The Impact of Utilizing Learning Resources on Junior Secondary School Students’ Performance in Basic Science

Longinus, Nwala PhD – October 2021- Page No.: 01-06

This study investigated the impact of utilizing learning resources on junior secondary school students’ performance in Basic Science. The descriptive survey research design was adopted with a population and sample size of 16,077 and 385 students respectively. Simple random technique was used to select the sample. Learning Resources Utilization Questionnaire (LRUQ) and Basic Science Performance Test (BSPT) were the instruments validated and used for data collection. The reliability indices of LRUQ and BSPT obtained by test and re-test methods were 0.78 and 0.74 respectively. Data collected using the instruments were analyzed. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the three research questions while analysis of variance was used to test the two hypothesis formulated to guide the study. Findings of the study revealed that the extent of utilizing learning resources in teaching Basic Science was high. The difference between the performance of students taught Basic Science with and without learning resources was significant. However gender difference was not significant. The use of learning resources to teach Basic Science was highly recommended to enhance the performance of students’ in the subject.

Page(s): 01-06                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2021

 Longinus, Nwala PhD
Department of Integrated Science, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Longinus, Nwala PhD , “The Impact of Utilizing Learning Resources on Junior Secondary School Students’ Performance in Basic Science” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.01-06 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/01-06.pdf

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Influence of Teachers Biographic Attributes on Their Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Edo State of Nigeria

Chief Ogbidi Iyare Friday, Miss Oliha Anthonia – October 2021- Page No.: 07-13

The study was undertaken to examine the influence of teacher’s biographic attributes on their job performance in public secondary schools in Edo State. Various theories concerning some concepts such as gender and marital status, qualification, experience as it relates to the job performance levels of teachers. Teachers were orally interviewed on these various variables as it affects their levels of job performance. The result showed that there was moderate level of teachers job performance in Edo State. It was recommended that qualified teachers should be employed and that Government should encourage teachers to attend conferences and seminars inorder to improve on their job performance.

Page(s): 07-13                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2021

 Chief Ogbidi Iyare Friday
Department of English Studies, College of Education, Igueben, Edo State, Nigeria

 Miss Oliha Anthonia
Lecturer, Department of English Studies, College of Education, Igueben, Edo State, Nigeria

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Chief Ogbidi Iyare Friday, Miss Oliha Anthonia, “Influence of Teachers Biographic Attributes on Their Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Edo State of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.07-13 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/07-13.pdf

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Rising Insecurity and Development in Nigeria

Uebari Samuel N-Ue, Ph. D, & Dr. Goodnews, Wabah – October 2021- Page No.: 14-24

Nigeria returned to democratic rule 1999 after many years of military autocracy. Since then, the country has come under array of complex security threats. This paper, therefore, examined these security threats like insurgency, terrorism, banditry and cattle rustlings, pastoralists/farmers skirmishes, militancy and communal conflicts among others and their profound repercussions on national security and development. Adopting the multi-disciplinary approach, this study revealed that at the root of these emerging threats lie mass misgvings over the perceived political thuggery, poverty and hunger, unemployment, lack of government responsibility, collapse of social infrastructure, and corruption within the system. The findings of the paper showed that the insecurity with its frightening and unprecedented dimensions had serious adverse effects on the State’s security architecture, personal safety, national stability and development. It recommends among other things, that priority attention should be focused more on people-centred measures that could more easily deliver the good life to the entire citizenry than on military hard ware and institutions.

Page(s): 14-24                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2021

 Uebari Samuel N-Ue, Ph. D
Department of History & Diplomatic Studies Ignatius Ajru University Fo Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Dr. Goodnews, Wabah
Department of Social Studies/Sociology Faculty of Social Sciences Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Uebari Samuel N-Ue, Ph. D, & Dr. Goodnews, Wabah “Rising Insecurity and Development in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.14-24 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/14-24.pdf

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Effect of Social Media Tools on Service Delivery of Hospitality Businesses in Akure, Nigeria

Olowofeso, Edamisan & Ale, Olatide Aarinola – October 2021- Page No.: 25-31

The study examines the extent and effect of social media tools on the service delivery of hospitality businesses in Akure, Nigeria. A total of 122 hospitality businesses were obtained from the records of the Ondo State Ministry of Culture and Tourism and used as respondents for the study. Two sets of copies of structured questionnaires were administered randomly to 100 selected hospitality businesses. A manager and customer were randomly selected from each of the hospitality businesses as respondents. A total of 200 copies of questionnaires were administered. However, the analysis, which relied on the use of SPSS version 25, was based on 174 copies that were retrieved. The reliability test was determined using Cronbach’s alpha and all the variables were above 0.7. The study adopted descriptive statistics to analyse the nature and extent of the different social media tools used in the industry while multiple linear regression techniques were used to analyse the result. Findings revealed that Facebook, WhatsApp and Twitter were the most prominent social media tools used by the respondents. Results of the multiple regression analysis revealed an R2 of 0.717 and a significant value of P < 0. 05. The study concluded that there is a positive relationship between the use of social media tools and the service delivery of hospitality businesses in the study area, and therefore, recommended the utilisation of social media tools to increase their visibility on the digital space, for proper planning and maximum success.

Page(s): 25-31                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2021

 Olowofeso, Edamisan
Department of Entrepreneurship, School of Management Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

 Ale, Olatide Aarinola
Department of Entrepreneurship, School of Management Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

[1] Ahmad, H. A. (2011). Social media marketing. GRIN Verlag
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Olowofeso, Edamisan & Ale, Olatide Aarinola , “Effect of Social Media Tools on Service Delivery of Hospitality Businesses in Akure, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.25-31 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/25-31.pdf

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Provision of Facilities for Effective Implementation of School-Based Technical and Vocational Education in Delta State: The Planning Imperative

Dr Ohia, Adanma Ngozi – October 2021- Page No.: 32-36

The main thrust of this study was to examine the provision of facilities for effective implementation of school-based technical and vocational education in Delta State, the planning imperative.One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The census sampling technique was used. The sample of the study consists of 292 respondents, which comprised 12 administrators and 280 instructors in the sixtechnical and vocational institutions in the state. A researcher- structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The instrument which was structured according to the modified four-point Likert scale was validated and had a reliability coefficient of 0.80 got using Cronbach Alpha method. The research questionwas answered using mean and standard deviation, while the null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using the z-test statistics. The study revealed thatgovernment involvement in technical planning for the construction of school building, provision of furniture and fittings are some of the ways of planning the provision of facilities. The study recommended among other things that government should ensure that workshops in the technical and vocational schools are equipped with required facilities. Government also needs to synergize with technical educational planners for the provision of appropriate facilities.

Page(s): 32-36                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2021

 Dr Ohia, Adanma Ngozi
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[4] Ebete, S. E. (2016). Planning Network for effective Implementation of Techno – Vocational Education Programme in Rivers state. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Port Harcourt.
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Dr Ohia, Adanma Ngozi, “Provision of Facilities for Effective Implementation of School-Based Technical and Vocational Education in Delta State: The Planning Imperative” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.32-36 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/32-36.pdf

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Britain and United States’ influence on opposition politics in Africa: A Case of Movement for Democratic Change in Zimbabwe

Tapfuiwa James Katsinde & Blessing Muchambo – October 2021- Page No.: 37-55

The purpose of the study was to analyse the influence of Britain and USA on opposition politics in Africa: A case of MDC in Zimbabwe. Literature reviewed from various sources showed that a number of opposition parties in Africa lack a strong financial base thus rely on foreign financial and technical funding. The Liberal Democratic and the Rational Choice Theories were employed as the theoretical frameworks to guide this study. The qualitative methodology was adopted to conduct the study. Questionnaires, documents and interviews were used to collect data. The target population was party members from the MDC and ZANU PF. A sample of 60 members and key informants identified through purposive and snowballing sampling techniques was used. The research found out that financial sources of political parties are membership subscriptions, individual donations, state allocations, party investments and business sector. No foreign funding was evident. Technical support and capacity building programmes are provided to all political parties by international agencies and local NGOs funded indirectly by Britain and USA. The impact of capacity building programmes is strengthened parliamentary committees and improved level of understanding of legislative procedures. Based on research findings, the research concluded that there is no influence of opposition parties’ policies due to financial, technical and capacity building support provided by Britain and USA. Recommendations were that political parties should encourage payment of membership fees and individual donations and the amendment of the Political Parties Finance Act to allow a certain percentage of foreign funding. An area for further study would be a comparative analysis of opposition political parties’ electoral performance in Southern Africa.

Page(s): 37-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2021

 Tapfuiwa James Katsinde
Department of Peace and Governance, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 Blessing Muchambo
Department of Peace and Governance, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

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Tapfuiwa James Katsinde & Blessing Muchambo , “Britain and United States’ influence on opposition politics in Africa: A Case of Movement for Democratic Change in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.37-55 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/37-55.pdf

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Support Services for Students with Disabilities in Higher Education Institutions: A Case of the University of Dar- es -Salaam in Tanzania

Ngonyani, J. C, Mnyanyi, C.B – October 2021- Page No.: 56-61

This study inspected the support services provided to students with disabilities (SWD) in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Tanzania, where a total of 173 respondents were involved in a descriptive study that was cross-sectional design. The respondents were categorized as follows; 33 SWD, including ten visually impaired, seven hearing impaired, seven physically impaired, five low vision, three Albino, and one speech impaired. Other respondents included 47 non-disabled students, 40 Dar-es-Salam University students’ organization (DARUSO) leaders, 35 trainers, and 18 management personnel. The study revealed the support services provided to SWD as caretakers, health and psychological support, accommodation facilities available around the University, sign language interpreters, readers, leaders, loans, and other special treatment. However, the study reports on shortages of special education staff and transport facilities. The study recommends the improvement of infrastructures accessible to SWD and the increase of more permanent committed special education educators and other specially trained supporting staff.

Page(s): 56-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2021

 Ngonyani, J. C
Department of Information and Communication Technology, Tanzania Public Service College, Tanzania.

 Mnyanyi, C.B
Department of Psychology and Special Education, The Open University of Tanzania, Tanzania

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Ngonyani, J. C, Mnyanyi, C.B, “Support Services for Students with Disabilities in Higher Education Institutions: A Case of the University of Dar- es -Salaam in Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.56-61 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/56-61.pdf

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Citizens’ Assistance and Satisfaction with Community Policing in Crime Control in Ishielu Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, South-East, Nigeria

Onuoha, Ogobuchi Onuoha, Oli, Nneka Perpetua – October 2021- Page No.: 62-70

The Nigeria police have been since inception bedeviled with myriads of challenges in the course of discharging their roles of crime prevention and control. They have also lost public trust because of their high-handedness and other inhuman treatment in dealing with the public. To mend fences and ensure public acceptability, the Nigeria police reviewed series of strategies which include community policing in crime control. To this end, this paper examined Citizens’ Assistance and Satisfaction with Community Policing in Crime Control in Ishielu Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, South-East, Nigeria. Ishielu L.G.A has a total population of one hundred and fifty-two thousand, five hundred and eighty-one (NPC, 2006), while the target population studied are the adult residents who have attained the age of 18years and above. The study is anchored on social bond theory. The study adopted mixed methods design. The sample size of 349 was generated using Fisher Lang, Stockel and Townsend method of determining sample size. The multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted in selecting respondents for the study. Questionnaire schedule was used to collect quantitative data while in-depth interviews were used to collect qualitative data. The quantitative data were processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Windows, Version 17. Also, descriptive statistics like frequency distribution tables, simple percentages and graphic illustrations were used to analyze the quantitative data while manual content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Findings of the study indicate that majority of the citizens are ready and willing to assist police in their effort to control crime. They also indicated high level of satisfaction with police services since they cooperate with members of the community in crime control. The study therefore recommended among others that the police and members of the public’s willingness to participate in activities that would ensure community safety should be seen and not mere media reports. Also, the police should eschew those behaviours that discourage the public from working with them.

Page(s): 62-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2021

 Onuoha, Ogobuchi Onuoha
Department of Psychology/Sociological Studies, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

 Oli, Nneka Perpetua
Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

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Onuoha, Ogobuchi Onuoha, Oli, Nneka Perpetua , “Citizens’ Assistance and Satisfaction with Community Policing in Crime Control in Ishielu Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, South-East, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.62-70 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/62-70.pdf

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Privatisation as an Engine of Economic Diversification in Kabwe District of Central Zambia

Silongwa Simakando & Lucy Kamboni – October 2021- Page No.: 71-76

This study aimed at assessing privatisation as an engine of economic diversification in Kabwe District of Central Zambia. Despite some studies arguing that privatisation subjected former employees to harsh economic conditions due to the loss of their jobs, this study argues that privatisation was an engine of economic diversification in Kabwe. This was because privatisation opened up new doors for former workers to come up with other economic activities that enabled them to earn a living. Instead of experiencing economic retrogression as suggested by some studies, former workers from the privatised parastatals engaged themselves in other economic activities like trading and farming which enabled them to live far much better lives as compared to the time when they were still in employment. The study further discusses that privatisation benefited not only former workers, but the entire community of Kabwe District. Apart from the people of Kabwe, Zambia at large and other parts of the world benefitted from the privatisation of Kabwe’s parastatals. Therefore, the findings of this study will help people within and outside Kabwe to appreciate privatisation as a blessing and not a curse

Page(s): 71-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2021

 Silongwa Simakando
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

 Lucy Kamboni
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

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[5] Interview with Mascort Mweemba on 14th May, 2021.
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Silongwa Simakando & Lucy Kamboni, “Privatisation as an Engine of Economic Diversification in Kabwe District of Central Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.71-76 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/71-76.pdf

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The Impact of Money Market Dynamics on the Economic Growth of Nigeria

Oluwaseun Okikiola – October 2021- Page No.: 77-85

The notion that monetary policy is a panacea for economic growth remains empirically subjected to open research. This study tries to close up the knowledge gap by examining the impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 2010 to 2019. This study examined the impact of the monetary policy, influence of dynamics in the money market as well as the influence of deposit and lending activities of the money market on the growth of the Nigerian economy. Preliminary analysis shows evidence of long run equilibrium relationship which implies that the variables exhibit a common deterministic trend. By the regression estimates, Monetary Policy (MPR) has a significant and positive impact on Economic Growth (b= 0.021, t= 3.86, p < 0.05), Government Lending Activities has a significant and negative influence on Economic Growth (b= -0.045, t= -2.52, p < 0.05), and deposit activities (SADR) has a significant and positive impact on Economic Growth (b= 0.038, t= 3.463, p < 0.05). While lending rate has a significant and negative influence on Economic Growth (b= -0.020, t= -1.986, p < 0.05), the inverse relationship between lending rates and lending activity (with lower lending rate leading to higher lending activities, and vice-versa), a positive relationship exists between lending activities and economic growth. The results of the impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Nigeria depicts the nature of the financial structure, characterized by a low level of development. Monetary policy and deposit activities impact the economy positively. Therefore, the study recommends that measures to further promote monetary policy and deposits activities be put in place to promote economic growth. Policies at stimulating market forces to the right direction be considered.

Page(s): 77-85                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51001

 Oluwaseun Okikiola
Principal Consultant, Axion Research, P.O. Box 2046, Lagos, Nigeria

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Oluwaseun Okikiola “The Impact of Money Market Dynamics on the Economic Growth of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.77-85 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51001

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Celebrities Campaign on Social Media to Get Justice for Rape Victims: A Study on Two Rape Incidents in Nigeria

Kourtney Oluwakemi Sunday, Dr. Amodu Lanre, Dr. Olusola Oyero, Opeyemi Olaoluwa Oredola – October 2021- Page No.: 86-91

The world is acquainted with social media revolution. It is no longer news that social media such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Telegram, Skype and many more are used as a tool for airing our opinions and sharing our views pertaining to various trivial issues around the globe. Celebrities on a daily basis use social media for lots of things and they have the power to influence or provoke change on any matter of social interest.
Most times victims of sexual assault tend to shy away from seeking justice due to the fear of being stigmatized; and when they voice out and celebrities go on social media to push for justice, it’s only a matter of time before the hype for justice dies down and victims are left shattered while their abusers go unpunished. This has been a trend for sometime now where at the beginning there’s so much hype to get justice and then it all dies down.
This study aimed to explore the outcome of celebrity campaign on social media to push for justice for two rape victims – Uwa and Barakat.
Questionnaire and content analysis methods have been used for this study. Questionnaire was used to determine the most used social media while content analysis was used to analyze posts with the hash tags #justice for Uwa and Barakat on the most used social media platform. Findings have revealed that celebrities push for justice for the case of Uwa and Barakat has tremendously led to the arrest of culprits involved in less than few days since the incident occurred.
However, the use of social media by celebrities as a tool in following up cases of rape is not popular in literature as it should be an important factor in fighting against sexual assault and getting justice for victims. Not much has been done in regards to celebrities using social media as a tool for social change particularly on the issue of sexual assault. It is imperative that celebrities utilize social media in following up cases of sexual assault and see it through till the very end as this will not only change the norm but will eventually serve as an eye opener to sex offenders that they won’t go unpunished.

Page(s): 86-91                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2021

 Kourtney Oluwakemi Sunday
Covenant University, Nigeria

 Dr. Amodu Lanre
Covenant University, Nigeria

 Dr. Olusola Oyero
Covenant University, Nigeria

 Opeyemi Olaoluwa Oredola
Covenant University, Nigeria

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[16] Olowoyo, G. (2020). #JusticeforUwa: Genevive, Falz, Don Jazzy and others demand justice for victim. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from Premium Times
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[20] Sobowale, I; Amodu, L; Aririguzoh, S; & Ekanem, T. (2015). The Internet as a tool for information and education: The case of ta community in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (pp.8232-8240). Barcelona, Spain.
[21] Talabi, F. O. (2016). Technological determinism and its implications for Africa media consumers. Retrieved July 17, 2020
[22] Thitivesa, V. (2017). Technological determinism and the media. Retrieved July 17, 2020 Toromade, S. (2020). Rape, Murder of teenagers refuels national outrage against rapists. Retrieved July 2020, from Pulse.ng
[23] UN, United Nations. (2015). #Envision2030: 17 goals to transform the world for persons with disability. Retrieved July 17, 2020, from un.org
[24] Wiryanta, M., Setiyawati, S., & Haryanto, B. (2017). Technological Determinism in Patterns of Communication and Social Behaviour change in Indonesia society. Asian Social Science , 13 (1911-2017), 12.
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Kourtney Oluwakemi Sunday, Dr. Amodu Lanre, Dr. Olusola Oyero, Opeyemi Olaoluwa Oredola , “Celebrities Campaign on Social Media to Get Justice for Rape Victims: A Study on Two Rape Incidents in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.86-91 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/86-91.pdf

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Media Strategies in Conflict Transformation: The Case of Cameroon Broadcast Media Coverage of the Anglophone Conflict

Beng Primus Fang – October 2021- Page No.: 92-100

The African continent is encountering numerous armed conflicts, some of which have been blamed on mass media. In these numerous armed conflicts that Africa is experiencing, the media, in view of the roles it plays in a society automatically becomes a key player in either fueling the conflicts or resolving them. Since 2016, Cameroon has been the epicenter of intrastate conflict with devastating consequences. With the proliferation of the broadcast media, the deepening of the conflict is not unconnected to the media. The media has played and continue to play a major role in the ongoing conflict. This study explored the role played by the broadcast media and examined the media strategies put in place by the broadcast media to minimize the occurrence of violence. Social Responsibility Theory of reporting was used to anchor this study. The study employs a mixed research design (qualitative and quantitative). Surveys and 110 interviews were administered to the audience and journalists respectively in Bamenda, Buea on a face-to-face and self-administered basis. Key findings of this study reveal that majority of the respondents (60.4%) are of the opinion that the broadcast media played the role of conflict escalation and majority of the journalists interviewed also shared the same view. Over 60% of the respondents hold that restructuring the content of broadcast media is major strategy to be employed in times of conflict. Content restructure of broadcast media is also recommended by journalists interviewed. The implication of the findings of this study is that it will add to existing literature in the field of peace, conflict transformation and communication. The research will serve as a platform for journalists to understand how to communicate during conflict.

Page(s): 92-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2021

 Beng Primus Fang
Department of International Relations and Conflict Resolution, University of Buea, Cameroon

[1] Ahmad, M. A. (2015). “Communication and Conflict in Nigeria: What Role for the Media?” Global Advanced Research Journal of Educational Research and Review (ISSN: 2315-5132) Vol. 4(8).
[2] Auwal, A.M. (2015). “Communication and Conflict in Nigeria: What role for the media?” Global Advanced Research Journal of Educational Research and Review, Vol. 4(8).
[3] Bell M (1998) The journalism of attachment. In: Kieran M (ed.) Media Ethics. London: Routledge.
[4] Betz, M. (2004). “Radio as a Peace Builder – A case Study of Radio Okapi in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” The Great Lakers Research Journal, Vol 1.
[5] Bertot, J.C., Jaeger, P.T., & Grimes, J.M. (2010). “Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media openness and anti-corruption tools for societies”. Government information Quarterly, 27, 264-271.
[6] Bratic, V., & Schirch, L. (2007). Why and When to use Media for Conflict Prevention and Peace Building. Retrieved from http://www.gppac.Net/uploads/fileprogrammes/awareness
[7] Cohen, B.C. (1963). The Press and Foreign Policy, Princeton. Princeton University Press: New Jersey.
[8] Dallaire, R. (2007). The media dichotomy, in Thomson Allan (ed), The Media and Rwanda Genocide.
[9] Gilboa, E. (2002). Media and Conflict: Framing Issues, Making Policy, Shaping Opinions. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers Inc.
[10] Howard, R. (2005). The media’s role in war and peace-building. In University of Peace, The role of the media in the Rwandan genocide: Short readings. San Jose, C.R: University of Peace.
[11] Hoffmann, J. 92013). Conceptualizing communication for peace. UPEACE Open Knowledge Network Occasional Working Papers, No. 1 January.
[12] Mugenda, O. and Mugenda G. (1999) Research Methods, Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches: Nairobi, Acts Press.
[13] Ndolo, I., S. (2011). Media as the fourth estate of the realm or imagined? In Ike S. Ndolo ed.,Contemporary issues in Ccommunication and society. Enugu: Rhyce Kerex Publishers.
[14] Ngange, K.L. (2019). Role of the mass media in the Anglophone lawyers and teachers strikes: Anglophone lawyers and teachers strikes in Cameroon (2016-2017). A multidimensional perspective. Les Presses Universitaires de Yaounde-Cameroon.
[15] Newbold, J. (1995). “Somalia.” Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts. (L. F. Damrosch, Ed.) New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.
[16] Nyamnjoh, F.B. (2005). Africa’s Medi: Democracy and the politics of belonging. London, Zed Books.
[17] Okumu, R. R. (1997). The Effect of war and government policies in Northern Uganda from 1986. UNDP. Gulu: (Unpublished Report).
[18] Schudson, M. (2001). The Objectivity Norm in American Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism. Journalism, Vol 2 (2).
[19] Struges, D. (2007). Third-Party Techniques for Preventing Conflict Escalation and Promoting Peaceful Settlement. International Organization, No. 4
[20] Tanjong, Minnie and Bussiek (2012), “Cameroon Report on a Twelve Country Survey of African Broadcast Media”, Open Society Initiative for West Africa, Open Society Foundations website.
[21] Rogers, E. M., Dearing, J.W., & Bregman, D. (1993): The anatomy of agenda-setting research. Journal of communication
[22] Viggo, M. (2011). Forging Peace: Intervention, Human Rights and the Management of Media Space. (P. M. Taylor, Ed.) Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
[23] Wolfsfeld, G. (2001). The news media and peace processes: The Middle East and Northern Ireland. Washington.: U.S. Institute of Peace Press.

Beng Primus Fang, “Media Strategies in Conflict Transformation: The Case of Cameroon Broadcast Media Coverage of the Anglophone Conflict” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.92-100 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/92-100.pdf

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Homework Policy Implementation in Selected Primary Schools of Kalabo District in Western Province of Zambia: Prospects and Challenges

Violet Mwanamwambwa, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Kaiko Mubita, Patrick Sikayomya, Muyangana Akombelwa and Nicholas Haambokoma – October 2021- Page No.: 101-108

This study explored homework policy implementation in selected primary schools of Kalabo district in Western Province of Zambia with particular focus on prospect and challenges. The study objectives were to establish the challenges pupils and parents encountered when given homework and to assess the prospects of giving homework to pupils in selected primary schools of Kalabo district. The study used a qualitative approach with the target population that consisted of three government primary schools in Kalabo district. The sample size comprised a total of 27 participants apportioned as three teachers, nine parents /guardians, and fifteen pupils from the three government schools selected. The three schools in Kalabo district were selected conveniently while the teachers, parents / guardians and pupils from each school were selected purposively. The research instruments used were semi-structured interview guides and focus group discussion guide. The study found that learners and parents encountered a number of challenges, it was observed that some parents did not want to help their children in answering their homework because they believed it was the role of the teachers to do so and not parents. The study established that despite these challenges learning through homework proved that teachers were engaging parents in the education of their children so that they could help them learn from what they knew in their environment. The prospects of giving homework to learners at selected primary schools were that: homework provided learners with an opportunity to improve the academic performance, it opened up the minds of learners to interact with friends to arouse the interest of learners, and they learnt how to manage their time and kept them in constant touch with school work. Parents did not regularly check their children’s homework because they were busy with work, farming and doing business which depicted a negative response towards their children’s homework. In view of the above findings, the study recommended that teachers should ensure that they give homework to learners which is manageable so that they finish on time and parents should help their children with homework by creating enough time for them.

Page(s): 101-108                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 October 2021

 Violet Mwanamwambwa
Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education, University of Zambia

 Kalisto Kalimaposo
Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education, University of Zambia

 Kaiko Mubita
Department of Language and Social Science Education, University of Zambia

 Patrick Sikayomya
Department of Language and Social Science Education, University of Zambia

 Muyangana Akombelwa
Department of Language and Social Science Education, University of Zambia

 Nicholas Haambokoma
Department of Religious Studies, University of Zambia

[1] Abrahams, I. (2013). The assessment of practical work in school science. Studies in science education, 49(2), pp. 209-251.
[2] Cooper, H. (2007). The Battle over Homework (3rd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
[3] Costa, M., Cordoso, A. P., Lacerda, C., Lopes, A., and Gomes, C. (2016). Homework in primary education from the perspective of teachers and pupils. Future Academy,multidisciplinary conference.
[4] Desforges C, & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The Impact of Parental Involvement, Parental Support and Family Education on Pupil. Achievement and Adjustment. London: Department of Education and Skills.
[5] Donbrack, J., Felix, N., and Scheckle, E. (2008). Parents, homework and socio-economic class: Discourses of deficit and disadvantage in the “New” South Africa. English Teaching Practice and Critique, 7(2).
[6] Eita, P (2007). Teacher Practices to Involve Parents in Homework in Namibian Schools. University of South Africa.
[7] Hong, E., Wan, M., and Peng, Y. (2011). Discrepancies between students and teachers perceptions of homework. Journal of advanced academics, 22(2), pp. 280-308.
[8] Kadodo, W. (2013). Homework: An Interface between Home and School. Is it a Myth or Reality in Rural Zimbabwean Primary Schools? British Journal of Education and Urban Society, 19(2), pp. 119-129.
[9] Kunene, M. (2016). Educators’ Perceptions of the Evidence Used to Support Decisions about Homework: A Case Study of A Former Model C Secondary School In Gauteng. A thesis submitted to the Wits School of Education, Faculty of Humanities, and University of the Witwatersrand in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Education
[10] Mahmoud, A. A. R. (2015). The influence of homework assignment on the students’achievement from the teachers’ perspectives. An-Najah University.
[11] Milbourne, A.L., and Haury, D.L. (1999). Why is Homework Important? Fall 6(2).
[12] Ministry of Education. (1996). Educating Our Future: Policy on Education. Government printers, Lusaka: Zambia.
[13] Ministry of General Education (MOGE). (2015). Integrating Teaching, Learning and Assessing: Revised Teachers’ Guide: Implementation of School-Based Assessment.
[14] Munsaka, E., and Matafwali, B. (2014). Human Development from Conception to Adolescence: Typical and A Typical Trends. Ndola: Mission Press.
[15] Nivo, A. (2008). Principles of Education and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
[16] Nunez, J.C., Epstein, J.L., Suarez, N., Rosario, P., Vallejo, G., and Valle, A. (2015). How do student prior achievement and homework behaviours relate to perceived parental involvement in homework? Frontiers in Psychology,
[17] Nyoni, A. F. (2012). Do Teachers have time for Homework? Harare: Zimbabwe Teachers‟ Association.
[18] Pfeiffer, V. (2018). Homework policy review: A case study of a public school in the Western Cape Province. South African Journal of Education, 38(1).
[19] Silinskas, Niemi, Lerkkanen, and Nurmi J.E. (2013). Children’s Poor Academic Performance Evokes Parental Homework assistance-But does it Help? International Journal of Behavioural Development, 37, 44-56.
[20] Songsirisak, P. (2019). Impact of homework assignment on students’ learning. Journal of Education Naresuan University, 22 (2).
[21] Tam, V.C., and Chan, R.M. (2009). Parental involvement in primary children’s homework in Hong Kong. The school community journal, 19(2), pp. 81-100.
[22] Vygotsky, L., S. (1978). Mind in Society the Developing of Higher Psychological Processes. London: Harvard University Press

Violet Mwanamwambwa, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Kaiko Mubita, Patrick Sikayomya, Muyangana Akombelwa and Nicholas Haambokoma , “Homework Policy Implementation in Selected Primary Schools of Kalabo District in Western Province of Zambia: Prospects and Challenges” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.101-108 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/101-108.pdf

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The Role of Religious Textbooks in Sri Lankan Schools in Promoting Social Relationship

MHA Munas, A.M.M. Hijas – October 2021- Page No.: 109-115

Sri Lanka is a multicultural country composed of the societies such as Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims, Catholics and Christians. It is seen that the contemporary society diverges from the footing of social reconciliation due to the responsiveness to violence, disparity, and economic inequity and affected by the disparity in region and ethnicity. This concept of reconciliation should be educated among individuals, families, and society. The hypothesis of this study is that if this concept of reconciliation is sowed during the childhood, the future of Sri Lanka is prosperous. The objective of this study is to assess and analyse the concept of reconciliation defined in the religious text of Grade 10 and recommend the strategies and suggestions to build up the ethnic coherence. The data used in this data are collected from the primary and secondary sources. It is found in this study that there is an exclusive unit seen in the textbook of Buddhist religion. The ethnic reconciliation is sowed directly and indirectly in five places and three places respectively in the textbook. In the textbook of Hinduism religion, the concept of ethnic reconciliation is seen indirectly in the three places. It is seen straightforwardly and indirectly in the three places and in the four places respectively in the textbook of Islamic religion. In the textbook of Christianity, the concept of ethnic reconciliation is stated directly and indirectly in the three places and in the two places respectively. In the textbook of Catholic religion, the ethnic reconciliation is stated directly and indirectly in one place and in the three places respectively. In addition, it is found that it indicates the insufficiency of the concept of ethnic reconciliation in the textbooks of the religion. It is recommended to design an exclusive subject for the ethnic reconciliation in the school textbooks and suggest educational tours in the schools motivating the ethnic reconciliation.

Page(s): 109-115                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 October 2021

 MHA Munas
Department of Arabic Language, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka

 A.M.M. Hijas
Department of Arabic Language, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka

[1] Islam Grade -10. Version -2019. Department of Educational Publications. ISBN 9789552501807
[2] Hinduism Grade-10. Version -2019. Department of Education Publications. ISBN 9789552501777
[3] Buddhism Grade-10. Version -2019. Department of Education Publications. ISBN 9789552503764
[4] Christianity Grade-10. Version -2019. Department of Education Publications. ISBN 9789552501784
[5] Catholicism Grade-10. Version -2019. Department of Education Publications.
[6] Abeygoonasekera, A. Gunaratna, R. (2012). Reconciliation after Terrorism: The Sri Lankan Experience. http://dbsjeyaraj.com/dbsj/archives/10144
[7] Aliff, S.M. (2016). Reconciliation in post war Sri Lanka. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/307905734.
[8] Bahry. M.S.F. (2019). Reconciliation between multicultural communities and Guidelines of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH).
[9] Emelie molleli. (2012). Sri Lanka unites and reconciliation-Transformation through change agents of a war infected nation. www.diva-portal.org.
[10] Faleel.M.A.(2001). Reconciliation between pluralistic social cultures in Sri Lanka. Kalmunai. Golden Press.
[11] Munsoor, MM. Project on Institution Building: Administrative Arrangements for Implementing Devolution. Colombo. International Center for Ethnic Studies.
[12] Musthaqeema. M.N. (2018). Impact of self-effacing alternative religious understanding and pay in the emergence of racial antagonisms among the Tamil natives.
[13] Nahiya.A.M.(2018) Muslim education thinking of Shafi Marikar and contribution in Sri Lanka, Colombo. All Ceylon Muslim Education Conference.
[14] Nisfa. M.S.F.(2019) The role of Muslims in bringing about ethnic harmony in contemporary Sri Lanka: Kalutara Muslim Community Based Study.
[15] Nor Faridah Abdul Manaf. (2017). Peace and Harmony in Islam: A 21st century perspective. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/317858238.
[16] Priyesahi.S. Educational development and modern changes in Sri Lanka. 2020.06.09 Retrieved from : https://www.virakesari.lk/article/83680 October 25th 2020
[17] Sajeetha, T.F. (2017). Ethnic Harmony in Post-war Sri Lanka. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318348515.
[18] Sindhu Priya.(2016). Contribution of Brahma Kumaris Raja Yoga Center in promoting social harmony. Study based on Jaffna district.
[19] Somananda, V.O. (n.d). Role of social work in building ethnic harmony through religions practice. http://www.bpu.ac.lk/resources/170/

Interviews
1. Mohamed Rifkhan. Teacher. Zahira College Dharga Town. (11.8.2020)
2. Fathima Nasmiya. Teacher. Zahira College Dharga Town. (11.8.2020)
3. Rev. Piyarathana,T. Thero. Teacher. WP/pili/ Makandana Sir Sudharshana Vidyalaya-Kesbewa. (13.8.2020)
4. Rev. Gurugoda Siriwimala Thero. Lecturer. Nagananda (University). (13.8.2020)
5. Rev.Fr. Roshan jayampathi. P.L.N. Jeevana diya faith church and Bible College Horona. (14.8.2020)
6. Sohundala. Teacher. M/R Ensalwatta Tamil Viddyalaya Viharahena Deniyaya. (14.8.2020)
7. Dhushanthan. Teacher. M/R Ensalwatta Tamil Viddyalaya Viharahena Deniyaya. (15.8.2020)
8. Rev.Fr. Jesuthasan, S. SP/M/R Ensalwatta Tamil Viddyalaya Viharahena Deniyaya. (12.8.2020)

MHA Munas, A.M.M. Hijas, “The Role of Religious Textbooks in Sri Lankan Schools in Promoting Social Relationship” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.109-115 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/109-115.pdf

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Digital Skills Scenario of the Workforce to Promote Digital Economy in Thailand under & Post COVID19 Pandemic

Kamolrat Intaratat – October 2021- Page No.: 116-127

Thailand’s Digital Skills Scenario of the Workforce to Promote Digital Economy Under & Post COVID-19 Pandemic is a qualitative research that involve an e-interview and desk research focused on the ecosystem of workforces empowerment in Thailand relevant to digital skills to serve the digital economy. The e-Interviews have been made to 45 interviewees who are urban migrant job seekers, fresh graduated students, private sectors, business associations, and government agencies under the current situation where COVID-19 pandemic and the technologies disruption to shape the new future jobs. Its objectives are to study 1) the scenario of workforces under the digital economy affected from COVID-19 pandemic and the technology disruption relevant with digital skills in Thailand; 2) the scenario of the digital skills relevant to the future jobs skills among all the workforces in Thailand; and 3) the government’s policy relevant digital re-skill-up-skilling among the workforces for the current demanding jobs and post COVID-19.
Findings are 1) the scenario of workforces relevant with digital literacy and digital skills among all the marginal workers from selected ASEAN countries found affected by the pandemic as well as technology disruption resulted in a pattern of businesses shifting from the formal sector to the informal sectors that affected to most of the low-mid skilled. The future of work has already arrived for a large majority of the online white-collar workforce. eighty-four percent of employers are set to rapidly digitalized working processes, including a significant expansion of remote work with its trend to change, currently 44% of workforces operates remotely; 2) the scenario of the digital literacy and digital skills relevant to the current and the future jobs skills among all the marginal workers found the top emerging jobs are data analysts, data scientists, digital marketing specialist, software and application developer, youtubers and start-ups. All kinds of administrative jobs, secretaries, accounting, book keeping, payroll clerk, HR would be declining. Most of the marginal workers have low -mid digital skills such as Microsoft Office, digital marketing, photoshop, social media, content creating, video editing. Workers are looking forward to re-skills in all related digital skills ranking from fundamental to mid and high skills such as data analytic, data science, software development, web development, cybersecurity, AI and programing which concerned as a necessary profile that one must have in-depth knowledge in order to attract all the demanding jobs; and 3) the government’s policy relevant to support any digital re-skill, up-skilling among all the workforces including the marginal workers to serve well with all demanding skills of the future jobs found similar in 1) accelerate workforce digital competency by partnering with private and industry sectors through TVET training system; 2) working with industry leaders to revamp national curriculums via digital learning pathways and emerging skillsets. The PPP strategy must be used for knowledge transfer and support to building Digital Ecosystem.

Page(s): 116-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51002

 Kamolrat Intaratat
Associate Professor- School of Communication Arts, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Thailand

[1] TAN, Kim Song and TANG, James T. H. (2016). New skills at work: Managing skills challenges in ASEAN-5. (2016). Research Collection School Of Economics. Available at: https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/soe_research/1891
[2] The Future of Jobs Report 2020. (2020). World Economic Forum Platform for Shaping the Future of Jobs. Available at: https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/soe_research/1891
[3] BOI (Board of Investment). 2019. Digital, Creative, and Startup Ecosystem September 2019 : Thailand’s Digital Economy https://www.boi.go.th/index.php?page=business_opportunities_detail&topic_id=117530#:~:text=Thailand%20is%20working%20to%20drive,a%20cutting%2Dedge%20economic%20powerhouse.&text=The%20Digital%20Economy%20is%20expected,to%20Thailand’s%20GDP%20by%202027.
[4] Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation. (2019). Startup Ecosystem https://www.boi.go.th/upload/content/BOI_Digital_Economy_Brochure.pdf
[5] Ministry of Digital Economy and Society (MDES). (2019). Digital Infrastructure https://www.boi.go.th/upload/content/BOI_Digital_Economy_Brochure.pdf
[6] Baharin Abu, Othman Md Johan, Syed Mohd Shafiq Syed Mansor & Haliza Jaafar. (2007) Kepelbagaian gaya pembelajaran dan kemahiran belajar pelajar universiti di Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. http://eprints.utm.my/3680/1/7881.pdf. Diperoleh pada 15 Julai 2011.
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[9] Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia. (1997). Akta Pendidikan 1996.
[10] __________________________. (2012). Laporan Awal Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2025.
[11] Lerner, J. W. (2003). Learning Disabilities: Theories, Diagnosis, and Teaching Strategies. Edisi ke-9. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
[12] Morton, J. (2011). Attention Deficit Disorder and Sound Therapy. Diperoleh pada Januari 28, 2011. http://www.Soundtherapyperth.com/benefit/add.php.

Kamolrat Intaratat “Digital Skills Scenario of the Workforce to Promote Digital Economy in Thailand under & Post COVID19 Pandemic” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.116-127 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51002

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Students Views on Universal Access Transition and Completion of their Higher Education at Kwame Nkrumah University

Dr. Annie Penda (PhD) and Dr Oliver Magasu (PhD) – October 2021- Page No.: 128-134

This paper is a research carried out at Kwame Nkrumah University to establish the views of students on how they access and complete their higher education. The objectives of the study were to; determining how students access higher education, establishing the students’ transition during the period of acquiring higher education and to examining students’ completion of higher education. This study used a mixed approach to collect data. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used for collecting data. The population comprised of all the forth year students, without and with disabilities. The sample size was thirty. Data analysis was done using thematic and SPSS soft-ware version 22. The key findings were that, universal access was realized, during transition period some students faced challenges which made some to stop school and it was also discovered that majority of the students manage to complete higher education successfully while a small number failed to complete successfully.

Page(s): 128-134                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2021

 Dr. Annie Penda (PhD)
Kwame Nkrumah University P. O. Box 80404, Kabwe –Zambia

 Dr Oliver Magasu (PhD)
Kwame Nkrumah University P. O. Box 80404, Kabwe –Zambia
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[3] Buchanan, J., Prescott, A., Schuck. S., Aubusson, P., Burke, P & Louviere. J. (2001) Teacher Retention and Attrition: Views of Early Career Teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education 38(3) PP1- 20.
[4] Colley, H. (2007). Understanding time in learning transitions through the life course. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 17(4), 79-95.
[5] Donnelly, R. (2008). Lecturers’ Self-Perception of Change in Their Teaching Approaches: Reflections on a Qualitative study. Educational Research, 50 (3), 207-222.
[6] Crafter, S., & Maunder, R. (2012). Understanding transitions using a sociocultural framework. Educational and Child Psychology, 29(1), 10-18.
[7] Ecclestone, K. (2006). The rise of transitions as a political concern: the effects of assessment on identity and agency in vocational education. Working paper for the Teaching and Learning Research Programme Thematic Seminar Series on ‘Transitions Through the Lifecourse’.
[8] Heussi, A. (2012). Postgraduate student perceptions of the transition into postgraduate study. Student Engagement and Experience Journal. 1(3), pp 2047- 9476.
[9] Jansen, J. D. (2008). Input from Vice-chancellor. Challenges facing education in the next decade. Department: Higher Education and Training. Retrieved from https://www.dhet.gov.za/portals/0/Documents/GreenPaper.pdf
[10] Miano, M.K., Miano, C.H & Thinguri,R. (2014). Cost Reduction Strategies for Access and Retention Boost in Secondary Education in Mathira West Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice. 5(10), pp 85- 92.
[11] O’Dnnell, L. V., Kean, M. & Stevens, G. (2016). Students Transition in Higher Education: Concepts, Theorie and Practices. Tranforming Teaching and Inspiring Learning.
[12] Rado, P. (2001). Transition in Education. Hungary: Open Society Institute.
[13] Reyes, A.X. (2010). Educational Equity and Access as Universal Human Rights: Effects on Teacher Education in the U.S. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2 (1), 1-20
[14] Singh, K. (2014). Right to Education and Equality of Educational Opportunities. CICE Hiroshima University, Journal of International Cooperation in Education, 16 (.2) pp.5 -19

Dr. Annie Penda (PhD) and Dr Oliver Magasu (PhD) , “Students Views on Universal Access Transition and Completion of their Higher Education at Kwame Nkrumah University” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.128-134 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/128-134.pdf

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The effects of institutional, attitudinal, environmental and financial challenges on the academic performance of learners with physical disabilities in the school: A case of one selected Special School in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia

Penda Annie, Kandimba Humphry, Jordan Nyirenda – October 2021- Page No.: 135-145

This manuscript is a study on the effects of institutional, attitudinal, environmental and financial challenges on academic performance on learners with physical disabilities face in schools in Zambia. The study was conducted at Dagama School for the Physically Challenged in Luanshya district. The site was selected because it had learners with physical disabilities. The instruments for data collection included the semi-structured interview schedule for school administrators, focused group discussion for class teachers and learners with physical disabilities, and observation checklist for class teachers and the natural surroundings.
The study found that learners with physical disabilities faced challenges in the school and these were difficult in accessing the common bathrooms, mobility problems due to lack of crutches and wheelchairs, poor lighting system in the classrooms and corridors, negative attitude of parents and school administrators towards the learners, unmodified curriculum, being taught by untrained special teachers, inadequate teaching and learning materials, lack of support from the parents, poor payment of school fees by parents, limited support from the well-wishers and little funding from the government. The effects of the challenges on the learners’ academic performance included mobility problems, reporting late for lessons, promotion of dependence syndrome and absenteeism, losing of marks in compulsory and practical subjects, being passive in the class, teachers not providing the necessary skills required by the learners, no prescribed textbooks and psychological effect.
The study discovered the measures such as modification of the common bathroom infrastructure, curriculum, maintaining the existing ramps, rails, paved pathways, and double doors, orientations of new teachers in special education, improving the lighting system in the classrooms and corridors, training more teachers in special education, acquisition of appropriate teaching and learning materials, government increasing funding to the school, offering bursaries, involving into self-help activities like farming and fundraising ventures and commitment of the parents to paying school fees and provision of school commodities for the children.

Page(s): 135-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2021

 Penda Annie
Kwame Nkrumah University P. O. Box 80404, Kabwe –Zambia

 Kandimba Humphry
Kwame Nkrumah University P. O. Box 80404, Kabwe –Zambia

 Jordan Nyirenda
Syracuse University, School of Education, 230 Huntington Hall, Syracuse NY 13244 USA

[1] Biggie, J. (1991). Teaching Individuals with Physical and Multiple Disabilities. Merrill, New York.
[2] Bunch, G. Lupart, and Brown, M. (1997). Resistance and Acceptance: Educator attitudes to the inclusion of students with disabilities. Ontario: New York University.
[3] Burden, R. (2000). Student Teachers’ attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs in the Ordinary School. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16 (3),277-293.
[4] Johnstone, D. (2001). An Introduction to Disability Studies. London: David Fulton.
[5] Kabuta, L.G. (2014). Problems facing students with physical disabilities in higher learning Institutions in Tanzania: The Open University of Tanzania (Published MEd Dissertation
[6] Kandimba, H and Penda, A (2018). A theoretical and conceptual framework for challenges learners with physical disabilities face in schools in Zambia. International journal of research in informative science application and technologies. 11 (11) pages 1 -10.
[7] Mandyata, J.M. (2002). Teachers’ views on inclusive Practices: A case of basic schools in Kasama District, Zambia: the University of Zambia (Unpublished MEd Dissertation. – UNZA
[8] McLeod, K. (2014). Problems Facing Physical and Mentally Disabled Children. Retrieved from http// everydaylife.globalpost.com/time. Accessed on 21 Feb 2014.
[9] Mifflin, H. (2003). Integration Technology for Meaningful Learning: Retrieved from http// sped.wikidot.com/physical disabilities.
[10] Morley, L. (2010). Disabled Students in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Towards Equity and Participation. UK: University of Sussex.
[11] Nangosi. D. (2014). Challenges faced by children with disabilities in Uganda today. New Vision printing and publishing company.
[12] Ndhlovu. D. (2008). Experiences and Counselling needs in parenting children with disabilities in Zambia. University of Zambia
[13] Rieser, R. (2002). “Medical and social model of disability”. http// inclusion. Uwe. Ac. Uk/ inclusion week/ articles/ socmod. Html. Accessed on 17/10/18.
[14] Smith, D. D. (1998). Introduction to Special Education: Teaching in an Age of Challenge. (3rd ed). New York: Allyn Bacon Company.
[15] UNESCO. (1994). Final Report – World Conference on Special Needs Education. Salamanca:United Nations Educational and Scientific Organisation

MHA Munas, A.M.M. Hijas, “The effects of institutional, attitudinal, environmental and financial challenges on the academic performance of learners with physical disabilities in the school: A case of one selected Special School in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.135-145 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/135-145.pdf

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The Changing Dynamics of Kidnapping in Nigeria and Implications for National Development

Henry Terna Ahom, & Kenneth T. Azaigba – October 2021- Page No.: 146-149

Kidnapping for ransom before the 1990s was not a very prominent form of criminality until the Niger Delta militants began using it to press home their demands for redress to perceived injustices done their region. Ransom payment made kidnapping a very attractive crime and it spread from the Niger Delta region to all parts of Southern Nigeria. From Southern Nigeria, kidnapping for ransom spread to the Northern part of the country and was embraced by criminal gangs and terrorist groups such as Boko Haram; an Islamic group fighting a war of insurgency in the North East. This opened a new vista of criminality in Nigeria. Since then it has grown in proportion to a much sought after criminal act by criminally minded persons due to the high monetary gains involved. With the aid of mainly secondary sources, the paper uses both narrative and analytical tools to dilate on contours of the problem. It argues that kidnapping has festered in the country due to the introduction of ransom and this is generating damning implications for national development. The paper makes suggestions on ways to contain the hydra headed act of criminality currently ravaging the country.

Page(s): 146-149                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2021

 Henry Terna Ahom
Department of History and Strategic Studies, Federal University Dutsin-Ma Katsina State, Nigeria

 Kenneth T. Azaigba
Department of History and Strategic Studies, Federal University Dutsin-Ma Katsina State, Nigeria

[1] Abati, R., (2010). “Nigeria as the Kidnapper’s Den”, The Guardian, July 16.
[2] Amachree, D., (2017). “The Evolution of Kidnapping in Nigeria” Wikipedia, https//en.m.wikipedia. org. wiki, Accessed 16/8/2020.
[3] Chidi, N. J. (2014). “Kidnapping in Nigeria: An Emerging Social Crime and the Implications for the Labour Market, International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.4, No.1.
[4] Obia, V., (2018). UN: FG paid large sum for the release of Dapchi girls” This Day Newspaper,Accessed 19/5/2020.
[5] Odoma, S., (2019). “Organised Crime, Kidnapping and National Security” International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, Vol.6, No.6.
[6] Ogbuehi, V. N., (2018). Kidnapping in Nigeria: The Way Forward, Journal of Criminology and Forensic Studies, Vol.1, Issue 3, Nov.3.
[7] Okolo, S., (2010) “Security Challenges in South-East and South-West”, Speech delivered during South-South and South-East Security Summit organized by National Association of Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Mine and Agriculture (NACCIMA) in Enugu.
[8] Okorie, B, et al, (2018). “Socio-Economic Implications of Kidnapping and Hostage Taking in Southern Nigeria”, Journal of Law and Judicial Systems, Vol.1, Issue 1, PP.51-59.
[9] Peterside, D., (2021). “School Kidnappings and its Implications for Posterity” Premium Times, June, 21.
[10] Saheed, O.B., (2016). “Kidnapping in Pre and Post Amnesty Niger-Delta” International Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies, Vol.3, No.2.
[11] Tzanelli, R., (2006). “Capitalizing on Value Towards a Sociological Understanding of Kidnapping” http;/soc.sagepub.com. Accessed 24/6/2020.
[12] Wogu, A., (2010). “Nexus between Social Vices and Stunted Productivity” Guardian Newspaper, July, P.2

Henry Terna Ahom, & Kenneth T. Azaigba “The Changing Dynamics of Kidnapping in Nigeria and Implications for National Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.146-149 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/146-149.pdf

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Analysis of the Grammatical Passive Voice in English and Chinese, a Comparison between the Two Languages

Amerigo Quatrini – October 2021- Page No.: 150-156

The usage of the grammatical passive voice in English and Chinese is analyzed and investigated by this study, making a comparison of the two different approaches Chinese and English have. When using a different language, different rules and customs are bound to appear, hence a different form of the passive voice with its different rules and usages is very likely to appear as well: this research highlights the differences between the two language and gives and insights for learners of either language. The reasons why the passive voice is used in both language and how are explained. The main features of both passive voices are also described.

Page(s): 150-156                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51003

 Amerigo Quatrini
Shanghai University, School of Foreign Languages, Shangda Rd 99, Shanghai, China

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Amerigo Quatrini , “Analysis of the Grammatical Passive Voice in English and Chinese, a Comparison between the Two Languages” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.150-156 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51003

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The use of ICT in teaching of Geography in selected schools of Petauke district in eastern province of Zambia

Cosmas Chirwa and Kaiko Mubita – October 2021- Page No.: 157-167

This article explored the use of ICT in teaching of Geography to pupils in selected schools of Petauke district in eastern province Zambia. Objective of this article was; to establish the types of ICT materials available for teaching Geography in secondary schools in Petauke District, Zambia, to explore the extent to which ICT devices/platforms were being integrated in the teaching and learning of geography in selected schools of Petauke district; and to suggest the best means of integrating ICT’s in teaching and learning of geography in selected schools of Petauke district.
A qualitative approach with a descriptive study design was used to collect data through in-depth interviews and observations. A total of twenty-eight (28) respondents were involved in the study and the information collected was thematically analysed with the guidance of Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six phase framework. The study revealed that computers, laptops, projectors, printers, smartphones and tablets were among the widely used ICT devices in the teaching and learning of Geography in the selected schools of Petauke district. However, these devices were very few and could not cover the needs of every learner or teacher due to the resource to user ratio, which proved highly unsustainable. The findings showed that integration of ICTs was hindered by the unavailability and shortage of resources. The findings further pointed out that teachers and learners lacked in skill to use most ICT resources beyond these resources’ basic functions. According to the findings, the conclusion drawn was that to enhance effective integration of ICTs in the teaching and learning of Geography, teachers and learners need to be provided with adequate ICTs resources in their teaching and learning of Geography. It is also important for school management to provide adequate funding to enable its Teachers to attend workshops where they can gain skills and knowledge for integrating ICTs in the teaching and learning of Geography.

Page(s): 157-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2021

 Cosmas Chirwa
University of Zambia, School of Education

 Kaiko Mubita
University of Zambia, School of Education

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Cosmas Chirwa and Kaiko Mubita, “The use of ICT in teaching of Geography in selected schools of Petauke district in eastern province of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.157-167 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/157-167.pdf

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Influence of Organizational Trust on Effectiveness of University Registries in South-West Nigeria

Dada, Racheal Olufumilola, Owolabi, Ruth Onajite. – October 2021- Page No.: 168-177

Organizational effectiveness of University registries is particularly important because of the vital role registry plays in university administration. Different studies have indicated that university registries have been encountering a number of problems including high level of mistrust on individual basis and at administrative level. This study investigated the influence of organizational trust on effectiveness of university registries in South–West Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted for this study. The population comprised 2,282 staff of university registries in South–West Nigeria. Random sampling technique was adopted using Taro Yamane sample size determination formula to select three hundred and forty registry staff. A validated structured questionnaire was administered. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from 0.87 to 0.88. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that organizational trust significantly influenced organizational effectiveness (Adj R2 = 0.660, F(3, 336) = 20.255, p < 0.05) of university registries in South-West Nigeria. The study concluded that organizational trust is important in achieving organizational effectiveness in university registries. The study recommended that university management in South-West Nigeria should enhance organizational effectiveness of their registries by giving room for honesty, respect, integrity, justice, accountability, trustworthiness cooperation and quality among employee and the administration, also by investing in the training of registry staff in South West Nigeria.

Page(s): 168-177                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

 Dada, Racheal Olufumilola
Department of Information Resources Management, School of Management Science, Babcock University Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Owolabi, Ruth Onajite
Department of Information Resources Management, School of Management Science, Babcock University Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

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[19] Lei, H., Nguyen, T. T., & Le, P. B. (2019). How knowledge sharing connects interpersonal trust and innovation capability: The moderating effect of leadership support. Chinese Management Studies,13(2), 276-298.
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Dada, Racheal Olufumilola, Owolabi, Ruth Onajite. , “Influence of Organizational Trust on Effectiveness of University Registries in South-West Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.168-177 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/168-177.pdf

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Assessment of health service delivery trainings of Barangay Health Workers in Selected Barangays of Kiblawan, Davao del Sur.

Remie Rose A. Niňal, Roel Jr. D. Apas – October 2021- Page No.: 178-188

The study primarily assessed the health service delivery trainings that determined the competence of Barangay Health Workers (BHWs) in Kiblawan, Davao del Sur. It also determined the effect of trainings and the motivating factors and perceived benefits of attending such trainings. The descriptive-correlational technique was applied with a questionnaire representing as the primary method of data collection. Total Enumeration has been used to select participants in conducting the study. Statistical tools such as, Percentage, Mean, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were employed. Results showed that majority of the respondents were 45 years old and above, high school graduates, married, with 1-3 number of trainings attended, and capable of serving the community for over ten years. Findings revealed that BHWs were competent in dealing and handling the health concerns of the community and showed that the trainings they have attended were effective. However, Barangay officials’ allotment of financial resources for BHW’s trainings and seminars was recommended so that they could properly deliver the healthcare services to their constituents.The relationship between the demographic profile and the competence of barangay health workers, as well as the effect of trainings, was discovered to be significant. Therefore, the hypothesis formulated was rejected. On the other hand, for the second hypothesis, the findings revealed that the relationship between the Competence of Barangay Health Workers and the Effect of Trainings is significant and the hypothesis formulated is also rejected.

Page(s): 178-188                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

 Remie Rose A. Niňal
Master of Public Administration, Davao del Sur State College, Philippines

 Roel Jr. D. Apas
Master of Public Administration, Davao del Sur State College, Philippines

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[16] Taburnal M., (2020). Knowledge and Competence of (BHWS) Barangay Health Workers International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. www.ijicc.net Volume 14, Issue 1, 2020

Remie Rose A. Niňal, Roel Jr. D. Apas, “Assessment of health service delivery trainings of Barangay Health Workers in Selected Barangays of Kiblawan, Davao del Sur.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.178-188 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/178-188.pdf

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Research Self-Efficacy, Interest in Research and Research Knowledge of Graduate Students

Jovelyn G Delosa, Charity Rose A Pagara, Edralin C. Manla – October 2021- Page No.: 189-193

One of the goals of graduate education is to produce graduates equipped with excellent research skills. With the challenges on the quality education and demands on excellence, the current priority of the Commission of Higher Education is on research. Graduate schools offering graduate programs are mandated to guide students develop the research skills expected of them. The purpose of this study is to determine how specific factors such as research efficacy and research interest contributed to research knowledge of the students. The participants of the study are the Master’s and Doctoral student enrolled in the school. The study utilized descriptive research design. The results showed that the Graduate students have good research interest and good level of self-efficacy, but poor research knowledge. Moreover, there is a significant contribution of interest in research to research knowledge, but a negative contribution of research self-efficacy to students’ research knowledge. These findings imply that the development of the graduate students’ research interest should be prioritized by the School of Education. These also denotes that there could be other factors to be looked into that may have contribution to students’ research knowledge, not only efficacy and interest.

Page(s): 189-193                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51004

 Jovelyn G Delosa
School of Education, Xavier University, Philippines

 Charity Rose A Pagara
School of Education, Xavier University, Philippines

 Edralin C. Manla
School of Education, Xavier University, Philippines

[1] Amir Tiyuri, Behzad Saberi, Mohammadreza Miri, Ehsan Shahrestanaki, Beyram Bibi Bayat, Hamid Salehiniya (2018). Research self-efficacy and its relationship with academic performance in postgraduate students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2016. J Educ Health Promot. 2018; 7: 11. Published online 2018 Jan 10. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_43_17
[2] Bandura, A. (1994). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[3] Bocar, Anna C., (Revised 2014). Difficulties Encountered by the Student – Researchers and the Effects on Their Research Output (March 31, 2009). Available at
[4] SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1612050 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1612050
[5] Büyüköztürk, Ş., Atalay, K., Sozgun, Z., & Kebapçı, Ş. (2011). The development of research self-efficacy scale. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 6(1), 22-29.
[6] Chesnut, S. R., Siwatu, K. O., Young, H. A., & Tong, Y. (2015). Examining the relationship between the re-search training environment, course experiences, and graduate students’ research self-efficacy beliefs. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 10, 399-418. Retrieved from http://ijds.org/Volume10/IJDSv10p399-
[7] 418Chesnut0914.pdf CMO no. 53, s. 2007. Retrieved from http://www.ched.gov.ph
[8] Congdon, G.J., & Congdon, S. (2011). Engaging students in a simulated collaborative action research project: An evaluation of a participatory approach to learning. Journal of further and Higher Education, 35(2), 221.Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/ docview/870470465?accountid=31223
[9] Jang, D., & Shin I. (2011). The relationship between research self-efficacy and other research constructs: Synthesizing evidence and developing policy implications
through meta-analysis. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 8 (2) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/ docview/1013972219?accountid=31223
[10] Lambie, G. W., Hayes, B. G., Griffith, C., Limberg, D., & Mullen, P. R. (2014). An exploratory investigation of the research self-efficacy, interest in research, and research knowledge of Ph.D. in education students. Innovative Higher Education, 39(2), 139-153. doi:http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10755-013-9264-1
[11] Pajares,F. (2009). Self-Efficacy Theory. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/self-efficacy-theory/
[12] Potvin, Patrice & Abdelkrim Hasni (2014). Interest, motivation and attitude towards science and technology at K-12 levels: a systematic review of 12 years of educational research. Studies in Science Education, Volume 50, 2014 Issue 1. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/ 03057267.2014.881626
[13] Rogers, S. W., & Goktas, R.K. (2010). Exploring engineering graduate student research proficiency with student surveys. Journal of Engineering Education, 99(3), 263-2278.Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/ docview/744366821?accountid=31223

Jovelyn G Delosa, Charity Rose A Pagara, Edralin C. Manla “Research Self-Efficacy, Interest in Research and Research Knowledge of Graduate Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.189-193 October 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51004

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Effectiveness of CRT on Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Cigarette Smoking in Akwa South LGA

Anyamene, Ada; Nwokolo, Chisom Sandra – October 2021- Page No.: 194-199

This study investigated the effectiveness of CRT on secondary school students’ attitude towards cigarette smoking in Akwa South LGA. One research question guided the study while one null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design for the study was quasi-experimental, non-randomised pre-test and post-test, control group research. The sample comprised 62 students purposively selected from a population of 289 students. Questionnaire on Cigarette Smoking (QCS), an adapted Youth tobacco survey (YTS) and Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motive (WISDM-68). was used for data collection. The internal consistency reliability coefficient for the instrument was 0.85.Data was collected through direct delivery of the instrument to the respondents. Mean scores were used to answer the research questions, while the null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA). The finding of the study revealed among others that Cognitive Restructuring technique was effective in reducing students with prone attitude towards cigarette smoking. It was concluded from the findings that CRT is an effective treatment technique for modifying cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Awka South LGA. Based on the findings and implications of the study, it was recommended that Practicing counsellors and therapist should make use of the cognitive restructuring technique in counselling and therapy of secondary school students to modifying their unhealthy attitude towards cigarette smoking.

Page(s): 194-199                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51005

 Anyamene, Ada
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Nwokolo, Chisom Sandra
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

[1] Alvarez, H.C. (28 March, 2014). You and cigarettes. Retrieved from you-and-cigarettes.blogspot.md › 2015_06_01_archive
[2] Cacioppo, J. T., Cacioppo, S., & Petty, R. E. (2018). The neuroscience of persuasion: A review with an emphasis on issues and opportunities. SocialNeuroscience,13(2),129-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470919.2018.1273851
[3] Chandrupatla, S.G., Tavares, M. & Natto, Z.S. (27 July 2017). Tobacco use and effects of professional advice on smoking cessation among youth in India. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 18 (7), 1861–1867. doi:10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.7.1861.
[4] Hargiana, G. & Keliat, B.A. (2018). The effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on heads of families’ smoking behaviour and anxiety. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 21(2), 117-126. DOI: 10.7454/jki.v21i2.770.
[5] Halonen, J.I., Kivimäki, M., Kouvonen, A., Pentti, J., Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S.V., Vahtera, J. (2014). Proximity to a tobacco store and smoking cessation: A cohort study. Tobacco Control, 23(2), 146–151. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050726.
[6] Leone, A., Landini, L., & Leone, A. (2010). What is tobacco smoke? Sociocultural dimensions of the association with cardiovascular risk. Curr Pharm Des., 16(23), 2510-7.
[7] Oguzie, A.E., Ani, D.N., Obi, B.A., Onyegirim, B.O. (2018). Effect of cognitive restructuring technique on fear tendency among secondary school students in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State. International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications, 2(1), 34-38.
[8] Perloff, R.M. (2016). The Dynamics of Persuasion: Communication and Attitudes in the Twenty-First Century, Routledge.
[9] Piko, B.F., Wills, T.A., & Walker, C. (2017). Motives for smoking and drinking: country and gender differences in samples of Hungarian and US high school students. Addiction Behaviour, 32(20), 87-98.
[10] Raja, M., Saha, S., Mohd, S., Narang, R., Reddy, L.V., Kumari, M. (2014). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy versus basic health education for tobacco cessation among tobacco users: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research JCDR, 8(4), 47-49.
[11] Somers, J. (2017). Cognitive behavioural therapy: Core information document. British Columbia Ministry of Health. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/library/publications/year/2007/MHA_Cogniti veBehaviouralTherapy.pdf
[12] Vogel, T., Bohner, G., & Wanke, M. (2014). Attitudes and attitude change. Psychology Press. West, R., & Shiffman, S. (2016). Smoking cessation (3rd ed.). Abingdon: Health Press.
[13] Webb Hooper, M., Rodríguez de Ybarra, D., & Baker, E. A. (2013). The effect of placebo tailoring on smoking cessation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(5), 800–809. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032469
[14] West, R. & Shiffman, S. (2017). Fast facts: Smoking cessation. Health press Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-903734-98-8.
[15] World Health Organization (2017). Tobacco fact sheet. Retreieved from http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs_201203_tobacco/en/
[16] Yunusa, U. Abdullahi, M.I., Oliagba, O. Sani, S. & Umma, A. (2014). The effect of cognitive restructuring intervention on tobacco smoking among adolescents in senior secondary school in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 10(5), 327-336.

Anyamene, Ada; Nwokolo, Chisom Sandra , “Effectiveness of CRT on Secondary School Students’ Attitude towards Cigarette Smoking in Akwa South LGA” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.194-199 October 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51005

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Modernization and Psycho-Social Factors of Dementia: Special Requirements for Older People

Meharin Jerin Suzan – October 2021- Page No.: 200-205

This study is conducted among the older people with dementia who are affected by modernization. This is based on broad objectives of exploring the psycho-social factors of older people with dementia and which is related to the modernization. This study has been followed qualitative research approach and for this purpose it selected six cases from Bangladesh. Case study method, purposive sampling technique and semi-structured interview schedule have been used to collect data. The findings of the study has been showed that the on-going process of forming nuclear family will add more pressure on the elderly support system because of modernization. This changing situation is created different kinds of diseases like dementia. Most of the demented people are 60 and over 60 years old. All of them are suffering other diseases like diabetics, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety and so on. This study also reveals that the course of dementia differ from person to person and is associated with a range of factors including the subtype of dementia, physical health issues, lifestyle aspects and the social support systems of the person with disease. It is observed that they are not aware about their rights and opportunities. Participants haven’t got proper medical facilities to cure this disease. This work will also strive to ensure the facilities of the older people with dementia so that they will maintain their social status. This work will be also ensured the facilities of the dementia for the older people

Page(s): 200-205                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51006

 Meharin Jerin Suzan
Institute of Social Welfare and Research, University of Dhaka

[1] Alzheimer’s Association America (2020) Retrieved from https://www.alz.org.
[2] Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) Report (2008) Statistics and Information Division (SID): Ministry of Planning Retrieved from bbs.gov.bd.
[3] Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) Report (2007) Statistics and Information Division (SID): Ministry of Planning Retrieved from bbs.gov.bd.
[4] Hossain Md Anwar and Sultana Shahana (2016) Urbanization and Urban Population in Bangladesh The census data of 2001 and 2011 revisited: CUS bulletin on Urbanization and Development number 69 and 70 December.
[5] Khan T.A. Hafiz, Kabir Russell, Kabir Mohammad, Rahman Md Twyeafur (2013) Population Ageing in Bangladesh and its implication on Health Care: European Journal of Scientific November.
[6] Modernization (2021) Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/modernization.
[7] Nasrin Sarker, Obaida and Rahman, K M Mustafizur (2009) Factors Affecting Early Marriage and Early Conception of Women A Case of Slum Areas in Rajshahi City Bangladesh: International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology.
[8] World Health Organization (2014) Global Health Observatory Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.country.

Meharin Jerin Suzan, “Modernization and Psycho-Social Factors of Dementia: Special Requirements for Older People” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.200-205 October 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51006

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Community participation and Community Based Wildlife Resource Management in Mumbwa Game Management Area in Zambia

Inonge Milupi D., Kaiko Mubita, Pauline Namakau Monde, Steriah M. Simooya, Juliet Namukoko, Mwenya Tembo, Wiza C. Nakombe and Fortune Mufana – October 2021- Page No.: 206-209

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of community participation in natural resource management in Mumbwa Game Management Area of Zambia. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through interviews and surveys in the case-study area. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics. The study found that local community participation in wildlife resource management was passive in the study area. This was because the Department of National Parks and Wildlife was not actively engaging the local community in decision-making process of wildlife resource management in the area. The study recommends that the is active participation of the community in managing wildlife resources in the study area would ensure the sustainability of natural resources and hence promote an effective Community Based Natural Resource programme in Mumbwa Game Management area.

Page(s): 206-209                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

 Inonge Milupi D.
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, Environmental Education Section, P.O BOX 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

 Kaiko Mubita
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, Environmental Education Section, P.O BOX 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

 Pauline Namakau Monde
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, Environmental Education Section, P.O BOX 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

 Steriah M. Simooya
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, Environmental Education Section, P.O BOX 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

 Juliet Namukoko
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, Environmental Education Section, P.O BOX 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

 Mwenya Tembo
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, Environmental Education Section, P.O BOX 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

 Wiza C. Nakombe
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, Environmental Education Section, P.O BOX 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

 Fortune Mufana
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, Environmental Education Section, P.O BOX 32379, Lusaka, Zambia

[1] Armitage, D. 2005. “Adaptive capacity and community-based natural resource management”, Environmental management, 35, (6): 703-715.
[2] Campbell, L.M. and Vainio-Mattila, A. 2003. “Participatory development and community-based conservation: opportunities missed for lessons learned?”, Human Ecology, 31(3): 417-437.
[3] CSO (Central Statistical Office). 2012. The national population and housing census for 2010 in Zambia. Lusaka: Central Statistics Office.
[4] Kellert, S.R, Mehta, J.N, Ebbin, S.A, Lichtenfeld, L.L. 2000. “Community natural resource management: promise, rhetoric, and reality”, Society & Natural Resources, 13(8): 705-715.
[5] Milupi, I. D., Somers, M. J., and Ferguson, W. 2017. A review of community-based natural resource management. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15, 1121–1143
[6] Milupi, I.D, Somers M.J and Ferguson W. 2020 Inadequate community engagement hamstrings sustainable wildlife resource management in Zambia. Africa Journal of Ecology.
[7] Milupi, I. D, Mubita K., Monde P., N., and Simooya, S.M 2020: ” Developing an Environmental Education programme to address factors behind weak Community Participation in Wildlife Resource Management in Mumbwa and Lupande Game Management areas in Zambia” International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), vol 7, no. 12, pp. 53-63. doi: https://doi.org/10.20431/2349-0381.0712007.
[8] Milupi. I, 2008: Environmental Education Activities among Chongwe Rural Women of Zambia arising from the Environmental degradation of their area. Masters’ dissertation presented to the University of Zambia
[9] Luyet, V, R., R.Schlaepfer., M.B. Parlange, and A. Buttler. 2012. “A framework to implement Stakeholder participation in environmental projects”, Journal of environmental management, 111:213-219.
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[11] Measham, T. M. and J.A. Lumbasi. 2013. Success Factors for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM): Lessons from Kenya and Australia, Environmental Management 52:649-659
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[13] MTENR (Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources). 2007. National Policy on Environment. Lusaka, Zambia: Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources.
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[15] Owen, G.T. 2014. Qualitative methods in higher education policy analysis: Using interviews and document analysis. The Qualitative Report, 19(26), 1–19.
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[18] UNDP. 2012. Strengthening management effectiveness and generating multiple environmental benefits within and around the greater Kafue national park and west Lunga national park in Zambia, Project document. Available at https://info.undp.org/docs/pdc/Documents/ZMB/ PIMS%204625%20Zambia%20PRODOC%20Final.pdf, visited 10 September, 2021.
[19] ZAWA (Zambia Wildlife Authority). 2015. Act No. 14. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/sites/ default/files/documents/acts/The%20%20Zambia%20Wildlife%20Act%2C%202015.pdf, visited 19 August 2021

Inonge Milupi D., Kaiko Mubita, Pauline Namakau Monde, Steriah M. Simooya, Juliet Namukoko, Mwenya Tembo, Wiza C. Nakombe and Fortune Mufana , “Community participation and Community Based Wildlife Resource Management in Mumbwa Game Management Area in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.206-209 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/206-209.pdf

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Challenges of the New Retirement Age for Teachers in Selected Government Primary Schools of Sioma District, Western Zambia

Songiso Mutafela, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Harrison Daka, Simeon Mbewe & Kaiko Mubita – October 2021- Page No.: 210-218

The focus of this study was to investigate challenges of the New Retirement Age for teachers in selected government primary schools of Sioma District of Western Zambia. The study evoked qualitative approach using descriptive research design. A sample of 32 participants comprising twenty-four class teachers and eight school managers was purposefully and conveniently drawn from four government primary schools in Sioma District.
Data were collected through questionnaires as well as interview guides. Analysis of data was done thematically where merging and emerging themes were presented in a descriptive form as findings of the study.
The study found that majority of teachers interviewed in Sioma District were not in favour of the New Retirement Age. Most of the participants expressed willingness to retire at the age of fifty-five so that they could get their benefits and start a new life while they were still energetic. In addition, the study found that there was a lot of stigma against older teachers which had affected work relationships in most schools as younger teachers accused the older ones of being fatigued and unwilling to accept change or innovation, especially technological changes in education. The younger teachers also complained about less promotions opportunities in the Ministry as the older teachers were still holding on to most senior positions. It was further reported by majority of participants talked to that accommodation in rural schools had become a great challenge for teachers because some of the houses were still occupied by older teachers who could have retired two or three years ago
Therefore, the study recommended that the Zambian government should revise the current retirement age to provide for two options only; 55 years normal and 60 years late retirement and that the Ministry of General Education should introduce performance based salaries.

Page(s): 210-218                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

 Songiso Mutafela
Sioma Primary School, Zambia

 Kalisto Kalimaposo
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education

 Harrison Daka
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies

 Simeon Mbewe
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Mathematics and Science Education

 Kaiko Mubita
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

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[20] World Health Organisation (2012). Country Cooperation at a Glance. Lusaka: World Health Organisation

Songiso Mutafela, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Harrison Daka, Simeon Mbewe & Kaiko Mubita, “Challenges of the New Retirement Age for Teachers in Selected Government Primary Schools of Sioma District, Western Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.210-218 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/210-218.pdf

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A Cross-Sectional Survey on the Availability and Use of Instructional Aids in the Teaching of Ghanaian Language in Senior High Schools

Ernest Adom, Kafui Love Mensah, Getrude Kuttin, Agbodza Derrick, Ernest Nyamekye – October 2021- Page No.: 219-225

This cross-sectional study assessed the availability and use of instructional aids in the teaching and learning of Ghanaian languages in Senior High Schools in the Mfantsiman Municipality of Central Region, Ghana. Through a proportionate stratified sampling method, 210 respondents were selected from four public Senior High Schools located in the Mfantsiman Municipality of the Central Region. The respondents included 201 students and 9 instructors. The primary data collection tool used for data gathering was a self-developed questionnaire. Following a descriptive analysis of the quantitative data, it was discovered that visual aids are the most readily available and frequently used instructional aids for the teaching of Ghanaian languages in the selected Senior High Schools within the Mfantsipim Municipality. It was also revealed that instructors of Ghanaian languages seldom utilized audio and audio-visual aids to support their classroom instruction and the reason for this mishap was the insufficiency of such forms of instructional aids. In light of these findings, the study recommended that Ghanaian language instructors, with the assistance of the Ghana Education Service, be equipped with the necessary instructional tools in order to make the teaching and learning of Ghanaian languages an enjoyable experience for students.

Page(s): 219-225                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

 Ernest Adom
Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Education, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Kafui Love Mensah
Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Education, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Getrude Kuttin
Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Education, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Agbodza Derrick
Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Education, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Ernest Nyamekye
Department of Arts Education, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Education, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

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Ernest Adom, Kafui Love Mensah, Getrude Kuttin, Agbodza Derrick, Ernest Nyamekye “A Cross-Sectional Survey on the Availability and Use of Instructional Aids in the Teaching of Ghanaian Language in Senior High Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.219-225 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/219-225.pdf

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Effects of Medical Tourism on Economic Growth of Nigeria

Dr. Ernest Jebolise Chukwuka, Dr. Fidelis U. Amahi – October 2021- Page No.: 226-241

Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. It embraces areas of Physical attractions like falls and rocks and so on; Manmade like amusement and holiday resorts; Wild life based attractions like games, gardens and fishing grounds; Cultural attractions like festivals, arts and crafts; Sports like local, regional and international; and Business tourism like seminars conferences and meetings. The focus of this study is to investigate the effects of medical Tourism on Nigerian economic development. In line with the objectives of the study, the researcher adopted survey design method which made use of primary sources (mainly with questionnaire and observation). This work was analyzed quantitatively with simple percentage and the hypotheses were tested with Chi-square to validate the findings. The result revealed that medical tourism has significant effect on economic growth of Nigeria. The result further shows that medical tourism has positive effect on small and medium scale enterprise in Nigeria. The result also highlights the problems facing medical tourism in Nigeria and under-development of the health system. It was observed that the culture of Nigerians preferring anything foreign is also a contributory factor to the mass exodus of Nigerians for medical treatment outside the country. The study therefore recommended that there should be adequate funding, improved health care facilities, better remuneration and motivation for health workers in order to improve health care system and reduce medical tourism, there should be immediate ban of government sponsored medical treatment abroad, adequate training, enforcement of legal action against medical negligence, improved medical research and encouraging foreign investment and that Government should intensify vigorously the marketing and promotion of Nigeria cultural, historical and archaeological treasures

Page(s): 226-241                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

 Dr. Ernest Jebolise Chukwuka
Department of Business Administration, Michael and Cecilia Ibru University, Delta State, Nigeria

 Dr. Fidelis U. Amahi
Department of Accountancy, University of Delta Agbor, Nigeria

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Dr. Ernest Jebolise Chukwuka, Dr. Fidelis U. Amahi, “Effects of Medical Tourism on Economic Growth of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.226-241 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/226-241.pdf

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Comparing Official and Public Attitudes towards Solar Energy in Botswana: The Case of Domestic Solar Water Heaters in Gaborone

Magdeline Cleopatra Nondo – October 2021- Page No.: 242-271

This study set out to compare household attitudes towards the use of domestic solar energy with those of government officials, with specific reference to Solar Water Heaters (SWHs) in the City of Gaborone in Botswana. The specific objectives were; i) To establish household perceptions and attitudes towards SWHs ii) To find out official attitudes towards SWHs and iii) To analyze determinants of household attitudes towards SWHs.
Data to address these objectives was generated using the mixed methods research design whereby both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered simultaneously to determine attitudes of both officials and the public towards domestic solar energy. A sample of 400 households consisting of low and high-income residential areas was selected using the Taro Yamane’s formula, Old Naledi represented low income and Village represented high income. Approximately 264 households were interviewed in Old Naledi, and 136 in the Village. This was complemented by key informant interviews involving officials from the Department of Energy Affairs, Department of Environmental Affairs and distributors of SWHs involving solar power and solar hart. The key instrument for quantitative data collection was a semi-structured questionnaire, whereas interview guides were used to generate qualitative data. The key findings of the study are that that the public is aware of solar energy and its uses, and have a positive attitude towards its adoption in the form of SWHs on condition that they are reliable, cost effective and user friendly. Officials too had a positive attitude towards domestic solar energy but did not invest as much effort in promoting its adoption as they did in promoting conventional energy. The Government has taken good initiatives to promote solar energy, but they do not succeed due to apparent lack of commitment. The results of the study also show that SWHs are not adequately marketed by their distributors and this has contributed to the current adoption rate among the public.
In conclusion, the results of this study support the need for awareness building and capacity building from both the government officials and distributors of SWHs for the adoption of domestic solar energy to meet the escalating demands for energy in a manner that does not harm the environment. Based on these results, the study has made recommendations for policy, the public and future research.

Page(s): 242-271                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51007

 Magdeline Cleopatra Nondo
Department of Environmental Sciences, University Of South Africa

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Magdeline Cleopatra Nondo, “Comparing Official and Public Attitudes towards Solar Energy in Botswana: The Case of Domestic Solar Water Heaters in Gaborone” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.242-271 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51007

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Theory of Mind deficits and its impact on language among the Bengali High Functioning Autistic Children

Mir Ushmum Alam – October 2021- Page No.: 272-282

Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits is one of the major deficits in children with the developmental disorder. In this research, the problems of Theory of Mind in Bengali children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) are tried to be identified. Not only that, the impacts of the deficits of ToM on the language are also analyzed in the research. Data have been collected from 08 High Functioning Autistic children from a reputed autism specialized school. Their chronological age is 16-22 and mental age is 8-12. From the findings of the research, the conclusion can be formulated that, ToM deficits hamper their daily lives in many ways and communication. Different types of therapy module can be formulated after considering the result of this paper.

Page(s): 272-282                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51008

 Mir Ushmum Alam
Lecturer in English, University of Skill Enrichment and Technology (USET), Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Mir Ushmum Alam , “Theory of Mind deficits and its impact on language among the Bengali High Functioning Autistic Children” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.272-282 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51008

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Implementation of Industrial Incubators to Improve Enterprise Intention in East Java Indonesia

Tanto Gatot Sumarsono, Sih Hanto, Suatmo Pantja Putra, Priyo Sudibyo – October 2021- Page No.: 283-287

Entrepreneurship intentions among students in East Java are carried out by analyzing business incubators and local business potentials in East Java Province. Several research findings indicate that business activities that are prospective for development in the East Java region are quite diverse and are carried out by entrepreneurs in the region, while the growth of young entrepreneurs is still limited. The potential of the business sector that can be developed by young people in East Java can be a means to create young entrepreneurs. Here, there is no maximum effort to develop business activities on micro, small, or medium scale products. In addition, local governments and universities have given their role to foster entrepreneurship in community groups including young people, however, it is still not optimal. Finally, the incubator business development is carried out to develop entrepreneurial intentions among students.

Page(s): 283-287                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51009

 Tanto Gatot Sumarsono
University of Merdeka Malang, Indonesia

 Sih Hanto
University of Merdeka Malang, Indonesia

 Suatmo Pantja Putra
University of Merdeka Malang, Indonesia

 Priyo Sudibyo
University of Merdeka Malang, Indonesia

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Tanto Gatot Sumarsono, Sih Hanto, Suatmo Pantja Putra, Priyo Sudibyo “Implementation of Industrial Incubators to Improve Enterprise Intention in East Java Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.283-287 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51009

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Policy Brief Pregnancy School Re-entry policy in Zambia

Namakau Kakanda Sinkala – October 2021- Page No.: 288-290

I. WHAT IS THE ISSUE?
Teenage pregnancy is a global problem which interferes with the education of the girl child. This ends up perpetuating social injustice against females by making them vulnerable to poverty.
Promotion of social justice through gender equality is at the center of development. The ideology of women’s empowerment through formal and non -formal education is a critical area of development which the United Nations has been championing.
Adolescent girls’ education was amplified by the Beijing platform of action of 1995 which emphasized on the need to intellectually nurture the girl child as she grows into a woman (Beijing Declaration & Platform for Action , 1995).
Some African countries including Zambia introduced Re-entry policy as a strategy to enable teenage mothers to continue their education. It was assumed that teenage mothers would take advantage of the Re-entry policy to continue their education after childbirth. This has not been the case as teen mothers’ re-entry across countries including Zambia established that significant number of teenage mothers are not re-entering (Nyariro, 2018).

Page(s): 288-290                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51010

 Namakau Kakanda Sinkala
University of Witwatersrand, Zambia

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[17] Ministry of Education. (2013). Educational Statistical Bulletin. Lusaka: Ministry of General Education.
[18] Ministry of Education. (2014). Educational Statistical Bulletin. Lusaka: Ministry of General Education.
[19] Ministry of Education. (2015). Educational Statistical Bulletin. Lusaka: Ministry of General Education.
[20] Ministry of Education. (2016). Educational Statistical Bulletin. Lusaka: Ministry of General Education.
[21] Ministry of General Education. (2017). Educational Statistical Bulletin. Lusaka: Ministry of General Education.
[22] Moonga, M. (2014). Challenges faced by teen mothers who re-entered school: A case of selected schools in the Coperbelt Province of Zambia. Lusaka: UNZA.
[23] Mudenda, M., & Mbewe, E. G. (2017). An evaluation of the implementation of re-entry policy in primary schools: A case of Ndola District, Zambia. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 509-517.
[24] Mulenga, I. M., & Mukaba , B. (2018). Policy and practice: Roles of the guidance and counseling teachers in the implementation of the girls’ reentry policy in selected schools in Lusaka, Zambia. Journal of Education and Practice, 57-67.
[25] Mutombo, A., & Mwenda, M. (2010). Review of the re-entry policy. Ministry of Education.
[26] Mwansa, J. (2020). 200 school girls pregnant at four Kitwe schools in.
[27] Mwanza, M. N. (2018). Factors that influence the use of the education Re-entry policy for adolescent mothers in Monze, Zambia. International Institute of Social Studies.
[28] Mweemba , G., Moono , M., Chishipula, J., & Maambo , C. (2019). An investigation into challenges faced by teen mothers who re-entered: A case study of selected schools on the Copperbelt province of Zambia. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research, 32-38.
[29] Nyariro, M. P. (2018). Re-Conceptualizing School Continuation & Re-Entry Policy for Young Mothers Living in an Urban Slum Context in Nairobi, Kenya:A Participatory Approach. Studies in Social Justice , 310-328.
[30] Phiri, C., & Machila, N. (2019). Grief, discrimination and reconsideration: Examining the effects of Re-entry policy on teenage mothers (TMs) in Zambia. Journal of Lexicography and Terminology.
[31] UN Women. (2020). Gender equality . UN Women.
[32] UNICEF. (2019). UNICEF Zambia 2018 Annual Report. UNICEF.

Namakau Kakanda Sinkala, “Policy Brief Pregnancy School Re-entry policy in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.288-290 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51010

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Impact of China’s Monetary Aid on Kenya’s Public Debt Stock

Siocha Justin Nyaberi, Dr. Ichani Francis, Dr. Omagwa Job – October 2021- Page No.: 291-299

The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of China’s Monetary Aid on Public Debt. The key literature reviewed from various sources showed that a number of China’s monetary aid in form of concessional loans, grants and interest free loans had great impact on the public debt many Sub-Saharan African countries, Kenya being the classic example under study. Realism theory was used to theoretically analyse the study in the behaviour of China’s aid to Kenya as largely self-seeking. The study adopted an exploratory research design. The target population was limited to two Kenyan government ministries, IR scholars and economic experts and the embassy of the Peoples’ Republic of China in Kenya, the total population under study was 700. This study applied purposive sampling technique in selecting a sample size of 70 respondents. Documents, questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The study found that monetary aid from China as concessional loans, grants and interest free loans have direct positive impact on the Kenya’s public debt to a large extent when measuring it through the real GDP growth. The study findings established that China’s aid in form of concessional loans do not only come with a tag of ‘zero-or-no interest loans but also are attractive for their non-conditionality to the recipient countries hence preferred to those others from OECD-DAC which have constant regulations. The study recommended that the government of Kenya to reduce its external borrowing and embrace savings, external debts require consistence debt servicing unlike debts from domestic borrowing. The study further recommended that Kenya should reconsider its competitive advantage in manufacturing, sisal, tea, leather and coffee exports to the Chinese mainstream economy so as to meet the aspect of fair and balance of trade. An area for further study would be on the Debt-Trap Diplomacy claims associated with China aid policies to Sub-Saharan African countries.

Page(s): 291-299                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51011

 Siocha Justin Nyaberi
Department of International Relations, Conflict and Strategic Studies of Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Ichani Francis
Department of International Relations, Conflict and Strategic Studies of Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Omagwa Job
Department of International Relations, Conflict and Strategic Studies of Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1] Addison, T., Mavrotas, G. and M. McGillivray (2005), “Aid to Africa: an unfinished agenda,” Journal of International Development, vol.17, p.989-1001.
[2] Ademola, O., Abiodun, B. and Adeolu, A. (2009). “China-Africa Trade Relations: Insight from AERC Scoping Studies,” European Journal of Development Research, 21, (4): 485–505.
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[7] Bräutigam, D. (2011). Aid ‘With Chinese Characteristics’: Chinese Foreign Aid and Development Finance Meet the OECD-DAC Aid Regime. Journal of International Development 23(5): 752–764. https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.1798.
[8] Brautigam, D. A. and S. Knack (2004), Foreign aid, institutions, and governance in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol.13, p.255-285.
[9] CBK. (2019). Kenya’s Public Debt. CBK Report; Increasing in external debt; Long-term effect on GDP index. Nairobi.
[10] Guerrero, D. G. M., & Manji, F. (Eds.). (2008). China’s new role in Africa and the south: a search for a new perspective. Fahamu/Pambazuka.
[11] International Monetary Fund. (2018a). “Fiscal Monitor: Capitalizing on Good Times.” Washington, D.C.Kenya, (2006). Ministry Of Foreign Affairs. A Brief Prepared for Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.
[12] Kitano, N. (2016). Estimating China’s Foreign Aid II: 2014 Update. JICA Research Institute Working Paper. Tokyo: JICA Research Institute. http://repository.ri.jica.go.jp/dspace/handle/10685/205
[13] Mugenda, O. & Mugenda, A. (1999). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
[14] Mwega, F. M. (2011). “Foreign Aid, Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Kenya,” paper prepared for Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA).
[15] Naidu, S., & Davies, M. (2006). China fuels its future with Africa’s riches. South African journal of international affairs, 13(2), 69.
[16] OECD (2015) Multilateral Aid 2015: Better Partnerships for a Post-2015 World. Paris: OECD Publishing (http://dxdoi. org/10.1787/9789264235212-en).
[17] Onjalla, J. (2008). A Scoping Study on China-Africa Economic Relations: The Case of Kenya. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi, Kenya (5th March 2008).
[18] Orodho, J. A. (2008). Techniques of writing research proposals and reports in education and social sciences: Nairobi: Masola Publishers.
[19] Saunders, M, Lewis P &Thornhill, A (2009). Research Methods for Business students. FT Prentice HQ, India
[20] Taylor, I. (2009). China’s new role in Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
[21] Tuchman, M. S. 1987). Scientific Methods and Social Research (revised edition). New York: Sterling.
[22] Tull, D. M. (2006). China’s engagement in Africa: scope, significance and consequences. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 44(03), 459-479.
[23] World Bank. (2018). “African Public Debt Outlook.” New York. Macmillan Publishers.
[24] Zafar, A. (2007). The growing relationship between China and Sub-Saharan Africa: Macroeconomic, trade, investment, and aid links. The World Bank Research Observer, 22(1), 103-130.

Siocha Justin Nyaberi, Dr. Ichani Francis, Dr. Omagwa Job , “Impact of China’s Monetary Aid on Kenya’s Public Debt Stock” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.291-299 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51011

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SPSS: An Imperative Quantitative Data Analysis Tool for Social Science Research

Arifa Rahman, Md. Golam Muktadir – October 2021- Page No.: 300-302

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the importance of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, widely known as SPSS in the field of social sciences as an effective tool for quantitative data analysis. This paper includes the broader aspects of SPSS from its foundation as a statistical analysis tool to how it has advanced as a major choice for researchers from different fields of study. It is necessary for researchers, especially new researchers to know the ins and outs of SPSS as to why they should use it. This study expressed the arguments from personal experiences of using SPSS and what other SPSS users have described in various pieces of literature. Different works of literature related to SPSS and social sciences have been discussed throughout the paper. The most relevant ones have been talked about. The features and major advantages are portrayed in such a way that anyone can relate the tool with their research works. In the end, it has been evident that SPSS is considered one of the most important and influential statistical tools for quantitative data analysis.

Page(s): 300-302                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51012

 Arifa Rahman
Ph.D. Research Fellow, Dr. Wazed Research and Training Institute, Begum Rokeya University, Bangladesh

 Md. Golam Muktadir
Independent Researcher

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Arifa Rahman, Md. Golam Muktadir, “SPSS: An Imperative Quantitative Data Analysis Tool for Social Science Research” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.300-302 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51012f

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Efficacy of Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination as a Predictor of First Year Social Science Students’ Achievement in University of Jos, Nigeria

Mr. Jan, Nagwe Cajetan; Prof. Emaikwu, Sunday Oche & Dr. Agi, Christiana Ikponya – October 2021- Page No.: 303-309

This study investigated the efficacy of Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) as a predictor of first year Social Science students’ achievement in University of Jos, Nigeria. Four research objectives with corresponding research questions were raised to guide the study while four hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The research design used in the study was ex-post facto. The population of the study comprises 1,774 students in department of Economics, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The sample size for the study was 326 students which were drawn through the use of Taro-Yamane formula for sample size determination and multi stage sampling procedure was employed to arrive at the sample. The study required the collection and analysis of existing data from official records. The instrument for data collection was a pro-forma which was validated by two experts. Data for the study were collected with the help of a research assistant who was a staff in the registry department, University of Jos. Data collected were analyzed using regression to answer the research questions and to test the null hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that students UTME scores predicts their CGPA in the four departments (Economics, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology) in University of Jos for 2015/2016 session. Based on the findings of the study, the study concludes that students in the University of Jos in the department of Economics, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology were admitted based on their scores in UTME since there is correlation between their UTME scores and their achievements. The study recommended that admission to prospective students in University of Jos into all departments should be given strictly based on students’ scores in Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).

Page(s): 303-309                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2021

 Mr. Jan, Nagwe Cajetan
Departments of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 Prof. Emaikwu, Sunday Oche
Departments of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 Dr. Agi, Christiana Ikponya
Departments of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

[1] Adeyemo, E.O. (2008). A meta-analysis of empirical studies on the validity of UME in Nigeria. Ph.D thesis, Faculty of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.
[2] Afolabi, A. O., Mabayoje, V.O., Togun, V.A., Oyadeji, A.S. & Raji, Y. (2007). The effect of mode of entry into medical school on performance in the first two years. Journal of Medical Sciences. 7, 1021-1026.
[3] Ajaja, P.O. (2010). Three years of post UME screening: influence on science education students’ achievement in Delta State University, Abraka. International Journal of Educational Science, 2(1), 29-40.
[4] Akanwa, U. N. & Nkwocha, P. C. (2015). Prediction of south-eastern Nigerian students’ undergraduates scores with their UME and post-UME scores. Journal of Research and Method in Education. 5(1), 36-39.
[5] Ebiri, K. (2010). Obasanjo says PUTME should be the basis for admission in universities. Guardian, April 13, p.49.
[6] Emaikwu, S.O. (2015). Predictive validity of unified tertiary matriculation examination (UTME) on post unified tertiary matriculation examination scores in Nigeria. Asia Pacific Journal of Research, 1(26), 54-64.
[7] Eze, E.C (2014) University matriculation examination as a predictor of students’ final grades in the faculty of health sciences and technology of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Unpublished M.Sc dissertation.
[8] Gbore, L.O. (2006). Cognitive entry characteristics, study habits and self-concept as predictors of academic performance of university undergraduates in South-West of Nigeria, Doctoral dissertation, University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
[9] Hundu, W.T. (2010). Effect of post-joint admission and matriculation board screening test on academic performance of undergraduate students in Nigerian universities.An undergraduate project of the Federal University of Technology Yola, Adamawa State.
[10] Longe, B.O. (2013). UTME, PUTME and socio-demographic variables as predictors of year one students’ performance in public universities in Edo State.Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Benin, Nigeria.
[11] Obioma, G. & Salau, M. (2007). The predictive validity of public examinations: A case study of Nigeria. A paper presented at the 33rd Annual Conference of International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) held in Baku, Azerbaijan, 16-21September 2007.
[12] Okeke, O.A (2016). Students’ age and institutional ownership as moderators of the predictive validity of Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) and Post-Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (PUTME).Unpublished Ph.D Thesis of University of Nigeria Nsukka.
[13] Olugbamila, A. (2010). Campus violence on the rise.The Nations newspaper of 24 Feb. P.21.
[14] Omodara, M.F. (2004). “A comparative assessment of UME and pre-degree scores as measures of academic performance among university undergraduates” IkereJournal of Education, 6(1), 76-83.
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[16] Ossai, S. (2017). Evaluating 2015 JAMB’s Computer-Based Test (CBT), The Pointer, August 2.
[17] Ukwuije, R.P.I. (2012) “Educational assessment: A sine qua non for quality education” 83rdedition of the inaugural lecture series at University of Port Harcourt.www.dictionary.com/browse/prediction

Mr. Jan, Nagwe Cajetan; Prof. Emaikwu, Sunday Oche & Dr. Agi, Christiana Ikponya , “Efficacy of Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination as a Predictor of First Year Social Science Students’ Achievement in University of Jos, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.303-309 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/303-309.pdf

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Environmental Protection for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

John-Adegbesan, Ekwi & Prof. Nwaorgu, Omenihu Chiemela – October 2021- Page No.: 310-314

This paper assessed environmental protection for sustainable development in Nigeria. It is a well-known fact that across the globe, there is a penchant to initiate policies and programmes that can protect the environment, and at the same time, engender sustainable development, given that a sustainable environment is the foundation of every meaningful development. Data for the study were drawn from published materials and Key Informant Interview (KII). The interviewees were made up of environmental activists and members of civil society organisations. Data for the study were analysed through content analysis, with attention to logical sequence of data. The study found that even though Nigeria parades a good number of environmental protection laws and policies, the challenge remains that there is little or no conscious effort at development, let alone sustainable development. The study recommended, among other things, the need for collective action towards sustainable development.

Page(s): 310-314                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2021

 John-Adegbesan, Ekwi
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Prof. Nwaorgu, Omenihu Chiemela
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] Banovac, E., Stojkov, M. & Kozak, D. (2017). Designing a global energy policy model. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Energy, 170(1), 2-11.
[2] Benebo, N.S. (2014). Appropriate mechanisms for environmental protection and sustainable development in Nigeria: An advocate’s viewpoint. Petra Digital Press.
[3] Eccleston, C. &Doub, P. (2012). Preparing NEPA environmental assessments: A users guide to best professional practices. Houston: CRC Press Inc.
[4] Eccleston, C. & March, F. (2010). Global environmental policy: Principles, concepts and practice. Houston: CRC Press Inc.
[5] Environmental protection and ecology (2019). Encyclopaedia of Ecology.
[6] Harding, R. (2016), Ecologically sustainable development: Origins, implementation and challenges. Desalination, 187(1-3), 229-239.
[7] Karamanos, P. (2011). Voluntary environmental agreements: Evolution and definition of a new environmental policy approach. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 44(1), 67-84.
[8] Knill, C. & Liefferink, D. (2012). The establishment of EU environmental policy. In A.J. Jordan & C. Adelle (eds.), Environmental policy in the European Union: Contexts, actors and policy dynamics (3rd Edition). London and Sterling, VA: Earthscan
[9] Makinde, T. (2005). Problems of policy implementation in developing nations: The Nigerian experience. Journal of Social Sciences, 11(1), 63-69.
[10] McCormick, J. (2001). Environmental policy in the European Union. The European Series, 21.
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[12] Nnoli, O. (eds.) (1981). Path to Nigerian Development. Codesria.
[13] Orji, U.J. (2012). Enhancing the implementation of sustainable development in Nigeria through legal strategies. Consilience: The Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(1), 86-100.
[14] Ramjeawon, T. & Bassey, U.M. (2014). Evaluation of the EIA system and development of an environmental monitoring plan framework. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24(9), 537-549.
[15] Vince, I. & Moore, T. (2008). Major accidents to the environment. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/environmental-damage?__cf_chl_captcha_tk__=pmd_UW160QrDWPGv.AUEze5Lq8rGVmVeAe6AbwH6ZIqZYik-1635418849-0-gqNtZGzNAzujcnBszQp9.
[16] Wonah, E.I. (2017). The state, environmental policy and sustainable development in Nigeria. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Science, 5(3), 25-40.

John-Adegbesan, Ekwi & Prof. Nwaorgu, Omenihu Chiemela “Environmental Protection for Sustainable Development in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.310-314 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/310-314.pdf

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Influence of Principals’ Adherence to Infrastructure Standards and Disaster Management on Disaster Management in Public Secondary Schools in Nyeri County, Kenya

Hawa Omari, Dr. Susan Chepkonga, Dr. Justus Mochama Gori, Dr. Mwaura Kimani – October 2021- Page No.: 315-322

The objective to the study was establishing the influence of adherence to infrastructure standards on disaster management on safety standards on disaster management in public secondary schools in Nyeri County, Kenya. The researcher used the descriptive survey research design. This work targeted 208 public secondary schools which comprised of 208 principals and 1040 heads of departments in Nyeri County. 15% was used to select 21 principals and 21schools for interviewing and observation checklist respectively. To validate research instruments, a pilot study was carried in 21 schools (10%) of the targeted 208 Schools. Reliability of the research instruments was done using test-retest method. A sample of 30% for heads of department and 10% for principals was considered effective to the study. Stratified sampling method and a mixed method approach were used. Qualitative data was collected from the principals using interview schedule while Quantitative data were collected using questionnaires from head of departments and the checklist was used to confirm the availability of safety policies, infrastructure and equipment. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to analyse hypothesis one, two, three, four and five. All ethical issues pertaining to research were observed. SPSS was used to compute the data. The study established that staff awareness of safety and adherence of infrastructure standards had a negative and strong significant level while training of staff and policy implementation of safety standards had a significant contribution to disaster management. Monitoring and evaluation of safety standards had positive and strong significant contribution to disaster management. The following recommendation was that the MoE and TSC ought to ensure that the principals implement the safety policy in schools which may lead to adherence to infrastructure standards on disaster management.

Page(s): 315-322                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2021

 Hawa Omari
School of Education, Maasai Mara University P.O Box 861-20500, Narok, Kenya

 Dr. Susan Chepkonga
School of Education, Maasai Mara University P.O Box 861-20500, Narok, Kenya

 Dr. Justus Mochama Gori
School of Education, Maasai Mara University P.O Box 861-20500, Narok, Kenya

 Dr. Mwaura Kimani
School of Education, Maasai Mara University P.O Box 861-20500, Narok, Kenya

[1] Amutabi, M. N. (2003). Political interference in the running of education in post- independence Kenya: A critical retrospection. International Journal of Educational Development, 23(2), 127-144.
[2] Ayonga, I. N. (2016). An Investigation Of Fire Emergency Preparedness In Kenyan Schools: A Case Study Of Public Secondary Schools In Nairobi (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
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[5] Kitheka, R.M. (2016). Institutional Factors Influencing Implementation of Safety Standards in Public Secondary Schools in Yatta Sub-county, Machakos County, Kenya. (Unpublished M.Ed. Project).University of Nairobi.Kenya.
[6] Kirui, R. K., Mbugua, Z. K & Sang, A. K. (2011). Assessment of Safety Status of Physical Infrastructure (Classrooms, Dormitories, Sanitation Facilities, Laboratories and Kitchen) in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi West Region, Kenya. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences,5(3), 2015
[7] Kemunto, J.N., Elizabeth, R. &Yona, B. (2015).Safety policy implementation framework for secondary schools in Kenya. Baraton Inter-disciplinary Research Journal 5(1), 27-40. Leftie, P. (2016, August 4).Outrage as two killed in school arson attack. Daily.
[8] Mwaura, S. (2014, December, 25) Protect our schools from terrorists. The standard newspaper pg 15
[9] Muthiani, R.M. (2016). Factors Influencing Schools Compliance to Safety Standards Guidelines in Public Secondary Schools in Kitui Central Sub County, Kenya. Unpublished M.Ed. projects South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya Nderitu, C. (2009). Implementation of Safety guidelines in public secondary schools in Githunguri Division, Kiambu District. Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, Kenyatta University. Ng’ang’a, A. W. (2013). Factors influencing compliance with safety standards in public secondary schools in Nyeri Central district, Nyeri county (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi,)
[10] Nyakundi, O. (2012) Implementation of safety standards and guidelines in public
secondary schools in Marana District, Kisii County, Kenya. Kenyatta University.
[11] Oguye, A. M. (2012). An assessment of the implementation of safety standards in public secondary schools in Borabu District, Nyamira County, Kenya. Online) Retrieved from itLibrary. ku. ac. ke/bistream/handle/123456789/5472/migiro, AbelOguye. Pdf, sequence, 3.
[12] Orodho, J. O. (2009). Elements of Educational and Social Science Research Methods ( 2nd Ed.).Maseno: Kenezja Publishers. Orodho, A. J. (2003). Essentials of Educational and social sciences Research Method.Nairobi: Masola publishers. Otieno, S, Too, T, Anyour, N & Okwayo, J (2010 November 9 th). Danger Lurks as manual on School Safety still ignored. The Standard page 20.
[13] Republic of Kenya (2015). Basic Education Regulations, Kenya Gazette Supplement No. 37, 8th April, 2015.
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[15] Republic of Kenya (2010).Child Friendly Schools Manual. Nairobi. UNICEF– Kenya
[16] Republic of Kenya (2012).A policy Framework for Education: Aligning the Education and Training to the Constitution of Kenya 2010, Vision 2030 and beyond. Government Press, Nairobi Republic of Kenya (2001). Ministry of Education Circular No. G9/1/169 of 10th April 2001. Nairobi: Ministry of Education. Republic of Kenya (2008). Safety Standard Manual for Schools in Kenya. Nairobi: Government printer.
[17] Wanyama, J. F. (2011). Level of Compliance with Health & Safety Standards for the Emergency Response in Secondary Schools in Sabatia District, Kenya; Unpublished M.Ed Project, University of Nairobi. Kenya

Hawa Omari, Dr. Susan Chepkonga, Dr. Justus Mochama Gori, Dr. Mwaura Kimani, “Influence of Principals’ Adherence to Infrastructure Standards and Disaster Management on Disaster Management in Public Secondary Schools in Nyeri County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.315-322 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/315-322.pdf

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Cultural Practices and National Development: The Case of Uparuba Festival among the Isua Akoko of South East Nigeria

ADEJUBE Ojo Bodunde, OJIKE Ngozi Amarachi – October 2021- Page No.: 323-328

The observation and celebration of festivals is central to African cultural heritage with due social, political and economic relevance. This paper examined the celebration of Uparuba festival in Isua Akoko, not just as a yearly festival celebration but Jubilee celebration (Odun Jubili), to appease the deity for the remission of sins and atrocities against the cultural norms of the land and also to request for divine intervention and prosperous jubilee year. The focal horizon for the exploration into the study is to; investigate the historical background of Isua Akoko amidst reasons motivating origin for the celebration of Uparuba, purposes of the festival, modus operandi and its significance to the developments of Isua Akoko. In achieving this, the research made use of ethnographic research which was largely gleaned from primary sources and made use of the Structural Functionalist theory, which explains social stratification. The research argues that, the celebration of Uparuba Festival in Isua Akoko has not only brought development into the community, the celebration also protects the society against both internal and external attacks. It protects them from epidemic situations through the celebration, the role of litigation despite civilization is still not well pronounced as crime related issues are still solved communally. This increases the consciousness of the people of Isua Akoko to the genuineness and unfading nature of her cultural heritage. The research outlines some recommendations for future research, one of which is reduction in the excessive use of local gin to ameliorate one of the preaching of the festival.

Page(s): 323-328                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2021

 ADEJUBE Ojo Bodunde
Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

 OJIKE Ngozi Amarachi
Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

[1] Akinjogbon I.A (1998), Enactment Ceremonies as a source of History. Peter House Publishers: Lagos.
[2] Banwo A.O, (2019), Myth in Festivals: A Comparative analysis of the Osun Festival of Nigeria and the Gragon Boat Festival of China.www.researchgate.net/publication/331197619. Retrieved on 29/05/2020.
[3] Durkhem, E.(2013). The Rules of Sociological Method (2nd Edition). Palgrave MacMillan: London.
[4] Falassi, A. (Ed,). (1987) Time out of Time: Essays on the Festival. University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque.
[5] Herbert, S. (1898). The principles of Sociology. New York, D Appleton and Company.
[6] Jones, J.L. (1997), Performing Osun Without bodies: Documenting the Osun Festival in Print. Text and performance, quarterly, 17(1), 69-92.
[7] Lawrence-Hart, G. (2014) Festivals: Catalyst for Peace in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanity and Social Science, 19(4): 1-5.
[8] Mbiti J.S, (1991) Introduction to African Religion. London: Heinemanu Int. Literature. Ogidan S.K, (2013). Isua Past and Present. Datanomics publication, Lagos.
[9] Oyolola. E. (2010) The History of Isua and its Dynasty. CSS Bookshops Limited: Lagos.
[10] Parsons, T. (1983). Talcott Parsons on Institutions and Social Evolution: Selected Writings. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
[11] Pieper, J. (1985), In True With the World: A Theory of Festivity. Harcourt Press: New York
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[1] Adeyanju A. (2016, August 25). Personal Interview, No 75, Okua Quarters Isua Akoko.
[2] Ajulo O. (2016, August 25), Personal Interview, 24 Ipala Quarters Isua Akoko.
[3] Akanbi R. (2018, July 24). Personal Interview, Irobo Quarters, Isua Akoko.
[4] Aremo C. (2016, July 25). Personal Interview, No 75, Ipala Quarters Isua Akoko.
[5] Benson O,(2018, july 24) Personal Interview, 85, Irobo Quarters, Isua Akoko.
[6] David O. (2016, August 25) Personal Interview, No 75, Ipala Quarters IsuaAkoko.
[7] Elisha A. (2016, July 29) Personal Interview, 42, Ahinni Quarters, Isua Akoko.
[8] Joseph A.(2016, July 24). Personal Interview, 115, Okua Quarters, Isua Akoko.
[9] Joseph, O. (2016, July, 22). Personal Interview, 20, Ahinni-Oso, Quarters, Isua Akoko.
[10] Julius O. (2018, July 24). Personal Interview, 115, Ahinni Quarters, Isua Akoko.
[11] Ogedengbe O. (2016, August 25). Personal Interview, 75, Irobo Quarters Isua Akoko.
[12] Olatunji P. (2016, July 19) Personal Interview, 20, Irobo Quarters, Isua Akoko.
[13] Oladele M. (2016, July 22). Personal Interview, 20, Irobo Quarters, Isua Akoko.
[14] Omoba S. (2016, July 22). Personal Interview, T/85, Irobo Quarters Quarters, Isua-Akoko.
[15] Stephen A. (2016, August 3) Personal Interview 29, Ahinni- Okunnu Quarters, Isua-Akoko.
[16] Vincent A. (2016, July 20). Personal Interview, T/85, Ahinni-Okunnu, Quarters, Isua Akoko.

ADEJUBE Ojo Bodunde, OJIKE Ngozi Amarachi , “Cultural Practices and National Development: The Case of Uparuba Festival among the Isua Akoko of South East Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.323-328 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/323-328.pdf

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The Attitudes of Victims of House-breaking on their being Victimized in Sri Lanka

Prof. M.W. Jayasundara – October 2021- Page No.: 329-338

As a developing country, Sri Lanka faces many problems, and presently they show an increasing trend. Among them, social disparities, terrorism, traffic in illegal narcotics, and crime are predominant. The term ‘housebreaking, in Sri Lanka is similar to ‘burglary’ in other countries. After 2015, the definition of housebreaking and theft had been changed to ‘house breaking’ as the term implies theft is included in housebreaking. This study draws on the housebreaking rates prevalent in Sri Lanka from 2006 to 2020, which records a considerable decrease in the number of housebreaking from 95.7 in 2006 to 30.7 in 2020. The research problem is primarily concerned with the impacts of house-breaking as a property crime, and how far it has affected the normal life of the citizens of the country as it stands at 20.9% of the total number of grave crimes of the country. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the nature and the impacts of housebreaking on victims. Sixty victims of the housebreaking were selected to achieve the targets of the study from a convenient sample, adding 1-9 housebreaking from a police station chosen from selected eight districts. The data were collected by using a semi-structured interview schedule administered to the victims of housebreaking. The findings of the study revealed that the many house-breakers were unknown to the victims except the fact that 18.3% of offenders were their relatives and neighbours. The majority 63.4% of the victims were involved in businesses and government sector employment and comparatively, they were rich people in the community to be targeted by the offenders for house-breaking. The main target of the burglars was the money and gold on some occasions they had stolen mobile phones, television and other household electronics items. The victims had identified 30% of the housebreakers and they were drug addicts and alcoholics who had committed burglary to finance their drugs. The impact of the housebreaking was financial loss, mental pain and anxiety caused to the majority of the victims. The victims have taken measures to prevent revictimization by ensuring security of their residences as well as of their valubels.The study proposes reducing drug addiction and target hardening on burglars would minimize the house-breaking of the country.

Page(s): 329-338                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51013

 Prof. M.W. Jayasundara
Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

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[8] Mullins, C., Wright, R. (2003) Gender, social networks, and residential burglary. Criminology, 41, 813-839.
[9] Paranjape, N.V. (2011) Criminology and Penology with Victimology. Allahabad: Central Law Publication.
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[11] Rengert, G., Wasilchick, J. (2000) Suburban burglary: A tale of two suburbs. Springfield , IL: Charles C Thomas.
[12] Reports of the Inspector General of Police, Sri Lanka 2001-2019.
[13] Shover, Neal (1972) “Structures and Careers in Burglary”, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 63 (1972) 540-549
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[15] Wright, R., Decker, S. (1994) Burglary on the Job: Streets and residential break-ins. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Prof. M.W. Jayasundara “The Attitudes of Victims of House-breaking on their being Victimized in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.329-338 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51013

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Indigenous Water, Sanitation and Hygienic WaSH Practices: The Case of the IP Community in Barangay Lower Panaga, Panabo, Philippines

Sabar G. Hasan, Jevannel G. Borlio, Junard P. Duterte – October 2021- Page No.: 339-342

Every Filipino has a right to good health, especially those individuals who belong to marginalized sectors. This study explores the health realities of the members of Indigenous People (IP) community in Panabo City, with the hope to promote Basic Health Science Education (HSE) to these indigenous peoples. Utilizing an adapted and modified Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) questionnaire, it was revealed that the way of life of the IPs in Barangay Lower Panaga had been influenced by the non-IP population they live with. It is evident that they already have improved knowledge, attitude and practices in the way they manage water, sanitation, solid waste, and hygiene promotion. However, it also emerged from the results the lack of knowledge of these IP members on the government programs they can avail, especially on health care services. Apparently, there are still indigenous practices they employ in their daily lives, which usually lead to poor health outcomes compared to their non-IP counterparts. Like any other IP communities, financial unstableness remains evident in this area. Hence, this study documented the realities of life of the indigenous peoples to stimulate the attention of the local leaders, especially those in the academe to pass over pedagogical efforts in helping this marginalized sector. It is hoped and expected that education can bring light to one of the identified Geographically Isolated and Disadvantaged Areas (GIDAs) in Davao del Norte.

Page(s): 339-342                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51014

 Sabar G. Hasan
Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Jevannel G. Borlio
Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Junard P. Duterte
Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

-Hernández, O., & Salinas, J. (2017). Usages and Customs of the Indigenous Communities in Favour of the Reduction of the Digital Divide: A Case Study of the Ñuu Savi People. Indigenous People, 1-20.
[2]. Bradford, L. E., Bharadwaj, L. A., Okpalauwaekwe, U., & Waldner, C. L. (2016). Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review. International journal of circumpolar health, 75(1), 32336.
[3]. Ghebreyesus, T. A. (2018). Improving the health of Indigenous people globally. The Lancet Oncology, 19(6), e277.
[4]. Hibbard, J. H., & Greene, J. (2013). What the evidence shows about patient activation: better health outcomes and care experiences; fewer data on costs. Health affairs, 32(2), 207-214.
[5]. Malata-Silva, J. H. (2017). Community Organizing Participatory Action Research (COPAR) in curriculum development. ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement, 1(1), 3.
[6]. Oyegunle, A., & Thompson, S. (2018). Wasting Indigenous Communities: A Case Study with Garden Hill and Wasagamack First Nations in Northern Manitoba, Canada. The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, 44(3), 232-247.
[7]. Sarfati, D., Robson, B., Garvey, G., Goza, T., Foliaki, S., Millar, E., & Scott, N. (2018). Improving the health of Indigenous people globally. The Lancet Oncology, 19(6), e276.
[8]. Smith, L. T. (2013). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. Zed Books Ltd.
[9]. Smylie, J., & Firestone, M. (2016). The health of indigenous peoples. D. Raphael (3rd ed.) Social determinants of health: Canadian perspective, 434-469

Sabar G. Hasan, Jevannel G. Borlio, Junard P. Duterte, “Indigenous Water, Sanitation and Hygienic WaSH Practices: The Case of the IP Community in Barangay Lower Panaga, Panabo, Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.339-342 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51014

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Physical Neglect has become the Most Common Category of Child Neglect in Sri Lanka

Himalshi Serasinghe – October 2021- Page No.: 343-349

Neglecting the child could be a factor for generating mentally and physically ill people all around the world. Child neglect has simply defined the avoidance of primary care and failure to provide basic facilities including food, clothing, healthcare, education for the child by their parents or guardian. Child neglect considers as the most prevalent category of child abuse not only in Sri Lanka but also worldwide. Child welfare specialists form common categories of neglect including physical neglect, medical neglect, inadequate supervision, environmental neglect, emotional neglect, educational neglect. Though previous researchers have identified all the above categories of child neglect, there is no research have done to identify the most common category of child neglect in the Sri Lankan Context. The objective of this study is to identify the most common category of child neglect in Gampaha district, western province, Sri Lanka. Primary data were collected using mixed research method. Distributed structured questionnaires (N=134) and conducted semi-structured interviews (N=10) from neglected children who were reported in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. The researcher used descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and content analysis for analyzing purposes. The findings show the physical neglect is the most common type of child neglect while the cognitive neglect type has the lowest respondents. Supervision and emotional neglect indicated third and fourth places respectively. Government should take necessary action in assigning relevant officers including Child Rights Promoting Officers, Social Workers, Gramasewaka, and active officers for the relevant committees in order to spot children who are neglected by their families.

Page(s): 343-349                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51015

 Himalshi Serasinghe
Department of Philosophy, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

[1] Ben-David, V. (2016). A Focus on Neglect: Comparing the Characteristics of Children and Parents in Cases of Neglect, Abuse, and Non-CAN (Child Abuse and Neglect) in Israeli Rulings on Termination of Parental Rights. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 25(7), 721–740. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2016.1153549
[2] Carter, V., & Myers, M. R. (2007). Exploring the risks of substantiated physical neglect related to poverty and parental characteristics: A national sample. Children and Youth Services Review, 29(1), 110–121.
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[8] Harrington, D., Zuravin, S., Depanfilis, D., Ting, L., & Dubowitz, H. (2002). The Neglect Scale: Confirmatory Factor Analyses in a Low-Income Sample. Child Maltreatment, 7(4), 359–368. https://doi.org/10.1177/107755902237266
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[11] Mueller, D. K. (2011). Pampered Children and the Impact of Parenting Styles. (October).
[12] National Child Protection Authority of Sri Lanka. (2019). Functions of the NCPA http://www.childprotection.gov.lk/functions.htm
[13] Parkinson, S., Bromfield, L., Mcdougall, S., & Salveron, M. (2017). Child Neglect: Key Concepts and Risk Factors a Report To the Nsw Department of Family and Community Services Office of the Senior Practitioner 2017. 1–47. Retrieved from http://www.unisa.edu.au/Global/EASS/Research/ACCP/Child Neglect,Key concept and risk factors report.pdf
[14] Polonko, K. A. (2006). Exploring assumptions about child neglect in relation to the broader field of child maltreatment. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 29(3), 260–284.
[15] Putnam, F. W. (2001). Ten-Year Research Update Review : Child Sexual Abuse. 2000, 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.CHI.0000037029.04952.72
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[17] Serasinghe, H. P. (2021). The Impact of Poverty for the Child Neglection. American Research Journal of Humanities Social Science (ARJHSS), Volume-04,(08), 38–41.
[18] Stoltenborgh, M. (2012). It should not hurt to be a child: prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe. Retrieved from https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/19142
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[21] Wilkinson, J. (2017). The impacts of abuse and neglect on children ; and comparison of different placement options. (March).

Himalshi Serasinghe , “Physical Neglect has become the Most Common Category of Child Neglect in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.343-349 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51015

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Effect of work environment on employees’ retention in Adamawa state University Mubi – Nigeria

Nicholas Torsabo, Rose Ezekiel – October 2021- Page No.: 350-357

The aim of this research is to explore the relationship and effect of work environment on employees’ retention in Adamawa State University Mubi – Nigeria. A total of 234 questionnaires containing 17 items were used to collect data from the respondents. Correlation and Linear Regression analysis was conducted to test the research hypotheses. The Correlation Results of the current study revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between work environment and employees’ retention (r = 0.556; p = 0.000) also, the Regression analysis results revealed that work environment has positive significant effect on employees’ retention (β = 0.329; p = 0.000). The model summary results revealed that work environment independently influence employees’ retention by 30.9%. Hence the researchers recommend that, employers in this sector should implement holistic approach in retention management so as to ensure they develop total packages which offer their employees requisite retention incentives. The study concluded that work environment is an effective predictor of employee retention. The researchers therefore recommend that institution administrators should strive to ensure continue improvement in the work environment since it significantly enhances institutions’ retention ability. Finally the study recommends that employers in tertiary institutions should strive towards broadening the spectrum of the work environment they can provide for their employees.

Page(s): 350-357                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 November 2021

 Nicholas Torsabo
Department of Business Administration, Adamawa State University Mubi, Nigeria

 Nicholas Torsabo
Department of Business Administration, Adamawa State University Mubi, Nigeria

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[17] Funminiyi, A. K. (2018). Impact of Workplace Environmental Factors on Employee Commitment: Evidence from North East Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM), 6(7), 575-585.
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Nicholas Torsabo, Rose Ezekiel “Effect of work environment on employees’ retention in Adamawa state University Mubi – Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.350-357 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/350-357.pdf

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Attitude, Duties and Responsibilities: The Hallmark of Self-Regulators in Business Practicum Program

Amelie L. Chico, DM, FRIM; Vicente Salvador E. Montaño, DBA – October 2021- Page No.: 358-364

Present research in self-regulated learning focused on contextualized task, which allow students to generalized learning. However, few researches delve on the role of the practicum program and the host-training establishment in measuring self-regulated learning among graduating business students. The study investigates the significant presence of self-regulated learners among practicum students through the significant relationship between grade point average and the supervisor rated practicum performance. All the 135 business practicum students from the College of Business Administration for the academic year 2014-2015 participated in the study. The academic performance of the students, from their first year to fourth year demonstrate that the different practicum criteria; duties, quality, punctuality, attitude and grooming correlates with the different year level. The ward hierarchal cluster analysis segments the practicum students between self-regulators and non-self-regulators. Later the variance of analysis confirmed the significant differences across all practicum performance criteria. In addition, the discriminant analysis method shows that that attitude (0.74) and duty (0.503) were helpful in predicting group membership between self-regulating and non-self-regulating students.

Page(s): 358-364                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51016

 Amelie L. Chico, DM, FRIM
College of Business Administration Education, University of Mindanao, Philippines

 Vicente Salvador E. Montaño, DBA
College of Business Administration Education, University of Mindanao, Philippines

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Amelie L. Chico, DM, FRIM; Vicente Salvador E. Montaño, DBA, “Attitude, Duties and Responsibilities: The Hallmark of Self-Regulators in Business Practicum Program” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.358-364 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51016

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School Climate and the Work Attitude of Senior High School Teachers of Panabo City Division

Kathrina T. Tana, Dr. Ronald S. Decano – October 2021- Page No.: 365-370

The study was conducted to determine the relationship between School Climate and Work Attitude of Senior High School teachers in Panabo City Division. It sought to identify the level of perceptions of Teachers towards School Climate and work attitudes. It also investigated significant difference on respondents in terms of their perception towards School climate and work attitude when analyzed according to Gender, Strand, and Length of Service. A descriptive-correlational research design was used in this study. SHS teachers were detailed as respondents. Based on findings, it was reported that teachers rated the school climate and work attitude as High. In terms of Gender, Strand, and Length of Service, the results reveal that there is no significant variation in teachers’ perceptions of school atmosphere and work attitude. In addition, there is a strong link between school atmosphere and job attitude. In terms of school atmosphere and work attitude, senior high school teachers get a high ranking. There is no discernible difference in how SHS instructors feel about school atmosphere and work attitude. It was shown that there is a substantial link between school environment and instructors’ work attitudes. In the light of the findings and conclusions, it is recommended that DepEd officials spearhead orientation-trainings to teachers. School administrators will be guided on the plans to be integrated in the curriculum. They may create strategies containing guidelines so that both teachers and administrators will be guided on properly sailing within the new curriculum.

Page(s): 365-370                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51017

 Kathrina T. Tana
Graduate Student, Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Dr. Ronald S. Decano
Graduate Student, Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

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Kathrina T. Tana, Dr. Ronald S. Decano , “School Climate and the Work Attitude of Senior High School Teachers of Panabo City Division” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.365-370 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51017

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Influence of Human Resource Development on the Management of Public Primary Schools in the North Central States of Nigeria

AKEM Sarah Nguavese, Dr R.C Odeh, Dr J.I Agbe, & Dr. J.A Ako – October 2021- Page No.: 371-378

This research investigated the influence of Human Resource Development on the Management of Public Primary Schools in North Central, Nigeria. Five specific objectives sought to find out the influence of staff Selection, Induction, Training, Workshops and Staff Job Rotation in Public Primary Schools in North Central, Nigeria. Five research questions were raised to guide the study while five null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 94,492 head teachers and teachers from 13,235 public primary schools. The sample size for the study was 397 respondents who were selected using Taro Yamen’s formula and 377 public primary schools. A 35 – item structured questionnaire developed by the researcher titled “Influence of Human Resource Development on the Management of Public Primary Schools Questionnaire (IHRDMPPSQ)” was used for data collection. The reliability of the instrument was established using Cronbach Alpha method and a reliability coefficient of 0.81 was obtained. Data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics of Mean and Standard Deviation to answer the five research questions. Chi-square was used to test the five null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that, staff selection, induction, training, workshops and job rotation significantly influence the management of public primary schools in North Central, Nigeria. The study concluded that development of teachers such as selection, induction, training, workshop and job rotation have significant influence on the Management of Public Primary Schools in the North- Central, Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that, government and education agencies should provide appropriate procedures for staff selection, government and education authorities should organise induction programmes for new and old staff for the management of public primary schools in the north-central, Nigeria. Staff should be given opportunities to attend training programmes to improve their performance, workshops, seminars and conferences should be organized for teachers in order to update their skills and knowledge to enhance their performance and achieve school goals and objectives. Government and education agencies, school administrators should rotate teachers from one task to another in order to acquire more skills, knowledge and experiences to develop them for high performance and productivity to achieve quality education outcomes in public primary schools especially those in North- Central, Nigeria. Suggestions for further study include influence of human resource development on the management of public secondary schools in other zones in Nigeria as well as to conduct study on other variables like motivation, prompt payment of salaries, promotion, security, health facilities.

Page(s): 371-378                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 November 2021

 AKEM Sarah Nguavese
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 AKEM Sarah Nguavese
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 Dr J.I Agbe
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 Dr. J.A Ako
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

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AKEM Sarah Nguavese, Dr R.C Odeh, Dr J.I Agbe, & Dr. J.A Ako , “Influence of Human Resource Development on the Management of Public Primary Schools in the North Central States of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.371-378 October 2021URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/371-378.pdf

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Counting the Cost: An Assessment of the Effect of Abduction and Killings on the Nigerian Human Capital Development

Victoria Unachukwu, Cynthia Adaora Okafor – October 2021- Page No.: 379-383

The need for the provision of security is the basis of the social contract between the citizens and the state, thus, it is the core responsibility of the state to ensure the protection of the lives and properties of all citizens. However, despite the provision of this fundamental right in the constitution, lives of citizens are being threatened daily by the ostensible increase in cases of kidnappings and killings. The heightened cases of insecurity have continuously hampered the human capital development efforts of the Nigerian government. Against this background, this work examined the impact of the eclipsing cases of kidnappings and killings in Nigeria on the Human Capital Development. The broken window and Robert K. Merton’s anomie theories were employed in analysing factors that influence these anti-social behaviours. In other to have a robust work, this paper adopted both documentary and survey methods while utilizing the content analysis method in analysing the gathered data. This intellectual discourse observed that the spate in killings and abduction across the nation, deplete the workforce of the country and hamper national productivity. This is because the majority of persons killed are youths, who are considered engine of the country. The threats and attacks of bandits and killings have created a climate of fear and continues to have a surging effect on public safety, food security and social cohesion in Nigeria. The study suggests that Government and Policy makers should as a matter of urgency give high priority to human capital development through review of the education and health policies, and increase budgetary allocation to these two critical sectors, reconfigure the overtly centralized and unitarized security architecture that is struggling to provide security in a supposedly federal structure and refocus the conceptualisation and pursuit of national security to human security by taking concrete steps to prioritize and right-size the deployment of available national resource to address the vulnerability of marginalised groups, especially the poor in vulnerable and isolated places.

Page(s): 379-383                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51018

 Victoria Unachukwu
Department of Political Science, Memorial University, NL, Canada

 Cynthia Adaora Okafor
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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Victoria Unachukwu, Cynthia Adaora Okafor , “Counting the Cost: An Assessment of the Effect of Abduction and Killings on the Nigerian Human Capital Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.379-383 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51018

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Land Use Land Cover (LULC) Change Analysis of the Akuapem-North Municipality, Eastern Region; Ghana

Ezekiel Addison Otoo, Emmanuel Addison Otoo, George Boateng – October 2021- Page No.: 384-390

Land-use changes are a significant determinant of land cover changes; this is on the grounds that it is human specialists; people, families, and private firms that make explicit moves that drive land-use change. An increment in family size, traveler populace, and abatement in the monetary prosperity of the indigenous area compels agricultural expansion. This paper aimed at analysing the Land-use Land-cover change pattern in the Akuapem-North Municipality and provide experimental record of land-cover changes in the municipality thereby broadening the insight of local authorities and land managers to better comprehend and address the complicated land-use system of the area and develop an improved land-use management strategies that could better balance urban expansion and environmental protection. Land cover change was observed through advanced processing and classification dependent on five multi-temporal medium resolution satellite symbolism (Landsat: 1986, 1990, 2002, 2017) into five classes. From this, precisely arranged pixel data were assigned to decide each land cover class size and the quantity of changed pixels into different classes through spatial change detection. It was discovered that land cover from 1986 to 2017 shows rapid changes in the landscape as there is high growth in built-up area. However, farmland and forest cover areas has reduced. Urban built-up area has extended outwards from the central-eastern part to the rest of the areas and has covered most of the northern, western, and southern parts. If the present growth trend continues, most of the vegetated areas will be converted into built-up areas in the near future, which may create ecological imbalance and affect the climate of the municipality.

Page(s): 384-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51019

 Ezekiel Addison Otoo
Department of Geography Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 Emmanuel Addison Otoo
Department of Geography Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 George Boateng
Berekum College of Education, Berekum – Ghana

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[28] Yemefack, M. (2005). Modelling and monitoring soil and land use dynamics within shifting agricultural landscape mosaic systems. ITC, Enschede.

Ezekiel Addison Otoo, Emmanuel Addison Otoo, George Boateng “Land Use Land Cover (LULC) Change Analysis of the Akuapem-North Municipality, Eastern Region; Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.384-390 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51019

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The Image of Women in Es’kia Mphahlele’s Chirundu (1979)

Abdou Sene – October 2021- Page No.: 391-396

Many literary texts by African male writers were written in the 1960s and 1970s to decry the governance of African political rulers, a governance based on abuse of power, bribery, self-enrichment and dictatorship, among other vices. African masses who thought that the replacement of the white rulers by indigenous politicians, following the independences, would be mean a new and better governing system, have been simply disillusioned. Among these literary texts is Mphahlele’s Chirundu (1979). But, can Chirundu not be also classified among literary texts such as Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1958), Soyinka’s The Lion and the Jewel (1962), Onuora Nzekwu’s Highlife for Lizards (1965), Elechi Amadi’s The Concubine (1966) … in which feminists find a sexist perspective of the authors? From a feminist perspective, this article is going to deal with the image of women in Chirundu. Based on culture, sociology and psychology as theories and feminism as literary criticism, this study will firstly deal with the stereotypes about women and then analyze the latter’s victimization

Page(s): 391-396                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 November 2021

 Abdou Sene
Cheikh Anta Diop University, BP 5005, 10700, Dakar-Fann, Senegal.

[1] ACHEBE, Chinua (1958). Things Fall Apart. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.
[2] ______________ (1966). A Man of the People. London: Heinemann African Writers Series.
[3] ADEOLA, James (1990). In Their Own Voices: African Women Writers Talk. Nairobi: Heinemann.
[4] AMADI, Elechi (1966). The Concubine. London: Heinemann.
[5] ARMAH, Ayi Kwei (1968). The Beautiful Ones Are Not Yet Born. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
[6] ________________ (1970). Fragments. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
[7] AWOONOR, Kofi (1971). This Earth My Brother. New York: Doubleday.
[8] BALOYI, E. (2010). “An African View of Women as Sexual Objects as a Concern for Gender Equality: A Critical Study.” Verbum et Ecclesia 31 (1) Art. #380, 6 pages. DOI:10.4102/ve.v31i1.380
[9] BANYIWA-HORNE, Naana (1986). “African Womanhood: The Contrasting Perspectives of Flora Nwapa’s Efuru and Elechi Amadi’s The Concubine.” In Ngambika: Studies of Women in African Literature edited by Carole Boyce Davies and Anne Adams Graves. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1986
[10] CARDWELL, Mike (1999). The Dictionary of Psychology. London & Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
[11] CHUKWUDI-OFOEDU, A. E. (2017). The Domination and Sexual Objectification of Women in Chike Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street. Journal of Humanities and Social Policy. Vol. 3 № 1
[12] CHUKWUMA, H. (2012). Achebe’s Women: Imagism and Power. New Jersey: Africa World Press.
[13] EMECHETA, Buchi (1994). Kehinde. London: Heinemann.
[14] GAMBLE, Sarah (2001). “Introduction.” The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Postfeminism. UK: Routledge.
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[16] MPHAHLELE, Es’kia (1979). Chirundu. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
[17] NWAPA, Flora (1966). Efuru. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers.
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[21] SOYINKA, Wole (1963). The Lion and the Jewel. London: Oxford University Press.
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[26] TLALI, Miriam (1984). Mihloti. Johannesburg: Skotaville Publishers.

Abdou Sene, “The Image of Women in Es’kia Mphahlele’s Chirundu (1979)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.391-396 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/391-396.pdf

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Implementation of Innovative Techniques in Educational Curriculum for Effective Student Leadership Skills Acquisition in Nigeria

Dr. Beatrice Dute Iwowari – October 2021- Page No.: 397-402

This study evaluated the implementation of innovative techniques in educational curriculum in Nigerian classrooms. Using the convenience sampling technique, the study adopted 150 public and private secondary school teachers in Port Harcourt as its sample size from which data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire on a 5 point Likert rating scale. Of the distributed 150 questionnaires, 138 were retrieved and analysed using SPSS. The results from the data analysis infer that an aggregate application of visualisation technological tools is to the tone of 20.4% whereas the application of learner’s autonomy is to the tone of 20.6%. This goes to show the slow rate at which the Nigerian educational system is embracing innovative techniques in offering educational services in the Nigerian classrooms. Therefore, the study recommends that innovative methods be utilised by teachers in the course of teaching as stipulated by the Federal Ministry of Education.

Page(s): 397-402                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2021

 Dr. Beatrice Dute Iwowari
Department of English and Literary Studies, Faculty of Arts, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island

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[7] Chiedozie, O. L.; Ezeugbor, C.O.; and Ogechukwu, O., F. (n.d). Introducing creativity and innovation into classroom management skills: a panacea for students’ high performance in secondary schools in Anambra state, Nigeria. International Journal for Research in Business, Management and Accounting.
[8] Enueme C. P (2002). Influence of school location and teaching experience on primary school teachers acceptance of UNICEF recommendations for child-friendly school in Re-focusing education in Nigeria. Benin: Day-Sylva influence.
[9] Hoyle, S. (1993). Innovation and the social organization of the school. Paris: OECD/CERL
[10] Isioma, M.U. (2015). Learning approaches: Curriculum theory and practice. Curriculum Organization of Nigeria, 10 (2), 114-222.
[11] Kenezenvich S. J. (1976). Administration of public education. New York: Harper and Row publishers.
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[24] Veřmiřovský, J. (2019). The importance of visualisation in education. Retrieved from http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org

Dr. Beatrice Dute Iwowari, “Implementation of Innovative Techniques in Educational Curriculum for Effective Student Leadership Skills Acquisition in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.397-402 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/397-402.pdf

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University Students’ Awareness of the Use and Application of Solar Energy in Uganda

Ademola Olatide Olaniyan (PhD), Haman Biita – October 2021- Page No.: 403-407

The concern for alternative source of power supply with the intention of maximizing the naturally and abundantly available solar energy is on the increasing measure in the developed and developing countries. Research and development studies suggest an optimistic future for the use and application of solar energy as a major source of renewable energy. To secure such a promising future in maximizing solar energy in a developing country like Uganda there is a need to investigate the level of awareness of the use and application amongst university students. The study employed survey technique using questionnaire to investigate the level of awareness of advantages and benefits there are on the use and application of solar energy. The study population is the university students selected purposively from Universities in Kampala, Uganda. Data collected from the study were analysed by comparing the mean standard deviation and Pearson moment correlation, and the research hypotheses were tested on 0.005 level of significance using regression analysis in order to determine the relationship between the level of awareness of the respondents and application of solar energy. Further suggestions made to elicit the spread of the usefulness and application of this alternative power supply in Uganda.

Page(s): 403-407                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51020

 Ademola Olatide Olaniyan (PhD)
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Haman Biita
Kampala International University, Uganda

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[6] Mohanasundari, R., & Devi, N. (2018). Consumer Awareness of Solar Energy Products A Study with Special Reference to Tirupur District Abstract. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Page Number, 8(1), 139–145. https://www.google.com
[7] Mugagga, R. G., & Chamdimba, H. B. N. (2019). A Comprehensive Review on Status of Solar PV Growth in Uganda. Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, 3(4), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430113
[8] Newman, H. R. (2013). The mineral industry of Uganda. In 2011 Minerals Yearbook: Vol. III (p. 206). International Monetary Fund. http://prd-wret.s3.amazonaws.com
[9] Okonya, J. S., & Kroschel, J. (2013). Indigenous knowledge of seasonal weather forecasting: A case study in six regions of Uganda. Agricultural Sciences, 04(12), 641–648. https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2013.412086
[10] Turyareeba, P. J. (2001). Renewable energy: Its contribution to improved standards of living and modernisation of agriculture in Uganda. Renewable Energy, 24(3–4), 453–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(01)00028-3
[11] Uganda Bureau of Statistics, 2016 – Google Scholar. (n.d.). Retrieved September 11, 2021, from https://scholar.google.co.za
[12] Van de Graaf, T. (2012). Obsolete or resurgent? The International Energy Agency in a changing global landscape. Energy Policy, 48, 233–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.012

Ademola Olatide Olaniyan (PhD), Haman Biita , “University Students’ Awareness of the Use and Application of Solar Energy in Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.403-407 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51020

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The Effect of Organizational Commitment, Competence, and Information Technology on the Performance of Regional Apparatus Organizations (OPD) of the Tojo Una-Una Regency Government and Their Impact on Job Satisfaction

Sovianur Kure, Muhammad Basir-Cyio, Bakri Hasanuddin – October 2021- Page No.: 408-420

The purpose of this study is to measure, analyze and explain (1) the effect of organizational commitment on the performance of program achievements and activities of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency. (2) The influence of HR competence on the performance of program achievements and activities of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency. (3) The influence of information technology on the performance of program achievements and activities of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency. (4) The influence of the performance of program achievements and activities of Regional Apparatus Organizations (OPD) on job satisfaction. (5) The effect of organizational commitment on job satisfaction. (6) The influence of HR competence on job satisfaction. (7) The effect of information technology on job satisfaction. This type of research uses descriptive and causality—hypothesis testing using structural equation modeling with a sample count of 200 respondents. The analysis results show that (1) organizational commitment has a positive and significant impact on the program’s performance and activities of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency. (2) HR competence positively impacts the program’s performance and activities of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency. (3) Information technology has a positive and significant effect on the program’s performance and activities of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency. (4) The performance of program achievements and activities of Regional Apparatus Organizations (OPD) has a positive but not significant effect on job satisfaction. (5) Organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency. (6) HR competence has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency. (7) Information technology has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction of the Regional Apparatus Organization (OPD) of Tojo Una-Una Regency.

Page(s): 408-420                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51021

 Sovianur Kure
Tadulako University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tadulako University, Palu

 Muhammad Basir-Cyio
Tadulako University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tadulako University, Palu

 Bakri Hasanuddin
Tadulako University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tadulako University, Palu

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Sovianur Kure, Muhammad Basir-Cyio, Bakri Hasanuddin “The Effect of Organizational Commitment, Competence, and Information Technology on the Performance of Regional Apparatus Organizations (OPD) of the Tojo Una-Una Regency Government and Their Impact on Job Satisfaction” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.408-420 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51021

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ICT Utilisation in Agric Based SMES in Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria

Titilope Ayobami Agbotoba, Hameed Olusegun Adebambo – October 2021- Page No.: 421-426

The study examined the effect of ICT utilisation on the performance of Agric based SMEs in the study area. The study investigates the level of utilisation of ICT by Agric based SMEs in the study area. The study was carried out in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data from 136 workers in agro based SMEs. Statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) through frequency and percentages statistics will be used to analyse the demographic of the respondents while Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to examine the effect of ICT utilisation on the performance of Agric based SMEs in Akure south local government, Ondo State, Nigeria. This study finds that the beta values and the sig values of the independent variables, the beta value indicated that ICT utilization processes all made significant contributions to the performance of agro based SMEs in the study area. ICT application made the highest amount of contribution (.509), followed by ICT policy (.313), while ICT infrastructure made the least amount of contribution of (.185). Therefore, ICT utilization process; ICT application, ICT policy and ICT infrastructure all became significant at .000, .000 and .003 respectively. Finally, the study recommended among others that due to the significant positive effect that ICT utilization has on performance of SMEs, the Federal Government through the federal ministry of science and technology should support agro-entrepreneurial investors in order to expand the use and adoption of ICT by Agric based SMEs in the country.

Page(s): 421-426                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2021

 Titilope Ayobami Agbotoba
Department of Project Management Technology, School of Logistics & Innovation Technology, The Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria

 Hameed Olusegun Adebambo
Department of Project Management Technology, School of Logistics & Innovation Technology, The Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria

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Titilope Ayobami Agbotoba, Hameed Olusegun Adebambo, “ICT Utilisation in Agric Based SMES in Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.421-426 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-10/421-426.pdf

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Relationship of Player Experience and Game Engagement in Battle Royale Games among Gamers in Davao City

Louie Jay M. Gilves, Ron Angelo Quilario, Rizel Mae Atanoza, Baby Joy Alameda Miano, Jezriel Bajan – October 2021- Page No.: 427-432

A characteristic of multiplayer web-based games is that players may take whatever job they choose, collaborate with other sections to complete far more complex goals, and complete missions of a violent nature. Players may communicate online, form friendships, and arrange real or virtual resources [1]. This research aims to ascertain the connection between Player Experience and Game Engagement in Battle Royale Games among Davao City Gamers. To ascertain the degree of player experience and game engagement and ascertain if there is a statistically significant connection between those factors. The data collection process is conducted through questionnaires. It is based on two of the most frequently used scales: the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) and the Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ). Although both measures were created using a rational-theoretical approach, none has been subjected to formal factor analysis. Fifty (50) respondents from Davao City between the ages of 16 and 40 who are eligible for our research were chosen. The researchers utilized purposeful sampling to choose an example that is usually beneficial to the study goals to produce an example that may represent the community. The findings indicate that most video games remain tenacious in their quest for popularity and do not seem to have an end in sight. Real-life and the virtual world are gradually merging with virtual reality on the horizon and making inroads into more conventional settings. The research concluded by examining the elements of game playing experience that may improve people’s competence, idea autonomy, and relatedness. The degree to which it is significant and how it connects with other factors.

Page(s): 427-432                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51022

 Louie Jay M. Gilves
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Jose Maria College, Philippines

 Ron Angelo Quilario
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Jose Maria College, Philippines

 Rizel Mae Atanoza
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Jose Maria College, Philippines

 Baby Joy Alameda Miano
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Jose Maria College, Philippines

 Jezriel Bajan
Faculty, Jose Maria College, Philippines

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[18] Przybylski, A. K., Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). A motivational model of video game engagement. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 154-166
[19] Inchamnan, W., Wyeth, P., & Johnson, D. (2013). Does activity in computer game play have an impact on creative behaviour? Proceedings of the Games Innovation Conference (IGIC), 2013 IEEE International.
[20] Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), 68-78
[21] Gregorio, C. Elegano, E., Lopez, C., Alejandrino, J., Buladaco, M.V., “Correlation between Online Game Engagement and Attitude towards Online Classes among College Students of Davao del Norte State College”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development-–Volume 4 Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2021.
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Louie Jay M. Gilves, Ron Angelo Quilario, Rizel Mae Atanoza, Baby Joy Alameda Miano, Jezriel Bajan, “Relationship of Player Experience and Game Engagement in Battle Royale Games among Gamers in Davao City” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-10, pp.427-432 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51022

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Undergraduate Entrepreneurship Education: The Pros and Cons for the Nigerian Context [A 10-Year (2008 vs. 2018) Gap Comparative Case Study of Federal Polytechnic Ede, Nigeria]

Choice, Oluwafolahan Honour Candour – October 2021- Page No.: 433-441

In year 2000, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) partnered to revitalize Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) curricula resulting in the full incorporation of Entrepreneurship Education (EEd) into TVE curricula. Correspondingly, FGN introduced EEd into university undergraduate curriculum in 2006. Whether EEd has achieved the desired outcomes for undergraduates and Nigeria without obstacles and challenges remained a recurring question. This study examined the pros and cons of Undergraduate EEd in the light of a decade (2008 vs. 2018) gap comparative case study of Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Nigeria. The baseline objectives were to: identify the benefits of EEd to the undergraduates; identify the obstacles mitigating the use of knowledge and skills inculcated; examine the challenges of implementing the curricula; determine the relevance of the programme to the nation; and to investigate if EEd should continue. Corollary objective compared results for the years. The study utilized primary and secondary data. Purposeful stratified random samples were 80 for 2008 and 350 for 2018. Simple percentages, frequencies and differentials were used for analysis. Key findings revealed empowerment for self-employment and acquisition of entrepreneurial knowledge as prime benefits of EEd while the consistent obstacle to using the knowledge and skills acquired was finance/lack of seed capital. Major challenge in implementing the curricula was inadequate infrastructures in 2008 and inadequate government funding in 2018. Respondents deemed that EEd should subsist. The study concluded that government and stakeholders should support EEd policies and implementation through adequate funding and requisite infrastructures.

Page(s): 433-441                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 November 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51023

 Choice, Oluwafolahan Honour Candour
Department of Business Administration and Management, Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Nigeria

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