonesia

 Tonny Andrian Stefanus
Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Kharisma – Bandung, Indonesia

[1] Chuarsa, I. (2019). Reimagining Chinese Cultural Tradition: The Quandary between Chinese Indonesian Cultural Tradition and Christian Dogma in Indonesia.Yogyakarta: Sekolah Pascasarjana UGM.
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[10] Suharyanto, A., & Matondang, A. (2018). Makna upacara Cheng Beng pada masyarakat etnis Tionghoa di Medan. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pakar, 21-26.
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Anna Munanto, Yanto Paulus Hermanto, Tonny Andrian Stefanus “Attitude towards Parents Who Still Practice the Cheng Beng Tradition from a Biblical Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.104-108 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5807

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Crazy Rush for Powdery Tobacco (Sunkho) among Younger Women and girls in Petauke and Chipata districts- Zambia: Is it cultural recovery or birth of a new lifestyle?

Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe – August 2021 – Page No.: 109-117

Sunkho (snuff) is a fine ground tobacco inhaled as dry powder or dipped in the lip/gum groove or cheek/gum vestibule for sucking as moist tobacco-mixture. In Zambia, culturally, sunkho was purely consumed by the elderly. In recent years however, sunkho has become very popular among younger women and girls. This study explored where users sourced sunkho, how they consumed sunkho and whether users were aware about health-related effects of sunkho. The study was conducted in Chipata and Petauke Districts of Zambia between March and June, 2021.A total of 25 user and non-user participants, broken down as 6 males and 19 females participated in the study. User participants were sampled through snowball sampling method. The study used an explorative research design with a qualitative approach. A single interview-per participant method was used for data collection. This study found that younger women dashed for sunkho to elevate their body temperature from ordinary-warm to unusual-warmer and for vaginal tightening so that a man enjoys memorable and satisfactory sexual pleasure. Some users consumed sunkho based on the underlying belief that sunkho helps to boost CD4 Count in HIV positive patients. This study also found that other younger female users consumed sunkho under the belief that it prevented them from acquiring COVID-19 while others did so out of need for social conformity with the prevailing fashion. The study found low levels of awareness among participants on health-associated risks of sunkho. Since users are continuously inventing methods of consuming sunkho, exposing themselves further to tobacco-associated cancers, this study recommends that health workers conduct aggressive community sensitization campaigns on sunkho and other smokeless tobacco products on health. Institutions offering health-related training programmes to include the use of Smokeless tobacco in their curriculum as a new threat to the emergence of malignancies of unknown origin among users. Ministry of Education to take a critical step in creating awareness to all pupils and students on the dangers of using sunkho and other smokeless tobacco products.

Page(s): 109-117                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5808

 Jordan Tembo
Kalindawalo General Hospital, P.O.Box 560008, Petauke, Zambia

 Patricia Mambwe
Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Rusangu University, Monze, Zambia

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[3] Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2019). Smokeless Tobacco Product Use in the United States Fast Facts and Fact Sheet https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/use_us/index.htm#adult-national accessed on 2nd July, 2021 at 10hrs
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[17] Mwitwa, M.(2018). Plying Bedroom Duties. Lusaka: Zambia Daily Mail
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[21] Pampel, F.C.(2008). Tobacco use in Sub-Saharan Africa:Estimated from the Demographic Health Surveys. Social Science & Medicine, 66(8) 1772-1783. Available at: http:///ac.els-cdn.com.ezproxy.ut.ac.za/S02779536545/1-S2.0-S0277953607006545-MAIN.PDF?TID=72F00-9240-11E3-B932-00000AAB0F26&ACDNAT+1392029273_823ED1451912668FC57DF8DF45A8945CACCESSED ON the 9th of July, 2021 at 20hrs
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[27] Sinha, D.N., Gupta, P.C., Kumar,A., Bhartiya, D., Agarwal, N., Sharma, S., Singh, H., Parascandola, M., Mehrotra, R.(2018). The poorest of poor suffer the greatest burden from smokeless tobacco use: a study from 140 countries. Nicotine Tob. Res. 2018; 20: 1529–32
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Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe “Crazy Rush for Powdery Tobacco (Sunkho) among Younger Women and girls in Petauke and Chipata districts- Zambia: Is it cultural recovery or birth of a new lifestyle?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.109-117 August 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5808

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Sustainable Development Goals and the Baptist Convention in Nigeria: A Critical Overview

Emmanuel Adelekan Ojewunmi and Akeem Amodu – August 2021 – Page No.: 118-123

The paper attempts an appraisal of the contributions of the Nigerian Baptist Convention (NBC) to the attainment of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs). With the use of primary and secondary data and historico-descriptive designs the paper assesses the roles and contributions of the Nigerian Baptist Convention in the realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs). The paper identified some factors inhibiting the influence of the NBC, in particular, and Faith-Based Organizations FBOS, in general, on making an impact in the drive towards actualizing the UNSDGs in Nigeria. Against the background of its findings the paper recommends measures for roadmapping contributions of the NBC to the actualization of the UNSDGs in Nigeria.

Page(s): 118-123                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 August 2021

 Emmanuel Adelekan Ojewunmi
Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

 Akeem Amodu
Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

[1] Ajayi S. Ademola (2010) Baptists work in Nigeria 1850-2005. A Comprehensive History Ibadan Bookwright Publishers.
[2] Ajayi S. Ademola (2009). Baptists of Nigeria: The Genesis, Identity, Doctrinal Beliefs and Practices Ibadan Bookwright Publishers.
[3] Ajayi S. Ademola (2014) The Nigerian Baptist Convention 1914-2014: A historical Appraisal Ibadan. Bookwright Publishers.
[4] Akanji Israel (2019) “The Role of Baptists in the Nigerian Polity” Being A speech delivered to mark Nigeria’s 59th Independence at the Nigerian Baptist Theological Seminary Ogbomosho on Friday, September 27, 2019
[5] Amodu Akeem (2019) Philosophy of Science and Sustainability. A concise Introduction Ibadan, College Press.
[6] Amodu Akeem 2019 ‘E-Governance and Sustainable Development Critical Notes on Digitization and Public Service Delivery in Nigeria’ in Achimugu P & Achimugu O. (EDs) ICT for All ICAICT 2019 Conference Proceedings Vol 2, ISBN: 978-978-977-446-3-155.
[7] Bowen University, Iwo, 10th Anniversary Brochure 2012.
[8] Global Goals/Policy and AdvocacySight Savers and the Global Goals Retrieved 12th July, 2021.
[9] Odejide, A. (2011) Gender Equality, Higher Education and Sustainable Development. Paper delivered at the 17th Postgraduate School Discourse, University of Ibadan on January 25, 2011
[10] Olarinoye Omobolaji (2019) Accountability in Development Aid: The Possible Contributions of Faith-Based Organisations http://www.journal.sagepub.com Accessed April 20, 2019.
[11] Omonokhua, Cornelius (2018) Religion and Politics in Nigeria Daily Trust, Friday, December 14
[12] Ottuh, John A. & Thikan, Nathan D.D (2014) A New Testament View on Church and State Relations in the Modern World: Challenges for the Contemporary Baptist Church in Nigeria International Journal of Philosophy and Theology. June 2015, Vol 3. No.1 American Research Institute for Policy Development.
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[14] Vodo, Tanta (2016) Faith Based Organizations: The Role of Christian Organizations in Social Cohesion in EU Member States European Christian Political Movement.

Emmanuel Adelekan Ojewunmi and Akeem Amodu “Sustainable Development Goals and the Baptist Convention in Nigeria: A Critical Overview” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.118-123 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/118-123.pdf

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Solutions for quality seafood products exporting to the EU markets

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi – August 2021 – Page No.: 124-127

Quality and safety standards especially in the seafood sector have been an essential component of food consumption. Similarly, with the increases in income, consumers in developed nations started to be selective on the products they purchase. Health hazards from the seafood can arise from the raw materials used, from handling and through the other stages involved in the processing, transportation, storage and the sale of the food. Most seafood quality problems from developing countries is related to poorly defined inspection and approval procedures, weak technical regulations, and lack of staff for inspection and laboratory testing. Moreover, poor levels of personal hygiene and sanitation, lack of infrastructure for fish marketing and distribution and poorly defined institutional framework are also the causes for poor quality of seafood from these countries. This paper presented the solutions to fulfil the major challenges for seafood exporting concerns meeting quality standards set by EU markets.

Page(s): 124-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 August 2021

  Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi
Department of Scientific Research Affairs, Can Tho University

[1] Abalaka, J.A., (1999). Assuring Food Quality and Safety: The Role of Governments, presented in the Conference on International Food Trade Beyond 2000, Australia.
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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi “Solutions for quality seafood products exporting to the EU markets” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.124-127 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/124-127.pdf

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A Critical Analysis of the Capacity of the Retributive Justice system to mitigate the Issues of Recidivism among Drug Offenders in Sri Lanka

Prof. M.W. Jayasundara & R.M. Ruwanthika Gunawardhana- August 2021 – Page No.: 128-137

In the past, many societies have chosen drugs whose use was incorporated strictly in social rituals; the abuse of those drugs became a severe public health problem in this modern society. It is not restricted to a particular society or region but affects all nations and communities. Many of these discovered drugs have severe dependence liability and brought the problem of addiction into a new dimension. All the countries aspire to curb narcotic drug use, and they utilize retributive justice mechanisms to achieve their target. This study has focused on the research problem as the incidence of recidivism amongst convicted drug-related offences. It has been subjected to the domestic retributive mechanism that has been used increasingly in Sri Lanka, and those who were a lower class of society have become recidivists under the existing retributive justice. The study has focused on the efficacy of domestic retributive justice in dealing with recidivism amongst drug offenders in Sri Lanka. The present study selected 100 drug offenders and ten prison officers through a convenient sample from Mahara prison in Sri Lanka. For data collection, unstructured interviews were used concerning both drug offenders and prison officers. The study’s finding reveals that most drug offenders were introduced to drugs by their friends or family members.
Further, it was revealed that most of the drug offenders belonged to the lower-income group, and they were living in tiny houses like slums and flats with minimum facilities. These residential places are centres of distribution of drugs and other crimes, and many people were under pressure from their colleagues to follow this criminal way of life. According to the findings of the study legal framework presently in place in Sri Lanka has not created a sufficient ratio of provisions to reduce recidivism amongst drug offenders. The study recommends utilising structured rehabilitation programs for the first-time offenders while reintegration programs before release drug offenders to society.

Page(s): 128-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 August 2021

 Prof. M.W. Jayasundara
University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 R.M. Ruwanthika Gunawardhana
University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

[1] Aluthge, DP (2015) “Should We Punish Drug Abusers? Reconsideration of Laws and National Polices of Sri Lanka”, 8th International Research Conference KDU, 1-7 pages
[2] Brooks, T. (2012) Punishment. USA: Rutledge
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[17] Thomas, G.C. (1985) A Unified Theory of Multiple Punishment, University of Pittsburgh Law Review, p.1
[18] Uragoda, C.G, (2000), Traditions of Sri Lanka: A Selection with a Scientific Background, Rathmalana: Vishva Lekha Publishers
[19] Wijesiri, L (2018) “Iceberg Model of Drug Addiction” [English] Available at: https://www.dailynews.lk/2018/03/07/features/144804/iceberg-model-drug-addiction [accessed 17 September 2019]

Prof. M.W. Jayasundara & R.M. Ruwanthika Gunawardhana, “A Critical Analysis of the Capacity of the Retributive Justice system to mitigate the Issues of Recidivism among Drug Offenders in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.128-137 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/128-137.pdf

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Relationship between Family Flexibility and Substance Use Disorders among the Youth in Selected Rehabilitation Centres in Nairobi County, Kenya

Alice Wangui Gikandi, Joyzy Pius Egunjobi (PhD), Joel Kiambi Muriithi (PhD) – August 2021 – Page No.: 138-142

This study investigated family dynamics and substance use disorders among the youth in selected rehabilitation centers in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was guided by the family structure theory. The research design was mixed method embedded research design. Using Yamane (1967) formula, a sample of 172 clients was obtained and selected randomly to take part in quantitative study. Another 12 clients who had stayed in rehabilitation centers for the longest time were purposively selected in order to provide qualitative data. Similarly, 10 parents were conveniently selected in order to provide qualitative data. Therefore the total sample size comprised of 196 respondents. Quantitative data was collected using FACES-IV, AUDIT-10, and DAST-10 questionnaires while qualitative data was collected using interview guides. Cronbach Alpha technique was run to test the reliability of FACES-IV, AUDIT-10, and DAST-10. FACES-IV scale was found to have a reliability coefficient of .723, AUDIT-10 had reliability of .861while DAST-10 scale had a reliability coefficient of .812. Quantitative Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics while qualitative data was analysed thematically backed by narratives from respondents. The study had the following findings: Most families recorded unhealthy flexibility with majority of respondents coming from families which had chaotic family flexibility (Mean= 24. 4015; SD= 10.001) followed by Rigid flexibility (Mean= 17.4167; SD= 5.1244), there was a weak negative and significant correlation between balanced family flexibility and drug use disorder (r=-0.299; P= 0.001).

Page(s): 138-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5809

  Alice Wangui Gikandi
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

  Joyzy Pius Egunjobi (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

  Joel Kiambi Muriithi (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

[1] Charlson, S. S., & Whiteford, S. (2014). Personality Traits of Substance Abusers’ In Turkish Military Population. Journal of Substance Use, 19(6), 440-443.
[2] Chesang, A. (2015). A Profile of Substance Abusers Using the Emergency Services in A Tertiary Care Hospital in Sikkim. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(4), 24.
[3] Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: International Student Edition. Qualitative, Quantitative and mixed methods Approaches. (4thEd.). London: Sage Publications
[4] Crowe, A. & Lyness, K. P. (2014). Family functioning, coping, and distress in families with serious mental illness. The Family Journal, 22(2), 186-197
[5] Đurišić, M. (2018). Relations and communication in families of children with externalizing behavior problems. Research in Pedagogy, 8(2), 111-120
[6] Drug Use Report (2014). The Mentor Foundation, London- Weichold, Science Daily, How Children Learn To Say “No”: Gender-Specific Effectiveness of A Life Skills Program Against Alcohol Consumption In Early Adolescence, April 19, 2016.
[7] Javadian, R. (2011). A comparative study of adaptability and cohesion in families with and without a disabled child. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2625-2630
[8] Kamenderi, M., Muteti, J., Okioma, V, Kimani, S., Kanana, F., & Kahiu, C. (2019). Status of Drugs and Substance Abuse among the General Population in Kenya. African Journal of Alcohol & Drug Abuse, Ed. 1; 54-59.
[9] Layla, A., & Naseeba,O., Hesham, E., Ahmed, E., Shamil, W., Amna, A.,Ayesha, A. & Hamad,
[10] G. (2015). Adolescents’ perception of substance use and factors influencing its use: a qualitative study in Abu Dhabi. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Open; 6(2) 1–12
[11] Marina, M., Dragana, J. & Vesna. L. (2014). Functionality of Family Relationships and
[12] Parenting Style in Families of Adolescents with Substance Abuse Problems. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. 128. 281–287Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[13] National Authority for The Campaign Against Drug Abuse. (2017). Rapid Situation Assessment of Drugs Substance in Kenya Nairobi: NACADA.
[14] Olson, D. (2010). FACES IV and the circumplex model: Validation study. Journal of Marital and
[15] Family Therapy, 37(1), 64-80
[16] Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), (2017). National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Retrieved August 9, 2017, from htttp://www.samhsa.gov/centers/clearinghouse/clearinghouses.html
[17] UNODC (2018). West African Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (WENDU) Report: Statistics and Trends on Illicit Drug Use and Supply, 2014–2018.
[18] UNODC (2019). Youth in Peril: Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Kenya. Nairobi: MOH
[19] Vinces-Cua, J. D. (2020). The Relationship Between Parental Stress And Adolescent Externalizing Behavior – The Mediating Role Of Family Functioning On Ethnically Diverse Families In Multisystem Therapy. Degree Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation , Liberty University
[20] World Health Organization. (2019). Management of Substance Abuse: Other Psychoactive Substances. Retrieved From the World Health Organization Web Site: Http://Www.Who.Int.Substance_Abuse/Facts/Psychoactives/En/Index.Html
[21] World Drug Report. (2018) Drugs and Age – Drugs and Associated Issues among Young People and Older People (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.18.XI.9 (Booklet 4)), p. 11.
[22] Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics, An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row

Alice Wangui Gikandi, Joyzy Pius Egunjobi (PhD), Joel Kiambi Muriithi (PhD) “Relationship between Family Flexibility and Substance Use Disorders among the Youth in Selected Rehabilitation Centres in Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.138-142 August 2021 DOI :https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5809

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Predictors of Emotional Intelligence among Academic Staff in Selected Universities in Nairobi County, Kenya

Maria Ntarangwe, Stephen Asatsa (PhD), Elijah Macharia Ndung’u (PhD)- August 2021 – Page No.: 143-154

The academic staff in the university is a vital component in enhancement of academic affairs in any university. Due to the unending changes and dynamics that increase pressure and work related stress that academic staffs are subjected to, they are required to develop high levels of adaptability in their careers to enhance creativity so that they remain relevant. The study was based on Emotional intelligence theory and Career construction theory. A descriptive survey research design was used for this study. The target population was 403 academic staffs from selected universities in Nairobi County, Kenya. The total sample size was 201 respondents selected using two stage cluster sampling. Data was collected using Emotional Intelligence Scale EI (PcSc) scale developed by Mehta & Singh (2013). To establish internal consistency of the instrument, reliability was determined and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.824. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyze quantitative data using SPSS. The study had several findings: High means in indicators of emotional intelligence were recorded where the highest score was in self- awareness (Mean = 4.13 ± .53). This was followed by self- motivation (Mean = 3.85 ± .53), social skill was rated the third aspect of emotional intelligence (Mean = 3.83 ± .43) and the lowest was emotional regulation (Mean = 3.68 ± .55). The findings also indicated that there were differences in the mean score of Emotional intelligence across age, gender, education level, type of university and teaching experience. However the analysis of variance showed no significant differences in emotional intelligence in terms of age and gender. Moreover, only the mean of social skills had a significant difference in terms of level of education, experience and type of university. The major recommendation therefore given by the research was enhancement of self- awareness, self- motivation, emotional regulation and social skills strategies both by individuals and various organizations in order to improve job outcomes. This would be through trainings, guidance and counselling and team building. The researcher anticipated that the results from the study will facilitate the formation of an academic staff that are holistically intelligent.

Page(s): 143-154                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5810

 Maria Ntarangwe
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

 R.M. Ruwanthika Gunawardhana
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

 )Elijah Macharia Ndung’u (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

[1] Augusto L., J. M., López-Zafra, E., Berrios Martos, M. P., & Aguilar Luzón, M. C. (2008). The relationship between emotional intelligence, occupational stress and health in nurses: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45, 88-901
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[4] Cabello, R., Sorrel, M.A., Fernandez- Pinto, I., Extremera, N., Fernández-Berrocal, P., (2016). Age and Gender Differences in Ability Emotional Intelligence in Adults: A cross-sectional study. Dev. Psychol. 52, 1486–1492.
[5] Chandra, A., Gayatri, A., Devi, D. (2017). Assessment of emotional intelligence in first year medical graduates-A Questionnaire based study. International Journal of Physiology, 5, 124-126. doi:10.5958/2320-608X.2017.00027.0
[6] Eymur G. & O. Geban (2011). An investigation of the Relationship between Motivation and Academic Achievement of Pre- service Chemistry Teachers. Education and Science, 36, (161) 246–255, 2011.
[7] Feldman, G., Dunn, E., Stemke, C., Bell, K., & Greeson, J. (2014). Mindfulness and rumination as predictors of persistence with a distress tolerance task. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 154-158. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.08.040
[8] Frajo-Apor, B., Kemmler, G., Pardeller, S., Plass, T., Muehlbacher, M., Welte, A.S., & Hofer, A. (2017). Emotional intelligence and non-social cognition in schizophrenia and bipolar-I-disorder. Psychological Medicine, 47, 35–42.
[9] Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.
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[12] Gross, J. J., and Jazaieri, H. (2014). Emotion, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: an affective science perspective. Clin. Psychol. Sci. 2, 387–401. doi: 10.1177/2167702614536164.
[13] Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006
[14] Kamau, J. N., Githi, S. K. & Njau, M. M. (2014). Research methods: Design of a Research Project. Nairobi: Multi-face Solution.
[15] Kumar D., Devi S., (2016). Emotional intelligence and social skills in relation to occupational self-efficacy of secondary school teachers. International Journal of Information Movement 1(4) 85-103.
[16] Kaufman, A.S., & Lichtenberger, E.O. (2006). Assessing adolescent and adult intelligence (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
[17] Maassen,P., Andreadakis,Z,. Gulbrandsen, M & Stensaker,B. (2019).The Place of Universities in Society .University of Oslo.
[18] Masrek, M.N., Sahid, N. Z., & Mohd N. F.,& Abdullah S. J., (2013). Assessing the Emotional Intelligence Profile of Public Librarians in Malaysia: Descriptive Analysis. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). 1047.
[19] Mayer, J. and Salovey, P. (1997) ‘What is emotional intelligence?’, in Salovey, P. and Sluyter, (Eds.): Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence, Basic Books, New York, pp.3–31
[20] Mehta, S. Singh, N. (2013). Development of the Emotional Intelligence Scale. International journal of management and information technology.8 (1),1252-1264.
[21] Mugenda, A.G. (2009). Social science research. Nairobi: Acts Press.
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Maria Ntarangwe, Stephen Asatsa (PhD), Elijah Macharia Ndung’u (PhD), “Predictors of Emotional Intelligence among Academic Staff in Selected Universities in Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.143-154 August 2021 DOI :https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5810

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Correlates of Career Adaptability among Academic Staff in Selected Universities in Nairobi County, Kenya

Maria Ntarangwe, Stephen Asatsa (PhD), Elijah Macharia Ndung’u (PhD) – August 2021 – Page No.: 155-165

The academic staff in the university is a vital component in enhancement of academic affairs in any university. Due to the unending changes and dynamics that increase pressure and work related stress that academic staffs are subjected to, they are required to develop high levels of adaptability in their careers to enhance creativity so that they remain relevant. The study sought to establish the correlates of career adaptability among the academic staff in selected universities in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study had several findings: There were high score in the four factors of adaptability including concern, curiosity, control and confidence. The highest score was recorded in concern (Mean= 4.24 and standard deviation 0.60) this was followed by control (Mean = 4.25 ± .58). Confidence amongst academic staff was slightly low (Mean = 4.12 ± .57). However the lowest was curiosity (Mean = 4.12 ± .61). Generally, the academic staff were adaptable to their work. The research also found out that career adaptability reduced with increase in age. However, it generally increased with the level of education and years of experience. The female gender scored higher than male in most of the constructs of adaptability. There were very slight differences in mean scores in career adaptability based on the type of university. However, a higher level of adaptability was noted in academic staff in private university compared to their counterparts in public university. The study therefore recommended that employers look out for levels of concern, curiosity, confidence and control of employees during recruitment so as to get adaptable employees. Self -awareness for employees is necessary to help determine their levels of adaptability. Employers too must prompt acquisition of soft skills in the employees in order to help their employees be more adaptable and hence perform better in their duties.

Page(s): 155-165                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5811

  Maria Ntarangwe
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

  Stephen Asatsa (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

  Elijah Macharia Ndung’u (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

[1] Alfagira, S.G., Zumrah, A.R., Noor, K.B., & Rahman, O.B. (2017). Investigating the factors influencing academic staff performance: A Conceptual Approach. The Career Development Quarterly, 45, 247–259.
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[18] Margaretha, M., Widiastuti R., Zaniarti S., & Hendra W., (2018). Employee Engagement and Factors that Influence: Experiences of Lecturers in Indonesia. International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration, Inovatus Services Ltd. 4(6), 34-41.
[19] Mugenda, O. Mugenda (2009) Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: ACTS.
[20] Mwangi, C., Mukulu, E. & Kabare, K. (2011). The significance of emotional intelligence in transformational leadership for Kenyan public universities. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(7), 28-35.
[21] Nassaji H. (2015). Qualitative and descriptive research: Data type versus data analysis. Language Teaching Research.;19(2):129-132. doi:10.1177/1362168815572747.
[22] Negru-Subtirica, O., & Pop, E. I. (2016). Longitudinal links between career adaptability and academic achievement in adolescence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 93, 163–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2016.02.006.
[23] Nyarko, F., Peltonen, K., Kangaslampi, S., & Punamäki, R-L. (2020). Emotional intelligence and cognitive skills protecting mental health from stress and violence among Ghanaian youth. Heliyon, 6(5), [e03878]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03878.
[24] O’Connell, D. J., McNeely, E., & Hall, D. T. (2008). Unpacking personal adaptability at work. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14, 248–259.
[25] Orodho, J. A. (2009). Techniques of writing research proposals and reports in education and social sciences. Nairobi. Kanezja publishers.
[26] Rocha, M. (2012). Transferable skills representations in a Portuguese college sample: Gender, age, adaptability and vocational development. European Journal of Psychology in Education, 27, 77–90.
[27] Rossier, J., Zecca, G., Stauffer, S.D., Maggiori, C., and Dauwalder, J-P. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in a French-speaking Swiss sample: Psychometric properties and relationships to personality and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 80, 734-743.
[28] Rostami, Z., Abedi, M.R., Bagnhan, I., and Savickas, M.L. (2012).Towards career salvation’s model, a primary study: case study. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research, 4 (2), 1133-1139.
[29] Salamonson, Y., Andrew, S., and Everett, B. (2009). Academic engagement and disengagement as predictors of performance in pathophysiology among nursing students. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 32,. 123- 132.
[30] Santilli, S., Nota, L., Ginevra, M. C., & Soresi, S. (2014). Career adaptability, hope and life satisfaction in workers with intellectual disability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(1), 67–74. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.02.011.
[31] Savickas M. L., Porfeli E. J. (2012). Career adapt-abilities scale: construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. J. Vocat. Behav. 80 661–673.
[32] Savickas, M. L. (1997). Career adaptability: An integrative construct for life-span, life-space
[33] Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. In S. D. Brown and R.w. Lent. Career development and counseling: putting theory and research to work. Hoboken, NJ:John wiley and sons.
[34] Savickas, M. L. (2005). The Theory and Practice of Career Construction. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career Development and Counselling: Putting Theory and Research to Work (pp. 42-70). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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Maria Ntarangwe, Stephen Asatsa (PhD), Elijah Macharia Ndung’u (PhD) “Correlates of Career Adaptability among Academic Staff in Selected Universities in Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.155-165 August 2021 DOI :https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5811

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Assessment of Palm Products Uses and Sustainable Practices in the Southern Nigeria

Etuk E.U., Obafemi A.A., and Abagwa O.- August 2021 – Page No.: 166-174

The study assessed the palm products uses and sustainable practices in selected States of Southern Nigeria. The study adopted the use of cross sectional research design and made use of 560 structured copies of questionnaire to elicit information from the oil palm farmers and producers using purposive and random sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the data. Findings showed that oil palm tree has various uses which are apparently and diverse in the study area among which included palm oil, palm kernel oil, brooms, palm wine, building, local baskets, mushroom growth and cooking materials. Results also showed that 53.8% of oil palm famers practiced monocropping while 46.2% engaged in intercropping. However, 3.6% intercropped oil palm with plantain; 38.5% with cassava/cocoyam; 2.3% with banana while 1.7% with vegetables. Findings showed majority (>70%) of sampled oil palm producers frequently carry out oil palm practices which included excessive use of fertilizers, burning of forested lands, extending of oil palm farm, use of empty fruit bunches.. Furthermore, results also indicated that that oil palm producers’ (95.2%) rarely treats their liquid waste from initial processing before its final release into the environment; and this practice is not conducive for the environment as this can pollute the environment. More than 75% of respondents agreed that lack of government intervention, high cost of labour, lack of storage capacity, shortage of land, technical and economic inefficiencies, poor road network link road, poor electrical supply inadequate credit facility, heavy use of manual processing techniques and inadequate research to improve oil palm business were the challenges being faced by the oil palm farmers. The study concluded that the practices employed for oil palm production among were not sustainable because of deforestation practices, and forest conversion practices lead to degradation of forests without adequate replacement strategies. The study recommended among others that government should create enlightenment programmes that are directed at educating oil palm farmers as regards conservation strategies that will promote sustainable practices in the face of meeting increasing demands.

Page(s): 166-174                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2021

 Etuk E.U.
Institute of Natural Resource, Environment and Sustainable Development, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Obafemi A.A.,
Institute of Natural Resource, Environment and Sustainable Development, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Abagwa O.
Institute of Natural Resource, Environment and Sustainable Development, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Adeniyi O. R., Ogunsola G.O.Oluwusi D. (2014): Methods of Palm Oil Processing in Ogun State, Nigeria: A Resource Use Efficiency Assessment. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(8):173-179.
[2] Eze, S.O., Nwoha, V.U. & Adiele, C.S. (2014). Oil Palm Processing Among Farmers in Imo State: Implications for Market Orientation and Entrepreneurship in Extension Practice in Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Extension and Rural Development, 2(7): 114-120
[3] Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2014). Global forest resources assessment 2010, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.
[4] Friends of the Earth (FOE) (2015). Negotiating a Transnational Identity. Environmental Politics 15(5): 860-880
[5] Gledhill, D. (2008). The Name of Plants (4 ed.). Cambridge: University Press. p. 279.
[6] Ibe, A.C., (1988). Coastline Erosion in Nigeria. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan Nigeria.
[7] Kuruk, P., (2004). Customary Water Laws and Practices: Nigeria http://www.fao.org/legal/advserv/FAOIUCNcs/Nigeria.pdf.
[8] Onoh, P.A., & Peter-Onoh, C.A. (2012). Adoption of improved oil palm production technology among farmers in Aboh Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 15(2): 966-971
[9] Uche, C., Etowa, E.B. & Anele, P.C. (2017). Economic Analysis of Palm Oil Processing in Ikwerre and Etche Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. Applied Tropical Agriculture, 22 (1): 5-8
[10] Walker, A., (2010): “Oil palm in Africa”. http//:.oilpalmafrica.wordpress.com. Accessed: May 26, 2012 (www.nifor.org) Official website of the Nigeria Institute for Oil palm Research. Accessed: April, 12, 2020

Etuk E.U., Obafemi A.A., and Abagwa O., “Assessment of Palm Products Uses and Sustainable Practices in the Southern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.166-174 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/166-174.pdf

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Teachers’ academic expectations and psychological distress among adolescents in private secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya

Angelline Kalondu Kiamba, Dr. Joel Kiambi Muriithi, Dr. Florence Githuthu-August 2021 Page No.: 175-181

: The increase in levels of psychological distress among adolescents due to different factors are alarming, however since most adolescents are attending school. This study worked to establish the relationship between academic expectations and psychological distress experienced by adolescents in private secondary schools in Nairobi County Kenya. Specific objective was to determine if teachers’ academic expectations contribute to psychological distress among adolescents in private secondary schools in Nairobi County. Ecological Systems Theory founded by Urie Bronfen brenner in 1979 and General Strain Theory founded by Robert Agnew in 1992 anchored the study. A convergent parallel mixed method design was adopted, which involved descriptive survey and phenomenological methods for quantitative and qualitative enquiries respectively. A total sample of 387 respondents from 28 private secondary schools was used which included 380 students and 7 guidance and counseling teachers sampled through simple random, proportionate, and purposive sampling techniques. Data was collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data was analyzed through descriptive and inferential analysis specifically chi-square and correlation using SPSS version 22 .The qualitative data from guidance and counseling teachers was analyzed using content analysis. The results were then presented using tables for quantitative data, and data collected through semi-structured interviews was presented through quotes and narrative descriptions. The findings showed that adolescents experienced academic expectations from teachers. Teachers’ academic expectation was significantly influenced by age and mothers’ educational level. In relation to psychological distress, teachers’ academic expectations had a weak positive relationship with anxiety, stress and depression symptoms.
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Page(s): 175-181                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5812

 Angelline Kalondu Kiamba>
Department of Counseling Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Dr. Joel Kiambi Muriithi
Department of Counseling Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

  Dr. Florence Githuthu
Department of Counseling Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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[2] Agnew,R.(1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency, Criminology, 30(1),47-87
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[16] Nalugya,J.S., Zari,G.R., Ovuga,E., Kiwuwa,S.M., Musisi,S., & Nakimuli,E.M. (2016).Prevalence and factors associated with depression symptoms among School-going Adolescents in Central Uganda. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health Journal: Vol:10 ,39pages. BioMed Central publisher.
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[18] Obsborn,T.O., Venturo,K.C.,Wasil,A., Schleider,J.L., & Weisz,J. (2019). Depression and Anxiety symptoms, Social support and Demographic factors among Kenyan high School Students. Journal of Child and Family studies 29(5), 1432-1443,2020
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[21] Shields, P.M., & Rangarajan, N. (2013). A playbook for research methods: Integrating conceptual frameworks and project management. Chapter on descriptive research (4). pp. 109-158. Retrieved from https://store.newforums.com/A-Playbool-for-Research-Methods-SEB005.htm
[22] Shiundu,A.(2019).Dissatisfaction with free public education. Deutsch. Retrieved from https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/kenya-even-poor-parents-send-their-kids-private-schools
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[26] World Health Organization (2020). Adolescent and mental health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescent-mental-health

Angelline Kalondu Kiamba, Dr. Joel Kiambi Muriithi, Dr. Florence Githuthu “Teachers’ academic expectations and psychological distress among adolescents in private secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.175-181 August 2021  DOI :https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5812

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Advanced Level Student Competences in Doing Biology Practical: The Case of Dissection of Frog in Kinondoni and Bagamoyo Districts, Tanzania.

Dr. Leoncia Henerico Kibani- August 2021 Page No.: 182-189

This study examined students’ learning competences of biology practical skills during dissection of animal specimen-Frog/Toad in A’level secondary schools in Kinondoni and Bagamoyo district. Mixed method approach and case study design were employed. Biology practical sessions were examined in 10 secondary schools, five from each district. Participants involved 10 form six biology students and 2 teachers from each school. Data were collected through interview with teachers, focus group discussion with students and participatory observation. Sampling was purposively to teachers and randomly to students. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed thematically and descriptively respectively. Findings includes: A’level students were not competent in dissecting frog. Students lack practical technical skills in dissection, lack clear knowledge on the internal features of frog, lack knowledge on the ethics of dissection processes, lack familiarity of some dissecting materials and skills in using dissecting tools. There was limited practical guides and facilities needed for dissection. The study concludes that teachers need to be trained on how to teach practical lessons. The study recommend the government to supply guides and dissecting kits to all schools and make a follow on what and how students are learning practical lessons.

Page(s): 182-189                                                                                                                 Date of Publication: 30 August 2021

  Dr. Leoncia Henerico Kibani
Mbeya University of Science and Technology, Tanzania

[1] Cossa,E & Uamusse, A. (2015). Effects of an in-service program on biology and chemistry teachers’ perception of the role of laboratory work. Social and Behavioral Sciences. Eduardo Mondlane University.
[2] Danmole, B (2012). Biology teachers’ views on practical work in senior sec school of South Western Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences. Lagos State University. Vol. 9(2), 69-75. DOI:10.3923/pjssci.2012.69-75.
[3] Home Science Tools, (2020). Animal dissection: Supplies for animal dissection and education. From homesciencetools.com/biology/dissection
[4] Kibani, L.H. (2014). Chemistry practical assessment in Tanzania secondary school. The correlation of practical and theoretical assessment in chemistry classroom. OmniScriptum GmbH Heinrich-Bocking-Street-Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic publishing.
[5] Kibga, Y.K. (2013). Strengthening science practical work for secondary school teachers in Tanzania development and trial of in-service training materials. A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of philosophy (PhD) in science education of the University of Dodoma.
[6] Kinzie, M.B., Laren, V.A, Burch, J.B, & Baker, S. M. (2006). Frog dissection via the World-Wide Web: Implications for widespread Delivery of Instruction. ETR & D. Vol.44 No. 2 1996.
[7] Muleta & Seid. (2016). Factors affecting implementation of practical activities in science education in some selected secondary and preparatory schools of AFAR REGION: Development of biology. Bule Hora University and Samara University, Ethiopia.
[8] Mwangu, E.C. & Sibanda, L. (2017). Teaching biology practical lesson in secondary schools: A case study of five Mzilikazi District secondary schools in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province, Zimbabwe.
[9] Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE), (2009). Curriculum for Advanced level secondary education. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Education and Vocational Training.
[10] Tony, J. (2013). History of teaching anatomy in India: From ancient to modern times. Anatomical Sciences Education. 6 (5): 351-8. Doi:10.1002/ase.1359.PMID 23495119 in Wikipedia (e.d) the free encyclopaedia. Dissection of a pregnant rat in a biology class.
[11] UNESCO (2017). New trends in Biology teaching, Metro Press. Edinburg-Belgium. Vol.IV.
[12] Wiebers, D.O. (2016). Animal dissection in education. From http://www.jstor.org

Dr. Leoncia Henerico Kibani “Advanced Level Student Competences in Doing Biology Practical: The Case of Dissection of Frog in Kinondoni and Bagamoyo Districts, Tanzania.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.182-189 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/182-189.pdf

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Legal Status of Child Sexual Abuse CSA in Early Childhood Education in Nairobi City County Kenya

Dr. Ruth Wangu Walioli, Dr .Rachel W. Kamau-Kang’ethe – August 2021 – Page No.: 190-194

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is any sexual act between an adult and a minor or between two minors where one exerts power over the other. The goal for this research was to Investigate legal status of CSA in early childhood education. This study used a descriptive survey design and the sampling technique was purposive. It was based in Nairobi City County. The target population comprised of sexually abused children, their parents/guardians and policy makers. The total sample size was ninety-five (95) respondents who included forty-five (45) children who had experienced CSA and forty-five (45) of their parents/guardians and five (5) policy makers/key informants. The research used an interview schedule which was piloted on a randomly selected sample of five (5) children aged 5-8 years who had experienced CSA and their parents/guardians as well as one key informant at Child line Kenya. Cross validity was determined through peer feedback and content validity through expert opinion. Reliability was established through pilot testing of the research instrument to ensure clarity and adequacy of items. The study yielded qualitative data which was analyzed thematically guided by the study goal. Further, descriptive statistics were generated using percentages. Results were presented in figures and texts. Policy makers and parents/ care givers were interviewed on this, their responses revealed that they construed the constitution of Kenya 2010 as a key legislation that guided all other legislations, hence there is need to review all other legislations and align them to the new constitution. Regarding the children’s act 2001, the respondents stated that teachers need to be included as key role players in child protection. The Sexual Offences Act 2006 was construed as a key legislation in protecting children, and should be implemented and more stringent measures added to apprehend offenders. The Evidence Act 2009 requires that evidence be given regarding a CSA offence, going to court to give evidence was traumatizing to all involved. The criminal procedure code 2012 was decried as it gave perpetrators the bail option. The study recommended protection and strengthening of the family unit, training of stakeholders on CSA prevention. Inclusion of age-appropriate life skills in school curriculums and teacher training programs on signs of CSA, assessment, reporting procedures, withdrawal of the bail option for those accused of CSA, introduction of stringent measures and operationalization of relevant legislations. This was therefore a significant study as it yielded recommendations for both policy and practice.

Page(s): 190-194                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 August 2021

  Dr. Ruth Wangu Walioli
Daystar University, Kenya

 Dr .Rachel W. Kamau-Kang’ethe
Daystar University, Kenya

[1] Abagi, O. (1995). Understanding social science research: An Overview of the nature and functions of educational research.an (Eds) issues in education research, Nairobi. Kenya: African Educational publishers.
[2] Child Abuse Protection Laws (2013). https://www.loc.gov/law/help/child-protection-law/kenya.php.
[3] Githinji, P. W, (2005). Sexual abuse of children: A study of primary school pupils in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya (unpublished master’s thesis). Kenyatta University, Nairobi
[4] Kiprono, W., Ngetichi, K & Mwangi, W. (2015) Child Witness protection Challenges in Kenya. Retrieved from Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 1 issue 3 Number ISSN 2378-7031.
[5] Mugenda, O. M. and Mugenda, A.G. (2003). Research Methods. Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
National Guidelines on Management of Sexual Violence in Kenya. Retrieved from https://www.endvawnow.org › browser › files ›
[6] The National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) (2016). https://www.devex.com/organizations/national-society-for-the-prevention-of-cruelty-to-children-nspcc-102822
[7] Nyamai, F. 2017). Nairobi has the most cases of reported child abuse, study shows. Daily Nation. March 28 2017. Retrieved from https://www.nation.co.ke
[8] ROK (2009). Evidence Act. Retrieved from www. Law notes
[9] RoK (2001). The children’s Act. Nairobi: Government Printer
[10] RoK (2006). Sexual Offenses Act. Nairobi: Government Printer
[11] RoK (2010). Violence against children in Kenya, findings from a 2010 national survey. Nairobi: UNICEF. Retrieved from, http://www.unicef.org/esaro/VAC_in_Kenya
[12] RoK (2012). A Policy Framework for Education Aligning Education and Training to the Constitution of Kenya (2010) and Kenya Vision 2030 and beyond DRAFT 11th May, 2012 . Retrieved from http://fieldmarshamfoundation.org/wp
[13] UNICEF (2009). Social protection of children in south Asia-UNICEF. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/social_protection_in_south_asia_-_a_review_-_unicef_rosa_2009.pdf
[14] URT (2011). survey on Violence against children in Tanzania Retrieved from http://www.unicef.orf/media/files/ violence against children in Tanzania report.pdf
[15] Wachira,S, Walioli,R, & Okongo, V.,(2020). Prevalence of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among Child Survivors of Incest ages 9-15 years at Mama Lucy Kibaki Hospital in Nairobi City County, Kenya.International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation. Volume VII Issue VII
[16] WHO (2014) Child maltreatment. World Health Organization, Geneva. Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/child_abuse/en/
[17] WHO (2014) World Health Organization (WHO). Global status Report on Violence Prevention. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2014.

Dr. Ruth Wangu Walioli, Dr .Rachel W. Kamau-Kang’ethe “Legal Status of Child Sexual Abuse CSA in Early Childhood Education in Nairobi City County Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.190-194 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/190-194.pdf

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Rice Tariffication Law through the Lens of the Farmers: A Case in the Municipality of Carmen

Jake V. Rebualos, Jayson P. Vistal, Shiela Mae B. Sato, Jill C. Cano, James R. Camino, Ronel G. Dagohoy – August 2021 – Page No.: 195-203

The purpose of the Rice Tariffication Law implementation is to help consumers with rising prices of rice and supporting local farmers. In particular, this research looks on how farmers in the Municipality of Carmen, Davao del Norte perceive and react to the implementation of the Rice Tariffication Law. The qualitative research method was applied in this study. Furthermore, data collection took place in Barangay Ising, Carmen Municipality, Davao del Norte, Philippines. This study employed Snowball sampling was used in this study, which included seven (7) rice farmers in the area who have been cultivating for more than five (5) years. For data collection, the researchers created an interview guide questionnaire. The findings highlighted eleven (11) emerging major themes gleaned from farmers’ perspectives on the implementation of the Rice Tariffication Law. The following are the emergent themes generated from the acquired data: 1) Provision of Seeds and Fertilizers, 2) Seminars and Training for Farmers, 3) Calamity Insurance 4) Imbalanced Price Level of Harvested Rice and Farm Inputs, 5) Bureaucratic Red Tape, 6) Conflict Against Imported Rice, 7) Farm Plan, 8) Farm Budgeting, 9) Autarky, 10) Farmer’s Outcry to the Government, and 11) Farmer’s Perspectives on the Effects of the RTL to the Consumers. The outcomes assist the community and government in comprehending underlying implications of the Rice Tariffication Law on the farmers.

Page(s): 195-203                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5813

  Jake V. Rebualos
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Jayson P. Vistal
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Shiela Mae B. Sato
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Jill C. Cano
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 James R. Camino
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Ronel G. Dagohoy
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

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Jake V. Rebualos, Jayson P. Vistal, Shiela Mae B. Sato, Jill C. Cano, James R. Camino, Ronel G. Dagohoy “Rice Tariffication Law through the Lens of the Farmers: A Case in the Municipality of Carmen” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.195-203 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5813

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Emergence of Private Sector in the Provision of Social Services in Nigeria: Moving Social Services Beyond Government

Randy Oyovwevotu Sakpere – August 2021 – Page No.: 204-212

The inability of various levels of government in Nigeria to fulfil their obligations in the provision of social services has resulted in the emergence of the private sector as an active participant in the delivery of social services in Nigeria. Even though the provision of social services has historically been considered exclusively state function, the 1990s saw the emergence of the private sector involvement in the provision of social services. This paper examines the role of the private sector as either a partner or a separate entity in delivering social services in Nigeria and assess the effect of private sector on the provision of social services. Data for this study were drawn from questionnaire, interviews and observation obtained from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), civil societies (CSOs), community based organisations (CBOs) and local and state Governments’ agencies saddled with provision of social services in the country. The results showed that the private sector is emerging as important players and is increasingly providing social services. The results also revealed increasing role of the private sector in the management and delivery of social services in Nigeria. The paper concluded that a framework for further cooperation will promote public-private partnership (PPP) in delivering social services in Nigeria.

Page(s): 204-212                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 August 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5814

  Randy Oyovwevotu Sakpere
Department of Public Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria

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Randy Oyovwevotu Sakpere “Emergence of Private Sector in the Provision of Social Services in Nigeria: Moving Social Services Beyond Government” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.204-212 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5814

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Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Academic Staff in Universities in Uganda: A Conceptual Paper

J. Kabasiita, F. E. K. Bakkabulindi, D. Onen – August 2021 – Page No.: 213-218

An employee who displays organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is likely to have high job performance because he/she requires minimal monitoring from their supervisors. It is therefore important to isolate antecedents of OCB. In this study we use Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine and Bachrach’s (2000) model, of OCB to isolate antecedents of OCB among academic staff in universities in Uganda. According the model, we postulate that OCB is a function of employee characteristics, task characteristics, organizational characteristics, and leadership behavior. In this paper, we give the background of the study, the problem; study objectives and significance. We also review literature related to the objectives and draw hypotheses thereof. Using a positivism approach, we suggest the methodology we shall use to test hypotheses.

Page(s): 213-218                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5846

  J. Kabasiita
School of Education, Mountains of the Moon University;

  F. E. K. Bakkabulindi
East African School of Higher Education Studies and Development, College of Education and External Studies, Makerere University

  D. Onen
East African School of Higher Education Studies and Development, College of Education and External Studies, Makerere University

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J. Kabasiita, F. E. K. Bakkabulindi, D. Onen “Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Academic Staff in Universities in Uganda: A Conceptual Paper” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.213-218 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5846

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Investigating Translation Lapses from English to Hausa in Some Broadcast Media in Sokoto Metropolis

Aisha Yasmin Abubakar, Muhammad Abubakar Abdullahi and Nura Dogondaji-August 2021 Page No.: 219-230

This work examined some lapses in the translation of product adverts and news items in selected media stations in the Sokoto metropolis. The main aim of this research is to examine the lapses evident in translation from English to Hausa in selected broadcast media. The specific objectives of the study are: to identify translation lapses made in commercial advertisements in the three selected broadcast media in Sokoto, to determine the nature of the lapses and to identify ways of overcoming such lapses. This study adopted mixed method using both quantitative and qualitative data. At the end, the research found lapse in spelling, problems of word division, lack of conformity and misuse of words. Also the study found basic translation issues of form, invariance and equivalence, which determine whether the meaning contained in the source language is actually transferred into the receptor language. Furthermore, the research found lapses in commercial adverts from English to Hausa and vice-versa because of the differences in the language structures and cultures. Lastly the study found that the source (English) and the target (Hausa) languages continue to blur effective translation in broadcast media. The research therefore recommends that translators should ensure that the meaning of the message is preserved no matter its nature. The translator should reconsider lexical selection when translating because that is one of the major challenges, and ensure that they use the right syntax in order to reduce lapses in translation.
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Page(s): 219-230                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 September 2021

 Aisha Yasmin Abubakar>
Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic Sokoto, College of General Studies

  Muhammad Abubakar Abdullahi
Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic Sokoto, College of General Studies

  Nura Dogondaji
Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic Sokoto, College of General Studies

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Aisha Yasmin Abubakar, Muhammad Abubakar Abdullahi and Nura Dogondaji “Investigating Translation Lapses from English to Hausa in Some Broadcast Media in Sokoto Metropolis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.219-230 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/219-230.pdf

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Practices and Challenges of Barangay Nanyo, Panabo City in Responding to COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study

Zaynab Aylani, Reziel Cuizon, Shella Mae Bohol, Victor Caranzo, Jamelo Veroy, Ronel Dagohoy – August 2021 – Page No.: 231-240

This study explored the practices and challenges in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic of a barangay government unit. The study used a qualitative case study method of research. This study was conducted at Barangay Nanyo, Panabo City Davao del Norte, Philippines. There were six participants responded in this research through a validated interview-guide questions. The results have shown that the practices and challenges of Barangay Nanyo in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic were focused on the implementation of safety and security protocols, communication among members of the society, and the availability of resources needed in times of lockdown. The study also revealed that to cope up with those challenges, the barangay has the initiative to come up with solutions with the help of the people’s cooperation and participation that became a big part of the success of the unit is having a zero active case since the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic in the country. The result of the study may be used as a basis for higher- authorities in crafting recommendations for other barangay government units. This will also assist other barangays officials in managing the pandemic situations in their community

Page(s): 231-240                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5815

  Zaynab Aylani
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College

  Reziel Cuizon
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College

 Shella Mae Bohol
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College

  Victor Caranzo
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College

  Jamelo Veroy
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College

  Ronel Dagohoy
Students, Bachelor of Public Administration, Davao del Norte State College

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Zaynab Aylani, Reziel Cuizon, Shella Mae Bohol, Victor Caranzo, Jamelo Veroy, Ronel Dagohoy “Practices and Challenges of Barangay Nanyo, Panabo City in Responding to COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.231-240 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5815

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Influence of Family Cohesion on Substance Use Disorders among the Youth in Selected Rehabilitation Centres in Nairobi County, Kenya

Alice Wangui Gikandi, Joyzy Pius Egunjobi (PhD), Joel Kiambi Muriithi (PhD) – August 2021 – Page No.: 241-246

This study investigated family dynamics and substance use disorders among the youth in selected rehabilitation centers in Nairobi County, Kenya. Using Yamane (1967) formula, a sample of 172 clients was obtained and selected randomly to take part in quantitative study. Another 12 clients who had stayed in rehabilitation centers for the longest time were purposively selected in order to provide qualitative data. Similarly, 10 parents were conveniently selected in order to provide qualitative data. Therefore the total sample size comprised of 196 respondents. Quantitative data was collected using FACES-IV, AUDIT, and DAST-10 questionnaires while qualitative data was collected using interview guides. Cronbach Alpha technique was run to test the reliability of FACES-IV, AUDIT, and DAST-10. FACES-IV scale was found to have a reliability coefficient of .723, AUDIT had reliability of .861while DAST-10 scale had a reliability coefficient of .812. Quantitative Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics while qualitative data was analysed thematically backed by narratives from respondents. The study had the following findings, most respondents came from families with unhealthy cohesion (disengaged family cohesion (Mean= 25.4545; SD= 9.3575), there was a strong negative and significant correlation between disengaged family cohesion and drug use disorder (r=-0.527; P= 0.000).

Page(s): 241-246                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5816

  Alice Wangui Gikandi
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

  Joyzy Pius Egunjobi (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

  Joel Kiambi Muriithi (PhD)
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

[1] Boyd K., Perkins, P, Green B, Stevens L (2014). Utilizing a Qualitative and Quantitative Approach to Examine Substance Use and Parental Communication among African American Youth. Department of Psychology, Virginia State University, Petersburg, USA.
[2] Caetano, R., Vaeth, P., & Canino, G. (2017). Family cohesion and pride, drinking and alcohol use disorder in Puerto Rico. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 43, 87 – 94.
[3] Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: International Student Edition. Qualitative, Quantitative and mixed methods Approaches. (4thEd.). London: Sage Publications
[4] Daniel T. L. Shek, Zhu, X. Dou, D. & Chai, W. (2020) Influence of Family Factors on Substance Use in Early Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study in Hong Kong, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 52:1, 66-76
[5] Elam, K., Chassin, L., & Pandika, D. (2018). Polygenic risk, family cohesion, and adolescent aggression in Mexican American and European American families: Developmental pathways to alcohol use. Development and Psychopathology, 30(5), 1715-1728
[6] Gebremariam, K.T & Sandhu. (2020). Family Environment and Substance Use Among University Students. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 9( 2);1530-1535K
[7] Kemjika O.G. & Ojiugo A.B. (2015). Influence of family dysfunction on drug use of adolescent students of unity schools in south-south zone Nigeria. Journal of Psychological Research (EJPR). 1
[8] Kopetz, C. E., Collado, A., & Lejuez, C. W. (2015). When the end (automatically) justifies the means: Automatic tendency toward sex exchange for crack cocaine. Motivation Science, 1(4), 233–243. https://doi.org/10.1037/mot0000025
[9] Laursen, B., & Mooney, K. S. (2008). Relationship network quality: Adolescent adjustment and perceptions of relationships with parents and friends. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 78(1):47-53
[10] MacArthur, Hickman & Campbell (2016). A qualitative investigation of the role of the family in structuring youn people’s alcohol use. European Journal of Public Health, Volume 26, Issue 1, February 2016, Pages 102–110,
[11] National Authority for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse. (2017). Rapid Situation Assessment of Drugs Substance in Kenya. Nairobi: NACADA.
[12] Olson, D. (2011). FACES IV and the circumplex model: Validation study. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 37(1), 64-80
[13] Patel, S. (2017). Substance Use: Family Meals, Conversations, and Family Cohesion. A Thesis faculty of the Department of Graduate and Professional Studies in Education California State University, Sacramento
[14] Pergamit,M, Huang L. and Lane J. (2017) Does religion affect alcohol and tobacco use among students at North-West University, South Africa. Journal of American College Health
[15] Robylyer, M.D. (2016) Integrating educational technology into teaching (7th Edition). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc
[16] Sobia M. & Najam U. S. (2014) An exploratory research on the role of family in drug addiction, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine: 2:1, 820-832
[17] Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics, An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row.

Alice Wangui Gikandi, Joyzy Pius Egunjobi (PhD), Joel Kiambi Muriithi (PhD) “Influence of Family Cohesion on Substance Use Disorders among the Youth in Selected Rehabilitation Centres in Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.241-246 August 2021 DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5816

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Review Assessment of Biodiversity Loss and Ecosystem Deterioration Due to Built-Form Considering the Implementation of Rampal Power Plant near Sundarban Forest

Saima Sultana, Mohammad Tahzeeb Anwar – August 2021 – Page No.: 247-255

The Rampal power plant, also known as the Maitree Super Thermal Power Project, is a proposed coal-fired power plant in Rampal near Sundarban, the largest mangrove forest of the world, Khulna division, Bangladesh. Environmentalists objected to the construction many times but the government still could not reach any final decisions about the replacement of the powerplant. As Sundarban is listed in the world heritage site, UNESCO is also perturbate to the matter: already many have been agreed putting Sundarban in endangered list. The aim of this paper is to establish a broad overview how built form responsible for biodiversity loss and ecosystem deterioration. Rampal power plant and Sundarban mangrove forest has been selected for this study. A general analysis and overview have been generated from secondary resources. The study confirms that Sundarban Mangroves is already facing biodiversity loss due to intensified shrimp cultivation, increased dependency on forest and illicit felling, changing land use pattern, oil spillage, and pollution, forest fire, improper management practices, plant diseases, tourism activities, upstream withdrawal of river water, salinity intrusion, climate change, and some natural causes where the implementation of coal based power plant will be acting as major reason for serious ecological and environmental hazard. Therefore, some recommendations have given to minimize the negative impact on the ecosystem. The outcome of the study is expected to make the authorities and people aware of the biodiversity loss and ecosystem deterioration of the Sundarban forest and they have specific responsibilities to protect and maintain this area. It will also raise awareness on the settlement of any built form like Rampal power plants near this sensitive area among authorities, engineers, architects & planners.

Page(s): 247-255                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5817

  Saima Sultana
Department of Architecture, Primeasia University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh

  Mohammad Tahzeeb Anwar
Bachelor in Architecture, Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology, Tejgaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh

[1] Journal of the Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research. 30 (1): 45–53.
[2] Chowdhury AH. Environmental impact of coal-based power plant of Rampal on the Sundarbans (world largest mangrove forest) and surrounding areas. MOJ Eco Environ Sci. 2017;2(3):85-98. DOI: 10.15406/mojes.2017.02.00022
[3] Sundarbans. URL: https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php/Sundarbans,_The
[4] About Saundarbans. URL: https://www.wwfindia.org/about_wwf/critical_regions/sundarbans3/about_sundarbans/
[5] Rahman MM,Islam KS. The causes of deterioration of Sundarban mangrove forest ecosystem of Bangladesh: conservation and sustainable management issues. AACL Bioflux • July 2010; 3(2)
[6] Gopal B, Chauhan M. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem. Aquat. Sci. 68 (2006) 338–354. DOI: 10.1007/s00027-006-0868-8
[7] Sundarbans oil spill: No contingency plan for a last one year. URL: https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/environment/2017/02/02/sundarbans-oil-spill-nocontingency-plan-least-one-year
[8] Maibritt Pedersen Zari, “Ecosystem Services Analysis in Response to Biodiversity Loss Caused by the Built Environment”, S.A.P.I.E N.S [Online], 7.1 | 2014, Online since 12 November 2014, connection on 14 July 2021. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/sapiens/1684
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Saima Sultana, Mohammad Tahzeeb Anwar “Review Assessment of Biodiversity Loss and Ecosystem Deterioration Due to Built-Form Considering the Implementation of Rampal Power Plant near Sundarban Forest” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.247-255 August 2021 DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5817

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Farmers’ behaviour in applying advanced farming technology

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi- August 2021 Page No.: 256-257

This article purposed to analyze the farmer’s behaviour to apply advanced farming technology in the order to solve the gaps and improve quality control at the farm level. The survey conducted in An Giang province of the MRD to discuss the farmers’ behavior and willingness to improve their farming practices towards the advanced farming technology. The data collection was taken up by conducting a survey of 100 farmers (50 traditional farmers and 50 fish cooperative members). Chau Phu district of An Giang province is selected to do a survey due to Chau Phu district was one of the early adopters of Pangasius pond aquaculture. Hence, this district has a large number of Pangasius ponds, many that have been in use for over 15 years. By choosing an established area like this, there is an opportunity to evaluate potentially more established and stabilized farming practices. The gaps analysis showed differences in farming practices between the traditional farming system and the advanced farming technology including farming production factors such as fingerlings, feeds, and veterinary drugs for fish disease treatment and fish culture conditions such as waste-water treatment system. The advanced farming technology fulfilled the requirements with respect to quality and safety such as certified fingerlings, industrial feeds, waste-water treatment system and proper disease treatment. Based on the analysis, the question how small-scale farmers can improve their practice and satisfy the quality requirements is answered.

Page(s): 256-257                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 September 2021

  Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi
Department of Scientific Research Affairs, Can Tho University

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[6] Rogers, EM (1995). Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press. p. 372

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi, “Farmers’ behaviour in applying advanced farming technology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.256-257 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/256-257.pdf

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The Effect of Accounting Record Keeping Practices on Financial Performance: Special Reference to Small and Medium Enterprises in Anuradhapura District

Somathilake HMDN & Ranathunga KGKD – August 2021 – Page No.: 258-264

In Sri Lankan context Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role and contribute in significantly to the economic growth and social development through job creation, poverty alleviation and new business development, but on the other hand there are many failures of SMEs due to poor record keeping practices, inaccurate accounting information, reason to inaccurate financial performance and to make poor financial decisions. Therefore, many of SMEs die off soon after their establishments and face financial and management challenges. The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of accounting record keeping practices on financial performance of SMEs in Anuradhapura district. Preparing accounting records (PAR), preparing financial statements (PFS), computer utilization (CU) and respondents’ perception (RP) used as independent variables to measure the accounting record keeping practices. Financial performance (FP) was used as the dependent variable of this study. The research was based on the quantitative research method and the data were collected from 152 SMEs in Anuradhapura district using a structured. Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis used to analyze collected data according to SPSS 25 version. Results revealed that accounting record keeping practices show a positive effect on financial performance of SMEs and preparing financial statements have a significant effect on SMEs financial performance. So, SMEs should highly concern about record keeping practices as one of the tool to improve and increase the financial performance and relevant authorities should develop specific guidelines and must provide templates of account record keeping practices for SMEs to make them very easier and familiar with account practices.

Page(s): 258-264                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5818

  Somathilake HMDN
Department of Accountancy & Finance, Faculty of Management Studies, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

  Ranathunga KGKD
Department of Accountancy & Finance, Faculty of Management Studies, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

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[16] Madurapperuma, M. W., Thilakerathne, P. M., & Manawadu, I. N. (2016). Accounting Record Keeping Practices in Small and Medium Sized Enterprise’s (SME’s) in Sri Lanka. Journal of Finance and Accounting , 188- 192.
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[18] Raymond , A. E., Emmanuel, E., & Moses, C. O. (2014). The Relevance of Accounting Records in Small Scale Business: The Nigerian Experience. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences December 2014, Vol. 4, No. 12, 69-82.
[19] Sapiei, S., Mustapha, M., & Abdullah, M. (2016). SMEs’ tax compliance costs and IT adoption: the case of a value-added tax. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems Volume 23, December 2016.
[20] Yousef, B., & Smirat, A. (2013). The Use of Accounting Information by Small and Medium Enterprises in South District of Jordan,( An empirical study). Research Journal of Finance and Accounting (Online) Vol.4, No.6, 2013, 169- 175

Somathilake HMDN & Ranathunga KGKD “The Effect of Accounting Record Keeping Practices on Financial Performance: Special Reference to Small and Medium Enterprises in Anuradhapura District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.258-264 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5818

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An Analysis of the Concepts of Transformational Leadership and Transactional Leadership: The Way Forward?

Agbarakwe, Chineme Beatrice, Amah, Edwinah (PhD), Okocha, Belemenanya Friday (PhD) – August 2021 – Page No.: 265-272

Transactional and transformational leadership styles have been adopted by most organizations, but there exists a controversy as to which of the two leadership styles is the most appropriate and acceptable for organizational effectiveness and competitiveness. A survey of pertinent research on transactional and transformational leadership styles is included in this study. According to the findings, transformational leadership is more important than transactional leadership in specific situations. Transactional leadership has been demonstrated to have a considerable positive impact on organizational performance in different circumstances. As a result, both leadership styles were shown to be useful to businesses and could be used separately or in combination, depending on the context of the organization and the task at hand.

Page(s): 265-272                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 September 2021

 Agbarakwe, Chineme Beatrice
Doctoral Candidate, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Nigeria

 Amah, Edwinah (PhD)
Professor of Entrepreneurship & Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Okocha, Belemenanya Friday (PhD)
Researcher, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Agbarakwe, Chineme Beatrice, Amah, Edwinah (PhD), Okocha, Belemenanya Friday (PhD) , “An Analysis of the Concepts of Transformational Leadership and Transactional Leadership: The Way Forward?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.265-272 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/265-272.pdf

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Addressing Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 on quality higher education, Transforming Zimbabwe, the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development

G. N. Shava, E Mathonsi, S Hleza, and S Shonhiwa – August 2021 – Page No.: 273-285

Quality, sustainability and development is at the heart of higher education systems the world over. What takes place in the teaching and learning environments is fundamentally important to the well-being of the learners. Quality higher education seeks to provide for sustainable development and thus satisfies learning needs and enriches the lives of learners and their overall experience of living. Education for sustainable development just like quality in education, empowers learners to take informed decisions and responsible action for environmental integrity, economic viability and a just society, for present and future generations, while respecting cultural diversity. The aim of this article is to explore the complexity of raising higher education quality in Zimbabwe and suggesting strategies of strengthening quality, sustainability and development in higher education. Specific focus on the article is on sustainable development goal 4 which proposes that education quality is the key to achieving sustainable development and encouraging the integration of Education for sustainable development in teaching and learning.

Page(s): 273-285                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 September 2021

  G. N. Shava
National University of Science and Technology: Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

  E Mathonsi
National University of Science and Technology: Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

  S Hleza
National University of Science and Technology: Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

 S Shonhiwa
National University of Science and Technology: Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

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G. N. Shava, E Mathonsi, S Hleza, and S Shonhiwa “Addressing Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 on quality higher education, Transforming Zimbabwe, the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.273-285 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/273-285.pdf

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A Study on Women Empowerment in India: Challenges and Remedies

P.Gnaneswari, Dr. M. Sravani,-August 2021 Page No.: 286-288

Women are the epitome of strength, love, sacrifice and courage. The role of women in today’s world has changed significantly and for better. Earlier they were under the shadow of a husband or a father, but now they have established their own identity and are independent. Education is an important key to success. With the encouragement of co-education, women are now marching side by side with men, in every walk of life. Women are now self-sufficient, well aware and financially independent. They have attained immense success in every field, whether it’s sports, politics or academics. The 21st century has brought a new hope and has empowered women during a positive manner. Empowering women would become more pertinent if women were well informed and educated. The role of women has changed tremendously and that they are able to create a positive impression within the society. From housewives to CEOs, the transition are often seen at an accelerating rate. Modernization and therefore the advent of the latest technology have widened hope and opportunities for them. They have established themselves socially, politically and economically in almost every field. Women are no longer considered unfit or weak for military or for other defense forces. Still the women of India are relatively disempowered and they enjoy somewhat lower status than that of men in spite of many efforts undertaken by government. Now this study attempts to know the problems and challenges faced by women in India.
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Page(s): 286-288                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 September 2021

 P.Gnaneswari
Asst. Professor, Krishna University, Andhra Pradesh

 Dr. M. Sravani,
Asst. Professor, Krishna University, Andhra Pradesh

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P.Gnaneswari, Dr. M. Sravani, “A Study on Women Empowerment in India: Challenges and Remedies” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.286-288 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/286-288.pdf

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Students Utilization on Quipper LMS: A Mixed Method

Jeanilyn E. Tacadena, Ph.D, Mariesel A. Laurel, Ed.D, Amelie L. Chico, Dm, Frim- August 2021 Page No.: 289-291

COVID-19 is a global concern affecting the educational system in Higher Education Institution. As such Quipper-LMS became a resource in delivering quality education in the new normal learning. This study paved to examine students acceptance in Quipper-LMS as new way to deliver learning among students in UM Panabo. Results showed that there is a high acceptance of Quipper-LMS in terms of social influence, performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. This is also affirmed from the qualitative responses of students, however sensitivity of the system be address.

Page(s): 289-291                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5819

  Jeanilyn E. Tacadena, Ph.D
College Professor/Program Head-BEED, College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao – Panabo College, Panabo City

  Mariesel A. Laurel, Ed.D
College Professor/Program Head-BEED, College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao – Panabo College, Panabo City

  Amelie L. Chico, Dm, Frim
College Professor/Research Coordinator, University of Mindanao – Panabo College, Panabo City

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Parasi Belinda, PROF. Genevieve Wanjala, Dr. Andrew Riechi “Students Utilization on Quipper LMS: A Mixed Method” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.289-291 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5819

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Farming Household Readiness for Smallholder Palm Oil Replanting (SPR) Program in Jambi Province, Indonesia: Is there a need for empowerment?”

Ardi Novra, Adriani and Fatati- August 2021 Page No.: 292-302

This article describes a new idea of how the level of intervention in household empowerment policies is based on an empirical study of the magnitude of the negative impact of the smallholder palm oil replanting (SPR) program. One of the negative impacts of this program is the temporary loss of income (TLI) for farmer households due to the cessation of production of oil palm fruit bunches. The household survey research was conducted in three village centers for smallholder oil palm plantations in Jambi Province, Indonesia. The research result shows that the average potential TLI in each household if replanting palm oil is carried out is IDR 2,364,644/ month (equivalent to 74.55% of the oil palm household income or 39.78% of the regional economy), Purwodadi Village is the village most vulnerable to regional economic disturbances due to the high potential for TLI, reaching 99.43% of the oil palm household income and 67.06% of the regional economy. The level of TLI is influenced by factors of age and area of old oil palm plants, the proportion of households that will undergo the replanting process, and the level of dependence of regions on oil palm. The high investment in the oil palm replanting process and the fear of losing income are thought to be factors causing households to delay replanting oil palm plantations that have reached unproductive age. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that there is still a need for innovation and expansion of empowerment to encourage household readiness in facing the SPR program.

Page(s): 292-302                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 September 2021

  Ardi Novra
Center of Excellent Sustainable Integrated Farming System (CoE SIFAS), Jambi University, Jambi, Indonesia

  Adriani
Center of Excellent Sustainable Integrated Farming System (CoE SIFAS), Jambi University, Jambi, Indonesia

  Fatati
Center of Excellent Sustainable Integrated Farming System (CoE SIFAS), Jambi University, Jambi, Indonesia

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Ardi Novra, Adriani and Fatati, “Farming Household Readiness for Smallholder Palm Oil Replanting (SPR) Program in Jambi Province, Indonesia: Is there a need for empowerment?”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.292-302 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/292-302.pdf

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Managing Plight and Measuring Contribution of Female Workers in Tea Industry of Bangladesh

Mohammad Lutfar Rahman, Harwindar Singh, and Khairir Khalil- August 2021 Page No.: 303-306

Bangladesh Tea Industry dates back 1856 when British companies established this agrobased industry in hilly area of Sylhet and Chittagong districts. To clean jungle, to make nurseries and to nurture the nurseries at a certain level, then transferring the tea plants from nurseries to plantation which constitutes continuous whole the year-round work, they need regimented work force who would work in the tea plantation for generations, they migrated workers from famine prone areas of India alluring them to enjoy a better life earning wages working in tea estates. The migrated workers succumbed their allurement and last 170 years they are still working generations to generation in tea estates with meagre wages but their life style has not been developed. A cup of tea when served looks pleasant but who knows there are endless plights endured by workers to make a cup of tea with soothing liquor right from tea plantation job, picking quality leaves and to make tea. Their fate is not changed to start a better living but the owners earn huge margin from selling quality tea to international markets.

Page(s): 303-306                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5820

  Mohammad Lutfar Rahman
International University of Business Agriculture and Technology (IUBAT), Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Harwindar Singh
School of Business, Malaysia University of Science and Technology, Malaysia.

  Khairir Khalil
School of Business, Malaysia University of Science and Technology, Malaysia.

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Mohammad Lutfar Rahman, Harwindar Singh, and Khairir Khalil, “Managing Plight and Measuring Contribution of Female Workers in Tea Industry of Bangladesh ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.303-306 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5820

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Problems Arising from Discriminatory Treatment of Inmates of Nigerian Correctional Service

Jide OLORUNMOLA, Rasheed OKUNOLA, Eyitayo OYEYIPO, Oluwakemisola OYEYIPO – August 2021 Page No.: 307-315

In Penal Institutions Social discrimination often poses a stumbling block to reformation and rehabilitation of inmates. Several Studies exist on treatment of inmates, however only few studies have investigated disparate treatment among High-Profile and Low-Profile Inmates of Nigerian correctional services. This study, therefore, investigated discriminatory treatment among High-Profile and Low-Profile inmates in Lagos correctional Command and its implications for reformation and rehabilitation.
The research was based on Max Weber’s theory of Life chances using descriptive research design .The research used a multi-stage sampling technique. Lagos Correctional Centres were purposively selected because they were noted for keeping all classes of inmates. Taro Yamane formula was used to randomly select 299 general duty Staff and inmates across three Correctional Centres in Kirikiri and Ikoyi axes. Sixteen (16) Key Informant interviews were conducted for Staff while 51 In-depth interviews were done which included 42 Inmates and nine trained guards with experience in handling all Classes of Inmates.
A larger percentage of the High-Profile Inmates were satisfied with the treatment meted out to those in custody while a larger percentage of the Low-Profile Inmates were not satisfied with their treatment
The study arrived at the conclusion that discriminatory treatment of Inmates creates difficulty in control of Inmates and hampers the cardinal objective of the Correctional Service which is reformation and rehabilitation of Inmates.

Page(s): 307-315                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5821

Jide OLORUNMOLA
Landmark University, Nigeria

Rasheed OKUNOLA
Landmark University, Nigeria

Eyitayo OYEYIPO
Landmark University, Nigeria

Oluwakemisola OYEYIPO
Landmark University, Nigeria

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Jide OLORUNMOLA, Rasheed OKUNOLA, Eyitayo OYEYIPO, Oluwakemisola OYEYIPO “Problems Arising from Discriminatory Treatment of Inmates of Nigerian Correctional Service” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.307-315 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5821

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Economy of Communion as a Culture of Working Together for Economic Transformation: A Perspective of Culture of Unity

Betty Muthoni Njagi- August 2021 Page No.: 316-321

This paper explores the Economy of Communion as a culture of working together for economic transformation from the perspective of the culture of unity in the African economies. Economic transformation is influenced by growth of industrial and service sectors that reflect the transformation process. This process is determined by the attitude and perception of the agents of change towards non-economic factors such as culture of unity that may fast-track the process of transformation. Further reviews on economic transformation explores the model of the Economy of Communion as an alternative culture of running the industrial and service sectors in order to achieve the expected economic progress in the economies. The Economy of Communion promotes oneness as a culture of an economy that is all inclusive.

Page(s): 316-321                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 September 2021

  Betty Muthoni Njagi
Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

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Betty Muthoni Njagi, “Economy of Communion as a Culture of Working Together for Economic Transformation: A Perspective of Culture of Unity” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.316-321 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/316-321.pdf

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Transition Programs Available For Students with Intellectual Disability towards Community Integration in Ghana.

Yaw Frimpong, Obeng Kwakye – August 2021 Page No.: 322-331

Students with intellectual disabilities have very low IQ and low reasoning abilities which makes them unable to live independent lives. This makes it very necessary for special schools across the country to offer transitional programs to enable these individuals acquire the requisite skills that would empower them to integrate into their various communities. It is in the light of this that this research was conducted to examine the transitional programs available for students with intellectual disability and to establish how the transition programs prepared them for community integration in Ghana
Piaget’s theory was adopted by the researcher. This theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how people acquire, construct, and use it. The design for this study was descriptive and the approach adopted was qualitative which involved the use of semi-structured interviews in the collection of data. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the teachers, and house mothers, while a simple random sampling technique was used to select the parents/guardians.
The findings of the study indicated generally that transition programs available in the special schools are not given much attention and such programs are not well structured to meet the needs of the students due to lack of inadequate teaching and learning resources. Besides this major finding, the study also revealed setbacks such as lack of governmental support in the area of policy and grants that have affected the progression of the program since the needs of individuals with intellectual disability are not adequately met.
In conclusion, it is recommended that the government through the Ministry of Education and teachers should pay more attention to the available programs for these students with intellectual disabilities to enable them transit from school to work with ease.

Page(s): 322-331                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5822

Yaw Frimpong
Department of Public Policy and Management, Jiangsu University, China

Obeng Kwakye
Department of Public Policy and Management, Jiangsu University, China

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Yaw Frimpong, Obeng Kwakye “Transition Programs Available For Students with Intellectual Disability towards Community Integration in Ghana.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.322-331 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5822

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Issues of Security Challenge on Library Resources in Federal University of Lafia Library, Nasarawa State

Enyi, Kingsley Emmanuel, Tsegba, Jacob Fagga, Obinyan, Oluwatoyin Oyeyemi- August 2021 Page No.: 332-338

This study investigate the issues of Security Challenges on Library Resources in the Federal University of Lafia Library in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study tried to identify security challenges in Federal University of Lafia causes of security challenges effects of security challenges on the resources, the collection types that are more prompt to security problems, challenges encountered by library staff in combating the breaches, strategies put in place to tackle and end library security challenge in Federal University of Lafia library. Six (6) objectives backed up with six (6) with research questions to support the study. The work uses survey design method. The studied population is made up of thirty (30) librarians including hundred (100) undergraduate students in Federal University of Lafia, summing up the entire population of the work to one hundred and thirty (130). Data was collected using self designed questionnaire with the caption issues of security challenges on library resources in Federal University of Lafia, library. The techniques adopted for the study was random sampling. Statistical frequencies such as, tables, means, frequencies, and percentages (%) were used to analysed data. It was discovered and reported that, the university is entangle with several issues of security problem in the library like; deliberately mis-shelving of books, non-returning of over-due books, mutilation of library resources, theft etc.
Recommendations were made that, the security of the university library premises and the general reading room should be beep up by mounting proper surveillance and supervision. Photocopier machines should be made available, good working electronic security gadgets should be installed both inside and outside the library premises and the library should be fenced round.

Page(s): 332-338                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 September 2021

  Enyi, Kingsley Emmanuel
University Library, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Tsegba, Jacob Fagga
University Library, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria

 Obinyan, Oluwatoyin Oyeyemi
E-Resources Librarian, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

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Enyi, Kingsley Emmanuel, Tsegba, Jacob Fagga, Obinyan, Oluwatoyin Oyeyemi”Issues of Security Challenge on Library Resources in Federal University of Lafia Library, Nasarawa State ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.332-338 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/332-338.pdf

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Terrorism, Insurgency and Islamism: A Trio-human Disaster in Nigeria.

Prof. Thomas Tanko Shut & Vrenzak James Dawap- August 2021 Page No.: 339-345

We examine whether the relationship between terrorism, insurgency and Islamism do not share or support one another in their expression of violent development. We find that when comparing their strategies and methods, they have a meeting point in political, economic and religious platform. In this paper, we present cogent reasons that represent these three terms as having causal and historical eventualities that are repetitive and suggestive of a trio-human destructive activity that largely caused the down-turn in economic development in Nigeria. Collectively, our findings show evidence of political and non-political factors related to the trio virus above that slow the pace of economic development in Nigeria, especially in the last three decades.

Page(s): 339-345                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5823

  Prof. Thomas Tanko Shut
Plateau State University (PLASU), Department of Political Science, Bokkos, Plateau State, Nigeria

 Vrenzak James Dawap
Plateau State University (PLASU), Department of Political Science, Bokkos, Plateau State, Nigeria

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Prof. Thomas Tanko Shut & Vrenzak James Dawap, “Terrorism, Insurgency and Islamism: A Trio-human Disaster in Nigeria. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.339-345 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5823

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Strategies to Raise Awareness on Fire Disaster Preparedness to Enhance Fire Safety in Secondary Schools in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Emmanuel Jeremiah Kileo, Gadi Koda, Ogoti E. Okendo- August 2021 Page No.: 346-355

This study was conducted to determine strategies through which awareness on fire disaster preparedness is raised among students and teachers to enhance fire safety in secondary schools in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. This study was guided by Rasmussen’s Risk Management Framework (1997). This study employed a convergent design under mixed methods research approach. The participants involved in this study were head of schools, teachers, students in public and private secondary schools; District Education Officers, and District Fire Officers. Furthermore, stratified sampling was used to obtain the research sample. This study used questionnaires, observation guide, interview guides and document analysis guide to collect data which were then analyzed descriptively and thematically. The findings revealed that training was the major strategy used to raise awareness on fire disaster preparedness; aspects of fire safety were integrated into the Ordinary Level secondary education syllabi. Additionally, meetings and clubs are avenues which were fairly used to raise students’ and teachers’ awareness on fire disaster preparedness. However, other strategies like using posters, television educative programs or news, resource materials, fire safety drills, and school fire safety inspection feedback were rarely used to raise students’ and teachers’ awareness on fire disaster preparedness. The study concluded that secondary schools had not embraced the diversity of strategies that can be used to raise students’ and teachers’ awareness on fire disaster preparedness and recommended inter alia, that comprehensive fire disaster management topics be incorporated in the Ordinary Level secondary education syllabi.

Page(s): 346-355                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 September 2021

Emmanuel Jeremiah Kileo
PhD Candidate, Department of Educational Management, Planning & Financing and Lifelong Learning (DMPFL), Mwenge Catholic University, Tanzania

Gadi Koda
Department of Educational Management, Planning & Financing and Lifelong Learning (DMPFL), Mwenge Catholic University, Tanzania

Ogoti E. Okendo
Members of Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Management, Planning & Financing and Lifelong Learning (DMPFL), Mwenge Catholic University, Tanzania

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Emmanuel Jeremiah Kileo, Gadi Koda, Ogoti E. Okendo, “Strategies to Raise Awareness on Fire Disaster Preparedness to Enhance Fire Safety in Secondary Schools in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.346-355 August 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/346-355.pdf

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Previous to Present Policies and Approaches for Slum and their Limitations: In Search of Sustainable Slum Upgrading Process in Developing Countries

Kashfia Alam Khan – August 2021 – Page No.: 356-366

Slums- the living areas of urban poor, have always been treated like a burden for the city. But in reality, the labor of the slum dwellers is running the city mechanism. In developing cities it has become obvious to think about the slums in urban planning strategies as it is an unavoidable part of the city. Slum upgrading has been a complicated issue for decades in poverty surrounded countries of the world. Despite many experiments have been done till now, none of the process is proven to be sustainable to be used as a model for the poverty surrounded slums for upgrading. In this study the main idea was regarding the rationalization of slum upgrading models which are tend to be used as prototypes. The argument about sustainability of top-down program based slum upgrading projects is still very ambiguous in case of developing cities. Failure of top-down projects has promoted urban designers and urban planners to think about alternative approaches. In this research the aim was to find out the key reasons that are responsible for the unsustainability of the approaches of slum upgrading in developing world. At the end of the study modern complex theories of city life are interpret to point out that the intangible elements of slums are the essential part to consider for any upgrading system.

Page(s): 356-366                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5824

  Kashfia Alam Khan
Department of Architecture, Primeasia University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Kashfia Alam Khan “Previous to Present Policies and Approaches for Slum and their Limitations: In Search of Sustainable Slum Upgrading Process in Developing Countries ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.356-366 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5824

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Twenty Two Test Positive to Covid-19 at One Health Facility in one Month: Who, Where, How, What should be done?

Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe- August 2021 Page No.: 367-373

COVID-19 is a mysterious medical condition that has affected the entire global society. Health Workers face the greatest possible threat of contracting the infection and even dying out of it. At the beginning of winter, one health facility in Zambia recorded a total of 22 Health Workers infected with COVID-19 during the month of June, 2021. The objective of this inquiry was to establish where and how the staff acquired the infection. The study used all the 22 Health Workers with history of confirmed COVID-19 during the month of June. The study was conducted between June and July, 2021. Single-interview-per-participant data collection method was used to collect data from participants. Participation was voluntary. This study found that Health Workers on night duty in the COVID-19 isolation ward worked longer hours, got exhausted with subsequent increased exposure risk and eventual acquisition of infection through close physical contact with Covid-19 patients or contaminated Personal Protective Equipment. This study recommends that Ministry of Health to increase the number of Health Workers- nurses, doctors and other cadres essential in the provision of health care services to COVID-19 patients and to provide Health Workers with adequate supplies of PPEs. Local Hospital Management to reduce working hours for health workers especially those taking night duty in the COVID-19 ward.

Page(s): 367-373                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5825

Jordan Tembo
Kalindawalo General Hospital, P.O.Box 560008, Petauke, Zambia

Patricia Mambwe
Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Rusangu University, Monze, Zambia

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Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe, “Twenty Two Test Positive to Covid-19 at One Health Facility in one Month: Who, Where, How, What should be done?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.367-373 August 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5825

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Strategies used by the University of Zambia to retain the academic staff in 1990 -2016

Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga – August 2021 – Page No.: 374-386

This study sought to investigate the strategies that the University of Zambia (UNZA) employed to retain lecturers during the period 1990 to 2016. In order to do so, the following specific objective was framed namely to: Establish strategies that UNZA used in the retention of lecturers.Considering that motivation is critical to academic staff, the study was guided by Maslow’s theory of motivation. There were 137 respondents who were purposively sampled using probability and non- probability sampling procedure with stratified random and purposive sampling respectively. Quantitative data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 20 (SPSS) and qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis. The key findings of the study revealed that conditions of service at UNZA during the period 1990 to 2016 were not favourable to retain staff. Some institutional programmes were disrupted and there was demoralisation among lecturers. Top administrators revealed that lack of finances for a range of activities and amenities, such as attractive salaries, pension benefits, workshops and seminars, accommodation and office space, housing and lecture rooms partly contributed to lecturers leaving the university.

Page(s): 374-386                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2021

  Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

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Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga “Strategies used by the University of Zambia to retain the academic staff in 1990 -2016 ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.374-386 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/374-386.pdf

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Built Environment Education as the Bedrock for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria

Yakubu Bayi ANGBO, Godwin NDARNI, Obadiah BASHAYI – August 2021 – Page No.: 387-394

Technology, social and economic phenomena of man are in-separate-able. This is so because right from creation the concepts of technology, social behaviour and economic desire of man were innately deposited or rather inbuilt in him. The quest to know (technology), the quest for companionship (social desire) and the quest to be better up (economic drive) were all seen from Adam and Eve right from creation. Besides, the three terms (technology, social and economic) developments connote the concept of education. They are dynamically advancing. The paper seeks to bring to lime light the relevance of technical education as the only way out for attaining and resolving human social and economic challenges for national growth and the problems that impede the quality of technical education graduates in Nigeria to compete favourable with other advanced technological world. The researchers employed both primary and secondary data as their methodology to draw out findings for this research. The primary data were through personal observations and experiences of teaching over the years and secondary data was through literature review. The findings reveals that technical education of built environment is being hampered by defective education policy, students’ poor educational background, poor motivation of staff and poor teaching and physical facilities. These challenges have affected quality of our graduates to drive the technology needed for sustainable national development. To overcome these challenges, the paper recommends that the welfare of the teachers should be reviewed and their salaries increased, government should review admission policy to remove quota system and allow for merit irrespective of geopolitical region, proper funding and provision of functional facilities in schools. In conclusion, technical education holds the key to national development and government at all levels must give attention to it for national growth.

Page(s): 387-394                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2021

  Yakubu Bayi ANGBO
Department of Estate Management, Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia, Nigeria

  Godwin NDARNI
Department of Architectural Technology, Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia, Nigeria

  Yakubu Bayi ANGBO
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia, Nigeria

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Yakubu Bayi ANGBO, Godwin NDARNI, Obadiah BASHAYI “Built Environment Education as the Bedrock for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.387-394 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/387-394.pdf

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Challenges Pupils with Albinism face in Selected Schools of Luapula Province, Zambia

Kanyungo M. Vernon, Magasu Oliver and Penda Annie – August 2021 – Page No.: 395-401

The aim of this study was to investigate the challenges pupils with albinism face in schools. It was a case study which comprised of thirty (30) participants from St. Mary’s Girls Secondary School and St. Mary’s Special School for the Visually Impaired in Kawambwa. This study was qualitative in nature. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. A descriptive research design was used. The key findings of the study revealed that pupils with albinism were not accepted but discriminated by their fellow pupils who were not albinos and some teachers. The pupils also faced problems with teaching and learning materials which were not user friendly. Further, the findings revealed that pupils with albinism had low self-esteem compared to those without albinism as a result of the challenges they faced. Based on the findings, this study recommends there should be psychological intervention programmes which include assertiveness training and personal coping skills for pupils with albinism in schools so as to continue to strengthen their self- esteem and assertiveness. The study further recommends that when designing education policies, policy makers should not only consider the academic, but also the physiological and the psychological needs of learners with albinism with the aim of protecting their rights.

Page(s): 395-401                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2021

  Kanyungo M. Vernon
ECO Bank Zambia – Lusaka

  Magasu Oliver
Kwame Nkrumah University

 Penda Annie
Kwame Nkrumah University

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[23] Selepe, D., M. (2007). Teenagers with Oculocutaneous Albinism in Polokwane: Their Self – Esteem and Perceptions of Societal Attitudes. MA Thesis: University of Limpompo.
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Kanyungo M. Vernon, Magasu Oliver and Penda Annie “Challenges Pupils with Albinism face in Selected Schools of Luapula Province, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.395-401 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/395-401.pdf

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Does Temperament predict Emotional Intelligence?

Mary Rachelle Reyes-Wapano, PhD – August 2021 – Page No.: 402-412

This study examined the relationship between temperament and EI in an adolescent population. The sample of this study consisted of 300 respondents, 166(55%) were females and 134 (45%) were males. The average age of respondent’s was19.10 years (SD = 1.956). Tools used in this study were Trait Meta Mood Scale -TMMS and Parental Authority Questionnaire – PAQ. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the predictive relationships among variables. Results revealed that parenting styles is a significant predict emotional intelligence among adolescents.. This study demonstrated that parenting styles contribute to EI development. The findings provide insight in the field of EI antecedents and underscore the potential significance of parents’ role in the development EI among adolescents

Page(s): 402-412                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5826

  Mary Rachelle Reyes-Wapano, PhD
Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

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Mary Rachelle Reyes-Wapano, PhD “Does Temperament predict Emotional Intelligence?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.402-412 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5826

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Exploring Challenges Affecting Women Entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe: The Case of Proweb?

Linience Tsitsi Charuma, Josphat Nyoni, Oliver Kapepa – August 2021 – Page No.: 413-418

This research aimed at exploring the challenges affecting women entrepreneurs in the construction sector in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by the pragmatism philosophy and hence adopted a mixed research orientation. The study was based on a descriptive research design. Self-administered questionnaires and interview guides were used for primary data collection. Data was collected from 310 women entrepreneurs in the construction sector in Zimbabwe. Data was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results from the study showed that cultural and social factors, limited access to education, limited access to funding and work life and family balance were challenges affecting the growth and success of women entrepreneurs in the construction sector. The study concluded that a variety of factors ranging from social discrimination, cultural perceptions, inferiority complex and harsh economic factors were constraining the growth and success of female operated entrepreneurs in the construction sector. Based on these conclusions, the study recommended that government must provide significant targeted financial support to the female enterprises in the construction sector to capitalize them so as to make them competitive. More vigorous awareness programs are also required to support women’s voice as well as to effect changes from engrained patriarchal cultural norms. It is also recommended to adopt and operationalize collaboration, integration among female entrepreneurs in the construction sector so as to foster mentoring schemes. Empowering female entrepreneurs in the construction sector to be more aggressive in the marketing their construction works. A deliberate gender equity in the recruitment of more females in construction programs in universities and colleges is also critical to ensure that females possess the required skills and expertise in construction works.

Page(s): 413-418                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2021

  Linience Tsitsi Charuma
Women’s University in Africa, Harare , Zimbabwe

  Linience Tsitsi Charuma
Women’s University in Africa, Harare , Zimbabwe

  Linience Tsitsi Charuma
Colonnade Business Leadership School

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Linience Tsitsi Charuma, Josphat Nyoni, Oliver Kapepa “Exploring Challenges Affecting Women Entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe: The Case of Proweb?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.413-418 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/413-418.pdf

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Towards Articulating Meaning and Provisions for 21st Century Skills in Nigerian Secondary Schools- A Secondary Study

Oluwatoyin Adelakun-Adeyemo – August 2021 – Page No.: 419-426

21st century skills are critical competencies and attitudes that individuals must have to be productive citizens in the 21st century knowledge economy. It is therefore critical to ensure that these skills are being taught and learnt in schools to prepare young people for life and work as successful citizens. Three research questions are posed and a desktop study is conducted to articulate a contextual meaning for 21st century skills, analyse the policy provisions and required supported needed to ensure teaching and learning of 21st century skills in Nigerian secondary schools. An extensive literature review is conducted to draw comparison and synthesize meaning and articulate the state of practice in 21st century teaching a learning standards. In answering the research questions, clear requirements for ensuring that teaching and learning of 21st century skills is happening in schools have been documented with reference to important literature. The conclusion is that the Nigerian education policy and curriculum falls short of global and regional standards of provisions in response to the needs of 21st century workforce and the recommendation is an urgent revision of the current curriculum to make explicit recognition of and provisions for teaching and learning of 21st century skills in Nigerian secondary schools. Particularly, it is recommended that the curriculum developers create a ‘learner exit profile’ to serve as the vision of graduates that should be produced by a 21st century skills sensitive curriculum.

Page(s): 419-426                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 September 2021

  Oluwatoyin Adelakun-Adeyemo
Department of Computer Science, Bingham University, Nigeria

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[2] C. C. Uchendu, “ASSESSING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ SKILL ACQUISITION FOR EMPLOYABILITY IN CROSS RIVER STATE,” Int. J. Educ. Learn. Dev., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 2015, Accessed: Jun. 06, 2020. [Online]. Available: www.eajournals.org.
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[4] C. Joynes, S. Rossignoli, and E. F. Amonoo-Kuofi, “21st Century Skills: evidence of issues in definition, demand and delivery for development contexts (K4D Helpdesk Report),” Brighton, UK, 2019.
[5] J. Voogt and N. P. Roblin, “21st Century Skills: Discussion Paper.” University of Twente, 2010.
[6] G. Donaldson, “Successful Futures: Independent Review of Curriculum and Assessment Arrangements in Wales,” 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.nasuwt.org.uk/asset/A788604C-3046-4005-A1EA0EAFF023E0DD/(Accessed 3 March 2020).
[7] O. Adeosun, “Teacher Education Programmes and the Acquisition of 21 st Century Skills: Issues and Challenges in Nigeria,” 2010.
[8] L. I. Ajoku, “Professional Development of Teachers, Action Planning and Utilizing 21st Century Skills in Nigerian Schools,” J. Educ. Pract. , vol. 4, no. 15, 2013, Accessed: Jun. 07, 2020. [Online]. Available: www.iiste.org.
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Oluwatoyin Adelakun-Adeyemo, “Towards Articulating Meaning and Provisions for 21st Century Skills in Nigerian Secondary Schools- A Secondary Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.419-426 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/419-426.pdf

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Relationship between Capacity Building and Employee’ Retention among Public Institutions in Rwanda, Gatsibo District

Emmanuel Turatsinze, Thomas K Tarus – August 2021 – Page No.: 427-430

Public institutions need to be aware of their employees need in more realistically towards keeping their human resources up-to-date. Managers need to pay special attention to core functions of human resource management through the employee capacity building as this plays an important role in the organization. The general objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between capacity building and employee retention. The study was anchored on knowledge Based Theory and theory of social exchange. The study adopted descriptive research design while the sample size was 74 employees. The study used questionnaire as data collection instruments and analyzed using inferential statistics. The results revealed that employee empowerment and career development had a positive and significant relationship on employees’ retention (β = 0.273, p<0.05; β = 0.085; p<0.05). Thus, the study concluded that the predictor variables enhance retention of employees in the organization. The research added new knowledge on how capacity building contributes to the employees’ retention and also forms a foundation of further research. The study suggests on the improvement of employee empowerment and career development as a way of improving retention rate of employees.

Page(s): 427-430                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 September 2021

  Emmanuel Turatsinze
Masters student, Graduate School University of Kigali-Rwanda

  Thomas K Tarus
Lecturer, Graduate School, University of Kigali-Rwanda

[1] Adegoke, A. A., Mani, S., Abubakar, A., & Van Den Broek, N. (2013). Capacity building of skilled birth attendants: a review of pre-service education curricula. Midwifery, 29(7), e64-e72.
[2] Allen, D. G., Bryant, P. C., & Vardaman, J. M. (2010). Retaining talent: Replacing misconceptions with evidence-based strategies. Academy of management Perspectives, 24(2), 48-64.
[3] Amdany, M. J. (2017). The Perceived Effect of Career Development Practices on Employee Retention at the Safaricom Call Centers in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[4] Ancarani, A., Di Mauro, C., Giammanco, M. D., & Giammanco, G. (2018). Work engagement in public hospitals: A social exchange approach. International Review of Public Administration, 23(1), 1-19.
[5] Asfaw, A. M., Argaw, M. D., & Bayissa, L. (2015). The impact of training and development on employee performance and effectiveness: A case study of District Five Administration Office, Bole Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 3(04), 188.
[6] Benson, G. S. (2006). Employee development, commitment and intention to turnover: a test of ‘employability’policies in action. Human Resource Management Journal, 16(2), 173-192.
[7] Cancedda, C., Cotton, P., Shema, J., Rulisa, S., Riviello, R., Adams, L. V. & Binagwaho, A. (2018). Health professional training and capacity strengthening through international academic partnerships: The first five years of the Human Resources for Health Program in Rwanda. International journal of health policy and management, 7(11), 1024
[8] Dude, D. J. (2012). Organizational commitment of principals: The effects of job autonomy, empowerment, and distributive justice (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Iowa).
[9] Faiza, T. A., & Nazir, F. S. (2015). Capacity building boost employee performance. Industrial and Commercial Training, 47(2), 61-66.
[10] Jaseel, J. (2019). Impact of training and development on employee retention of the sales team in Vodafone at United Kingdom (Doctoral dissertation, Dublin Business School).
[11] Jeffrey, I., & Prasetya, A. B. (2019). The employee performance assessment and employee training, on employee intension. Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen, 17(1), 56-65.
[12] Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International.
[13] Pfeffer, J., & Jeffrey, P. (1998). The human equation: Building profits by putting people first. Harvard Business Press.
[14] Phillips, J. J., & Connell, A. O. (2003). Managing employee retention: a strategic accountability approach. Routledge.
[15] Samuel, N., & Chapman, E. (2020). Early Career, Enduring Impact: Jewish Campus Service Corps Alumni and Career Development.
[16] Scase, R., & Goffee, R. (1990). Women in management: towards a research agenda. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1(1), 107-125.
[17] Soto-Acosta, P., Popa, S., & Palacios-Marqués, D. (2017). Social web knowledge sharing and innovation performance in knowledge-intensive manufacturing SMEs. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(2), 425-440.
[18] Steel, R. P., Griffeth, R. W., & Hom, P. W. (2002). Practical retention policy for the practical manager. Academy of Management Perspectives, 16(2), 149-162.
[19] Terera, S. R., & Ngirande, H. (2014). The impact of rewards on job satisfaction and employee retention. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(1), 481.
[20] Wanyama, K. W., & Mutsotso, S. N. (2010). Relationship between capacity building and employee productivity on performance of commercial banks in Kenya. African Journal of History and Culture, 2(5), 73-78.

Emmanuel Turatsinze, Thomas K Tarus, “Relationship between Capacity Building and Employee’ Retention among Public Institutions in Rwanda, Gatsibo District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.427-430 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/427-430.pdf

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Primary school teachers’ perceptions on primary school headteachers’ communication styles in selected primary schools of Lukulu District, Zambia

Patience Mundia and Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga PhD – August 2021 – Page No.: 431-437

This study established the effects of the head teachers’ communication styles on the job performance of teachers in selected primary schools in Lukulu District of Western province in Zambia. The approach used in this research was mixed method. This was chosen because it increased the usefulness and credibility of the results found as data collection and data analysis was done using both quantitative and qualitative. A pragmatic world view was employed in this study because of its practicability and position thought to be well suited to mixed methods. The study used convergent parallel research design to which data is collected concurrently from questionnaires and interviews. The goal of this research was achieved by using an accessible sample consisting of 10 primary school head teachers and 100 primary school teachers. The study was done in 10 primary schools. In the quantitative part of the research, systematic random sampling strategy was used in the choice of the sample for the study. In the qualitative part of the study, non-probability sampling was used. Purposive sampling was used in the identification of respondents to be included in the sample. The research instruments used in this study were Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were used for collection of data from the teachers whereas semi structured interviews were used to collect information from the head teachers. In this study quantitative data was analysed deductively using the statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0). On the other hand, qualitative data was analysed inductively by grouping it into categories according to emerging themes.The findings of the study reviewed that the communication styles that were used by head teachers to improve the job performance of primary school teachers included aggressive, assertive, manipulative, open and inclusive. According to the responses from the participants, it was revealed that head teachers’ communication styles had both negative and positive effects on the job performance of teachers in Lukulu District of Western province in Zambia. The study recommended that there was need to encourage teamwork among teachers and head teachers, to be appreciating the teachers’ efforts, allowing teachers to participate in decision making processes, promoting free communication among the teachers, and the head teachers’ creation of safe and secure working environments.

Page(s): 431-437                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 September 2021

  Patience Mundia
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

  Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga (PhD)
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

[1] Akinwale, A.S., and Okotoni, C.A. (2018).Assessment of principal’s communication styles and administrative impact on secondary schools in Osun state, Nigeria. IJARP 3 (1) 43-48.
[2] Al Hajar, R.K. (2016).The effectiveness of school principals’ communication on job satisfaction. Unpublished Mastersthesis.United Arab Emirates Universitry. Abu Dhabi
[3] Bokeno RM. (2007). Dialogue at work? What it is and isn’t. Development and Learning in Organizations. 21(1):9–11.
[4] Ezenwekwe, M. (2013).Teacher-principal communication pattern as correlate of thesis.University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[5] Hall, J. (2013). Pragmatism, evidence, and mixed methods evaluation (Special Issue: Mixed methods and credibility of evidence in evaluation). New Directions for Evaluation, 2013(138), 15- 26.
[6] De Vries, E.R., Bakker-Pieper, A and Oostenveld, W. (2010). Leadership = Communication? The Relations of Leaders’ Communication Styles with Leadership Styles, Knowledge Sharing and Leadership Outcomes Journal of Business psychology, 25(3): 367–380.
[7] Johnson, R. B., &Onwuegbuzie, A. (2006). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.
[8] Kambeya, N.V.(2008). Georgia Teachers’ Perceptions of Principals’ Interpersonal Communication Skills as They Relate to Teacher Performance.Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 198. https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/etd/198
[9] Lussier, R.N. (2010). Organisational structure and communication. Humana relations in organisations: applications and skills building (8thed) 182-188. New York: McGraw Hill Inc.
[10] Likando, M. (2013). Primary teachers’ perceptions of their training in classroom questioning skills in primary teachers colleges of education: a case of serving primary school teachers in Lukulu district. Unpublished MED dissertation, University of Zambia: Lusaka.
[11] Odhiambo, A.F. (2005). Headteachers’ communication strategies and their effects on academic performance in public school in Nyandodistrict.Unpublished PhD thesis.University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[12] Proctor, C. (2014). Effective organisational communication affects employee attitude, happiness and job satisfaction. Unpublished MA dissertation.Southern Utah University.
[13] Saglam, A.C., and Aydogmus.M. (2017). Secondary school directors’ communication competence on the basis of teachers opinions. Universiteparkbutten. 6(1) 20-32.
[14] Sanduleac, S. & Capafind, T. (2016).The influence of leadership communication on school teachers’ job satistifcation.Journal of psychology, Special pedagogy, Social work 45ulec(4)
[15] Sezgin, F.and Er, E. (2016). Teachers perception of school principals interpersonal communication styles. A qualitative study of a Turkish primary school. IOJES 8 (4) 10-19.
[16] Solaja, O. M, Faremi, E. I., & Adesina, E. J. 2015. Exploring the relationship between leadership communication style, personality trait and organizational productivity. Serbian Journal of Management 11(1) 99 – 117

Patience Mundia and Dr. Rosemary Muma Mulenga PhD, “Primary school teachers’ perceptions on primary school headteachers’ communication styles in selected primary schools of Lukulu District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.431-437 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/431-437.pdf

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Perceived Effect of Library User Education on Students’ Library Patronage in Universities in Benue State, Nigeria

Audu, Patricia. O, Prof. Uganneya, Solomon. A, Igbashal, Anthony A. (PhD) – August 2021 – Page No.: 438-443

The study investigated the perceived effect of user education on students’ library patronage in universities in Benue State, Nigeria. The study looked at the Perceived influence of library orientation and bibliographic instruction on students’ library patronage. Two research questions guided the study while two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a survey research design. The population for the study comprises 3400 library registered second year student users in the three universities in Benue State for the 2016/2017 session. The sample size for the study was 358 students who were selected using simple random sampling technique. The instrument employed for data collection was a self-constructed structured questionnaire titled “Perceived Effect of Library User Education on Students’ Library Patronage Questionnaire” (PELUESLPQ) which was validated by experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was established using Cronbach Alpha method and a reliability coefficient of 0.80 was obtained. Data was collected and analyzed using Means and Standard Deviation to answer the research questions and Chi-Square statistic to test the hypotheses at 0.05level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that, Library Orientation and Bibliographic Instruction have significant perceived effect on students’ library patronage in the universities in Benue State. The study concluded that the user education programmes taught in the universities in Benue State have greatly impacted students’ library patronage. Recommendations were made that, User education programmes should be made compulsory in universities since it equips students’ with necessary skills in the use of library and efforts should be made to encourage students’ attendance to user education lectures since the programme has been found to enable students to be self-reliant in the use of library

Page(s): 438-443                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 September 2021

  Audu, Patricia. O
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

  Prof. Uganneya, Solomon. A
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

  Igbashal, Anthony A. (PhD)
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

[1]. Abubakar, U. A. (2012). User education in University Libraries: Strategies for improvement in the 21st century. Benue Journal of Library Management and Information Science 2.1 & 2.49, 50, 51, 52- 56.
[2]. Afolabi, K. A. (2010). Impact of library orientation programmes on the use of library resources by students of Adeyemi Collefe of Education, Ondo Nigeria. Gateway Library Journal 11(2), 46 – 54.
[3]. Agyen Gyasi K. (2008). User Education at the Kwame Nkramah University of Science and Technology (KMUST) Library: Prospects and Challenges. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal) 4.
[4]. Akor, P. U. (2009). Impact of Library Institution on the Utilization of Library Services by Under-graduate Students in Benue State University, Makurdi: An International Journal of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 6(2), 23 – 29.
[5]. Amkpa, S. A. (2011). Students use of University of Maiduguri Libraries: An Evaluation Study. Gateway Journal of Library and Information Science 2(3), 370-380.
[6]. Association of College and Research Libraries (2000). Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices. A Guideline from http/www.alce.orgaba/acristandards/characteristic.html. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
[7]. Audu, E. D. (2011). User Education Programmes in Colleges of Education in Plateau and Nasarawa States of Nigeria, Coal City Library. Journal of the Nigerian Library Association.
[8]. Maduako, P. U. (2013). User education and library use in colleges of education in Abia and Imo States. Library Philosophy and Practice (e.journal). Paper 955. Retrieved from 1,2,3 http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/955
[9]. Ogunmodede, T . A. & Emeahara, E. N. (2010). The effect of library use education as a course on library patronage: A case study of LAUTECH library, Ogbomosho, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice. Available at www.webpages.uidaha.edu/../ipf2010.htm.
[10]. Oyesiku, M. A. (2000). The gender dimension of the use of law libraries in tertiary institutions, a case of Ogun State University Law Library. Gateway Library Journal, 2 & 3: 81 – 88.
[11]. Tiefel, V. M. (1995). Library User Education: Examining its past, projecting its future. Library Trends 44(2): 318-338.
[12]. Uganneya, S. A. (2016). User Education Lecture Note. Makurdi, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.
[13]. Ventor, H. (2010). User Orientation in the library. Retrieved on February 24 (2009) from www.Fs.gor.29/Deprtment/SAC/Library/User.

Audu, Patricia. O, Prof. Uganneya, Solomon. A, Igbashal, Anthony A. (PhD), “Perceived Effect of Library User Education on Students’ Library Patronage in Universities in Benue State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.438-443 August 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-8/438-443.pdf

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Effects of Cooperative and Questioning Instructional Strategies on Academic Performance of Upper Basic Social Studies Students in Delta State

Etaneki, Akpesiri. Faith – August 2021 – Page No.: 444-452

This study investigated the effects of cooperative and questioning strategies on academic performance of Upper Basic Social studies students in Delta State. Six hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A quasi-experimental, equivalent pre-test, post-test, control group design using a 3x2x3 factorial design was adopted for the study. The population of this study comprises a total 77,295 Upper Basic 8 students in all the 471 public secondary schools in Delta State during the 2017/2018 session The sample of the study was 204 Upper Basic 8 students randomly selected from three different schools. The selected schools were randomly assigned to three treatment group. Treatments were given to the three groups for four weeks. A Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT) with reliability coefficient of 0.77 was used to measure students’ performance before and after treatments. Data was analysed using T-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings showed that: There is a significant difference in the academic performance of social studies students taught with cooperative instructional strategy and those taught with conventional lecturing method; There is a significant difference in the academic performance of social studies students taught with questioning instructional strategy and those taught with conventional lecturing method; There is no significant difference in the academic performance of social studies students taught with cooperative instructional strategy and those taught with questioning instructional strategy; There is a significant difference in the mean performance scores among the three group of students taught using cooperative, questioning and conventional lecturing instructional strategies;, There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught using cooperative instructional strategy, questioning instructional strategy and conventional lecturing instructional strategy in Social Studies; and there is no significant interaction effect of instructional strategies and students scoring ability on students’ academic performance in Social Studies. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others, that Social Studies teachers should endeavour to expose students to cooperative and questioning instructional strategies so as to promotes and encourages social interaction, active engagement in learning, self-motivation, learning by doing and learning by experience in the classroom.

Page(s): 444-452                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 September 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5827

  Etaneki, Akpesiri. Faith
Department of Social Science Education (Social Studies, Unit), Faculty of Education, Delta State University, Abraka

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Etaneki, Akpesiri. Faith, “Effects of Cooperative and Questioning Instructional Strategies on Academic Performance of Upper Basic Social Studies Students in Delta State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-8, pp.444-452 August 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5827

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Effects of Product Design on Performance of Commercial Banks in Garissa County, Kenya

Abdirahman Mohamed Roble; Dr. Jane Wanjira – August 2021 – Page No.: 453-458

An organization’s superior performance mostly results from its strategic choice that provides the firm a better positioning in the industry structure. As a result of dynamic environment banks face arising from high competition posed by the other commercial and non-commercial banks. Therefore, in a highly uncertain and changing environment, strategic managers need to have the strategic flexibility to respond to problems speedily. Therefore, the study sought to determine the effect of product design on performance of commercial banks in Garissa County, Kenya. This study employed a descriptive survey research design. The population for this study was four commercial banks namely: Kenya Commercial Bank, Equity Bank, Cooperative Bank and National Bank in Garissa County, Kenya. The respondents were managers in top, middle and low level management employees. A census of 82 respondents was carried out. Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study further carried out multiple regressions to determine the effect between variables. The study found that product design had a positive and significant effect on the performance. The study concluded that the banks have a very effective product design implementation that has enhanced their performance by attracting more consumers, providing ease, and making services available to their customers. The study recommended that the commercial banks should create a solid understanding of their opportunities by looking at the entire market based on their customer to determine the actual potential.

Page(s): 453-458                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 September 2021

  Abdirahman Mohamed Roble
Kenyatta University, Kenya

  Dr. Jane Wanjira
Kenyatta University, Kenya

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