Assessment of the Influence of Environmental Adult Education on Solid Waste Management in South-South Federal Universities, Nigeria

Bassey, Rebecca Edem and Adekola Ganiyu- December 2021- Page No.: 01-07

The study examines the influence of environmental adult education (EAE) on solid waste management in Federal Universities in South-South Nigeria. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Findings from the study revealed that awareness of staff and students in Federal Universities in South-South Nigeria on solid waste management is low. The study further revealed that despite the positive influence of EAE on solid waste management on universities campuses the universities managements are not promoting EAE. The study concluded that EAE which promotes awareness of and about the environment among the staff and students must be introduced. The study recommended that management of the universities should carry out aggressive EAE on campus by introducing it as a compulsory General Studies course for students at all levels and organize regular seminars/workshops based on EAE to staff, students, and other members of the university communities.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 December 2021

 Bassey, Rebecca Edem
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Adekola Ganiyu
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Bassey, Rebecca Edem and Adekola Ganiyu, “Assessment of the Influence of Environmental Adult Education on Solid Waste Management in South-South Federal Universities, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.01-07 December 2021 URL:

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Persuasive Communication of Indonesian Government for Tax Compliance Gaining During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Study on Message Posted at Instagram Account @DitjenPajakRI

Santi Maria Indah Setyawati, Andre Noevi Rahmanto, Ign. Agung Satyawan – December 2021- Page No.: 08-11

This paper aims to identify the communication strategies used by the Government of Indonesia for tax compliance gaining through a persuasive message posted on Instagram account @DitjenPajakRI during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data used in this study were all messages posted on Instagram @DitjenPajakRI from March 16th to June 11th, 2020. During that period, Government has the policy to stop all face-to-face tax services at the Tax Office due to COVID-19. The study was conducted using descriptive qualitative methods to describe the persuasive communication strategies by the government which was identified based on Compliance Gaining Theory developed by Marwell & Schmitt (1967). The study showed that the government used a combination of the following strategies: liking, promising, threatening, making moral appeals, and showing expertise about positive outcomes strategies. The mixed strategies implemented by Government in producing persuasive message aims to encourage tax compliance during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Page(s): 08-11                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51201

 Santi Maria Indah Setyawati
Communication Management, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Andre Noevi Rahmanto
Communication Management, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Ign. Agung Satyawan
Communication Management, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

[1] DGT Republic of Indonesia, “Face to Face Tax Service Reopens June 15, 2020,”, 2020. (accessed Jun. 18, 2021).
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[3] R. M. Perloff, The Dynamic of Persuasion: Communication and Attitudes In The 21st Century. New Jersey: Erlbaum Assosiates Publisher, 2003.
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[17] V. Bakir, E. Herring, D. Miller, and P. Robinson, “Organized Persuasive Communication: A new conceptual framework for research on public relations, propaganda and promotional culture,” Crit. Sociol., p. doi:10.1177/0896920518764586, 2018

Santi Maria Indah Setyawati, Andre Noevi Rahmanto, Ign. Agung Satyawan, “Persuasive Communication of Indonesian Government for Tax Compliance Gaining During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Study on Message Posted at Instagram Account @DitjenPajakRI” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.08-11 December 2021 DOI:

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Innovation and Social Inequalities in Africa

Audu, Solomon, Gbadamosi, Jumoke – December 2021- Page No.: 12-16

Social inequality is found across the continent of Africa just as in any other continent. Social inequalities portend to have negative effects on the populace of any region. Therefore, this study is set to examine the effect of innovation on the level of social inequality on selected countries in Africa. The theories that form the bedrock for discussion in this study is the saturation theory and the system theory. The study population is made up of all forty-eight mainland countries in Africa. While purposive sampling was used to select twelve countries based on the availability of data. The Ex-post facto research design was adopted and the linear regression was used in measuring the effect of the independent variable which is information technology on the dependent variables which are human development index, the level of income distribution and the level of female gender literacy index in Africa. The result shows an adjusted R2 of 41.5% which indicates that innovation alone does not account for the level of income distribution of the selected countries in Africa. This means that the remaining 58.5% represents other factor not captured in this study that can also explain the level of income distribution of the selected countries in Africa. The result further shows a computed p-value of 0.014 at 5% level of significance. This indicates that innovation has a significant effect on income distribution of the selected countries in Africa. It is recommended that governments of countries on the African continent need to provide and promote the infrastructure on which technological innovation can be built on and made assessable by all regardless of social class.

Page(s): 12-16                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 December 2021

 Audu, Solomon
Caleb University, Imota, Lagos, Nigeria

 Gbadamosi, Jumoke
Caleb University, Imota, Lagos, Nigeria

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[10] Tselios, V. (2011). Is inequality good for innovation? International Regional Science Review, 34(1), 75-101. doi:10.1177/0160017610383278
[11] Weiss, D., & Eikemo, T. A. (2017). Technological innovations and the rise of social inequalities in health. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 45, 714-719.
[12] Wlodarczyk, J. (2017). Innovations and income inequalities- a comparative study. Journal of International Studies, 10(4), 166-178. doi:10.14254/2071-8330.2017/10-4/13

Audu, Solomon, Gbadamosi, Jumoke “Innovation and Social Inequalities in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.12-16 December 2021 URL:

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Overcoming Fear to Improve English Speaking Skill

Nafisa Sultana, Bedoura Jamin- December 2021- Page No.: 17-27

Among four skills of English, speaking plays a vital role in achieving competence in the language. To speak effectively it is important first to acquire competence and then perform. Students face difficulties to speak in English in order to express their thoughts because of the psychological obstacle like fear. The objective of this research is to determine whether fear works as a barrier to improve English speaking skills. This research has been carried out using quantitative method. Forty respondents were selected using convenience sampling technique. Questionnaire was created using Google form to collect data. The data has been analyzed numerically and displayed in charts and tables. The findings reveal that fear acts as a barrier to improve English speaking because there is not enough opportunity to practice. Therefore, most of the students are afraid of giving speech or making presentation in front of the audience. They become nervous while speaking as they anticipate receiving negative criticisms. The fear of being laughed at or mocked by others are considered as the most significant barrier to improve speaking in English.

Page(s): 17-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51202

 Nafisa Sultana
Assistant Professor, Department of English, Notre Dame University Bangladesh, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

 Bedoura Jamin
Independent Researcher, Department of English, Notre Dame University Bangladesh, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

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Afraid of speaking English? Read this!

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Nafisa Sultana, Bedoura Jamin, “Overcoming Fear to Improve English Speaking Skill” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.17-27 December 2021 DOI:

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Traditional Authorities and Decentralisation in Cameroon

Wanji Kabao Hubert- December 2021- Page No.: 28-34

In Cameroon, traditional authorities are referred to by the generic term of traditional chieftaincy. The chieftaincy is a level of the administrative organisation. It is governed by the 1977 decree and the 2013 decree which amends and supplements certain provisions. Over the years, the role and place of traditional chieftaincy has constantly evolved. As custodian of customs and traditions, it originally constituted micro-States or vassal States in the pre-colonial era. With colonisation, it played a collaborative role which, not without distorting its original value, continues in the post-colonial era. Within the framework of decentralisation, implemented by Law No. 96/06 of 18 January 1996, the status of traditional authorities has undergone a new evolution which certainly gives them a certain visibility in the decentralised local authority without, however, removing their confined role of auxiliary to the administration. Instead of essentially addressing the issue of over-centralisation of decisions at the summit of the State, including the exclusion of vulnerable social groups and the lack of interest in local institutions, decentralisation through the politicisation of chiefs is also likely to be a source of conflict between chiefs and populations that they are supposed to defend and lead.

Page(s): 28-34                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2021

 Wanji Kabao Hubert
Historian of International Relations, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

[1] Abwa D., 1998, Commissaires et hauts-commissaires de la France au Cameroun (1916-1960), Yaoundé, Presses Universitaires de Yaoundé et Presses de l’Ucac.
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[8] Emog P., 1987-1988, Les pays Banen et Bafia de 1901 à 1945 : le poids de la colonisation. Essai d’étude historique, Thèse de doctorat 3e cycle en Histoire, Université de Yaoundé.
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[18] Suret-Canale J., 1962, Afrique noire, l’ère coloniale 1900-1945, Paris, Editions sociales.
[19] Temgoua A.P., 2011, « Les chefs tradititonnels du Sud-Cameroun forestier dans le circuit de l’économie de marché », pp. 171-183 in Kpwang R. (dir), La chefferie « traditionnelle » dans les sociétés de la grande zone forestière du Cameroun (1850-2010), Paris, l’Harmattan.
[20] Vincent F., Etienne S., 2011, « Les aventures ambiguës du pouvoir traditionnel dans l’Afrique contemporaine », Revue internationale et stratégique, n°81, pp.30 à 43.
Laws and Decrees
[21] Decree No. 77/245 of 15 July 1977 organising traditional chieftaincies
[22] Decree No. 2013/332 of 13 September 2013 to amend and supplement certain provisions of Decree No. 77245 of 15 July 1977 organising traditional chieftancies
[23] Decree No. 2020/526 of 2 September 2020 to fix the number of Regional Councillors per Division and per category
[24] Law No. 74/23 of 5 December 1974 organising councils
[25] Law No. 96/06 of 18 January 1996 to amend the Constitution of 2 June, 1972
[26] Law No. 2019/024 of 24 December 2019 bill to institute the general code of regional and local authorities

Wanji Kabao Hubert, “Traditional Authorities and Decentralisation in Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.28-34 December 2021 URL:

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The United States “War on Terror” Strategy: Classic and Contemporary Concepts of War

Dr. Arash Sharghi, Irina Dotu- December 2021- Page No.: 35-42

This study sought to explore the classical and contemporary conceptualization of war and terrorism and to discuss the derivation of US “War on Terror” strategy within the related literature. Notwithstanding to the high number of terrorism-related studies, the major part of those defines terrorism considering the assumptions on the clash of ethics, ideologies, identities and ideas, and see “war on terror” as the security or defense response against nihilist insurgency movements. On another hand, a literature on terrorism was developed, which is disclaiming terrorism and “war on terror” as the objective geopolitical instruments used for the US hegemony and in accordance with the US demands. Therefore, this paper is an attempt to look at the “War on Terror” strategy through the lenses of classical and contemporary concepts of war and terrorism. The research method is descriptive and qualitative through using the secondary sources. This study will show how the US “war on terror” was legitimized by the terrorism industry and finds its place within classic war paradigm.

Page(s): 35-42                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51203

 Dr. Arash Sharghi
IPE Club, Turkey

 Irina Dotu
International Relations Department, Near East University, TRNC

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Dr. Arash Sharghi, Irina Dotu, “The United States “War on Terror” Strategy: Classic and Contemporary Concepts of War” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.35-42 December 2021 DOI:

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Challenges Facing Learner Leadership at Schools

Elock Emvula Shikalepo & Selma Ndeyapo Kandjengo – December 2021- Page No.: 43-51

The purpose of the study was to establish the challenges that faced learner leadership at school level. A case study design was used as a methodology for the research, whose sample comprised of school principals, teachers and learners of Oshana Region. All participants were selected using purposive sampling. The data was collected with document analysis, semi-structured questionnaires, interviews, observation and journaling. The collected data was analysed by establishing themes.
The study established that learner leadership was faced by challenges which relates to the lack of support from senior school structures. Teachers were not providing the required support to learner leaders, and instead made comments which were discouraging learner leaders from executing their leadership responsibilities. Similarly, school principals were also not providing enough support to learner leaders as any issues raised to the school principal were not attended to promptly, and learner leaders were not provided with ample opportunities to make their voice heard. The lack of support from senior management discouraged learner leaders from executing the leadership roles effectively.
In addition, indiscipline among learners also gave learner leaders hardships in executing their leadership roles, especially that learner leaders were not receiving the required leadership support and guidance from the senior school leadership on how to conform unusual behaviours among other learners. An understanding of the challenges facing learner leadership at school could help educational authorities to develop better interventions for addressing the challenges facing learner leaders in the execution of their leadership roles, thereby allowing learner leaders to execute their leadership functions effectively at school.

Page(s): 43-51                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51204

 Elock Emvula Shikalepo
Lecturer, Faculty of Education, The International University of Management, Namibia

 Selma Ndeyapo Kandjengo
Senior Education Officer, Directorate of Adult Education, Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture, Namibia

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Elock Emvula Shikalepo & Selma Ndeyapo Kandjengo, “Challenges Facing Learner Leadership at Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.43-51 December 2021 DOI:

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CSU Cabadbaran Stakeholders’ Awareness and Acceptance of the New Vision and Mission: The CITTE Experience

Ramil B. Arante, Marisol Jane M. Beray, Cecilia H. Tadal – December 2021- Page No.: 52-61

The research was carried out at Caraga State University State University Cabadbaran City (CSUCC), particularly in the College of Industrial Technology and Teacher Education (CITTE). It was aimed at determining the awareness and acceptance of the CSUCC stakeholders on the new vision and mission of the university. This study employs a descriptive research design the survey method. The data was gathered using a survey questionnaire created by the researcher. The questionnaire was benchmarked from OBE instruction adopted from the revised instrument developed by the Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities of the Philippines, Inc. (AACCUP) in 2010. The study participants are 522 sampled stakeholders comprising of students, parents, faculty members, and non-teaching personnel. The information gathered was compiled and evaluated using relevant statistical software. Analysis of Variance with Post-Hoc Analysis was utilized to determine any significant differences among stakeholders’ responses. Results of the study revealed that the stakeholders who participated in this study are highly aware and highly accepted the new vision and mission of the university. The data further revealed that CSUCC employees have the highest grand means in both levels of awareness and acceptance with 4.78 and 4.71, respectively.
In contrast, the students had the lowest grand means on both levels of awareness and acceptance with 4.51 and 4.52, respectively. There is a significant difference in the level of awareness and acceptance among the three (3) stakeholders involved in the survey, which can be attributed to their level of understanding. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the new vision and mission of the university is well formulated, well disseminated, and fully understood based on the high level of acceptance and awareness among stakeholders. In light of the conclusion, it can be recommended that the coverage of the survey will be extended beyond the College of Industrial Technology and Teacher Education for an enormous scope of findings. Other stakeholders are suggested to be included for a complete result. The extent of dissemination and Level of understanding of the new vision and mission of the university will also be included in the next phase of the study.

Page(s): 52-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51205

 Ramil B. Arante
Department of Teacher Education, Caraga State University Cabadbaran City, Philippines

 Marisol Jane M. Beray
Department of Teacher Education, Caraga State University Cabadbaran City, Philippines

 Cecilia H. Tadal
Department of Teacher Education, Caraga State University Cabadbaran City, Philippines

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Ramil B. Arante, Marisol Jane M. Beray, Cecilia H. Tadal “CSU Cabadbaran Stakeholders’ Awareness and Acceptance of the New Vision and Mission: The CITTE Experience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.52-61 December 2021 DOI:

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Basic Psychological Needs, Depression, and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly

Aileen Joyce J Lim, Mary Rachelle R Wapano, Ph.D- December 2021- Page No.: 62-67

This study examined the relationship between basic psychological needs and satisfaction with life among the elderly in rural area in the Phillipines.
Findings revealed that elderly indicated that their basic psychological needs are generally satisfied:. The results show that of the psychological needs autonomy (M=4.82, SD=0.94), competence (M=4.94, SD=1.08), and relatedness (M=5.46, SD=1.03) are generally satisfied.
Additionally, respondents reported general satisfaction with life mean score (M=25.90, SD=0.37). The respondents of this study report that they are generally satisfied with their quality of life, achievement, and past experiences
This study also revealed that basic psychological needs do not significantly predict life satisfaction. It is recommended that other factors be investigated which could potentially predict life satisfaction.

Page(s): 62-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51206

 Aileen Joyce J Lim
Mindanao State University at Naawawan

 Mary Rachelle R Wapano, Ph.D
Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan

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Aileen Joyce J Lim, Mary Rachelle R Wapano, Ph.D, “Basic Psychological Needs, Depression, and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.62-67 December 2021 DOI: of Teaching Araling Panlipunan and its Effect on the Grade-10 Students’ Performance in Indanan National High School Timbangan Campus-Jolo, Sulu Philippines

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Method of Teaching Araling Panlipunan and its Effect on the Grade-10 Students’ Performance in Indanan National High School Timbangan Campus-Jolo, Sulu Philippines

Nuryneil M. Joe – December 2021- Page No.: 68-72

This study used quasi experimental design to determine the appropriate teaching methods in history subject. The subject of the study are 64 grade 20 students at Indanan National High School -Annex .two method of teaching are studied .the modular small group discussion method and the lecture discussion method in teaching the Araling Panlipunan subject .The topics are continuously presented to the students during the third quarter of the K-12 curriculum. Pretest – posttest design was utilized to determine the performance of the students in the two methods of teaching .The pretest was given before the formal teaching while the posttest was given after the formal teaching.
Statistical computation and analysis was utilized to determine the mean score of the grade 10 students in the pretest and posttest revealed the following significant findings:
1. In a Focus Group Discussion the teachers favor the modular small group discussion method as the most appropriate teaching method used in history subject. The teachers participated in FGD has cited advantages of the modular small group discussion method, that the students can exercise free-well to learn the subject based on their discussion .The students can explicitly contextualize the lesson and eventually localized in their own understanding .
2. The mean difference of the scores of the grade 10 students do not differ significantly in the two method of teaching.
3. The mean difference of the scores in the posttest significantly differ which implies that the modular small group discussion significantly effective than the lecture discussion method.
The study concluded that the appropriate teaching method favorable to the teachers in the Focus Group Discussion is the modular small group discussion method. The teachers justified by determine advantages of the modular small group discussion method over the lecture discussion method. There is no significant difference of the mean scores of the grade 10 students in the pretest but substantial significant difference is observed in the posttest which implied that the modular small group teaching method is significantly effective than the lecture discussion method.

Page(s): 68-72                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51207

 Nuryneil M. Joe
Mindanao State University–Sulu, Philippines

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Nuryneil M. Joe, “Method of Teaching Araling Panlipunan and its Effect on the Grade-10 Students’ Performance in Indanan National High School Timbangan Campus-Jolo, Sulu Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.68-72 December 2021 DOI:

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Benefits of Beekeeping in Rural Areas: Insights from Chipinge District in Zimbabwe

John Mwandifura, Innocent Mharidzo, Dr. Lovemore Chikazhe, Dr. J Manyeruke, Dr. N Mashavakure and Benny Chidziso- December 2021- Page No.: 73-84

The study sought to establish the sustainability of beekeeping business in rural areas of Chipinge District. The existence of thick forests and perennial rivers and availability of wild plants that flowers in different times of the year, has also driven some farmers into beekeeping. The utility of beekeeping enterprise as a livelihood activity has been fully realized in the whole district, including the Lowveld, with poor vegetation for bees and poor water availability. This study was carried out to find out how communities can benefit from the sustainable beekeeping programme. The study examined the strategies the community employed to enhance its livelihoods through the sharing of activities from a sustainable beekeeping programme. The research used questionnaires, structured interviews and observations as sources of gathering data. The study established the benefits which accrued from beekeeping that covered honey as food, income in the form of cash, medicines, scenery creation for tourism and income generating projects through making of hives, making honey processing machines (manual honey pressers), making bee suits, opening shops which sell honey packaging materials, growing of flowers and citrus fruits which attract bees. Employment creation and increasing in the number of income activities in the area has been witnessed due to beekeeping business. Beekeeping as a business led into diversification of income generation options leading to improvement of standard of living of rural people through utilization of their local available resources. The study recommends that the sustainability of beekeeping enterprise should be supported by both backward and forward linkages. The government policies should support the efforts of beekeepers. Beekeepers in Zimbabwe do not get loans from banks and this should be rectified by both private players and the government.

Page(s): 73-84                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 December 2021

 John Mwandifura1
Chinhoyi University of Technology

 Innocent Mharidzo
Chinhoyi University of Technology

 Dr. Lovemore Chikazhe
Chinhoyi University of Technology

 Dr. J Manyeruke
Chinhoyi University of Technology

 Dr. N Mashavakure
Chinhoyi University of Technology

 Benny Chidziso
Women’s University in Africa

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John Mwandifura, Innocent Mharidzo, Dr. Lovemore Chikazhe, Dr. J Manyeruke, Dr. N Mashavakure and Benny Chidziso, “Benefits of Beekeeping in Rural Areas: Insights from Chipinge District in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.73-84 December 2021 URL:

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Adaptive Capacity on Flexible Learning in the New Normal: The Case of Davao Del Norte State College

Arnold M. Duping, PhD; Ronald S. Decano, PhD; Jevannel G. Borlio – December 2021- Page No.: 85-99

This study aims to investigate the adaptive capacity of the students and faculty members of Davao del Norte State College in the new teaching and learning modalities demanded by this new normal setting. With the CoViD-19 pandemic lurking into the academic grounds, posing new challenges, the researchers initiated to describe the academic profile of the 2547 students and 109 faculty members. Results revealed that utilizing television and transistor radio devices on blended learning may not be effective due to a huge number of learners who will not be able to access learning materials delivered through these media. Moreover, 1148 of 2290 students described not having Internet connection at home. Yet, on the status of Internet connectivity, only 67 learners have no Internet access in their area. Fourteen (14) faculty members revealed not having Internet Connection at home, but was able to gain access during the physical duty schedules. This result suggests that even without Internet Connection at home, students and faculty members are findings ways to cope with the learning and teaching challenges in these difficult times.

Page(s): 85-99                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51208

 Arnold M. Duping, PhD
Dean, Institute of Teacher Education, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Ronald S. Decano, PhD
Dean of Institute of Advanced Studies, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

 Jevannel G. Borlio
Faculty, Institute of Teacher Education, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

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Arnold M. Duping, PhD; Ronald S. Decano, PhD; Jevannel G. Borlio, “Adaptive Capacity on Flexible Learning in the New Normal: The Case of Davao Del Norte State College” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.85-99 December 2021 DOI:

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Decay and Disappearance of Buddhism in its Land of Birth

Dr. Sumudu Dharmarathna – December 2021- Page No.: 100-104

The decline and disappearance of Buddhism from its land of birth, is one of the most important subjects of the History of South Asian religion. It is accepted that Buddhism was disappeared in the land of its birth from the 13th century CE, because there is no continuation of sculptural creations and other constructional activities of the Buddhist monastic sites in the sub-continent then onwards. Scholars have tried to identify the factors behind the process of decay and disappearance of Buddhism. Among the numerous issues on that, in this research study, the main point of attention is on growth and popularity of Mahayanism and the introduction of Tantrism, which some scholars have highlighted as the most important factor for the decay of Buddhism. Further, attempt to identify real factor among various other issues in this regards.

Page(s): 100-104                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 December 2021

 Dr. Sumudu Dharmarathna
Department of History, University of Peradenita, Sri Lanka

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Dr. Sumudu Dharmarathna “Decay and Disappearance of Buddhism in its Land of Birth” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.100-104 December 2021 URL:

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Developing Farmers and Fisherfolks Entrepreneurial Capacity towards Community Based-Enterprise

Nerisa N. Paladan- December 2021- Page No.: 105-115

The study assessed the level of personal entrepreneurial competencies of farmers and fisherfolks towards community-based enterprise engagement. Specifically, it determines which competencies they excel in, recognizes the differences of entrepreneurial competency in terms of gender, business experience, and educational attainment and its correlation to age. Furthermore, the framework was developed in implementing community-based enterprises. Descriptive research was adopted; 206 farmers and 100 fisherfolks are the respondents of this study; they were surveyed, and assessed the level of entrepreneurial competencies using the Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PEC) Questionnaire with fifty-five questions through Likert scale. Findings reveal that farmers and fisherfolks have a moderate entrepreneurial competency; both rank first the risk-taking and goal setting as the least. Farmer self-confidence increases as they age while for fisherfolks it declines; male farmers are more persuasive, farmers with business experience have higher competency for opportunity-seeking and risk-taking, and farmers’ competency differs in terms of their educational attainment. While fisherfolks show no difference in entrepreneurial competency for both men and women, with or without business experience, and only the competency for persistence differ in their educational attainment. Developing a framework for implementing community-based enterprise should focus on intensifying the entrepreneurial competency of farmers and fisherfolks.

Page(s): 105-115                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51209

 Nerisa N. Paladan
Nerisa N. Paladan

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Nerisa N. Paladan, “Developing Farmers and Fisherfolks Entrepreneurial Capacity towards Community Based-Enterprise” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.105-115 December 2021 DOI:

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Views of Religious Leaders on Radicalism in Palu City

Rus’an, H. Juraid Abdul Latief, Muhammad Khairil, Hasan Muhamad – December 2021- Page No.: 116-120

The view of Religious Figures towards Radicalism in Palu City, Central Sulawesi. This study aims to: 1) find out the views of religious figures in Palu City about radicalism in the context of thoughts or ideas, 2) to find out the views of religious figures in Palu City about radicalism in actions and movements, 3) To find out the strategies in overcoming radicalism. This research employed a qualitative method with an inductive approach. The research informants consist of interfaith leaders in Palu City. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interviews, and document studies.The study results show that the views of religious figures in Palu City on radicalism in the context of thoughts or ideas are not disputed and not to be concerned because every religious adherent wants to return to the basis of his religious purity. Therefore, the truth claim, which is considered one of the radical characteristics, is wrong. Religious adherents must believe in the fact of their religion and must believe that anything Contrary to their religion is wrong. Believing in the truth of religion is a condition of faith in every adherent. Thus it should not be a concern as long as it is not followed by violence. The view of religious figures in Palu City towards radicalism in the context of actions and movements violates all religious values. No religion justifies violent actions. The strategies in anticipating and reducing the growth of radicalism, namely maintaining and reviving the culture of local wisdom and building interfaith communication through the Religious Communication Forum (FKUB).

Page(s): 116-120                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51210

Social Science Study Program Postgraduate Doctoral Program, Tadulako University, Palu-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

 H. Juraid Abdul Latief
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Tadulako University, Palu-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

 Muhammad Khairil
Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Tadulako University, Palu-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

 Hasan Muhamad
Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Tadulako University, Palu-Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

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Rus’an, H. Juraid Abdul Latief, Muhammad Khairil, Hasan Muhamad, “Views of Religious Leaders on Radicalism in Palu City” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.116-120 December 2021 DOI:

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The Impact of Traditional Leadership on Voting Behavior at General Elections

M. Fachri Adnan, Hasbullah Malau, Heldo Aura – December 2021- Page No.: 121-127

This study discusses the impact of traditional leaders on voting behavior in a general election. Many studies have discussed factors yang that affect voting behavior in general elections. Nevertheless, most studies focus on the perception or evaluation of political leaders or characteristics of candidate leadership on voting behavior. This study is about the impact of traditional leadership on voting behavior in an election. Data were collected by questionnaire the community of Kurai in Bukittinggi Town West Sumatera and analyzed with simple regression. This study emphasizes improving the impact of traditional leadership on voting behavior at the general election. The purpose of the research is to investigate the effect of traditional leaders on voting behavior in a general election. Data were collected by questionnaire and analysis by descriptive and linear regression method. This study shows that traditional leader has a significant impact on the voting behavior of legislative general election.

Page(s): 121-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51211

 M. Fachri Adnan
Universitas Negeri Padang, West Sumatra Indonesia

 Hasbullah Malau
Universitas Negeri Padang, West Sumatra Indonesia

 Heldo Aura
Member of General Election Commission Bukittinggi Town West Sumatra Indonesia

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M. Fachri Adnan, Hasbullah Malau, Heldo Aura “The Impact of Traditional Leadership on Voting Behavior at General Elections” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.121-127 December 2021 DOI:

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An assessment of the impact of Covid-19 lockdowns on child safeguarding issues in Zimbabwe’s urban and peri-urban districts

Pascal Masocha- December 2021- Page No.: 128-143

The onset of Covid 19 has led to the full-scale closure of schools in Zimbabwe. Children are stuck at home and experiencing numerous child safeguarding problems. This study sought to trace some of these problems and make recommendations on best the children’s welfare can be improved during these trying times
The study used a mixed methods approach comprising a survey to collect quantitative data as well as a review of existing literature. A purposive sampling technique was used given the novelty of the problem
The results showed that indeed children are experiencing many problems in the home and there is need for a change in approach to child safeguarding issues in the homes in Zimbabwe
There is need to improve the way children are handled in the homes in Zimbabwe to reduce the child abuse cases rampant in the homes during this lock down

Page(s): 128-143                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2021

 Pascal Masocha
Africa University, Zimbabwe

[1] Andrea C. Gielen, G. B.-M. (2020, November). National survey of home injuries during the time of COVID-19: who is at risk? Open Access.
[2] Daniel Stoecklin, e. a. (2021). Lockdown and Children’s Well-Being: Experiences. Childhood Vulnerability Journal.
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Pascal Masocha, “An assessment of the impact of Covid-19 lockdowns on child safeguarding issues in Zimbabwe’s urban and peri-urban districts” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.128-143 December 2021 URL:

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Challenges faced by Learners with Visual Impairment while Learning Science Practical’s in Inclusive classrooms in Luapula Province of Zambia

Dr Penda Annie , Nkonge Mubanga- December 2021- Page No.: 144-151

This study focused on the challenges faced by learners with visual impairment while learning science practical’s in an inclusive classroom. The main objective of the study was, to establish the challenges faced by learners with visual impairment while learning science practical’s in inclusive classrooms.The study was conducted at 2 inclusive secondary schools in Luapula province because the schools had learners with visual impairment. The study used the interpretivism research paradigm which is also called qualitative research paradigm. Thus the instruments for data collection were the focused group discussion guide for teachers, structured interview guide for learners with visual impairment and observation checklist for both learners and teachers.
The study found that learners with visual impairment faced challenges during science practical’s and these were difficulties in identifying colours during experiments, of depending on the sighted learners for experimental proceedings and results, the use of learning methods which stressed the use of sight, using non-embossed learning materials, lack of using the sense of touch in their learning and being handled by untrained teachers.
The study unveiled that to address the challenges faced by learners with visual impairment while learning science practical’s in inclusive classrooms, the methods to be used in learning must be multisensory, Braille to be used as a medium of instruction, embossed colour charts and apparatus to be provided, an adaptive science curriculum to be provided and teachers should be trained in special education so that they could acquire skills and knowledge to handle such learners. Suggested recommendations for the study included the use of multisensory learning methods, use of braille as a medium of instruction, using adaptive curriculum and training teachers in special education.

Page(s): 144-151                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2021

 Dr Penda Annie
Kwame Nkrumah University PO BOX 80404 Kabwe Zambia

 Nkonge Mubanga
Kwame Nkrumah University PO BOX 80404 Kabwe Zambia

[1] Agesa, L. (2014). Challenges Faced by Learners with Visual Impairment in Inclusive Setting in Trans-Nzoia County.Journal of Education and practice. 5(29)
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[7] Mustafa, S. (2016).Practical work in science with visually impaired students.Erzurum: Atatürk University.
[8] Mwaala, F. L. (2016). Implementing inclusive education for persons with disabilities in Lusaka, Zambia. A symbolic interactionist perspective in science education. Unpublished theisis.
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[10] Snyder, L., Dillow, G, P., and Aylor, M. W. (2013).Inclusion confusion: Putting the pieces together. Teacher Education and Special Education, 24, 198-207. Unpublished thesis.

Dr Penda Annie , Nkonge Mubanga, “Challenges faced by Learners with Visual Impairment while Learning Science Practical’s in Inclusive classrooms in Luapula Province of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.144-151 December 2021 URL:

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Challenges Which Hinder Citizen Participation in Governance Affairs in Nalusanga Zone, Mumbwa District, Zambia

Andrew Nswana and Eunifridah Simuyaba- December 2021- Page No.: 152-158

This study explored the challenges which hinder citizen participation in governance issues in Nalusanga Zone of Mumbwa District. The major aim of the study was to establish the challenges which hindered citizen participation in governance processes with a view to inform policy direction. A qualitative research approach, anchored on an exploratory research design, was applied to achieve the research purpose. Interview guides and focus group discussions were used as research instruments to explore the research problem on purposively selected individuals. Data which was analysed thematically, revealed recurring themes from the data. The study revealed that citizens faced a number of challenges in governance participation. These included; ignorance, poor distribution of resources, poverty, illiteracy, having ineffective participatory systems and platforms which influenced the participation of the citizens in public governance.Upon establishing a number of challenges that citizens faced in governance affairs, the study made a number of recommendation to counter the stated challenges. Among the main recommendation were the need for the government to provide empowerment funds to the area in order to reduce poverty levels. The need to sensitise members of the public about the importance of citizen participation in national affairs was also recommended. The government was to develop platforms for public participation which are relevant, coordinated and accessible in order for the public to participate in governance and development in a meaningful manner. Finally, there was need to create interactive public consultations in order to improve the quality of participation.

Page(s): 152-158                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51212

 Andrew Nswana
The University of Zambia

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[8] Falconer-Stout, Z.J; Kalimaposo, K and Simuyaba, E. (2014) ‘The Role of Active Parent Community School Committees in Achieving Strong Relative School Performance in Zambian Community Schools’. Southern Africa Review of Education. Available on
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[12] Kapembwa, R, Simuyaba, E, Njobvu, T, Muleya, G and Simui, F (2020) ‘School Based Restorative Practices in Influencing Positive Behaviour in Deviant Pupils in Zambia’. International Journal of Education and Research. Vol.8, 12, 93-110. Available on
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[15] Masaiti G. and Simuyaba E. (2018). ‘University Education in Zambia in the Face of Austerity: History, Trends and Financing’ in Education in Zambia at Fifty years of Independence and beyond. Lusaka: Unza press. Also available on
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[17] Mwase, D; Simuyaba, E; Mwewa, G; Muleya, M and Simui, F. (2020) ‘Leveraging Parental Involvement in the Education of their Children as a Conflict Resolution Strategy in Selected Secondary Schools in Zambia’. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science. Vol.1.No.7. July 2020, Pp 356-365.
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[19] Nswana A, ( 2021) ‘Exploring the Nature And Extent of Citizen Participation In Governance In Nalusanga Zone, Mumbwa District’ Unpublished Dissertation Submitted to The University of Zambia in Association with Zimbabwe Open Universityin Partial Fulfilment of theRequirement for the Award of Master of Science in Peace, Leadership and Conflict Resolution. Lusaka.
[20] Simuyaba, E; Banda, D; Mweemba, L and Muleya G. (2015) ‘Theory Against Practice: Training of Teachers in a Vacuum’. Journal of Education and Social Policy. Vol2, no.5. Pp 88-96.
[21] Simuyaba, E &Chibwe, P. (2016) ‘Teacher Professionalism in Zambia: Practices, Challenges and Prospects in the Post 2015 Era’. Proceedings of the 67th IIER International Conference, Stockholm, Sweden. Available on
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Andrew Nswana and Eunifridah Simuyaba, “Challenges Which Hinder Citizen Participation in Governance Affairs in Nalusanga Zone, Mumbwa District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.152-158 December 2021 DOI:

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Spatio-Temporal Geomorphic Landscape Dynamics and Possible Geological Hazards in Ghana

Ezekiel Addison Otoo, Yaw Asamoah (PhD), George Boateng & Ishmael Yaw Dadson (PhD) – December 2021- Page No.: 159-164

The recent deteriorating nature of the Mile 11 hills has made the area a potential geo-hazard zone given the extent of human activities and the level of excavations on-going. The study sought to investigate the extent of landscape change and possible geological hazards between 1986 and 2016. It adopted the exploratory sequential design and the mixed research methodology. The study used spatial cartographic tools (GIS and Remote Sensing) to examine the extent of landscape change as well as interviewed 32 participants (residents and experts) for the qualitative analysis through the purposive sampling method. The results confirmed the landscape was undergoing both degradation and depositional geomorphic changes. About 56.11% of the landscape underwent degradation while 43.89% underwent deposition. Geomorphic change in the municipality was largely due to anthropogenic change rather than geological changes which were evidence by the activities of urbanisation, sand winning and quarrying on-going in the area, posing potential geo-hazard risk to residents in the area. The major factors found to be responsible for landscape change included geological, meteorological, and anthropogenic factors. Possible geological hazards envisaged included earth quake, landscape influenced flooding and mudflow. It was recommended that hazard prone areas should also be zoned and residents relocated to prevent future fatalities. Proper coordination was also recommended between traditional land owners, EPA, GGSA and GSMA to enhance proper planning in the municipality.

Page(s): 159-164                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51213

 Ezekiel Addison Otoo
Department of Geography Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 Yaw Asamoah (PhD)
Department of Geography Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 George Boateng
Berekum College of Education, Berekum – Ghana

 Ishmael Yaw Dadson (PhD)
Department of Geography Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

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Ezekiel Addison Otoo, Yaw Asamoah (PhD), George Boateng & Ishmael Yaw Dadson (PhD), “Spatio-Temporal Geomorphic Landscape Dynamics and Possible Geological Hazards in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.159-164 December 2021 DOI:

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Government Agricultural Support Projects: Implications on Job Creation in Rivers State

Godwin Uzochukwu Nosiri, Alwell Nteegah, Monday Robinson and Ijeoma Kalu – December 2021- Page No.: 165-173

This paper examined the implications of selected government agricultural support projects on job creation in Rivers State. Specifically, it examined the contributions of Risonpalm Estate (now SIART NIG. LTD), School-to-Land Programme and Songhai Farm all in Rivers state on rural employment. In order to achieve the objectives of the paper, a cross-sectional research design, using survey method was adopted and combinations of descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis of the responses generated using a well-structured questionnaire. The findings revealed that government agricultural projects/supports to farmers have helped to create more jobs in the host communities thereby contributed to improving living conditions of the people in the host communities and the state at large. Based on these findings, the study concluded that government sponsored agricultural activities/projects have contributed to employment in the rural communities in Rivers State. Thus, the paper recommends among others that government should increase support to farmers and funding to the farms, train farmers in the rural communities through extension services and renovate moribund farms in order to solve the problem of unemployment ravaging rural communities and the state at large.

Page(s): 165-173                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 December 2021

 Godwin Uzochukwu Nosiri
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Alwell Nteegah
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Monday Robinson
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Ijeoma Kalu
Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Godwin Uzochukwu Nosiri, Alwell Nteegah, Monday Robinson and Ijeoma Kalu “Government Agricultural Support Projects: Implications on Job Creation in Rivers State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.165-173 December 2021 URL:

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Musical Taste and Preference of Students in Some Selected Colleges of Education in Ghana

Ndah Divine Selorm, Adom Faith Mawunyo, Jessica Amoah- December 2021- Page No.: 174-180

There are many musical types that are found in Ghana. The primary ones are Art, Popular and Traditional musical types. This study sought to explain the differences that exist between these three musical types and also find out which of them is the preferred choice among students of some selected Colleges of Education in Ghana, so that, the students preferred musical type could be used to communicate with them in the academic space on the campuses. In order to seek the answers for the study, 300 students were sampled using Convenience and Random sampling techniques. With interview, questionnaire and Observation as the research instruments. The study revealed that, majority of the respondents like the Popular musical type over the Art and Traditional types. This could inform policy makers on education in the Colleges whether to use popular musical type as a teaching strategy since it goes down well with the majority of the student body.

Page(s): 174-180                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51214

 Ndah Divine Selorm
SDA College of Education, Koforidua- Ghana Department of Creative Arts

 Adom Faith Mawunyo
St Francis College of Education, Hohoe, Ghana Department of Performing Arts

 Jessica Amoah
St Monica’s College of Education, Ashanti Mampong- Ghana Department of Creative Arts

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Ndah Divine Selorm, Adom Faith Mawunyo, Jessica Amoah, “Musical Taste and Preference of Students in Some Selected Colleges of Education in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.174-180 December 2021 DOI:

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Human Resources and Service Delivery in Tier One Private Hospitals in Nairobi City County, Kenya

Ian Barry Odhiambo, Godfrey M. Kinyua, PhD- December 2021- Page No.: 181-187

Despite the governments’ efforts to provide health care services to their citizens through public hospitals, the public demand for medical services ends up overwhelming the public hospitals especially in developing countries. As a result, service delivery in the public hospitals is compromised which has resulted into the rise of private hospitals. However, limited studies has approached service delivery in private hospitals from the perspective of human resources hence this study. The study used descriptive cross-sectional survey design. A sample of 131 respondents was targeted comprising of health workers from the Tier One private hospitals in Nairobi City County. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Applying correlation and simple regression, results showed that a strong positive relationship exist between human resources and service delivery. Regression analysis revealed that recruiting an additional one employee in a tier one private hospital increases service delivery in the hospital. The study concludes that human resources have a significant positive effect on service delivery in the hospitals. It recommends that human resource managers in the hospitals should ensure that they develop and implement strategic human resource management practices to enhance service delivery.

Page(s): 181-187                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 December 2021

 Ian Barry Odhiambo
School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Godfrey M. Kinyua, PhD
School of Business, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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Ian Barry Odhiambo, Godfrey M. Kinyua, PhD, “Human Resources and Service Delivery in Tier One Private Hospitals in Nairobi City County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.181-187 December 2021 URL:

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Towards achieving Innovation through mainstreaming Sustainable Development Goal 4 on Quality Higher Education the Southern African Perspective

GN Shava, S. Hleza, E Mathonsi, S. Shonhiwa, Nkosikhona Hlabangana- December 2021- Page No.: 188-201

The purpose of this article is to establish the challenges of achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4) on Quality education and education for sustainable development, focusing on four universities in the Southern African SADC region. The study draws on the critical realist theory of structure, culture and agency theoretical view point to understand the implementation of sustainable development goal 4 on quality higher education. Specifically, it examines the structural, cultural and agential conditions in higher education that constrain or enable the achievement of quality higher education. This study is conducted using a qualitative research approach with an interpretive epistemological and constructivist ontological perspective. The research findings are analysed through thick descriptions and the element of voice in the text. The interpretive paradigm enabled the researchers to see, hear and understand the particular meaning making inherent in peoples’ lives within their institutions. This paper has practical implications for higher education institutions seeking to achieve quality teaching and learning for sustainable development and lifelong learning. Its findings show that higher education curriculum and pedagogy need to be reoriented to address issues of quality and lifelong learning. Our study is one of the studies in Africa to examine issues of lifelong learning, quality and education for sustainable development specifically in the Southern African Region and context of higher education. It is one of the first studies to explore the provision of higher education and addressing key targets of sustainable development goal 4 and its targets to be achieved by 2030. The study forms part of the broader theoretical and methodological debate on the use and application of the realist theory in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)

Page(s): 188-201                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2021

 GN Shava
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

 S. Hleza
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

 E Mathonsi
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

 S. Shonhiwa
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

 Nkosikhona Hlabangana
National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe

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GN Shava, S. Hleza, E Mathonsi, S. Shonhiwa, Nkosikhona Hlabangana, “Towards achieving Innovation through mainstreaming Sustainable Development Goal 4 on Quality Higher Education the Southern African Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.188-201 December 2021 URL:

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Contraceptive use among High School Students in The Effutu Municipality, Ghana; The Unknown Perception

Otoo, E.A., Tackie-Yarboi, D., Gyimadoh, B., Yayra, H., Gyasi, S., and Gyan, A. – December 2021- Page No.: 202-206

In the Ghanaian society, many high school students are ignorant of the various forms of contraceptive methods available and how they are effectively used, despite significant numbers being sexually active. This study sought to investigate the perception of high school students towards the use of contraceptive in the Effutu Municipality. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods to sample sixty (60) students from two SHS schools in the municipality as well as six (6) teachers who were patrons of reproductive health clubs from the participating schools, four (4) staffs from the family planning and reproductive health units of the Trauma Specialist Hospital, and the Municipal Hospital and also ten (10) persons identified as pharmacists, health assistants or counter assistants in drugs stores, chemical shop and pharmacies within the study area were also interviewed. A self-administered questionnaire was used in obtaining data on the perception of students. The results showed that male student had a positive perception of contraceptives and their use as against females. Again, findings from the study indicated misperceptions tended to cloud the judgment of adolescents towards contraceptives, thus serving as a barrier to the use of contraceptives. From the study it was recommended that an adolescent friendly facilities be established across the country to help adolescents make informed choices pertaining to sex and their reproductive health.

Page(s): 202-206                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2021

 Otoo, E.A.
Department of Geography Education, University of Education, Winneba

 Tackie-Yarboi, D.
Department of Geography Education, University of Education, Winneba

 Gyimadoh, B.
College of Community Health Nursing, Winneba

 Yayra, H.
College of Community Health Nursing, Winneba

 Gyasi, S.
College of Community Health Nursing, Winneba

 Gyan, A.
College of Community Health Nursing, Winneba

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Otoo, E.A., Tackie-Yarboi, D., Gyimadoh, B., Yayra, H., Gyasi, S., and Gyan, A., “Contraceptive use among High School Students in The Effutu Municipality, Ghana; The Unknown Perception” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.202-206 December 2021 URL:

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Health system factors associated with choice of place of delivery among postnatal women in Marsabit County, Kenya

Christine Bokayo Arero, MPH, Keraka Nyanchoka Margaret, PhD (Professor), Shadrack Yonge Ayieko, PhD, Matoke Omwenga Vincent, MPH, Okari Maseme Geoffrey, MSc – December 2021- Page No.: 207-215

Background: Worldwide, there were approximately 295,000 women died as a result of pregnancy and childbirth related complications in 2017. Majority of this was from Sub-Saharan Africa with 196000. In Africa, about seventy-five per cent maternal and neonatal deaths occur outside health facilities. In Kenya, maternal mortality rate is 362 per 100,000 live births with 61.2% deliveries occurring in hospitals. There is still evidence of home deliveries despite significant efforts through several interventions.
Objective: The study aims to determine health system factors associated with choice of place of delivery among postnatal women in Marsabit County, Kenya.
Materials and methods: This research adopted a mixed descriptive cross-sectional study design method. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to collect data from participants. A total of 416 respondents were interviewed. The respondents were drawn from households using systematic random sampling at a predetermined interval of four. The study was done in 24 selected villages from Moyale Township, Golbo, Dukana and North-Horr Wards. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used to analyze descriptive data. Inferential statistics such as Chi-Square tests at 95% confidence level and p-values of 0.05 was used to determine variable association.
Results: About 178(43.3%) of postnatal women delivered at home in Marsabit County. Chi-square statistics indicated that most health system factors such as distance to the nearest facility (p=0.001), experience with care provider (0.012), hindrance from health facility (p=0.008) and provision of information (0.001) were associated with choice of place of delivery. Results from focused group interviews and key informants were reported as direct narrations.
Conclusion: The study concluded that there was a significant number of women who are still delivering at home in Marsabit County. Majority of the health system factors were associated with choice of place of delivery. This requires concerted efforts by relevant stakeholders to ensure improved access health facility delivery through mobile clinics to assist women deliver under the hands of skilled birth attendants thus discouraging home deliveries.

Page(s): 207-215                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51215

 Christine Bokayo Arero, MPH
Kenyatta University, Department of Population, Reproductive Health and Community Resource Management, School of Public Health and Applied Human Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya

 Keraka Nyanchoka Margaret, PhD (Professor)
Department of Population, Reproductive Health and Community Resource Management, School of Public Health and Applied Human Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya

 Shadrack Yonge Ayieko, PhD
Department of Environmental and Health Sciences, School of Applied and Health Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa Kenya

 Matoke Omwenga Vincent, MPH
Department of Population, Reproductive Health and Community Resource Management, Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya

 Okari Maseme Geoffrey, MSc
Department of Health Management and Informatics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya

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Christine Bokayo Arero, MPH, Keraka Nyanchoka Margaret, PhD (Professor), Shadrack Yonge Ayieko, PhD, Matoke Omwenga Vincent, MPH, Okari Maseme Geoffrey, MSc “Health system factors associated with choice of place of delivery among postnatal women in Marsabit County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.207-215 December 2021 DOI:

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The Security Implications of Child Trafficking In Nigeria: The Interventions of NAPTIP

AKINPELU, Ibrahim Lanre, OJO Solomon Ayantayo, ADEGOKE Olusegun Steve, AKANMU, Rahman Opeyemi- December 2021- Page No.: 216-228

This study investigated child trafficking, its security implications and the role of NAPTIP in Nigeria. The research design adopted in the study was an archival survey design. Data were sourced from NAPTIP zonal offices for the data analysis using quantitative approach. The data were presented in tables and charts to showcase the outcomes of the research findings. The results showed that child trafficking has become a societal problem with negative implications for security that needed concerted efforts from both the agency in control of human trafficking and the people in every society. The trends and patterns of child trafficking are very complex and posed various challenges that are identified in the study. Conclusions, implication of findings and recommendations were established. However, Nigeria government should proactively harness all security outfits to share some of the NAPTIP responsibilities among others such as Immigrations, Customs, NSCDC, Police and Nigerian Armed forces synergistically to end child trafficking in our borders.

Page(s): 216-228                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2021

 AKINPELU, Ibrahim Lanre
Department of Governance and Public Policy, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Abuja, Nigeria

 OJO Solomon Ayantayo
Southwestern University, Okun-Owa, Ogun State, Nigeria

 ADEGOKE Olusegun Steve
International Psychometric Centre, Nigeria, South-West Zonal Office, Ibadan, Nigeria

 AKANMU, Rahman Opeyemi
Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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AKINPELU, Ibrahim Lanre, OJO Solomon Ayantayo, ADEGOKE Olusegun Steve, AKANMU, Rahman Opeyemi, “The Security Implications of Child Trafficking In Nigeria: The Interventions of NAPTIP” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.216-228 December 2021 URL:

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Back to Nature: A Jonasian Approach to the Problem of Mankind’s Excessive Exploitation of the Natural Environment

Peter Takov – December 2021- Page No.: 229-237

This article, informed by the current situation of technological advancements, analyzes and discusses solutions to it as presented by the Jewish Philosopher, Hans Jonas, who is believed to have “prophesied” ahead of his time. In this paper, I argue that what Jonas concurred in his days is more binding at the moment and will continue to reverberate for ages to come. In an attempt to discuss the Jonasian contribution to the issue of environmental protection and preservation, which touches on the ethics of responsibility, sandwiched by other contemporary thoughts that matter, I add another voice to the palaver of environmental protection. I argue primarily for the need for a conscious use of the environment, for an ethics and for the positive involvement of policy makers on the issue. I strongly stress the importance of implementing the Jonasian categorical imperative; “Act so that the effects of your action are compatible with the permanence of genuine human life”. My conclusion is that without an ethics of responsibility the future of mankind and of the whole biosphere is at stake. It is an ethical call to individual consciences – an ethics of the “first person.”

Page(s): 229-237                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2021

 Peter Takov
Catholic University of Cameroon (CATUC), Bamenda, Cameroon

 Tackie-Yarboi, D.
Department of Geography Education, University of Education, Winneba

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[2] Ferré, Frederick “’On Making Persons: Philosophy of Nature and Ethics”, in Hava Tirosh-Samuelson and Christian Wiese (eds.) The Legacy of Hans Jonas: Judaism and the Phenomenon of Life, (Leiden: Brill, 2008), (pp. 493-509).
[3] Francis, Encyclical Letter Laudato si,On Care for Our Common Home, (24 May 2015).
[4] Hösle, Vittorio “Ontology and Ethics in Hans Jonas” in Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal, 23 (2001).
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[8] John Paul II, Message for the 1990 World Day of Peace, (Rome, 1990).
[9] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, (1 May 1991).
[10] Jonas, Hans, The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of an Ethics for the Technological Age, (London: The University of Chicago Press, 1984).
[11] Jonas, Hans, “The Concept of God after Auschwitz: A Jewish Voice, in L. Vogel (ed.), Mortality and Morality: A Search for the Good after Auschwitz, (Evanston: Northern University Press, 1996), (pp. 131-143).
[12] Jonas, Hans, “The Outcry of Mute Things,” in L. Vogel (ed.), Mortality and Morality: A Search for the Good after Auschwitz,(Evanston: Northern University Press, 1996), (pp 198-202).
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[15] Jonas, Hans, “Closer to the Bitter End”(An Interview with Hans Jonas Conducted by Matthias Matussek and Wolfgang Kaden of Der Spiegel on May 11, 1992), in Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 23 (2001), (pp. 21-30).
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[19] Roothaan, Angela,Indigenous, Modern and Postcolonial Relations to Nature: Negotiating the Environment, (London: Routledge, 2019).
[20] Tirosh.-Samuelson, Hava, “Preface; Understanding Jonas: An Interdisciplinary Project,” in Hava. Tirosh-Samuelson – Christian. Wiese (eds.), The Legacy of Hans Jonas: Judaism and the Phenomenon of Life,(Leiden: Brill, 2008), (pp. xxi-xlii).
[21] Troster, Lawrence, “’Caretaker or Citizen: Hans Jonas, Aldo Leopold, and the Development of Jewish Environmental Ethics”, in Hava Tirosh-Samuelson and Christian Wiese (eds.), The Legacy of Hans Jonas: Judaism and the Phenomenon of Life, (Leiden: Brill, 2008), (pp. 273-396).
[22] Vatican II Ecumenical Council Gaudium et Spes, (7 December 1965).
[23] Vendemiati, Aldo, La Specifita’ bio-etica, (Roma: Rubbettino, 2002).
[24] Wojtyla, Karol, The Acting Person, trans. By A. Potocki, (Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1979).

Peter Takov, “Back to Nature: A Jonasian Approach to the Problem of Mankind’s Excessive Exploitation of the Natural Environment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.229-237 December 2021 URL:

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Drug Abuse, Youths and National Security Implications for Nigeria

AKINPELU, Ibrahim Lanre – December 2021- Page No.: 238-244

Drug abuse among youth population is globally identified as a threat to national security, especially in Nigeria. Although Nigeria was initially conceived as a drug-transit nation, regrettably, that conception has changed in recent times. It has profoundly aggravated to become a pose for drug abuse. Despite the counter narcotics efforts by NDLEA and other government agencies, a sizeable amount of youth population in Nigeria still abuse drugs. This study examined drug abuse among Nigerian youths and its implications for national security. The study reveals that the preponderance increase of drugs abuse in Nigeria is a veritable tool for violent crimes, aggression and youth restiveness. Erosion of human capital, unproductivity of youth population, deteriorating health as well as threat to national security were also key factors. The study relies on the analysis of secondary interpretative documents related to youth drug abuse and national security in Nigeria. The study also identified environment, family background, curiosity, enjoyment, parents socio-economic status, peer pressure as well as promotion and availability of drugs as the major contributing factors to the rising trends of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria. Adopting socio-cultural, biological, social-learning and securitization theories, the study concludes by prescribing some ways of curbing the menace arising from drug abuse and recommends for capacity building and strengthening of the NDLEA and other relevant agencies, increased awareness campaigns against drug abuse, educating students at all levels on the negative impact of drug abuse as well as parental involvement in the struggle.

Page(s): 238-244                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2021

 AKINPELU, Ibrahim Lanre
Department of Governance and Public Policy, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Abuja, Nigeria

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AKINPELU, Ibrahim Lanre “Drug Abuse, Youths and National Security Implications for Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.238-244 December 2021 URL:

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The Relationship between Flexible Work Arrangements and Organisational Performance in Higher and Tertiary Education Institutions in Mashonaland Central Province during the Covid-19 Period in Zimbabwe

Regis Muchowe, Dumisani Mawonde and Chomunogwa Pande- December 2021- Page No.: 245-249

This study examined the relationship between flexible work arrangements and performance of higher and tertiary education institutions during Covid-19 period. A quantitative method was used and a sample of 277 employees was chosen from a population of 900 employees working for 3 higher and tertiary education institutions who responded to questionnaires. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM version 16 was used to analyse data collected using questionnaires. The findings were that flexi-time; tele-working, remote working and compressed work weekshad significant positive effect on organisational performance. The study concluded that flexi-time, tele-working, remote working and compressed work weeks improveorganisational performance in higher and tertiary education institutions during the Covid-19 period in Zimbabwe. Therefore the study recommends higher and tertiary education institutions in Zimbabwe to implement flexible work arrangements during the Covid-19 period because they improve organisational performance.

Page(s): 245-249                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2021

 Regis Muchowe
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 Adom Faith Mawunyo
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 Chomunogwa Pande
Chinhoyi University of Technology, Zimbabwe

[1] Allen, R. S., Dawson, G., Wheatley, K., & White, C. S. 2017. Perceived Diversity and Organisational Performance. Employee Relations, 30(1), 20-33.
[2] Bailyn, L., Collins, R., & Song, Y. 2019. Self-scheduling for Hospital Nurses: An attempt and Difficulties. Journal of Nursing Management, 15(1), 34-45.
[3] Banks, B., & Morris, T. (2019). Flexible Work Arrangements and Current Labour Trends in USA. New York: Smith & co.
[4] Bhatnagar, J. (2017). Talent Management Strategy of Employee Engagement in Indian ITES Employees: Key to Retention. Employee Relations, 29(6), 640-663.
[5] Brink, B., & De la Rey, C. (2019). Work-Family Interaction Strain: Coping Strategies used by Successful Women in the Public, Corporate and Business Sectors. South African Journal of Psychology, 4(55-61), 31.
[6] Burns, A. C., & Bush, R. F. (2014). Marketing Research (6th ed.). New York: Pearson Education.
[7] Byron, K. (2011). A Meta-analytic Review of Work-family Conflict and Its Antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 67(1), 169-198.
[8] Sartori, C. (2015). Flexible Work Hours, Ageing and Well-being. International Congress Series, 4(5), 23-30.
[9] Critchley, R. K. (2015). Rewired, Rehired, or Retired?: A Global Guide for the Experienced Worker. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
[10] Dalcos, S. M., & Daley, D. (2017). Pressure, Workplace Social Resources and Family Conflict: The Tale of two Sectors. International Journal of Stress Management, 16(4), 291-311.
[11] Dessler, G. (2014). Human Resource Management. New Jersey: Pearson.
[12] Friedman, S. D., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2013). Work and Family Allies or Enemies? What Happens When Business Professionals Confront Life Choices. New York: Oxford University Press.
[13] Gallinsky, E. (2015). The Changing Workforce in the United States: Making Work “Work” in Today’s Economy. “International Research on Work and Family: From Policy to Practice. Barcelona: IESE Business School.
[14] Gash, V. (2018). Preference or Constraint? Part-time Workers’ Transitions in Denmark, France and in the United Kingdom. Work Employment and Society, 22(4), 655-674.
[15] Hill, E., Hawkins, A., Ferris, M., & Weitzman, M. (2013). Finding an Extra Day a Week: The Positive Influence of Perceived Job flexibility on Work and Family Life Balance. Family Relations, 32(5), 49-50.
[16] Jackson, P. (2015). Knowledge Asset Management; A Systems Approach for Human Capital Management . The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 9(2), 10-23.
[17] Jones, P. (2020). Human Resource Management. New Jersey: Pearson.
[18] Kelliher, C., & Anderson, D. (2015). Doing More with less? Flexible Working Practices and the Intensification of Work. Human Relations, 1(1), 83-106.
[19] Legge, K. (2014). Flexible Working Hours-Panacea or Placebo? Management Decision, 12(5), 264 – 279.
[20] Lewis, S., Gambles, R., & Rapoport, R. (2013). The Constraints of a ‘Work-Life Balance’ Approach: An International Perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(3), 360-373.
[21] Mordi, C., & Ojo, S. I. (2020). Work-life Balance Practices in the Banking Sector: Insights from Nigeria. IFE Psychology, 19(2), 41-56.
[22] Mount, M. K., & Barrick, M. R. (2012). The Big Five Personality Dimensions: Implications for Research and Practice in Human Resources Management. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 13(3), 153-200.
[23] Paaulson, J., & Hyden, M. C. (2020). Trends in Human Resource Management in Eastern Europe (3rd ed.). London: Cengage.
[24] Parasuraman, S. G. (2013). Toward Reducing Some Critical Gaps In Work-Family Research. Human Resource Management Review, 12(1), 299-312.
[25] Perry-Smith, J. E., & Blum, T. C. (2014). Work Family Human Resource Bundles and Perceived Organizational Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43(6), 1107-1117.
[26] Petty, C. (2013). Temporary Employment Costs and Benefits. Career Development International,, 3(5), 30-38.
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[31] Super, D. E. (2015). The Psychology of Careers. New York: Harper.
[32] Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (2011). Job Satis-faction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention and Turnover: Path Analyses Based on Meta Analytic Findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(1), 259-293.
[33] Thomson, P. (2014). The business benefits of flexible working. . Strategic HR Review, 7(2), 17-22.
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[37] Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis. New York: Harper and Row.

Regis Muchowe, Dumisani Mawonde and Chomunogwa Pande, “The Relationship between Flexible Work Arrangements and Organisational Performance in Higher and Tertiary Education Institutions in Mashonaland Central Province during the Covid-19 Period in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.245-249 December 2021 URL:

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The Legal Strength of Physical (Sporadic) Ownership Letters as the Basis for Land Rights (Analysis of the Jantho District Court Decision No.12/Pdt.G/2020/PN-JTH)

Suhaimi, Roslaini Ramli, EnzusTinianus, Indra Kesuma Hadi, Chadijah Rizki Lestari- December 2021- Page No.: 250-254

This study analyzes how the legal force of a physical (sporadic) letter of control over a plot of land. In practice, many owners of a plot of land do not have evidence to prove their property. Control over a plot of land without the support of written evidence will affect its ownership and transfer of land rights to other parties, and can even lead to disputes in court. This research only focuses on normative legal research (normative juridical), namely research that focuses on studies of documents from various primary data such as judges’ decisions, laws and regulations, expert opinions and others. Meanwhile, the data collection technique was carried out by collecting primary legal materials, secondary legal materials, and tertiary legal materials. According to the results of the study, it is known that the Statement of Physical Control of Land (Sporadic) has perfect legal force such as an authentic deed, if the sporadic has been tested for truth and has been proven in front of the court, even sporadic is in accordance with the facts revealed in court. The parties who signed in the Sporadik confirmed their signatures and were confirmed by the signatures of the Village Head (KeuchikGampong) and the Camat as the local District Head.

Page(s): 250-254                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51216

Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

 Roslaini Ramli
Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

 Enzus Tinianus
Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

 Indra Kesuma Hadi
Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

 Chadijah Rizki Lestari
Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Books, Journal, Website
[1] Dahlan, KesaksianNotarisTerkaitPemalsuanSurat Di BawahTangan, KanunJurnalIlmu Hukum, Vol. 16(3), Desember, 2014.
[2] Della RafiqaUtari, Suhaimi, Pendaftaran Tanah Yang DikuasaiOlehTempat-tempatIbadahUmat Islam Di KecamatanKutaAlam Banda Aceh, Syiah Kuala Law Journal (SKLJ), Vol.4(3), 2020.
[3] FandriEntimanNae,KepastianHukumTerhadapHakMilikAtas Tanah Yang SudahBersertifikat, JurnalLexPrivatum, Vol.1 No.5 November 2013.
[5] Ilyas Ismail, SertifikatSebagaiAlatBuktiHakAtas Tanah Dalam Proses Peradilan, KanunJurnalIlmuHukum, Vol. 13(1), 2011.
[6] IrwanSoerodjo, KepastianHukum Hak Atas Tanah Di Indonesia, Arkota, 2003, Surabaya.
[7] Malahayati, Syahrizal Abbas, Dahlan, KekuatanHukumAktaHibahUntukAnakAngkat,KanunJurnalIlmuHukum, Vol. 21(2), Agustus 2019.
[8] Muyassar, Dahlan Ali, Suhaimi, “PertanggungjawabanHukumNotarisTerhadapPengingkatanAktaJualBeli Tanah BersertifikatOlehPihak Yang Dirugikan”, Syiah Kuala Law Journal (SKLJ), Vol. 3(1), April 2019.
Law and Regulations
[1] Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.
[2] Law Number 5 of 1960 concerning Basic Regulations on Agrarian Principles.
[3] Civil Code (Burgerlijk Wet Boek).
[4] Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 24 of 1997 concerning Land Registration.
[5] Regulation of the Minister of State for Agrarian Affairs/Head of the National Land Agency Number 3 of 1997 concerning Provisions for the Implementation of Government Regulation Number 24 of 1997 concerning Land Registration.
[6] Jantho Register District Court Decision Number 12/Pdt.G/2020/PN-JTH.

Suhaimi, Roslaini Ramli, EnzusTinianus, Indra Kesuma Hadi, Chadijah Rizki Lestari, “The Legal Strength of Physical (Sporadic) Ownership Letters as the Basis for Land Rights (Analysis of the Jantho District Court Decision No.12/Pdt.G/2020/PN-JTH)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.250-254 December 2021 DOI:

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The Effect of Sustainable Procurement Practices On Corporate Image in Mining Companies in Mashonaland Central Province in Zimbabwe

Dumisani Mawonde and Josphat Nyoni- December 2021- Page No.: 255-258

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sustainable procurement practices on corporate image in the mining sector of Zimbabwe. The study used a qualitative approach. Face to-face interviews were conducted with 10 key informants to collect qualitative data in mining companies and data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings of the study were that sustainable procurement practices such as buying from local suppliers, promoting human and labour rights motivated people to develop a positive perception about the mining on corporate image. The study also found out that mining companies also received some recognition and awards after putting into practice sustainable procurement. The study concluded that sustainable procurement practices such as buying from local suppliers, and the promotion of human and labour rights promotes corporate image in mining companies. The study also concluded that sustainable procurement practices enable mining companies to obtain other benefit such as recognition, acceptance and positive perception. The study recommends mining companies to buy from local and community based suppliers, and to promote human and labour rights in order to enhance their corporate image.

Page(s): 255-258                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2021

 Dumisani Mawonde
Women’s University in Africa, Zimbabwe

 Josphat Nyoni
Women’s University in Africa, Zimbabwe

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Dumisani Mawonde and Josphat Nyoni, “The Effect of Sustainable Procurement Practices On Corporate Image in Mining Companies in Mashonaland Central Province in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.255-258 December 2021 URL:

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Farmer Input Support Programme FISP in Zambia and State of Food security at house level in Chiawa District

Magasu Allan, Dr. Oliver Magasu (PhD)- December 2021- Page No.: 259-265

The main purpose of this study was to establish the state of food security at household level as a result of Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP) in Chiawa District, Zambia. The study employed a qualitative approach to generate data. Data was analysed using thematic analysis and simple statistics. Heterogeneous purposive sampling technique was employed to sample the participants. Data was collected through focus group discussions and interviews. An interview guide was administered to a sample of 21 FISP beneficiaries who were interviewed on one to one basis. A focus group guide was administered in three (3) Focus Groups. Six (6) Village headmen and two (2) Ministry of Agriculture (MA) officials were purposively selected and data was also collected through an interview guide. The main finding was that FISP had not resulted in household food security because of the following reasons; inadequacy of seeds and fertiliser, late delivery of inputs, limited seed varieties, lack of funds by some beneficiaries to pay the required farmer contribution to access inputs, sale of inputs by some beneficiaries. Based on the research findings, the study recommended among others that the government should consider subsidising the FISP pack further to enable the ajority of the small-scale farmers’ access it. Since the area is drought prone, the Ministry of Agriculture should consider including drought tolerant seed crops such as sorghum in the FISP, not just maize alone.

Page(s): 259-265                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2021

 Magasu Allan
Kwame Nkrumah University – Kabwe

 Dr. Oliver Magasu (PhD)
World Vision Zambia-Mwinilunga

[1] Bond, G., (1993). Death, dysentery and drought: coping capacities of households in Chiawa. Institute of economic and social Research Library, UNZA, Published
[2] Chipata District Farmers Association (CDFA). (2008). Draft Farmers Report on the 2007-8 Fertiliser Support Program. Chipata District Farmers Association (CDFA), Chipata.
[3] Civil Society for Poverty Reduction (CSPR) – Zambia. (2011). An Assessment of the Implementation and Viability of the Farmer Input Support Program In Zambia: With Case Studies of Mazabuka and Monze Districts. CSPR.
[4] Dorward, A., Chirwa E., Kelly V., Jayne T., (2008). Evaluation of the 2006/7 Agricultural Input Supply Programme, Malawi. Final report, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), Wadonda Consult, Michigan State University, and Overseas Development Institute (ODI), undertaken for the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Government of Malawi.
[5] FAO. (1996). Rome Declaration and World Food Summit Plan of Action. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). World Food Summit, Rome, Italy, 13-17 November 1996, FAO, Rome, Italy, (Accessed on 1st December, 2016)
[6] Funsani, W. et al (2016). Farmer Input Support Programme and Household Income: Lessons from Zambia’s Southern Province. Transformations in Business and Economics, Vol. 15. No. 3C (39C), 2016
[7] Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ). (2004b). Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) Implementation Progress Report July 2003-June 2004, Ministry of Finance and National Planning, Lusaka.
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[10] Magasu, Allan (2016). The Effectiveness of Farmer Input Support Programme in Promoting Household Food Security: The Case of Chiawa, Kafue District. Lusaka: UNZA, Published
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[12] Muleba M., (2008). Fertiliser support is a subsidy disaster,” MS Zambia Newsletter, 21st October.
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[17] World Bank, (2002b). Zambia Agricultural Sector Investment Program: Implementation Completion Report. Report No. 24444-ZA. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Magasu Allan, Dr. Oliver Magasu (PhD), “Farmer Input Support Programme FISP in Zambia and State of Food security at house level in Chiawa District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.259-265 December 2021 URL:

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Religion and Morality: A Review of the Perspectives in Context

Zipporah N. Sitoki, Dr. John Ekwenye – December 2021- Page No.: 266-270

Religion and morality are not synonymous though, but some scholarly positions argue that sometimes religion affects morality. The problem is that even though the society may seem to be practicing more of religious related pursuits, the level of morality continues to deteriorate, a fact that strengthens the argument of secularism and the opinion that religion and morality have no relationship. This paper therefore reviews relevant literature in relation to the topic in context, morality and religion, in accordance to the various perspectives in place. The paper is guided by the Divine Command Theory developed by a number of philosophers. The literature reveals a number of issues in reflection to religion and morality and the perspectives in place. In a nutshell, morality in the society should prevail regardless of the ideology an individual subscribes to given that the religious and non-religious people hold their views firm.

Page(s): 266-270                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2021

 Zipporah N. Sitoki
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Dr. John Ekwenye
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

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Zipporah N. Sitoki, Dr. John Ekwenye, “Religion and Morality: A Review of the Perspectives in Context” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.266-270 December 2021 URL:

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Overview Pornography Consumption among Malaysian Viewer

Nuraini, N., Syaiful, N. A. H. – December 2021- Page No.: 271-281

This research is to identify relationship between accesses to the use of pornography platform with respondent demography and to identify the most suitable social work intervention next apply it to the research. This study applied Pornography Consumption Effects Scale (PCES) consisting 5 components know as Life In General (LIG), Perception towards Opposite Gender (PTOG), and Attitudes towards Sex (ATS), Sex Life (SL) and Sex Knowledge (SK). In this study, total of 1340 respondent from Malaysia between the age of 17 to 64 years old has consume pornography by accident or voluntarily been selected to continue with the research. This study also adapt T-test and ANOVA test to contemplate relationship between accesses to the use of pornography platform with respondent demography. Result from the test show that male have a significant relationship with perception toward gender male and female. However, there a significance relationship with respondent that married and sex knowledge. It is suggested that in this study the most suitable intervention social work and can be applied in this situation are Youth Clinic.

Page(s): 271-281                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2021

 Nuraini, N.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Syaiful, N. A. H.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300, Terengganu, Malaysia

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Nuraini, N., Syaiful, N. A. H. “Overview Pornography Consumption among Malaysian Viewer” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.271-281 December 2021 URL:

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Stress and its effects on female students at a Zimbabwean State University

Annah Moyo, Dr Starlin Musingarambwi- December 2021- Page No.: 282-287

Indisputably, university students are exposed to multiple stress situations on a daily basis. However, research evidence shows that globally, female university students are more susceptible to stress than their male counterparts. This study sought to establish some causes and forms of stress, as well as effects of stress confronting undergraduate Bachelor of Education Degree female students at a satellite centre of a state university in Zimbabwe. We purposively selected a sample of 100 female students (n=100) comprising 50 married and 50 single. We preferred a qualitative survey and used a survey questionnaire and a semi-structured interview to collect data. Interview data were subjected to content analysis and distilled into broad themes, while a Chi-Square statistics was computed to prove the hypotheses to determine the association between the effects of stress and the marital status of female university students, thereby addressing the question on the effects of stress on these students. The findings revealed academic demands, economic hardships and social issues as major sources of stress and categories around which stress among female students revolved. An association existed between the female students’ marital status and effects of stress on them, in a statistically significant manner, prompting us to conclude that stress effects took their toll more on married female students than single female students. These findings have implications for furthering our understanding of stress experience profiles of female university students with a view to helping them to develop stress coping strategies.

Page(s): 282-287                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2021

 Annah Moyo
Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

 Dr Starlin Musingarambwi
Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

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[20] Wirkus, A.B., Wirkus, l., Staslak, K. & Kozlowski, P. (2021) University Students’ Strategies of Coping with Stress during the coronavirus Pandemic; Data from Poland. PLoS ONE 16(7):e0255041.

Annah Moyo, Dr Starlin Musingarambwi, “Stress and its effects on female students at a Zimbabwean State University” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.282-287 December 2021 URL:

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Determinants of Fraudulent Financial Reporting in Nigeria: Integrating Fraud Triangle Theory Elements

ABILORO, Toba Olakunle ACA, OLORUNFEMI, Oladele Ebenezer- December 2021- Page No.: 288-297

This paper investigates the key determinants of fraudulent financial reporting in Nigeria by integrating fraud triangle theory elements (that is, Pressure [external pressure-Debt, financial stability-LDR, and financial target-ROA], Opportunity [ineffective monitoring], and Rationalization [auditor’s change]. The population this study is banking company listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange with a total sample of 135 from 15 banking companies between 2012-2020. Based on the results of research using regression analysis, the findings showed that pressure is having both positive and significant relationship with fraudulent financial reporting; also, rationalization is having significant but negative relationship, whereas opportunity is having positive but insignificant relationship. The study therefore conclude that among others, these elements are the key determinants of fraudulent financial reporting and also recommends that company should avoid huge debt profile and heavy target on the management in order to reduce the pressure to perpetrate fraud by the management. Also, they are encouraged to always appoint audit firm with required quality and integrity, and lastly, they should always enforce constant audit rotation as stipulated by the standard.

Page(s): 288-297                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51217

 ABILORO, Toba Olakunle ACA
Lecturer, Accountancy Department, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria.

 OLORUNFEMI, Oladele Ebenezer
Lecturer, Management Science Department, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti state, Nigeria

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ABILORO, Toba Olakunle ACA, OLORUNFEMI, Oladele Ebenezer, “Determinants of Fraudulent Financial Reporting in Nigeria: Integrating Fraud Triangle Theory Elements” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.288-297 December 2021 DOI:

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Establishing the relationship between job orientation and employee performance in Bushenyi District Local Government, Uganda

Abenanye Jackline- December 2021- Page No.: 298-306

This study sought to establish the relationship between job orientation and employee performance. The researcher adopted a cross-sectional design using a sample of 131 respondents. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. It was established that orientation positively and significantly predicted employee performance. It was hence concluded employee orientation through, new staff receiving briefing about working condition, being guided through the policies, being helped to understand job procedures and job rewards significantly influenced job performance. It was thus recommended that employee orientation through government agencies including local governments other organisations should put emphasis on briefing new staff about working conditions, policies, job procedures and job rewards.

Page(s): 298-306                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2021

 Abenanye Jackline
Abenanye Jackline

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Abenanye Jackline, “Establishing the relationship between job orientation and employee performance in Bushenyi District Local Government, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.298-306 December 2021 URL:

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Audit Committee and Financial Performance of Listed Firms in Nigeria

Nse Umoh-Daniel, Beauty Ekiomado Eguasa (Ph.D), & Best-Okwu, Excellence – December 2021- Page No.: 307-313

The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of Audit Committee (AC) characteristics on the financial performance of listed consumer goods companies in Nigeria. The research sample comprises of eighteen (18) consumer goods companies and secondary data was generated from the annual accounts and reports which spanned from 2010 – 2019 financial years. Using the panel regression analysis; the study found that frequency of AC meetings, independence of AC and AC size have significant effect on financial performance. The study concluded that the presence of audit committee is vital in companies. The study therefore recommended that compliance with respect to audit committee size, meetings and independence should be adequately checked to ensure conformity.

Page(s): 307-313                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51218

 Nse Umoh-Daniel
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Benson Idahosa University

 Beauty Ekiomado Eguasa (Ph.D)
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Benson Idahosa University

 Best-Okwu, Excellence
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Benson Idahosa University

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Nse Umoh-Daniel, Beauty Ekiomado Eguasa (Ph.D), & Best-Okwu, Excellence, “Audit Committee and Financial Performance of Listed Firms in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.307-313 December 2021 DOI:

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Human Resource Variables and Work-Related Stress in the Nigerian Banking Industry

Clement Adewole, Ph.D., Jessica Eboh, Victor Odumu – December 2021- Page No.: 314-322

The Nigerian banking sector has been characterized by uncertainties which further aggravated the insecurity of jobs in the sector, resulting into work-related stress. Human Resources have been identified by many authorities as the most important asset of any organization. This is because they are the users of the rest of the resources in the organization. This work assessed the Effect of human resource variables and work-related stress in Nigerian banking industry. Data was collected using questionnaire administered to 1024 employees from the selected banks. The Spearman Rank correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between the variables under review. Findings revealed a positive and significant relationship between performance appraisal, training and development, career management and work-related stress. Based on the findings, it is concluded that human resource variables have significant influence on work related stress in Nigerian banking industry. To this effect, the study recommended that Bank Management should provide balance scorecard approach to employees’ performance, thus promoting employees when due; Continue to train employees in groups and through computer-based learning in order to stay at the forefront of one’s profession and Bank Management should continue to hire employees who are suited, new competencies and skilful for the job.

Page(s): 314-322                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51219

 Clement Adewole, Ph.D.
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300, Terengganu, Malaysia

 Jessica Eboh, Victor OdumuDepartment of Banking and Finance, University of Jos, NigeriaFaculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 20300, Terengganu, Malaysia

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Clement Adewole, Ph.D., Jessica Eboh, Victor Odumu “Human Resource Variables and Work-Related Stress in the Nigerian Banking Industry” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.314-322 December 2021 DOI:

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Women’s employment and the changing family pattern in Ankole Sub-region- Uganda

Asiimire Donath, Gertrude Fester, Medard Twinamatsiko, Benard Nuwatuhaire- December 2021- Page No.: 323-335

This study employed a case study design using phenomenological stances of qualitative research to collect data from three districts of Mbarara, Bushenyi and Kiruhura and the objective of the study was to find out how women’s entrance in formal employment has contributed to changes in marriage and gender roles. Drawing from 17 interviews (with women activists, community development officers, probation officers, grade II magistrates, Gender based organisation managers, political leaders, religious leaders, local leaders) and 5 FGDs (with household heads, women in formal and informal employment), findings revealed that, women’s employment leads to a shift in marriage. The findings further reveal that women’s employment increases women’s conflicting roles (the tripartite roles). The study concluded that, women’s employment is significantly related to marriage and gender roles, increasing numbers of women in formal and informal employment has led to delays in marriage, child birth and increases in conflicting roles for women. Thus the study recommended that gender-responsive social protection systems should be adopted by all places of work, encourage and support institutions and all places of work to put provisions for day care centres and increase on maternity leave days.

Page(s): 323-335                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2021

 Asiimire Donath
Bishop Stuart University, Uganda

 Gertrude Fester
Bishop Stuart University, Uganda

 Medard Twinamatsiko
Bishop Stuart University, Uganda

 Benard Nuwatuhaire
Bishop Stuart University, Uganda

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Asiimire Donath, Gertrude Fester, Medard Twinamatsiko, Benard Nuwatuhaire, “Women’s employment and the changing family pattern in Ankole Sub-region- Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.323-335 December 2021 URL:

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Reframing and organizational effectiveness in Igara Growers Tea Factory Bushenyi District South Western Uganda

Asman Bateyo, Prof. Emuron Lydia, Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire- December 2021- Page No.: 336-340

This study aimed at establishing the relationship between reframing and organisational effectiveness with a sample size of 224 respondents. The study used a pragmatic philosophy, mixed methods approach using cross sectional and correlation designs for quantitative and phenomenological design for qualitative approaches. Data were collected using non-standardised instruments and in-depth interviews. The parametric tests were performed and all passed the linearity requirements. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient, regression analysis and thematic content analysis. The findings revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between reframing and organisational effectiveness It was concluded that reframing if well applied can lead to improved organisational effectiveness in the Igara Growers Tea Factory Bushenyi district in Uganda. Thus, the study recommended that the factory should maintain active mobilisation for change, have a strategic vision and create performance management systems.

Page(s): 336-340                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2021

 Asman Bateyo
Asuman Bateyo

 Prof. Emuron Lydia
Kampala International University Uganda

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire
Kampala International University Uganda

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Asman Bateyo, Prof. Emuron Lydia, Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire, “Reframing and organizational effectiveness in Igara Growers Tea Factory Bushenyi District South Western Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.336-340 December 2021 URL:

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Establishing the Influence of Financial Rewards on Retention of Health Workers in Bushenyi District, Uganda

Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire, Mubehamwe Janan- December 2021- Page No.: 341-351

This study sought to establish the influence financial rewards on retention of health workers in Bushenyi District. The study adopted cross-sectional and causal-comparative research designs using a questionnaire and interviews on a sample of 135 respondents. Data analysis was carried out at univariate, bivariate level and multivariate levels. Univariate analysis involved descriptive statistics that were frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses involved correlation and regression analyses respectively. Descriptive results revealed that retention of health workers (mean = 3.99) was good, the financial rewards of salaries/ wages (mean = 2.84) were fair but allowances (mean = 1.87) were poor. Financial rewards of salaries/ wages programmes (β = 0.341, p = 0.000 < 0.05) had a positive and significant influence on retention of health workers but allowances (β = 129, p = 0.132 > 0.05) had a positive but insignificant influence on retention of health workers. It was concluded that salary/ wages programmes are imperative financial rewards for retention of health workers than allowances. Therefore, it was recommended that the government of Uganda should offer health workers salaries and wages that attract their retention.

Page(s): 341-351                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2021

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire
Valley University of Science and Technology, Uganda

 Mubehamwe Janan
Valley University of Science and Technology, Uganda

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Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire, Mubehamwe Janan, “Establishing the Influence of Financial Rewards on Retention of Health Workers in Bushenyi District, UgandaEstablishing the Influence of Financial Rewards on Retention of Health Workers in Bushenyi District, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.341-351 December 2021 URL:

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Effects of Covid-19 on 2020 KCSE Examination Performance in Sub-County Public Secondary Schools in Gatanga Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya

Karanja Joseph Ndung’u (PhD)- December 2021- Page No.: 352-359

The study sought to investigate the effects of Covid-19 pandemic on 2020 KCSE examination performance in Sub-county secondary schools in Gatanga Sub-county, Murang’a county. Specifically the study sought to establish the effects of Covid-19 pandemic on KCSE examination performance and to investigate the effects of Covid-19 pandemic on the university entry in Sub-county secondary schools. The study employed descriptive survey design with both qualitative and quantitative approaches targeting 38 school Principals, 2774 candidates, 8 Sub-County Directors of Education and 1 County director of Education from Murang’a County. From the findings it revealed that the majority (75.6%) of the students did not participate in online classes in preparation for KCSE examination, only (24.6%) participated. Learning mediated through Ed-Tech remains out of reach for many disadvantaged students therefore, was not effective in preparing learners for National examination. From 59.39 percent of the candidature who are in the sub-county secondary schools registered a negative deviation of 8.27 from previous KCSE mean standard score, an indicator that majority (76.32%) of the sub-county schools dropped in KCSE mean and only (23.68%) schools improved. This depicts that most of the students in the sub-county schools were really affected by Covid-19 pandemic, since they could not afford to purchase online classes gadget, where majority of the students who join sub-county secondary schools come from humble families, where financing education is a challenge. From the findings majority (94.084%) of the students scored grade C plain and below: Therefore, they did not qualify to join university for a degree program only (5.916%) qualified, in deed a very small percentage a clear indicator of the negative effects of Covid-19 pandemic on the university entry. The study concluded that the 2020 KCSE performance was negatively affected by Covid-19 pandemic and in most cases students from humble background; rural areas, marginalized and urban slum, who could not access online classes. Therefore, given the challenges presented by Coronavirus pandemic the future continuation of learning in the times of pandemics depend on Government implementation of online infrastructure by swiftly harness available technology and provide adequate infrastructure for the success of online teaching and learning, through the allocation of enough money for infrastructure across the country, stimulates alternative modes of delivery for example use of satellites, mobile phones, television, radio, computers and internet to reach vulnerable and marginalized students and more so train enough workforce in schools on ICT integration in teaching and learning.

Page(s): 352-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2021

 Karanja Joseph Ndung’u (PhD)
Department of Educational Administration and Planning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Karanja Joseph Ndung’u (PhD), “Effects of Covid-19 on 2020 KCSE Examination Performance in Sub-County Public Secondary Schools in Gatanga Sub-County, Murang’a County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.352-359 December 2021 URL:

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Corporate Wellness Programmes, Employee Efficiency and Job Performance among the Middle Level Executives of Standard Group Limited, Nairobi Kenya

Stephen Musau Mulwa, Prof. Michael M. Ndurumo – December 2021- Page No.: 360-370

The study seeks to establish the relationship between corporate wellness programmes, employee efficiency and job performance. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s dual factor theories form the theoretical framework of the study. Eleven (11) departments were sampled for the study using Stratified sampling technique. The sample of the study consists of all the middle level executives working with Standard Group Ltd. Quantitative research design was used in the study by conducting a survey. Data collection was done using questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Correlation between the variables of the study was calculated using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient. The study found out that the Company offers corporate wellness programmes. A strong correlation exists between corporate wellness programmes and employee efficiency. However, there is no significant correlation between corporate wellness programmes and Job performance. The study concludes that corporate wellness programmes increase employees’ efficiency.

Page(s): 360-370                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2021

DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51220

 Stephen Musau Mulwa
University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Prof. Michael M. Ndurumo
University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Stephen Musau Mulwa, Prof. Michael M. Ndurumo, “Corporate Wellness Programmes, Employee Efficiency and Job Performance among the Middle Level Executives of Standard Group Limited, Nairobi Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.360-370 December 2021 DOI:

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Vowel Distribution and Neutralization in Lubukusu Verbs: A Positional Faithfulness Account

Henry Simiyu Nandelenga (Ph.D.) – December 2021- Page No.: 371-379

In a number of languages, prominent positions that are critical for word recognition and general language processing tend to tolerate more vowel contrasts and may resist neutralization than positions that are less prominent. Specifically, word initial, stressed and final syllables, roots, stems and long vowels, often resist alteration or neutralization. This is because these positions are psycholinguistically and phonetically privileged in lexical access, retrieval and processing. Vowels in such positions are faithful to their underlying form for contrast preservation, and as such, marked vowels may be allowed in such positions even when they are banned elsewhere. In this study, we examine verbal vowel distribution and neutralization in Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya). The main objective was to assess the role of positional faithfulness constraints in militating against contrast neutralization in some position and not others. Data for the study was collected from four native speakers of Lubukusu who were purposefully sampled based on their native-speaker competence and intuition. The analysis followed Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 2004) conventions using universal constraints ranked in a language particular constraint hierarchy. The position-specific faithfulness constraints were ranked above general faithfulness and markedness constraints in the tableaux to protect vowels in privileged positions from being neutralized. From the findings, it is observed that positional faithfulness constraints favour the preservation of underlying lexical contrasts in prominent positions. In these positions, a large number of vowels (including marked ones) are allowed to facilitate the perception of contrast that is key in both lexical access and retrieval, besides enhancing general language processing. However, neutralization of vowel contrasts may result in the marked vowels being restricted to non-root initial positions. This is only possible in a constraint-based phonology that ranks positional faithfulness constraints higher than the markedness constraints that restricts the marked vowels. The findings reveal that all vowels freely occur in the privileged positions, however, the so called ‘marked’ vowels (mid [e] and [o]) are neutralized outside such positions.

Page(s): 371-379                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2021

 Henry Simiyu Nandelenga (Ph.D.)
Department of English, Literature & Journalism, Kibabii University, BUNGOMA – Kenya

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Henry Simiyu Nandelenga (Ph.D.) “Vowel Distribution and Neutralization in Lubukusu Verbs: A Positional Faithfulness Account” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.371-379 December 2021 URL:

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Phonological Variations among Mandaya Dialects: A Multiple Case Study

Arnold M. Duping- December 2021- Page No.: 380-387

This multiple case study analyzes the phonological variation of Mandaya dialects among four municipalities in Davao Oriental. Purposeful sampling, in-depth interviews, sorting and classifying of words according to phonological structures in data analysis were employed. Findings revealed that the Mandaya dialects consisted of 23 segmental phonemes, 17 consonants: /b/, /k/, /d/, /g/, /h/, /l/, /l~l/, /m/, /n/, /Ƞ/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /t/, /w/, /y/ and /ɂ/; 6 vowels: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/ including the schwa sound /Ə/. All these phonemes can be found in Tarragona, Manay and Caraga except for phoneme /h/. Similarly, Cateel has also 22 sounds with schwa sound not found. Consonant clusters were also evident in the medial position or in the beginning of the syllables such as the cluster /mp/ for the word /ompoɂ/ which means grandchild. Initial consonant clusters were also found mostly from the loan words such as the cluster /gr/ in /grin/ which means green. Generally, the phonological variations of the dialects among the four municipalities center to three distinct phonemes: /h/, /l~l/ and /Ə/. These variations were attributed to the influence brought by migration, intermarriages, social media, and the influx of tourist exploring the nature of Davao Oriental.

Page(s): 380-387                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2021

DOI: 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.51221

 Arnold M. Duping
Institute of Teacher Education, Davao del Norte State College, Philippines

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Arnold M. Duping, “Phonological Variations among Mandaya Dialects: A Multiple Case Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.380-387 December 2021 DOI:

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Misconceptions about the Concepts of Continuity and Continuity Equation by Physics Undergraduates in Teacher Capacity Development Program

E.Mudzamiri; T.Manyeredzi; N. Zezekwa- December 2021- Page No.: 388-393

This qualitative study inspired by Constructivist Theory ideas identified misconceptions held by 40 purposively selected Teacher Capacity Development Program part 1.2 physics undergraduate students concerning the concept of Continuity and the Continuity Equation. The study was conducted at a state university in Zimbabwe .The main argument being that, if learning is based on prior knowledge, then instructors must know the misconceptions held by their students so that they can provide learning environments for development of learners from their current understandings. Identification of the misconceptions was done through a Multiple-True- False diagnostic test. Analysis of the ethically collected data revealed twenty six misconceptions held by the students which instructors can target when teaching the two concepts. The researcher challenges future researches to identify the sources of the misconceptions and their categories.

Page(s): 388-393                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2021

Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 N. Zezekwa
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

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E.Mudzamiri; T.Manyeredzi; N. Zezekwa, “Misconceptions about the Concepts of Continuity and Continuity Equation by Physics Undergraduates in Teacher Capacity Development Program” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.388-393 December 2021 URL:

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Influence of Domestic Violence on Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents in Secondary Schools in Zone B Senatorial District of Benue State: Implications for Counselling

Iordaah Terumbur Agba (Ph.D)- December 2021- Page No.: 394-400

This study was an attempt to examine the influence of domestic violence on psychological adjustment of adolescents in secondary schools in Zone B Senatorial District of Benue State Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of the study, three objectives with corresponding research questions guided the study. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a survey research design. The population for the study was 35, 949 senior secondary school students in 85 public secondary schools in Zone B Senatorial District of Benue State. A sample of 379 students who are victims of Domestic Violence was used for the study. The sample size was selected using purposive sampling technique. A questionnaire titled “Domestic Violence and Psychological Adjustment Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The questionnaire was validated by experts and its reliability was established using Cronbach Alpha Method where a coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. Data collected for the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics of Means and Standard Deviation to answer the research questions and Chi-Square statistic to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that domestic violence has significant negative influence on adolescents’ self-esteem and depression in Secondary schools in Zone B Senatorial District of Benue State. The finding also revealed that domestic violence significantly influence adolescents’ aggressive behaviors negatively. The researcher concluded that, domestic violence in homes has the tenacity to negatively influence adolescents’ psychological adjustment in secondary schools. The study recommended this school counsellors and minors should intensify efforts in the area of providing secondary school students who we supposed to domestic violence with ideas that can help them improve their self-esteem, skills and strategies like storytelling and sharing personal experiences that could limit depression among secondary school students. Both school authority and school counselors should intensity efforts at initiating programmes that could limit aggressive behaviours among Secondary school students who are exposed to domestic violence.

Page(s): 394-400                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2021

 Iordaah Terumbur Agba (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Foundations & General Studies, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria

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Iordaah Terumbur Agba (Ph.D), “Influence of Domestic Violence on Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents in Secondary Schools in Zone B Senatorial District of Benue State: Implications for Counselling” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.394-400 December 2021 URL:

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Financial literacy of employees in managing financial crisis: A case study of indigenous banks in Ghana

Kofi Owiredu-Ghorman – December 2021- Page No.: 401-412

It is believed that employees who are more financially literate tend to make more reasonable predictions about their company’s investment and work hard to save their companies from collapsing. The study aims to evaluate the effect of employee financial literacy on the financial crisis of indigenous banks in Ghana. The study used five big traditional banks in Ghana. The researcher used a quantitative research approach and a multiple case study method. Structured questionnaire was used to solicit information from the employees of the selected banks. It was found that there is a positive and significant correlation between financial literacy and financial crises. The possibility of better financial literacy will lead to a decline in financial crises in the banking sector, such that financial literacy explains a decline in financial crises. Furthermore, employees have high levels of the knowledge acquisition dimension of financial literacy but low levels in the application dimension It is recommended that managers of banks focus on financial literacy training that centers on the application dimension of financial literacy. Training should emphasize calculation skills for interest rates, inflation, time value of money, and the stock market. It is suggested that bank management use all available means to ensure that the adoption and implementation of financial literacy strategies for their employees is prioritized.

Page(s): 401-412                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2021

 Kofi Owiredu-Ghorman
Department of Accountancy Sunyani Technical University, P. O. Box 206, Sunyani, Ghana

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Kofi Owiredu-Ghorman, “Financial literacy of employees in managing financial crisis: A case study of indigenous banks in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-12, pp.401-412 December 2021 URL:

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Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Socio- Communication Difficulties Entail and the Recommended Research Based Intervention Strategies

Dalphine C. Ndiema, George Mathenge Wairungu (PhD). – December 2021- Page No.: 413-419