Local-stakeholders’ engagement in the implementation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in selected public schools in Samfya District, Zambia

Joseph Mwape & Ecloss Munsaka – February 2022- Page No.: 01-06

This study examined the local-stakeholders’ involvement in the implementation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) in selected public schools in Samfya district of Zambia. The study used a qualitative case study research design involving 27 participants who included parents, teachers and pupils. The sample was purposively selected from three public schools in the district. Data were collected using document analysis, lesson observations, semi-structured interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Thematic analysis was used to analyse data.
The findings of the study showed that there were no local stakeholders directly involved in the implementation of CSE. However, some local stakeholders such as health workers, the Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and some parents were reported to be involved in doing related activities aimed at preventing early marriages and teenage pregnancies in the community. The study further indicated that although some NGOs were involved in doing some activities to promote the prevention of teenage pregnancies, such activities were only targeting some pupils, especially those supported by such NGOs. The parents who were reported to be involved were also engaged by such NGOs, making their activities limited only to the pupils supported by such NGOs. Further, health workers’ activities were mainly reactive as opposed to being pro-active as they were only called upon when certain vices are noticed such as an increase in teenage pregnancies and/or Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) including HIV among pupils.
The conclusion of this study, therefore, is that there is little collaboration between public schools and local-stakeholders in the implementation of CSE. This has resulted in the lack of harmonization of activities carried out by public schools and other stakeholders although they all aim at achieving such health goals as reducing teenage pregnancies and transmission of STIs including HIV among pupils. This study therefore, recommends that public schools should sensitise the local stakeholders about CSE programmes and include them in its implementation through the multidisciplinary team approach to CSE implementation.

Page(s): 01-06                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 February 2022

 Joseph Mwape
Mukuba University, School of Education, Department of Education

 Ecloss Munsaka
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology, and Special Education

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Joseph Mwape & Ecloss Munsaka, “Local-stakeholders’ engagement in the implementation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in selected public schools in Samfya District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.01-06 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/01-06.pdf

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Gradually building and promoting the initiative and creativity of Vietnamese workers in the period of international economic integration

Huynh Tuan Linh, Nguyen Van Duong – February 2022- Page No.: 07-10

In the context of deepening international integration, the requirement for the quality of Vietnamese human resources is to prepare the workforce to be able to meet and benefit from international commitments. Although, Vietnam is in the golden population period with an abundant and stable labor supply, but the integration trend has also put Vietnam in front of many new opportunities and challenges. The integration trend will lead to a very high competitiveness in the human resource market, while the readiness level of Vietnamese workers is still slow. Competition between Vietnam and other countries in the world in providing high-quality labor is increasing, requiring the quality of workers to be significantly improved in the direction of approaching regional and world standards. Faced with that fact, the issue of improving the quality of labor resources with high productivity, intelligence and creativity in order to promptly meet the growth requirements of the economy is of great interest to the State and Vietnamese enterprises. This is an important element of the foundation for sustainable development and increasing national competitive advantage, a breakthrough in the strategy of transforming the country’s socio-economic development model.

Page(s): 07-10                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 February 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6201

 Huynh Tuan Linh
Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry

 Nguyen Van Duong
TECH- CERT, Pvt Ltd.,1st Floor Bernard Business Park, N0106, Dutugemunu St, Dehiwala Sri Lanka.

 M. Thenabadu
Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry

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Huynh Tuan Linh, Nguyen Van Duong, “Gradually building and promoting the initiative and creativity of Vietnamese workers in the period of international economic integration” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.07-10 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6201

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The Socialization of the Draft Village Regulated Regarding the Cisalak Village Public Cemetery in Fulfilling the Main Performance Indicators towards a Digital Society

Dedi Mulyadi, Tanti Kirana Utami, Hilman Nur, Henny Nuraeny, Kuswandi – February 2022- Page No.: 11-13

The independent campus freedom to learn policy provides opportunities for students to gain more comprehensive learning experiences and new competencies through several learning activities. This village building activity is beneficial, especially in making academic texts and drafting village regulations regarding public burial places. The research method used is a normative juridical method with descriptive-analytical research specifications, and the data used are primary and secondary. This impacts the realization of order in the use and management of burial grounds.

Page(s): 11-13                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 February 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6202

 Dedi Mulyadi
Faculty of Law, Universitas Suryakancana , Indonesia

 Tanti Kirana Utami
Faculty of Law, Universitas Suryakancana , Indonesia

 Hilman Nur
Faculty of Law, Universitas Suryakancana , Indonesia

 Henny Nuraeny
Faculty of Law, Universitas Suryakancana , Indonesia

 Kuswandi
Faculty of Law, Universitas Suryakancana , Indonesia

[1] Aris Junaidi et.al, Panduan PENYUSUNAN KURIKULUM PENDIDIKAN TINGGI DI ERA INDUSTRI 4.0 UNTUK MENDUKUNG MERDEKA BELAJAR-KAMPUS MERDEKA, Dirjen dikti Kemendikbud, 2020.
[2] Atang Hermawan Usman, Kesadaran Hukum Masyarakat dan Pemerintah Sebagai Faktor Tegaknya Negara Hukum di Indonesia, Jurnal Wawasan Hukum, Vol. 30 No. 1 Februari 2014.
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Dedi Mulyadi, Tanti Kirana Utami, Hilman Nur, Henny Nuraeny, Kuswandi “The Socialization of the Draft Village Regulated Regarding the Cisalak Village Public Cemetery in Fulfilling the Main Performance Indicators towards a Digital Society” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.11-13 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6202

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Contentious Elections in Nigeria: Any Solvent in Sight?

Professor Mkpa Agu Mkpa (OFR) – February 2022- Page No.: 14-22

The history of the Nigerian Electoral process is characterized by recurring contentious violence, hate-speeches and killings. From the pre-independence times to the present, this trend has not only persisted but increased in monumental proportions and disturbing dimensions. This paper attempts to present an overview of the elections that have so far been conducted in Nigeria since the pre-independence period till date, showing the contentious issues in each of them. It highlights the culture of electoral fraud in Nigeria showing ways in which elections are rigged in the country. It catalogues various hate speeches and killings at various times in the nation’s electoral history. Finally the paper recommends electronic voting and other strategies for guaranteeing contentious – free elections in Nigeria.

Page(s): 14-22                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 February 2022

 Professor Mkpa Agu Mkpa (OFR)
Faculty of Education, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

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Professor Mkpa Agu Mkpa (OFR) , “Contentious Elections in Nigeria: Any Solvent in Sight?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.14-22 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/14-22.pdf

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Ecowas and Its Conflict Management Enhancement Strategy in West African Sub-Region: Prospect and Retrospect

Dr. Mrs. Louisa Amaechi N, Dr. Chike Ezenwa, & Dr. Christian Sunday Agama- February 2022- Page No.: 23-29

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a sub-regional organization in West Africa set apart to improve the economic condition and the general well-being of the member state. Recently political instability, inter and intra-state crisis, electoral violence and political conflicts became a big challenge to the region and no state or sub-region can achieve any meaningful economic development without a peaceful environment. The paper discussed ECOWAS, its aim, objectives’ and its conflict management enhancement strategies. It also highlighted some conflicts’ which it has managed in the sub-region, its prospects and retrospects in the region. Secondary source of information was used and the paper recommends speedy intervention before any crisis reaches a climax of war and destruction of lives and property in any state or inter-states.

Page(s): 23-29                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 February 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6203

 Dr. Mrs. Louisa Amaechi N
Directorate of General Studies, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

 Dr. Chike Ezenwa
Directorate of General Studies, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

 Dr. Christian Sunday Agama
Directorate of General Studies, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

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Dr. Mrs. Louisa Amaechi N, Dr. Chike Ezenwa, & Dr. Christian Sunday Agama, “Ecowas and Its Conflict Management Enhancement Strategy in West African Sub-Region: Prospect and Retrospect” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.23-29 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6203

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Education in the ‘New Normal’ COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A Practical Example in the University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

Apongnde Pasker (Ph.D)- December 2021 Page No.: 30-36

The COVID-19 pandemic, with staggering effects on man’s activities all over the World has imposed a ‘new normal’ in the higher educational arena that stands to continue to prevail after the pandemic. Indeed, the manner in which knowledge is imparted has suddenly moved from the traditional onsite to a hybrid system, incorporating the classical face-to-face and online modes of course delivery. What is paradoxical is that this pedagogical paradigm-shift is being experienced in the University of Yaounde I at a time when the implementation of remote and other applications of educational technology is still quite fledgling in Cameroon. This study is qualitative in nature; involving in-depth interviews with 15 lecturers and 21 students randomly sampled from the University of Yaounde I. While data was analyzed through content-analysis, interpretations were made in the light of Kurt Lewin’s Theory of Change and Homi Bhabha’s Hybridity theory. Results reveal that uneven access to technological devices, inadequate training, and lack of conducive remote learning environments are hampering the new normal. To this effect, a number of recommendations have been made.

Page(s): 30-36                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 February 2022

 Apongnde Pasker (Ph.D)
Faculty of Education, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon

[1] Andrianarison, F., & Nguem, B.E. (2020). Potential socio-economic Effects of COVID-19 in Cameroon: a Summary Evaluation. New York: UNDP.
[2] Apongnde, P. (2019a). Challenges in the Effective Use of ICTs in Information Systems Management in the University of Yaounde I. PhD Thesis in Educational Management: University of Yaounde I.
[3] Apongnde, P. (2019b). Techno-pedagogy and Graduates’ Employability in The University of Yaounde I. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), Volume III, Issue X, October 2019/ISSN 2454-6186, Pages 539-542.
[4] Bacher-Hicks, A., Goodman, J. & Mulhern, C. (2020). Inequality in Household Adaptation to Schooling Shocks: Covid-Induced Online Learning Engagement in Real Time, NBER Working Papers 27555, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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[6] Cameroon (1993). Decree, No. 93/026 of 19 January 1993, creating the University of Yaounde I.
[7] Cameroon-WHO COVID-19 dashboard. (2021). https://covid19.who.int/. Consulted on December 17th 2021.
[8] CamerounWeb. (2020). Coronavirus: Coronavirus: University of Yaoundé 1 suspends its courses. [online news item]. Retrieved on 17 December 2020 from https://www.camerounweb.com/CameroonHomePage/NewsArchive/Coronavirus-l-universit-de-Yaound-1-suspend-ses-cours-498841.
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Apongnde Pasker (Ph.D) “Education in the ‘New Normal’ COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A Practical Example in the University of Yaounde I, Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.30-36 February 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/30-36.pdf

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Emotional Pain and Suffering Overtime: A Review

Meghna Sandhir- February 2022- Page No.: 37-45

Pain, it stays, it is perceived in the mind and echoes in the body! But it stays. Pain experiences are considered and stimulated to differently by different people; it is used conceptually to define the subjective experience entitled to a particular human. It encompasses the beliefs, meanings and understandings lead by the society. Pain as is described by many has a definitional controversy; it is defined as a feeling, a symptom, a reaction, or may be an emotion. There seem to be different patterns in reacting to pain, depending on situations and circumstances. The major influence is that of culture. Mark Zborowski remarked how physical sensation of pain is often interpreted differently by members of different cultures. The following essay elaborately talks of how time plays its effortless and sometimes not so effortless spree on the emotions and suffering that one experiences. To concisely present the concept of pain, the main role of the below discussion is to deconstruct/ reconstruct the objectivity of pain, what about emotional pain and suffering can we conclude? to explore life’s varied losses in a manner…more about embracing than bracing against…? What if we trust that the dark nights of our souls are essential to our growth, that spiritual maturity cannot be attained without them? In this lifelong journey, we will carry emotional pain and suffering. This is a given. But carrying emotional pain and suffering can lead to transformation. And that is good news.

Page(s): 37-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2022

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 Meghna Sandhir
Junior Research Fellow, Anthropological Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Kolkata, India

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Meghna Sandhir, “Emotional Pain and Suffering Overtime: A Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.37-45 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/37-45.pdf

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e-Commerce Driving Economic Growth by Enterprises in East Africa

Eliphas Frank Tongora – February 2022- Page No.: 46-49

Electronic commerce (e-Commerce) and Information and communications technologies (ICT) are transforming enterprises and fueling the growth of the global economy. Yet despite the broad potential of ICTs, and e-Commerce, their economic benefits have not been spread evenly especially in East Africa. Indeed, using ICTs effectively to foster economic growth is among the key challenges facing policymakers today E.Africa even though some developing countries have achieved important economic gains in nurturing the development of domestic e-Commerce enterprises. The aim of this study is to find out whether or not e-Commerce could be the powerful tool elevating and fueling economic growth in E.Africa, and the findings are pointed out.

Page(s): 46-49                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2022

 Eliphas Frank Tongora
Dar es salaam Institute of Technology (DIT), Morogoro/Bibi T. RD Junction, Tanzania

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Eliphas Frank Tongora, “e-Commerce Driving Economic Growth by Enterprises in East Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.46-49 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/46-49.pdf

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Institutional Framework, Management and Coordination of Disaster Situations in Nigeria: Theoretical Standpoint on National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)

Barinem Wisdom Girigiri PhD and Porbari Monbari Badom, PhD – February 2022- Page No.: 50-60

The accuracy in handling and conforming to established procedures and objectives set by organizations to achieving results in course of attending to disaster situations has become a cumbersome process considering the environmental circumstances and the nature of disaster which could be naturalistic and humanistic or anthropogenic in nature that confront organizations. This paper which utilized description of secondary literature is a positioned one that is anchored on the two theories in consideration of NEMA as a specialized agency of government designated and saddled with the mandates to coordinate, investigate, monitor and manage disasters within the environmental peculiarities of where disaster occurs. Collective Stress and Contingency Theories are the two theories used in the study while the Contingency theory is the considered most relevant in the explanation of disaster management; the paper argued that collective stress situations emerged as a direct response to adaptation to the crises bedeviling the environment been affected by the disaster and how the people being affected can adapt to new strategies to survive in such environment. The paper maintains that NEMA adopts certain social constructs to help manage disaster situations. Furthermore, the paper in its adoption of the contingency theory upholds the view that no one best approach is very effective and efficient for any situation; but rather, advocates combination of approaches to achieving results when organizations encounter difficult situation. It is for the management of the organization (now NEMA) to apply approaches to a given suitable situations considering the ecological circumstances, the time constraint, the technology needed and those available man-power in the organization and the resources available to the organization to handle the structural components of the situations.

Page(s): 50-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2022

 Barinem Wisdom Girigiri PhD
Rivers State University, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Nkpolu Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Porbari Monbari Badom, PhD
Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences. University of Port Harcourt, 500272, Nigeria

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Barinem Wisdom Girigiri PhD and Porbari Monbari Badom, PhD “Institutional Framework, Management and Coordination of Disaster Situations in Nigeria: Theoretical Standpoint on National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.50-60 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/50-60.pdf

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Digital Communication and Transnational Learning in the 21st Century: An Overview of Its Benefits and Challenges

Ben Odeba, Misal Daburi Bello and Lynda Onah- February 2022- Page No.: 61-67

More than ever before, NOW is the right time for digital communication and transnational learning to be embraced by all. This paper analytically reviewed the use of digital communication and transnational learning in the 21st Century for transformative, evolving and mutually beneficial digital relations among institutions of higher learning. The study is anchored on the media richness Theory of computer mediated communication (CMC). Major findings show that although the use of digital communication for transnational learning is challenging, its benefits are enormous which include among others being smarter, faster and cheaper means of organizing a “globalized classroom” for educational development. The intending institutions should do the needful by way of deliberate efforts in putting all the modalities in place for its success. They should also include flexibility, initiative, social skills, productivity and leadership skills. The qualities of leading a positive adventurous life, resilience, creative problem-solving possessing unbridled freedom, tenacity of purpose, following one’s natural curiosity and proclivity should be the hallmarks of the 21st century teaching and digital media communication. It has been observed that many teachers in the 21st century education are quite slow in updating themselves with the latest technologies and techniques of communication and teaching while some others do not see the need to undergo training in the use of technology for 21st century communication, teaching and learning particularly for a trinational learning. Some universities, especially in Africa vis-à-vis Nigeria are doing little or nothing to key into this exciting and rewarding form of communication and learning in the globalized society. Every university that intends to embark on digital communication and transnational learning should have a differentiator, value-added proposition or flagship point and work assiduously to improve and sustain it.

Page(s): 61-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6204

 Ben Odeba
Directorate of Academic Planning, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Misal Daburi Bello
Directorate of Public Affairs, Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Lynda Onah
Department of Mass Communication, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State Nigeria

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Ben Odeba, Misal Daburi Bello and Lynda Onah, “Digital Communication and Transnational Learning in the 21st Century: An Overview of Its Benefits and Challenges” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.61-67 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6204

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Moderated Mediated Effect of External Environment and Strategy Implementation on Relationship between Strategic Leadership and Organisation Performance

Dr. Omondi Joseph, Dr. Kiruhi Timothy, Prof. Okeyo Washington, Dr. Mwikya James – February 2022- Page No.: 68-81

Parastatals have contributed immensely to Kenya’s social and economic development, yet they often face financial and governance challenges in spite of them accounting for a sizeable share of the national budget. This often calls for appropriate and timely parastatal execution of reforms in line with the provisions and dictates of the national strategy on parastatal reforms. This study sought to establish the moderated mediated effect of external environment and strategy implementation on relationship between strategic leadership and organisation performance: case of agricultural, livestock and fisheries (ALF) parastatals in Kenya. Taking positivist approach, the study was anchored on Full Range Leadership Theory supported by Cultural Dimension, Open System Theory and Resource-Based View theory. Cross sectional survey design using a census was adopted with a target population consisting of 45 Chief executive officers and 135 senior managers from 45 ALF parastatals in Kenya. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaire and analysis done descriptively and inferentially using correlation, multiple regressions and bootstrapping. Model results showed that there was strong significant positive correlation of R=0.7731 between all the study variables. Further study results shows that 59.8% (R2 =0.598) of variation in performance can be explained by a unit change in strategic leadership style, strategy implementation and external environment. Bootstrapping results revealed that the index for moderation mediation is significant, where lower and upper confidence interval [LLCI: 0.154, ULCI: 0.384] where the zero (0) is outside the confidence interval and thus moderation mediation is significant. There is direct association between strategic leadership style and organization performance of Agricultural, Livestock and Fisheries parastatals in Kenya which is moderated by external environment and the interaction is significant while the indirect association between strategic leadership style and strategy implementation on level of external environment, the interaction is also significant thus the direct and indirect effects are both significant. External environment will influence directly and indirectly the organizational performance of Agricultural Livestock and Fisheriesparastatals in Kenya therefore, if parastatals organizations leaders want to improve their organizational performance significantly they should engage in balanced control that involves strategic leadership style, strategy implementation and external environment. The study recommends re-evaluation of leadership and strategy implementation policies at the inspectorate of state corporations in Kenya to enhance performance of the institutions and align them with stakeholder’s demands and the global emerging trends in strategy implementation. The ALF leaders should allow departments to device viable ways of achieving strategic objectives and make sure that strategic plan is developed and implemented using a participatory approach. Finally, ALF parastatals leadership must take cognizance of external environment’s influence and adjust their operations and leadership in tandem to perform better.

Page(s): 68-81                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 March 2022

 Dr. Omondi Joseph
School of Management & Leadership, Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi Kenya

 Dr. Kiruhi Timothy
School Leadership and Governance, International Leadership University, P.O Box 60954-00200 Nairobi, Kenya

 Prof. Okeyo Washington
School of Management & Leadership, Management University of Africa, P.O Box 29677-00100, Nairobi Kenya

 Dr. Mwikya James
Department of Computing and Information Technology, Kirinyaga University, P.O Box 143-10300, Kerugoya, Kenya

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Dr. Omondi Joseph, Dr. Kiruhi Timothy, Prof. Okeyo Washington, Dr. Mwikya James, “Moderated Mediated Effect of External Environment and Strategy Implementation on Relationship between Strategic Leadership and Organisation Performance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.68-81 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/68-81.pdf

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Capital Structure Decisions Nexus on Listed Non-Financial Institutions’ Performance in Ghana

Job Boahen – February 2022- Page No.: 82-88

The study examined capital structure decisions nexus on listed non-financial institutions in Ghana using quantitative research approach and secondary data in the form of financial statements obtained from the Ghana Stock Exchange for the period 2014 to 2020.
The study used a sample size of 22 from a population of 33 comprising total non-financial listed institutions on the Ghana Stock Exchange. Financial and insurance institutions totalling 9, were excluded to mitigate any impact of outliers since the financial market is highly regulated with varied set of rules and regulations.
Capital structure was determined using return on capital employed computed from the financial statements of the sampled firms. The findings showed an indirect negative association with debt finance and significant direct association with equity finance with respect to return on capital employed.
The study concluded that capital structure decisions positively affect equity source of finance and thus recommends that listed firms in Ghana should maximize equity funding due to the expensive nature of debt finance in developing countries. Equity finance also improves management by bringing in experts and experienced shareholders to facilitate the routine operations of the firms.

Page(s): 82-88                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 March 2022

 Job Boahen
Ph.Dc, Valley View University, Accra-Ghana

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Job Boahen , “Capital Structure Decisions Nexus on Listed Non-Financial Institutions’ Performance in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.82-88 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/82-88.pdf

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Determinants of Academic Achievement Among Secondary School Students in Kericho County, Kenya

Sang Kipchirchir Naftali, Dr. Thaddaeus Rugar – February 2022- Page No.: 89-97

The mean score for mocks exams has been reducing for the last three years, therefore study tried to find out if student mocks (CATs) correlate with family background from which student came from. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of parental level of education, parental level of income, parental occupation and family size on student’s academic achievement. The study found out that family background indeed influence student academic achievement. Correlational research design was applied to analyze the data. Education production function theory was used to guide the study. 1809 form four students were the target population for the study. Simple random and stratified sampling method was employed to achieve the sample. Questionnaire used to collect data was validated by educational experts from Kenyatta University. Reliability of the instrument was obtained through test-retest. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the collected data and quantitative data was presented in tables. Frequencies, regression coefficient and Pearson’s coefficient correlation was used to present data analyzed. SPSS version 20 was utilized to generate summarized information in tables. Analyzed results showed that parent level of education, parental occupation and parental income express positive relationship with the student academic achievement however the size of the family express negative relationship with student academic achievement. Parents should participate in academic activities of their children and further studies regarding student academic achievement and family background should be done.

Page(s): 89-97                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6205

 Sang Kipchirchir Naftali
Department of Education Management, Policy and Curriculum Development, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Thaddaeus Rugar
Department of Education Management, Policy and Curriculum Development, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Sang Kipchirchir Naftali, Dr. Thaddaeus Rugar “Determinants of Academic Achievement Among Secondary School Students in Kericho County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.89-97 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6205

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Pornography Addiction Challenge among the Youth: A Case Study of Highfield High Density Area, Harare

Tapiwa Zinyemba- February 2022- Page No.: 98-104

Exposure to pornography poses a serious challenge to youth all over the world. Several studies have noted that the vice often leads to various physical, mental and social challenges. These include negative feelings about oneself, distorted beliefs and perceptions about relationships and sexuality, isolation, addiction, increased aggression among others. In Zimbabwe, there appears to be a dearth in literature on pornography and how exposure to it affects an individual. Using the qualitative research methodology which included making use of in depth interviews, the paper sought to understand how youths in Highfield are exposed to pornography and how it has impacted on their lives. Findings show that the exposure to pornography and subsequent addiction is attributed to increased access to the internet, social media applications and platforms and electronic devices like mobile phones, laptops, tablets and personal computers where pupils can visit pornographic websites for viewing, downloading and sharing pornographic pictures and videos. The study recommends a multi-pronged theological approached where school administrators, teachers and parents and guardians coordinate and collaborate in educating the youths in the negative impacts of viewing pornography.
Purpose: Whereas pornography viewing amongst secondary school students and youth in Highfield location of Harare, Zimbabwe is a challenge, the paper seeks to document the factors prompting youths to engage in this practice. It attempts to how pornography is affecting young people in developing countries like Zimbabwe. Above all the study will unpack the Biblical and theological reflections on pornography and what preventative mechanisms can be put in place to ensure total deviation from the practice.
Findings: Findings revealed that exposure to viewing pornographic material is prevalent in Highfield. The researcher’s interactions as a pastor with youths in the area, the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus groups discussions held during the course of the study showed the prevalence of access and addiction to pornographic material among the youths.

Page(s): 98-104                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6206

 Tapiwa Zinyemba
Adventist University of Africa, Zimbabwe

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Tapiwa Zinyemba, “Pornography Addiction Challenge among the Youth: A Case Study of Highfield High Density Area, Harare” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.98-104 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6206

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Assessment of Educators’ Experience in the Management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD among Children in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

Dr. Margaret Inenemo Abikwi, Prof. Elizabeth Omotunde Egbochuku – February 2022- Page No.: 105-110

This paper is on the assessment of Educators experience in the Management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Children in Edo State, Nigeria. The study is a quasi-experimental design. The purpose of the study is to assess Educators’ experience in the management of ADHD among children in Edo State; the populations of the study are Educators in primary schools in Edo State. 140 Educators were selected from two out of 18 Local government Areas, to go through the training for 6weeks. In this study one hypothesis was formulated: There is no significant difference in the levels of experience of Educators in the post treatment knowledge in the management of ADHD. The Modified – Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (M-KADHD) questionnaire modified by the researchers was used for the study and was administered to the participants at the beginning. They were grouped into 2 equal groups: control and experimental. Each group had 70 participants respectively. Only the experimental group received the behaviour modification treatment which lasted for 6 weeks. The analysis of covariance for the effect of level of experience of Educators showed .166 as the F-ratio with df = (139). This was not significant at p>.05. The null hypothesis was retained. The result showed there was no significant difference in the management of ADHD based on the level of experience of Educators. It was recommended that for proper management Pupils who manifest ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity Educations should be trained irrespective of the years of teaching experience. Educators’ should manage these children by breaking assignments into smaller units and give reward accordingly.

Page(s): 105-110                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2022

 Dr. Margaret Inenemo Abikwi
Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

 Prof. Elizabeth Omotunde Egbochuku
University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

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Dr. Margaret Inenemo Abikwi, Prof. Elizabeth Omotunde Egbochuku, “Assessment of Educators’ Experience in the Management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD among Children in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.105-110 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/105-110.pdf

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The Changing Nature of Intra-City Transportation in Sokoto Metropolis: A Case Study of Motorcycle (Kabu-Kabu) Hire Purchase

Umar Muhammad Gummi, Dr. Maria Abdullahi, Dr. Murtala Marafaa – February 2022- Page No.: 111-116

Intra-city transportation system is an indispensible means of movement of persons and their goods within the city. In Sokoto metropolis, it has contributed and still contributing to the development of the socio-economic activities of the people. Motorcycle or Kabu-kabu is one of the means of intra-city transport within the metropolis. The role of commercial motorcycle (kabu-kabu) in Sokoto metropolis is to compliment the services of other Para-transit modes of transport such as tricycles and buses, in moving passengers and goods from one point to another. It is noteworthy that despite its limitation, Kabu-kabu has come to stay as a viable mode of transport in the metropolis. This became so because it is a means of employment opportunities by a good number of youths who had formal education. The upsurge in the fleet of commercial motorcycles in the metropolis is a clear testimony of the increasing demands for this mode of public transport as well as the employment opportunities it has brought to the teeming youths in the metropolis. The study concluded that the contribution of this mode of intra-city transportation (kabu-kabu) to the development of the metropolis social, economically and politically cannot be overemphasized.

Page(s): 111-116                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2022

 Umar Muhammad Gummi
Department of Economics, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Dr. Maria Abdullahi
Department of Economics, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Dr. Murtala Marafa
Department of History, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

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Umar Muhammad Gummi, Dr. Maria Abdullahi, Dr. Murtala Marafaa, “The Changing Nature of Intra-City Transportation in Sokoto Metropolis: A Case Study of Motorcycle (Kabu-Kabu) Hire Purchase” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.111-116 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/111-116.pdf

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Smash of Brand Awareness and Brand Association around Imported Cosmetics towards Female Consumers Purchasing Decisions (With Special Reference to Millennials in Sri Lanka)

HMWM Herath, B.G.H.M Bulathwatta – February 2022- Page No.: 117-125

Personal grooming is one of the fastest growing industries anywhere in the world. There is huge competition for brands even in Sri Lanka. The purchasing decision related to imported cosmetic products was made by referring to the female segment. This study depends on the lifestyle rationale of ladies in the local market since it could provide constructive insights for crafting marketing-related decisions. At the same time, researchers have focused on studying the impact of brand awareness and brand association on female consumers’ buying decisions for imported cosmetic products. The relationships between each selected brand equity element and female consumer purchase decisions were examined by hypotheses developed. The sample size was 225 female consumers who represented the economically active millennials in Sri Lanka. Results revealed that there were significant relationships between brand awareness and brand association and female consumers’ buying decisions of imported cosmetics, and those elements had a high impact on female consumers’ buying decisions of imported cosmetic products. Furthermore, the researchers discovered that, among the selected brand equity determinants, brand awareness and brand association were the most influential elements towards purchase decision, with a correlation value.The managerial implications have been discussed, especially referring to the contexts of branding and marketing promotion, as they relate to producing knowledge contribution through this empirical study.

Page(s): 117-125                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 March 2022

 HMWM Herath
Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management, Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka

 B.G.H.M Bulathwatt
Department of Management Sciences, Faculty of Management, Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka

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HMWM Herath, B.G.H.M Bulathwatta, “Smash of Brand Awareness and Brand Association around Imported Cosmetics towards Female Consumers Purchasing Decisions (With Special Reference to Millennials in Sri Lanka)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.117-125 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/117-125.pdf

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Teacher Characteristics and Students’ Academic Achievements in Physics in STEM Model Public Secondary schools in Nairobi Metropolitan Kenya

Nelisa Kagendo Mbaka, Shem Mwalw’a, & Jacinta Mary Adhiambo – February 2022- Page No.: 126-135

The objective of the study was to assess the influence of teacher characteristics on student’s academic achievements in physics in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) model schools in Nairobi Metropolitan region, Kenya. The study used convergent parallel mixed method design. The target population comprised 11principals, 60 teachers and 1120 students with a sample size of 368(11 principals, 39 teachers and 318 students). The study was anchored on Brunner theory. Proportionate stratified sampling and simple random sampling was used to select students while purposive sampling was used to select teachers of physics and principals. Questionnaires, document analysis guide and interview guide were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) were used to analyze quantitative data. Thematic and content analysis were used for qualitative data analysis. The study found out that teacher characteristics influence student’s academic achievements in physics in STEM model schools. Physics performance depended on the teaching approaches and methods used by the teacher, and mastery of physics content and experience. Moreover, teachers’ belief in students enable them to work harder, they encourage and motivate students to perform better in case they post poor grades. The study recommends that teachers strive to be passionate in teaching physics, believe in students’ abilities to perform better in physics to work harder when they post poor grades in physics and create a friendly classroom learning environment that is favorable for learning to take place. This will ensure that teachers adopt various integrated STEM learning approaches like problem based, project based and inquiry-based learning while teaching.

Page(s): 126-135                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6207

 Nelisa Kagendo Mbaka
PhD student at Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Shem Mwalw’a
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Jacinta Mary Adhiambo
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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Nelisa Kagendo Mbaka, Shem Mwalw’a, & Jacinta Mary Adhiambo “Teacher Characteristics and Students’ Academic Achievements in Physics in STEM Model Public Secondary schools in Nairobi Metropolitan Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.126-135 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6207

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Male Lived Experience of Domestic Violence in the Households, Nyeri County, Kenya

Catherine Mwikali Muia, Prof. Jamine Masinde, Dr. Joseph K. Rono- February 2022- Page No.: 136-145

Domestic violence against men (DVAM) remains a private affair in many Africa countries. That rarely draws attention of legislators, policy makers and members of society as it is with other family members. The study explored male lived experience of domestic violence (DV) in the household for a period of one year, their socio-demographic, forms of abuse, coping strategy, culture and government interventions. A qualitative method was adapted. A total 19 victims out of 40 participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Data was analyzed by thematic content analysis. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authorities; informed consent and binding form were obtained from participants. Verbatim quotes were used to present the study findings. Three themes and three sub-themes emerged. Majority (19) did not reported their abuse, 15 were physically and emotionally abused. Ten reported to have adopted alcoholism as a coping strategy that exposed them to further victimization. Nineteen men suffered with little knowledge and awareness of government interventions to protect them. Socio-cultural norms attached to couples violence interfered with the reporting process by the witnesses and male victims to the law enforcement officers. There is need to equally implement gender-based violence laws and policy, and to challenge the held societal perceptions on DVAM.There is need to advocate for change in gender doing and alcohol abuse. A lifestyle, that exposure men to victimization and stigmatization at various levels in society. Police and society response needs to be objective to facilitate reporting, protection and prevention of DVAM, Nyeri County, Kenya.

Page(s): 136-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 March 2022

 Catherine Mwikali Muia
Assistant lecturer, School of Health Sciences, Alupe University College, P.o Box 845- 50400, Busia, Kenya

 Prof. Jamine Masinde
Assistant lecturer, School of Health Sciences, Alupe University College, P.o Box 845- 50400, Busia, Kenya

 Dr. Joseph K. Rono
Assistant lecturer, School of Health Sciences, Alupe University College, P.o Box 845- 50400, Busia, Kenya

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Catherine Mwikali Muia, Prof. Jamine Masinde, Dr. Joseph K. Rono, “Male Lived Experience of Domestic Violence in the Households, Nyeri County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.136-145 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6111

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Analysis of Resource Ownership of Small Medium Industry and Their Effect on Natural Disaster Preparedness in the Beach Area (Study on SMEs Food Industry Branch)

Mohamad Adfar, Patta Tope, Muchtar Lutfi- February 2022- Page No.: 146-156

Palu Bay is one of the bays in a seismically active area in Indonesia which is traversed by the Palu-Koro fault segment. In the aftermath of a major natural disaster in the Region on September 28, 2018 Palu City, Donggala Regency and Sigi Regency were areas that were most affected by this disaster, so it was necessary to identify the level of community preparedness, especially for SMEs in dealing with natural disasters in the future and how the impact of resource ownership will be that they have whether the resource significantly affects SMEs preparedness to face natural disasters. This research was conducted three years after the natural disaster in the Palu Bay Area. The assessment was carried out through a questionnaire involving 260 SMIs that were chosen randomly and from the four variables of SMEs resources studied, that the resources that had an effect on disaster preparedness were the capital variable, which was 0.07, the entrepreneurial variable was 0.35, the labor variable was -0.03, and the Information Technology variable is not significant. While the level of preparedness of SMEs in dealing with natural disasters in the future, 17.31% of respondents are stated to be “not ready”, 60.90% “somewhat ready” and 23.8% “ready” while none of the respondents were “very prepared”. This lack of readiness of SMEs clearly requires the attention of all stakeholders in fostering the resilience of SMEs.

Page(s): 146-156                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6208

 Mohamad Adfar
Student of Doctoral Program in Economics, Tadulako University-Palu

 Patta Tope
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tadulako University

 Muchtar Lutfi
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tadulako University

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Mohamad Adfar, Patta Tope, Muchtar Lutfi, “Analysis of Resource Ownership of Small Medium Industry and Their Effect on Natural Disaster Preparedness in the Beach Area (Study on SMEs Food Industry Branch)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.146-156 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6208

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Group Communication in Decision Making for the Establishment of Tourist Attractions: Case Study of Sekapuk Village, East Java, Indonesia

Zamroatul Fuaddah, Ismi Dwi Astuti Nurhaeni, Andre Rahmanto – February 2022- Page No.: 157-163

This research is entitled “Group Communication in Decision Making for the Establishment of Tourism Objects: A Case Study of Sekapuk Village, East Java, Indonesia”. The purpose of this study was to determine the communication carried out by the Pelangi Tourism Awareness Group (Pokdarwis) in Sekapuk Village in making decisions about the formation of Selo Tirto Giri tourism objects. The theory used in this study is group communication using the theory of group functional perspective by Hirokawa and Gouran. This study uses a qualitative approach, which uses case studies to explain in-depth the group decision making. The findings of this study reveal that there are four functions used by Pokdarwis Pelangi Sekapuk Village, namely analysis of the problem of the existence of former mining excavations in Sekapuk Village, setting common goals between group members and the community, identifying alternatives for new problems, and determining other efforts for the smooth formation of tourist attractions. , finally evaluated the positive and negative characters with regular discussions conducted by Pokdarwis Sekapuk Village. Communication interactions carried out by members of Pokdarwis Pelangi Sekapuk Village were assisted by the Village government, especially the Village Head in making decisions regarding the establishment of Selo Tirto Giri tourism objects.

Page(s): 157-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6209

 Zamroatul Fuaddah
Communication, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

 Ismi Dwi Astuti Nurhaeni
Department of Public Administration, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

 Andre Rahmanto
Department of Communication, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Zamroatul Fuaddah, Ismi Dwi Astuti Nurhaeni, Andre Rahmanto “Group Communication in Decision Making for the Establishment of Tourist Attractions: Case Study of Sekapuk Village, East Java, Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.157-163 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6209

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Exploring Teacher’s proficiency with Experiential Learning: An Overview

Dr. Anjali Bhatnagar, Dr. V. Sudhakar – February 2022- Page No.: 164-172

Learning is a scientific process of transforming knowledge into practice leading to change in behavior. It is for this reason, the process of Learning encompasses not only cognitive, but also other social/emotional aspects. It is the responsibility of the teacher to exhibit professionalism and facilitate learning through a conducive learning environment.
The current ethnographic research is to explore the impact of Experiential Learning Methodology in influencing the teacher’s proficiency to improve the learning process in classroom. The Teacher’s Proficiency Model (TPM) was developed, considering four criteria for evaluation; Students’ Engagement, Teachers’ Motivation, Student-Teacher Relationship and Students’ Performance. Each criterion was understood for its Quality Process, Operational Definition, Relevance, Data & Information, TPM (Teacher’s Proficiency Model) cycle and Way Forward. The TPM cycle was defined with clearly identified four stages; Initial, Adequate, Proficient and Excellent.
The current research contributes to education management by empirically testing the Teacher’s proficiency Model (TPM) for establishing the learning grounds and impacting student’s performance.

Page(s): 164-172                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 March 2022

 Dr. Anjali Bhatnagar
Assistant Professor, Academic Affiliation: Indira Mahindra School of Education, Mahindra University, Hyderabad, India

 Dr. V. Sudhakar
Professor of Education (Rtd), Academic Affiliation: The English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad

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Dr. Anjali Bhatnagar, Dr. V. Sudhakar “Exploring Teacher’s proficiency with Experiential Learning: An Overview” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.164-172 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/164-172.pdf

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Sociolinguistics Account of the Dimensions of Naa Tia Sulemana’s Poem M Ba Yɛligu

Sibaway Muhammed Habib- February 2022- Page No.: 173-176

The focus of this current study is to provide a sociolinguistics analysis of a poem entitled m ba yɛligu ‘my father’s advice’ written by Naa Tia Sulemana. My analysis focuses on the language use in the poem (diction), the structure of the poem. The lesson of the poem is also discussed in the work. I claim that the advice that is given in the poem is one that is relevant for the social upbringing of children among the Dagbamba. This is attributable to the fact that the notion of telling lies is frowned upon in the social structures of the Dagbamba. The paper is important because it addresses an important poem in the context of the Dagbamba, particularly that literature has not been investigated in the study of Dagbani language.

Page(s): 173-176                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 March 2022

 Sibaway Muhammed Habib
Department of Languages, E.P. College of Education, Bimbilla, Ghana

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Sibaway Muhammed Habib, “Sociolinguistics Account of the Dimensions of Naa Tia Sulemana’s Poem M Ba Yɛligu” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.173-176 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/173-176.pdf

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Public Interest or Advertiser’s Interest: On Whose Side is the Media?

Jesse Ishaku & Woyopwa Shem – February 2022- Page No.: 177-185

This research work examines the role of the mass media vis-à-vis public interest and advertiser’s interest. Ideally the mass media are supposed to be adequately funded so as to avoid shackle of control from whatever angle. This is because without adequate funding of media organizations, they may not be able to perform their constitutional role of keeping the public abreast of the happenings around them. There are instances where some media stations are forced go out of circulation or unable to dish out news and programs at the appropriate time for the fact that the resources are inadequate or even lacking. As a result, media organizations prefer adverts to public interest news in order to stay afloat. Random sampling technique was used to select 383 respondents from across Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Jalingo, its public as well as advertiser’s/advertising agencies, out of which only 378 responded to the questionnaire administered. Interviews were also conducted. The research work reveals among many things that, advertising has been found to be one of the major streams of revenue for media organizations. This situation has however, affected the performance of the media in carrying out their constitutional responsibility of protecting the interest of the public and holding government officials accountable to the masses. The study therefore recommends that, although advertising serves as one of the major sources of revenue upon which the continuous survival of media organizations largely depend on, that does not mean the interest of advertisers/advertising agencies should temper with the media’s sense of judgment in such a way that will make the media to deviate from their constitutional role of championing the interest of the masses.

Page(s): 177-185                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2022

 Jesse Ishaku
Department of Mass Communication, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria

 Woyopwa Shem
Department of Mass Communication, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria

[1] Adinuba, R. (1986). The Risky Business of Writing.The African Guardian.
[2] Agbanu, V. N. & Nwammuo, A. N (2009). Broadcast media: Writing, programming, management. Enugu: Rhyce Kerex Publisher
[3] Aronson, E. Turne, J. &Carlsmith, I. (1963).Communication Credibility and Social Communication Discrepancy was Determinant of Opinion Change. Journal of Abnormal and Psychology.
[4] Asemah, E. S. (2011). Selected mass media themes. Jos: Jos University Press.
[5] Bandura, A. & Walters, R. (1963).Social Learning and Personality Development.New York; Holt Rinehart and Wilson.
[6] Brown, R. (1964). Sales Response for Promotions and Advertising.Journal of Advertising Research.
[7] Colley, B. (1961). Defining Advertising Goals for Married Advertising Results.New York; Association of National Advertiser.
[8] Guttmann, A. (2019). Global Advertising Market-Statistics & Facts. Retrieved from Statista: https://www.statista. com/topics/990/global-advertising-market.
[9] Hovland, l. & Janis, I. (1959).Personality and Persuability.New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press.
[10] Inyang, E. N., & Etta, N. B. (2017). Advertising and journalism practice in Nigeria. International Journal on Transformations of Media, Journalism and Mass Communication, 2 (2).
[11] Ismail, A., Abba Pali, N., & Shem, W. (2021). News Commercialization And National Development In Nigeria. In P. D. C. S. Mustaffa, D. M. K. Ahmad, A. P. D. N. Yusof, M. B. M. H. @. Othman, & D. N. Tugiman (Eds.), Breaking the Barriers, Inspiring Tomorrow, vol 110. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 33-41). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.06.02.5
[12] Kotler, P. (1993). Marketing Management, Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control. New Delhhi: Prentice Hall Privately Limited 1993.
[13] Latif, A., Shah, A. A., Syed, G., Halepoto, A. H., Nazar, M. S., &Shaikh, F. M. (2012).Advertising effectiveness on brand judgment and consumer preference in purchasing decision inPakistan. Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 2(1), 9.
[14] Miller, P. (1975). Advertising/Sales Response Functions.Journal of Advertising.
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[16] Nwabueze, C., Ezebuenyi, E., &Ezeoke, C. (2012). Print media objectivity and advertising revenue: An appraisal. African research review, 6(3), 308-322.
[17] Okolie, I. (2011), Analysis of the impact of advert revenue in mass media survival in Nigeria. A seminar paper presented to the Department of Mass Communication, Anambra State University

Jesse Ishaku & Woyopwa Shem, “Public Interest or Advertiser’s Interest: On Whose Side is the Media?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.177-185 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/177-185.pdf

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Utilization of Online Tools for Teaching-Learning during COVID-19

Vijay Bhuria – February 2022- Page No.: 186-189

The utility of online platforms/tools is significantly increases for teaching–learning (T-L), personal use and corporate meetings purposes in the lockdown period. During pandemic situation, tradition of work from home culture applies for all types of assignments. Various online tools have been launched to meet the gap of learning process for school and engineering students during lockdown. In this paper, online survey has been conducted to know the use of various online tools utilized by the students during pandemic condition. Findings shows that demand of OLT and their utility will change the learning scenario all over the world in near future.

Page(s): 186-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2022

 Vijay Bhuria
Assistant Professor, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh

[1] Agarwal, S., Kaushik, J.S. (2020). Student’s Perception of Online Learning during COVID Pandemic. Indian J Pediatr 87, 554 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03327-7
[2] Chick RC, Clifton GT, Peace KM, et al. (2020). Using technology to maintain the education of residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Surgery Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2020.03.018
[3] Cojocariu, V.-M., Lazar, I., Nedeff, V., & Lazar, G. (2014). SWOT analysis of e-learning educational services from the perspective of their beneficiaries. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1999–2003.
[4] Dhawan S. (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 0(0) 1–18. DOI: 10.1177/0047239520934018
[5] Kebritchi, M., Lipschuetz, A., & Santiague, L. (2017). Issues and challenges for teaching successful online courses in higher education. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(1), 4–29.
[6] Kim, K.-J., & Bonk, C. J. (2006). The future of online teaching and learning in higher education: The survey says. Educause Quarterly, 4, 22–30.
[7] Liguori, E. W., & Winkler, C. (2020). From offline to online: Challenges and opportunitiesfor entrepreneurship education following the COVID-19 pandemic. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515127420916738
[8] Scangoli NI, Choo J, Tian J. (2019). Student’s insights on the use of video lectures in online classes. Br J Educ Technol, 50, 399-414.
[9] Singh, V., & Thurman, A. (2019). How many ways can we define online learning? ASystematic literature review of definitions of online learning (1988-2018). American Journal of Distance Education, 33(4), 289–306.
[10] Song, L., Singleton, E. S., Hill, J. R., & Koh, M. H. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(1), 59–70.

Vijay Bhuria “Utilization of Online Tools for Teaching-Learning during COVID-19” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.186-189 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/186-189.pdf

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Reflecting on the prime hurdles and successes of the International Community’s Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect in Central Africa Republic 2013-2021

Jonah Marawako – February 2022- Page No.: 190-196

The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis of the challenges and successes of the international community’s implementation of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) in Central Africa Republic (CAR) from 2013 to 2021. The introduction of the R2P doctrine in 2005 has activated debate among scholars on the efficacy of the R2P in mitigating war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. State sovereignty is arguably the major obstacle in implementing the R2P doctrine, but the 2013 coup in CAR has opened a Pandora box of the other challenges to its operability which are vested interests and sectarian cleavages. The structure and functions of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) also affected the success of the R2P in CAR. The veto powers of the permanent five are inimical to the peace process in CAR. This paper also argues that although there are some problems in implementing the R2P in CAR, the international community was able to prevent the conflict from crystallising into genocide and averted a regional spill of the conflict. The study interrogates the evolution of the R2P as well as proffer recommendations on how the international community can improve the implementation of the R2P. The methodology employed in the study was qualitative desk research with emphasis on secondary sources of information such as books, journals, internet sources and newspapers.

Page(s): 190-196                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2022

 Jonah Marawako
Lecturer, Department of Governance and Public Management, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

[1] Adam, S. 2015. The Responsibility to Protect at 10. Available at: https://www.e-ir.info/2015/03/29/r2p-at-10/. Accessed on 19/05/21.
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[3] Alabi, D. T. 2006. Trends and Dimensions of the Rwandan Crisis. African Journal of International Affairs and Development.
[4] Aning, K. and Atuobi, S. 2011. ‘Application of and Responses to the Responsibility to Protect Norm at the Regional and Subregional Levels in Africa: Lessons for Implementation’. In: The Stanley Foundation, The Role of Regional and Subregional Arrangements in Strengthening the Responsbility to Protect. New York: The Stanley Foundation, pp. 12-18.
[5] AU Constitutive Act 2000.
[6] Bellamy, Alex J.. 2008. “The Responsibility To Protect And The Problem Of Military Intervention.” International Affairs 84 (4): pp 615-639.
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https://doi.org/10.15760/etd.2529. Accessed on 12/06/21.
[9] Broadhead, C. 2020. A Critical Analysis of the Strengths and Limitations of the Responsibility to Protect in the Central Africa Republic Between 2013-2017. Available at: file:///C:/Users/JAN/Desktop/R2P/A%20Critical%20Analysis%20of%20the%20Strengths%20and%20Limitations%20of%20the%20Responsibility%20to%20Protect%20in%20the%20Central%20African%20Republic%20Between%202013-2017%20%C2%BB%20Responsibility%20to%20Protect%20Student%20Journal.html. Accessed on 12/05/21.
[10] Cinq-Mars, E. 2015. Too little, too late: Failing to prevent atrocities in the Central African Republic. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. [Online]. Occasional Paper Series 7
[11] Davies, S. and Bellamy, A. 2014. Don’t Be Too Quick to Condemn the UN Security Council Power of Veto. The Conversation. [Online]. [Accessed 9 May 2018]. Available from: https://the conversation.com/dont-be-too-quick-to-condemnthe-un-security-council-power-of-veto-29980
[12] Forje, J. W. (2005). “Rethinking Political Will and Empowerment as Missing Dimensions in Post-Conflict Reform and Reconstruction in the Central African Sub-Region. E.S.D. Fomin and John W. Forje eds. Central Africa: Crises, Reform and Reconstruction. Dakar: CODESRIA, 223-240.
[13] Gallagher A. (2013) The Responsibility to Protect. In: Genocide and its Threat to Contemporary International Order. New Security Challenges Series. Palgrave Macmillan, London. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137280268_6. Accessed on 15 May 2021.
[14] Gallagher, A. 2015. The Promise of Pillar II: Analysing International Assistance Under the Responsibility to Protect. International Affairs. 91(6), pp. 1259-1275.
[15] Gowan, R 2011 Multilateral Political Missions and Preventive Diplomacy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, December.
[16] Hehir, A. 2015. The Viability of the “Responsibility to Prevent”. Politics and Governance. 3(3), pp. 85-97.
[17] Herbert, S., Nathalia, D. and Marielle, D. 2013.State Fragility in Central Africa Republic: What Prompted the Coup? University of Birmingham: International Development Department.
[18] High Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations. 2015. Uniting our Strengths for Peace, Politics, Partnership and People
[19] Howard, L. 2019. Assessing the Effectiveness of the UN Mission in Central Africa Republic. Available at: file:///C:/Users/JAN/Desktop/R2P/Assessing%20the%20Effectiveness%20of%20the%20UN%20Mission%20in%20the%20Central%20African%20Republic%20_%20IPI%20Global%20Observatory.html. Accessed on 04/04/21.
[20] Human Rights Watch, “Central African Republic: Rampant Abuses After Coup,” 10 May 2013, available at: https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/05/10/ central-african-republic-rampant-abuses-after-coup. Accessed on 12/01/21.
[21] Huntington, S. P. 1993. The Third Wave and the Remaking of History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
[22] Hurd, I. 2002. Legitimacy, Power and the Symbolic life of the UN Security Council.We Journal of Global Governance, 8 (1): pp 35-51.
[23] International Peace Institute 2012. Preventing Conflicts in Africa: Early Warnings and Response.
[24] Kam Kah, H. 2014. History, External Influence and Political Volatility in the Central Africa Republic (CAR). Journal for the Advancement of Developing Economies, 3(1), p 1-16.
[25] Morris, J. 2016. The Responsibility to Protect and the use of force. Sage Journals.
[26] Olaosebikan, A, J. 2010. Conflicts in Africa : Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution. An International Multidisciplinary Journal, 4 (4): pp 549-560.
[27] Rotberg, R. I. 2003. When States Fails, Causes and Consequences. New York: Princeton University Press.
[28] Thakur, R. 2016. The Responsibility to Protect at 15. Journal of International Affairs, 92 (2), 415-434.
[29] United Nations Charter 1945.
[30] Welsh, J. M. 2019. Norm Robustness and the Responsibility to Protect. Journal of Global Security Studies, 4(1), p53-72.

Jonah Marawako “Reflecting on the prime hurdles and successes of the International Community’s Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect in Central Africa Republic 2013-2021” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.190-196 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/190-196.pdf

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Teachers’ Commitment and Job Performance: A Study of Schools in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria

Wapmuk, Shitnaan Emmanuel, Botsha, Josephine Yakubu, Kusa, Nanfa Danjuma, Goma, Ruth Panshak- February 2022- Page No.: 197-205

This study examined the effect of teachers’ commitment on job performance. The study population included primary school teachers of Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. A questionnaire was adapted and administered to the sample of 306 respondents of which 278 questionnaires were filled and returned representing (91%) response rate which was used for data analysis. Homogeneous purposive sampling was adopted and the data collected were analyzed using multiple regression. The study revealed that affective, and normative commitment leads to an increase in job performance. Drawing from the findings, the study showed that affective, and normative commitment had significant effects on job performance. The study recommended that school administrators and managers should encourage employees to have positive feelings of identification with, attachment to the work organisation, management should also encourage and motivate employees to have a sense of belonging and identification to increases their involvement in the organisation’s goals and thus desire to remain with the organisation.

Page(s): 197-205                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2022

 Wapmuk, Shitnaan Emmanuel
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

 Botsha, Josephine Yakubu
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

 Kusa, Nanfa Danjuma
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

 Goma, Ruth Panshak
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

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[3] Adekola, B. (2012). The impact of organisational commitment on the job. African Journal of Business Management, 49-54.
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Wapmuk, Shitnaan Emmanuel, Botsha, Josephine Yakubu, Kusa, Nanfa Danjuma, Goma, Ruth Panshak, “Teachers’ Commitment and Job Performance: A Study of Schools in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.197-205 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/197-205.pdf

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Perception and Attitudes of Residents towards Effective Management of the Kyabobo National Park, Ghana

Kwasi Ali Magya – February 2022- Page No.: 206-217

Protected Areas are increasingly becoming significant due to their double potential as tourism and biodiversity conservation areas. This has led to an increasing desire by governments to convert a lot of forests into Protected Areas. However, these conversions are sometimes met with strict opposition from members of fringe communities. This is sometimes attributed to the destruction of livelihood sources of community members and thus affects the smooth management of the protected areas. The objective of this study therefore was to examine the perception and attitudes of residents towards the effective management of Kyabobo National Park in the Nkwanta North District of Ghana. The data was using questionnaire and interview and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using Chi-square, 200 questionnaires were administered to respondents in five fringe communities. Focus Group Discussions and interviews were also used to collect field data and information. The study revealed that majority of community members do not receive any form of social, economic or cultural benefits from the KNP but they were however supportive of the establishment of conservation area where biodiversity can be preserved. The study also revealed that the perception and attitude of respondents are not influenced by their demographic variables such as age, level of education and occupation. Respondents however had negative attitudes towards the park because promises made by park authorities before the conversion of the place to a park had not been kept. The negative attitudes therefore affect the effective management of the park. It is recommended that government and management of the park fulfill their promises to residents. Also, alternative livelihood options should be provided for residents to avoid illegal entry into the park. The planning of sensitization programs should involve all residents and not target only certain demographic categories as there is no relationship between demographic characteristics of respondents and their perception and attitude towards protected areas.

Page(s): 206-217                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 March 2022

 Kwasi Ali Magya
Department of Social Science, E.P. College of Education, Bimbilla – Ghana W/A

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[2] Amuquandoh, F. E. (2010). Residents’ perceptions of the environmental impacts of tourism in the Lake Bosomtwe Basin, Ghana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(2), 223-238.
[3] Allendorf, T. D., Swe, K. K., O, T., Htut, Y., Aung, M., Aung, M., Allendorf, K., Hayek,L. A., Leimgrubek, P. &Wemmer, C. (2006). Community attitudes toward three protected areas in Upper Myanmar (Burma). Environmental Conservation, 33, 344-352. Doi: 10.1017/S0376892906003389.
[4] Bouma, S. (2007). Assessment of Tourism Potential in Kyabobo National Park Fringe Communities, SNV/NHHI, Breda, The Netherlands.
[5] Bruku C. (2016). Perceived risks and management strategies in protected areas: the case of Kyabobo National Park in the Nkwanta South District, Ghana. MPhil Thesis submitted to the University of Ghana Graduate Studies.
[6] Chevallier, R., & Milburn, R. (2015). Increasing the Economic Value and Contribution of Protected Areas in Africa. SAIIA Policy Briefing 125.
[7] Dewu, S., & Røskaft, E. (2017). Community attitudes towards protected areas: insights from Ghana. Oryx, 1-8.
[8] Dudley, N. (Ed.). (2008). Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
[9] IUCN (2014). Parks, People, Planet: Inspiring Solutions. IUCN World Park Congress. Sydney.
[10] Leache, A.D. (2005). Herpetological Survey of Kyabobo National Park, WDSP Report No. K7. Berkeley, USA.
[11] Larsen, B. T. W. (2006). The Butterflies of Kyabobo National Park, Ghana, and Those of the Volta Region. WDSP Report 64. Wildlife Division/IUCN, Accra, Ghana.
[12] Maya I. Hernes & Mark J. Metzger (2017). Understanding local community’s value, worldview and perceptions in the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve.
[13] Sluis, T.V.D., Jagt, C.J., &Kanton, L. (2007). Tourism Development and Management Plan: Kyabobo National Park and Surrounding Area, V4.doc. SNV- Ghana.
[14] Vedeld, P., Jumane, A., Wapalila, G and Songorwa, A. (2012). Protected areas, poverty and conflicts: A livelihood case study of Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Forest Policy and Economics 21: 20-31.
[15] Weladji, R.B. and Tchamba M.N. (2003). Conflict between people and protected areas within the Benoue Wildlife Conservation Area, North Cameroon. Oryx 37: 72-79.
[16] WDPA,(2012).Biodiversity Indicator Partnerships: Coverage of Protected Areas, (online) http://www.wdpa.org/resources/statistics/2010BIP_Factsheet.

Kwasi Ali Magya, “Perception and Attitudes of Residents towards Effective Management of the Kyabobo National Park, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.206-217 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/206-217.pdf

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Games: An Educational Technology Instructional Media toward Effective Teaching and Learning in Ekiti State Secondary Schools

Ajayi, Opeyemi, Okoh, Maureen O., & Adeoye, Ayodele J. – February 2022- Page No.: 218-223

This study investigated games as an educational technology instructional media towards effective teaching and learning in Ekiti State Secondary Schools. Descriptive research design of the survey type was employed. The population of the study was 250 students in senior secondary schools in Ekiti State, using multistage sampling techniques. A self-design questionnaire title “Students Educational Games Questionnaire SEGQ” contain three section was used to elicit information from the respondents which consist 25 items. Section A is to know the impact of games as an educational technology instructional media. Section B is for students’ attitude toward games as an educational technology instructional media. Section C is Educational Technology Instructional Media Performance Test (ETIMPT). Both face and content validity were satisfied by experts after the construction of the instrument. A test-retest method was used through the administration of the instrument to 20 respondents outside the sample within 2 weeks to obtained reliability coefficient 0.86. The data obtained through the research questions were analysed using frequency count and percentage. The result of the study indicated that games as an educational technology instructional media has great impact on students’ performance and produced effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Ekiti State. It also indicated positive attitude of students toward games as an educational technology instructional media which motivated the students to study well. It further show that games as an educational technology instructional media enable students to be creative, innovation, initiative, problem-solver and have deep knowledge about content of the subject matter. Specifically, the study sought to: – investigate the impact of games as an educational technology instructional media to teaching and learning; determine whether there will be any improvement in the student’s academic performance with the use of educational technology instructional media and examine students’ attitude toward games as an educational technology instructional media during teaching and learning activities. The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to students, teachers, parents, school administrators, curriculum planners, society and prospective researchers. It was concluded that educational technology instructional media make use all available resources (human and non-human) in the environment to facilitate teaching and learning, innovative strategies like games is rich sources of knowledge to teach tolerance, reality of life, behaviour modification and role modelling unconsciously. Implement the concept of gaming in to education has a lots of opportunities and many types of games that could be make use during teaching and learning process which include problem solving, jigsaw puzzle, simulation, Brain Teasers, Sliding puzzle and tutorials based games. It was recommended that, if games are encouraged, it relaxes, stimulates and enhances learning without stress in a humorous way. It was also recommended that teacher should make use of games to liven up teaching and learning process. Also, students should be guided towards the use and types of games to involve in and time of playing such games should be monitor in order not to abuse the opportunity of playing games. More so, parents should encourage their wards to engage in playing educational games to bring reality to teaching and learning process

Page(s): 218-223                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 March 2022

 Ajayi, Opeyemi
Ekiti State University Faculty of Education, Department of Vocational and Technical Education

 Okoh, Maureen O.
Federal University of Oye, Faculty of Education

 Adeoye, Ayodele J.
Ekiti State University, Faculty of Education, Department of Vocational and Technical Education

[1] Association for Educational Communication and Technology (AECT), (1977). The Definition of Educational Technology: A summary. Washington, DC.: AECT
[2] Azikiwe, U. (2007). Instructional Media for Effective Teaching and Learning Blog.commlabindia.com: when games may not work: Limitations of Game-based learning
[3] Boyle, S. (2011). Teaching Toolkit: An Introduction to Games based learning. UCD Dublin, Ireland: UCD Teaching and Learning/ Resources. Retrieved from https://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/UCDTLT0044.pdf.pdf
[4] Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. In Reiser R.M.A., & Dempsey, J.V. (Eds.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Educational game – https://en.m.wikipedia.org.
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[7] Ginsburg K.R. (2007). Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bond. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics
[8] Obielodan, O.O. (2014). Instructional Media: Typology and Relevance in Instruction. Critical Issues in Educational Technology. Edited by Yusuf M.O. & Onasanya S.A.: Department of Educational Technology, University of Ilorin.
[9] Ogunmilade, C.A. (1991). Principles and Practice of Educational Technology in Critical Issues in Educational Technology. Edited by Yusuf M.O. & Onasanya S.A.: Department of Educational Technology, University of Ilorin.
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[12] Salman, M.F. (2004). Fundamental Principles and Practice of Instruction edited by Abimbola I.O. & Abolade A.O.: Department of Curriculum and Educational Technology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
[13] Soetan, A.K. (2014). Games, Simulation and Cartooning in Instruction. Critical Issues in Educational Technology. Edited by Yusuf M.O. & Onasanya S.A.: Department of Educational Technology, University of Ilorin. www. nzdl.org.

Ajayi, Opeyemi, Okoh, Maureen O., & Adeoye, Ayodele J. “Games: An Educational Technology Instructional Media toward Effective Teaching and Learning in Ekiti State Secondary Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.218-223 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/218-223.pdf

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Skills Required for Secondary Education Teachers in Inclusive Settings

Irene Wanja Muiruri, Kiptoo Wilson- February 2022- Page No.: 224-229

Despite the government’s best efforts, the problem of discrimination among kids with special educational needs continues to grow. Students with learning disabilities have not been supplied with the necessary resources, physical facilities, or equipment to meet their specific needs, as their colleagues have. As a result, the primary goal of this research was to find out skills required for secondary education teachers in inclusive settings. The research method to be adopted in this study was quantitative methods. The research’s target population was 84 secondary school teachers. The respondents were drawn from the four secondary schools in Keiyo North Sub-County with inclusive education. Questionnaires were used to collect data from teachers. Quantitative analysis entailed the use of descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequency distribution tables. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) software version 25 was used to interpret the data. Presentation of data was by use of tables, pie charts and descriptions. The study concluded that teachers in an inclusive school should have a strong vision that all children can learn and believe in their abilities. Teachers should possess skills in classroom management for inclusive education. They should also possess techniques of assessment in the implementation of inclusive education programs, a study has found. The study recommends that the teachers receive in-service training to ensure that they have a strong vision of all children being able to learn and believe in their kids’ talents. For inclusive education, teachers need to have classroom management abilities. Every day in the classroom, teachers should be able to be very structured. Teachers must encourage both ordinary and disabled students to have a positive perception.

Page(s): 224-229                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6210

 Irene Wanja Muiruri

 Kiptoo Wilson

[1] Ainscow, M. (2020). Promoting Inclusion and Equity in Education: Lessons from International Experiences. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 6(1), 7-16.
[2] Apuke, O. D. (2017). Quantitative Research Methods: A Synopsis Approach. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 33(5471), 1-8.
[3] Gidlund, U., & Boström, L. (2017). What Are Inclusive Didactics? Teachers´ Understanding of Inclusive Didactics for Students with EBD in Swedish Mainstream Schools. International Education Studies, 10(5), 87-99.
[4] Kiplagat, H., Syonthi, J., & Situma, J. (2019). Learning Challenges to Inclusive Learning in an ECDE Centers in Eldoret East Sub-County, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. International Journal Of Academic Research In Business And Social Sciences, 9(11).
[5] Majoko, T. (2019). Teacher Key Competencies for Inclusive Education: Tapping Pragmatic Realities of Zimbabwean Special Needs Education Teachers. SAGE Open, 9(1), 21-58.
[6] Mngo, Z. Y., & Mngo, A. Y. (2018). Teachers’ Perceptions of Inclusion in A Pilot Inclusive Education Program: Implications for Instructional Leadership. Education Research International, 8(2), 30-46.
[7] Pitten Cate, I. M., Markova, M., Krischler, M., & Krolak-Schwerdt, S. (2018). Promoting Inclusive Education: The Role of Teachers’ Competence and Attitudes. Insights into Learning Disabilities, 15(1), 49-63.
[8] Roose, I., Vantieghem, W., Vanderlinde, R., & Van Avermaet, P. (2019). Beliefs as Filters for Comparing Inclusive Classroom Situations. Connecting Teachers’ Beliefs About Teaching Diverse Learners to Their Noticing of Inclusive Classroom Characteristics in Videoclips. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 56(6), 140-151.
[9] Round, P. N., Subban, P. K., & Sharma, U. (2016). ‘I don’t have time to be this busy. ‘Exploring the concerns of secondary school teachers towards inclusive education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(2), 185-198.
[10] Sharma, U., Shaukat, S., & Furlonger, B. (2015). Attitudes and self‐efficacy of pre‐service teachers towards inclusion in Pakistan. Journal of research in special educational needs, 15(2), 97-105.
[11] Varcoe, L., & Boyle, C. (2014). Pre-service primary teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education. Educational Psychology, 34(3), 323-337.
[12] Wiggins, G. (2012). Seven keys to effective feedback. Feedback, 70(1), 10-16.

Irene Wanja Muiruri, Kiptoo Wilson, “Skills Required for Secondary Education Teachers in Inclusive Settings” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.224-229 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6210

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School Preparedness in the Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as Correlates to K to 12 Teachers Competencies and Teaching Effectiveness in City Schools Division of Puerto Princesa District I

Dr. Carolyn M. Illescas, Dr. David R. Perez- February 2022- Page No.: 230-241

The study was conducted determine the school administrators’ preparedness in the integration of ICT as correlates to K to 12 teachers’ competencies and teaching effectiveness in Puerto Princesa District I.
It was conducted to 12 school administrators and 157 teachers from six public elementary schools in Puerto Princesa District I. Descriptive research design particularly the survey method was used. The researcher-made survey questionnaire was used in data gathering and it was analyzed through descriptive statistics.
The findings revealed that the elementary school administrators’ preparedness in the integration of ICT according to use of technology in the school; providing the technology infrastructure and viable instructional strategy were assessed by administrators and teachers as “somewhat evident” However, both of them assessed the administrators’ role as technology leader as“evident.”
Meanwhile, the administrators were assessed the K to 12 teachers’ competencies in terms of application of technology in the class as “somewhat evident” and teachers assessed themselves as “not evident” with regards to computer literacy administrators and teachers assessed the teachers as “not evident.” However, both of them were “somewhat evident” as to the access to various types of technology.
The study also revealed that administrators and teachers “evident” on the teaching effectiveness of K to 12 teachers in terms of demonstrates skills in the use of technology in teaching and learning and utilization of technology to enhance teaching and learning.
The elementary school administrators’ preparedness in the integration of ICT in terms of use of technology in the school; providing the technology infrastructure and viable instructional strategy influence the teachers’ application of technology in the class.
Accordingly, the elementary school administrators’ preparedness in the integration of ICT as to the use of technology in the school and providing the technology infrastructure do not affect the K to 12 teachers’ competencies in terms of computer literacy. The elementary school administrators’ preparedness in the integration of ICT as to the use of technology in the school and providing the technology infrastructure do not affect the K to 12 teachers’ competencies in terms of access to various types of technology but it was influenced by viable instructional strategy and administrators’ role as technology leader.
The teaching effectiveness of K to 12 teachers in Puerto Princesa District I in terms of demonstrates skills in the use of technology in teaching and learning was affected by the viable instructional strategy and administrators’ role as technology leader but it was not affected by use of technology in the school and providing the technology infrastructure.
Meanwhile, the teaching effectiveness of K to 12 teachers in Puerto Princesa District I in terms of utilization of technology to enhance teaching and learning was affected by providing the technology infrastructure, viable instructional strategy and administrators’ role as technology leader but it was not affected by the use of technology in the school.
Further, the administrators and teachers had similar perceptions as to the preparedness in the integration of ICT, teachers’ competencies and teaching Effectiveness of K to 12 Teachers in Puerto Princesa District.

Page(s): 230-241                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6211

 Dr. Carolyn M. Illescas
Western Philippines University, Philippines

 Dr. David R. Pereza
Western Philippines University, Philippines

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[3] Uchida, D. (2006). Preparing students for the 21st century. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.
RESEARCH JOURNALS/ REPORTS/PERIODICALS
[1] Abrahamson, E. (2011). Managerial Fads and Fashions: The Diffusion and Rejection of Innovation. California Management Review, Vol. 16.
[2] Andres, Godofredo T. 2007, “IT2I Philippines – Asia’s Knowledge Center”, IT Action Agenda for the 21st Century, Manila, Oct. 2007.
[3] Anderson, R. E., and Dexter, S. L. (2005). School technology leadership: An empirical investigation of prevalence and effect. Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol. 41(1).
[4] Ashton, P. T. (2006). Teacher efficacy: A motivational paradigm for effective teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 35(5).
[5] Bailey, G. D. (2007). What technology leaders need to know: The essential top 10 concepts for technology integration in the 21st century? Learning & Leading with Technology, Vol. 25(1).
[6] Becker, H. J. (2009). Internet use by teachers: Conditions of professional use and teacher directed student use. Irvine, CA: Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, University of California, Irvine, and the University of Minnesota.
[7] Blake, R. (2010). An investigation of technology competencies of school-based administrators in Florida schools. Dissertations Abstract International. AAT 9977808.
[8] Bossert, P. J. (2007). Horseless classrooms and virtual learning: Reshaping our environments. Bulletin, 81, 3-15.
[9] Briers, G. (2005). Relationships between student achievement and levels of technology integration by Texas agriscience teachers [Electronic Version]. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education Research, Vol. 55(1).
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[11] Chang, I. H. and Hsu, C. M. (2008). Teachers’ perceptions of the dimensions and implementation of technology leadership of principals in Taiwanese elementary schools. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 11(4).
[12] Chang, I. H., and Wu, Y. C. (2008). A study of the relationship between principals’ technology leadership and teachers’ teaching efficiency. Journal of Educational Research and Development, Vol. 4(1).
[13] Chin, J. M. (2010). The study of the dimensions and implementation of the elementary school principals’ technology leadership. Journal of Education and Psychology, Vol. 29(1).
[14] Dawson, C. G. B. (2011). A national study of the influence of computer technology training received by K-12 principals on the integration of computer technology into curricula of schools. Dissertation Abstracts International, AAT3019300.
[15] Eisenberg, M. B. & Johnson, D. (2006). Computer skills for information problem- solving: Learning and teaching technology in context. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse, NY. Retrieved April 2, 2007, from ERIC Document Reproduction Service ERIC No. ED392463.
[16] Eveland, J. D. (2006). Diffusion, Technology Transfer and Implementation. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, Vol. 8(2).
[17] Gibson, S., and Denbo, M. H. (2008). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 76(4).
[18] Hopson, M. H. (2008). Effects of a technology enriched learning environment on student development of higher order thinking skills. Dissertations Abstracts International, AAT 9841429.
[19] Jerald, C. D. and Orlofsky, G. F. (2009). Raising the bar on school technology. Education Week. Vol. 19.
[20] Jetton, R. C. (2007). The impact of the principal’s attitudes toward the implementation of computer related technology and restructuring as perceived by Texas high school principals in the Region IV Service Center area. Dissertations Abstracts International, AAT 9800675.
[21] Jaber, W. E. (2007). A survey of factors that influence teachers’ use of computer-based technology. Dissertation Abstracts International, AAT 9936916.
[22] Lanford, B. L. (2009). A historical, time-related study on the influences of socio-cultural, technological and educational trends of the 20th century and their possible effect on the learning environment. Dissertations Abstract International, AAT 9955585.
[23] Marcial, D. E. (2011). Information technology resources in the higher education institutions in the Philippines. Proceedings of the 9th National Conference on Information Technology Education (NCITE 2011), held at Palawan State University, Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines, from October 27 to 29, 2011.
[24] Marcial, D. (2012). Investigating technical skills among information technology managers in higher education institutions in the Philippines. Graduate Currents, Silliman University.
[25] Marcial, D. (2012). Investigating soft skills among information technology managers in higher education institutions in the Philippines. Proceedings of the ICERI 2012, Cambodia.
[26] Reed, D. S. (2006). Systemic technology infusion: Effects on teachers and students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia. Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol. 64(1).
[27] Rosas, N. L. (2008). The Educational Technology Master plan, Report Presented at the Congress. Makati City, 30 October 2008.
[28] SEAMEO INNOTECH. May 2006, text2teach Project Completion Report. Unpublished document.
[29] SEAMEO INNOTECH. 2008, Profile on the ICT Capabilities of Elementary & Secondary Schools in the Philippines, A Study Commissioned by the Philippine Senate Committee on Education, Arts & Culture, Q.C., Philippines.
[30] Thompson, C. (2006). Computer-aided instruction in secondary clothing and textiles courses. Journal of Vocational Home Economics Education, Vol. 11(2).
THESES/DISSERTATIONS
[1] Aten, B. M. (2006). An analysis of the nature of educational technology leadership in California’s SB 1274 restructuring schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of San Francisco, California.
[2] Basa, Ellaine J. (2008). A study of the relationships among principals’ technology leadership, organizational learning and school effectiveness in elementary schools in Makati City. Doctoral Dissertation, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila.
[3] Bautista, Analyn O. (2007). A study of the relationship between principals’ information literacy and the implementation of information technology integrating into teaching in three districts of Batangas City. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis. Batangas State University.
[4] Chang, M. (2009). A study of the relationship between principals’ technological leadership and school effectiveness in elementary schools in Taipei County (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Chencho University, Taiwan.
[5] Cruz, Darwin H. (2006). A study of the relationship among principals’ technological leadership, knowledge management and school effectiveness in Quezon City. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis. Ateneo de Manila University.
[6] Eaton-Kawecki, K. A. (2008). School technology use and achievement on statewide assessment: Is there a relationship? (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania.
[7] Ford, J. I. (2007). Identifying technology leadership competencies for Nebraska’s K-12 technology leaders (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Nebraska- Lincoln, Nebraska.
[8] Fu, C. J. (2009). A study of the relationship between principals’ technological leadership and teachers’ teaching effectiveness in elementary schools in Taipei City (Unpublished master’s thesis). Tamkang University, Taiwan.
[9] Jean, M. (2005). A study of the relationship between teachers’ teaching information literacy and teaching effectiveness in elementary schools in Kaohsiung City (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Pingtung Teachers College, Taiwan.
[10] Lo, W. (2009). A study of the relationship between principals’ technological leadership and teachers’ teaching effectiveness in elementary schools in Hualien County (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Hualien University of Education, Taiwan.
[11] Marcial, D.E. (2011). Prioritization and implementation of IT in the higher education institutions in the Philippines: An analysis towards the IT landscape. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines.
[12] Rogers, B. A. (2008). The correlation between teachers’ perceptions of principals’ technology leadership and the integration of educational technology (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ball State University, Indiana.
[13] Rodriguez, Ginalyn C. (2014). Organizational Climate and Performance of Teachers in the Public Elementary Schools in Brookes Point South District. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Holy Trinity University, Puerto Princesa City.
[14] Sabuero, Viberly C. (2014). Decision Making Style of Elementary School Administrators in Relation to their Management Competence in District I in Bataraza, Palawan Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Holy Trinity University, Puerto Princesa City.
[15] Sumandal, Zaidy D. (2013). Teachers Assessment on the Importance of Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Among Grades IV-VI Pupils in District II in the Division of Puerto Princesa City. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Western Philippines University, Puerto Princesa Campus.
[16] Wu, H. (2006). A study of the elementary school principals’ curriculum leadership in elementary schools Taipei City (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Chungcheng University, Taiwan.
[17] Yen, L. (2010). A study of the relationship between principals’ technological leadership and teachers’ teaching effectiveness of elementary schools in Tainan County (Unpublished master’s thesis). Southern Taiwan University, Taiwan.
WEBSITES
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[19] Belawati, T. (2004). “Philippines ICT use in Education” UNESCO Meta-Survey on the Use of Technologies in Education. Downloaded from http://www.unesc bkk.org /index.php? id=1807
[20] Conejos, April P. (2009). The ICT Utilization in the Classroom. A Report Presented to UNESCO. Downloaded from: http:// www.unesco bkk.org/education/ict/ databases.
[21] Gorospe, M. J. (2010). Technological resources, knowledge and skills of the basic education teachers. PeLS Online Journal. Downloaded from: http://elearning.ph/web/userfiles/gorospe.pdf
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Dr. Carolyn M. Illescas, Dr. David R. Perez, “School Preparedness in the Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as Correlates to K to 12 Teachers Competencies and Teaching Effectiveness in City Schools Division of Puerto Princesa District I” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.230-241 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6211

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Utilization of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4PS) Financial Aide and Pupils’ Academic Performance

Ailene O. Basco, Carolyn M. Illescas, Sharon Rose Bontongon – February 2022- Page No.: 242-246

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
This study was conducted to assess awareness on the utilization of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) in Education of Sta. Monica Elementary School and Matahimik- Bucana Elementary Schools of District II, City Division of Puerto Princesa as reflected in Pupils’ academic performance. There were 153 respondents in this study.
The descriptive-correlation research design was used in the study. Data were gathered through questionnaires while frequency, percentage, mean and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient r were the statistical tools used to analyze the data.
Greater in number are the recipients who claimed that the school is 0.7-0.9 kilometres away from their home. Majority of the recipients claimed that they complied the 85% of attendance in school.
Majority of the beneficiaries have an income between (P1001-P3000) and most of them are high school graduate.
The level of academic performance of the recipients of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is satisfactory.
Beneficiaries are aware of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). They always use their allowance in education according to its intended purpose.
The level of the awareness of parents/beneficiaries on the utilization of 4Ps allowance has no significant relationship to the academic performance of 4Ps recipients.
Keywords: beneficiaries, recipients, awareness, utilization, academic performance

Page(s): 242-246                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6212

 Ailene O. Basco
Western Philippines University, Philippines

 Carolyn M. Illescas
Western Philippines University, Philippines

 Sharon Rose Bontongon
Western Philippines University, Philippines

Reference are not available.

Ailene O. Basco, Carolyn M. Illescas, Sharon Rose Bontongon, “Utilization of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4PS) Financial Aide and Pupils’ Academic Performance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.242-246 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6212

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Influence of the School Feeding Programme on educational outcomes of pupils in public pre-primary schools in Mombasa County, Kenya

Logedi Josephine Chahilu*, Mary Jebii Chemagosi (PhD) and Sellah Lusweti (PhD), – February 2022- Page No.: 247-254

School feeding programmes constitute critical interventions that have been introduced in many developed and developing countries of the world to address poverty, stimulate school enrolment and enhance pupils’ performance (Adekunle & Ogbodu, 2016). Through the SFP, children are energized and their class concentration is enhanced. In Kenya, the SFP supports the achievement of educational outcomes with a view to obtain Kenyan educational goal of free and compulsory education, and 100% transition. In cognizance of the foregoing, the objective of this study was to determine the level to which the school feeding programme influences educational outcomes in public pre-primary schools in Mombasa County, Kenya. Descriptive research design informed the study. The study’s target population was all the 97 head teachers, 388 teachers and 7 Early Education supervisors in Mombasa County. A sample of 78 head teachers, 116 teachers and 7 supervisors was obtained based on stratified, purposive and simple random techniques. Questionnaire, interview schedule and observation guide were the three instruments used to collect data. Qualitative data was analysed thematically in prose and narrative forms. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics by means of frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. T-tests was used to indicate differences among sub-groups that existed. The study revealed that provision of the school feeding programme positively influenced learners’ enrollment, class attendance, retention, participation in outdoor activities, progression to the next class level, health and nutrition and transition. Using t-test, it was established that schools with SFPs had higher educational outcomes than those without SFP (t = .293, p = 0.005, N = 53). The study recommended the Ministry of education, Mombasa County government, parents and schools to seek for alternative strategies of providing school feeding programmes among pre-primary children.

Page(s): 247-254                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 March 2022

 Logedi Josephine Chahilu
Department of Educational Psychology and Special Needs, Pwani University, Kenya

 Mary Jebii Chemagosi (PhD)
Department of Educational Psychology and Special Needs, Pwani University, Kenya

 Sellah Lusweti (PhD)
Department of Educational Psychology and Special Needs, Pwani University, Kenya

[1] Adekunle, D.T., & Ogbogu, C.O. (2016). The Effects of School Feeding Programme on Enrolment and Performance of Public Elementary School Pupils in Osun State, Nigeria. World Journal of Education, Vol. 6, No. 3; page 39-47.
[2] Aila, B. (2012).The Impact and Challenges of School Feeding Programme in Enhancing Access to Primary Education in the unplanned settlements if Kibera in Nairobi. Unpublished Master’s Thesis: University of Nairobi.
[3] Bekidusa, A.D. (2020). Influence of school feeding programme on the retention of learners in public primary schools in Kenya. A case of Mombasa County. (Unpublished master’s project), University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[4] Bekidusa, A.D., & Kisimbii, J. (2020). Influence of school feeding programme on the retention of learners in public primary schools in Kenya. A case of Mombasa County. Journal of Education and Practice Vol.4, Issue No.3, pp 1 – 12.
[5] Bundy, D., Burbano, C., Grosh, M., Gelli, A., Jukes, M., and Drake, L. (2009). Rethinking School Feeding: Social Safety Nets, Child Development, and the Education Sector. The World Bank.
[6] Buttenheim, A. M., Alderman, H., and Friedman, J. A. (2011). Impact Evaluation of School Feeding Programs in Lao PDR, 2011, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, 5518.
[7] Dheressa, D. K. (2011). Education in Focus: Impacts of School Feeding Program on School Participation: A case study in Dara Woreda of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB).
[8] Ecker, O. & Nene, M. (2012). Nutrition policies in developing countries: Challenges and Highlights. Policy Note 1. Washington DC, International Food Policy Research Institute.
[9] Edoardo, M., &Aulo, G. (2013). Improving community development by linking agriculture, nutrition and education: Design of a randomized trial of “home-grown” school feeding in Mali. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton.
[10] Haji, M.A. (2010). School feeding on pupils’ attendance and academic performance in selected primary schools in Ijara District, Kenya. (Unpublished master’s thesis), Kampala International University Kampala, Uganda.
[11] He, F. (2009). School Feeding Programs and Enrollment: Evidence from Sri Lanka
[12] Karaba, M.W., Gitumu, M., & Mwaruvie, J. (2019). Effect of School Feeding Programme on ECDE Pupils’ Class Participation in Kenya. Pedagogical Research vol 4 (1) page 1-8.
[13] Kiilu,R.M & Mugambi, L. (2019). Status of school feeding programme policy initiatives in primary schools in Machakos County, Kenya. African Educational Research Journal Vol. 7, Number 1, page 33-39.
[14] Kiiru,J.K., Mange, D., & Otieno, D. (2020). Management of lunch programme and its influence on educational outcomes in public day secondary schools in Mombasa and Kilifi Counties, Kenya. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume IV, Issue IX, September 2020| page 143-148.
[15] Kremer, M, & Vermeersch C. 2005. School meals, educational achievement and school competition: evidence from a randomized evaluation. World Bank Policy Res. Work.Pap. 3523
[16] Lagbo, Y.A.A. (2012). School feeding and enrolment, participation and learning Achievement. (Unpublished, master’s thesis), University of Oyo, Ghana.
[17] Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) 2010. Agricultural Sector Development Strategy, 2009-2020. Nairobi: Government of Kenya, 2010.
[18] Mwendwa, E., & Chepkonga, Y. S. (2019). Relationship between school feeding programmes and pupils’ effectiveness in learning in public primary schools in Kitui County, Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS) Volume 6 Issue 7, page 62-76.
[19] Ramadhani, J.K. (2014). An assessment of the effects of school feeding programmes on school enrolment, attendance and academic performance in primary schools in Singida District, Tanzania. (Unpublished, master’s thesis), University of Tanzania, Dodoma, Tanzania.
[20] Regnault De La Mothe, Marc. “Kenya Case Study.” Learning from Experience: Good Practices from 45 Years of School Feeding. World Food Programme, 2008. 45-47.
[21] Republic of Kenya (ROK) (2017). Implementation of the Agenda 2030 For Sustainable Development in Kenya.
[22] Sitato, V. J.R. (2018). An assessment of school feeding programme – pilot phase and its relationship with enrolment, attendance, retention and the local agricultural production in Nampula province in Mozambique. (Unpublished Doctor of Public Health), University of Pretoria, South Africa.
[23] Tashakkori, A. and Teddlie, C. (Eds.) (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research. New Delhi: Sage.
[24] UNESCO (2017). Education for Sustainable Development Goals.
[25] UNICEF (2021). Monitoring the Status of Women and Children: Malnurtition Data, April 2021. Retrieved from https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/malnutrition/
[26] World Bank (2012). Scaling up School Feeding; Keeping Children in School While Improving their Learning and Health.
[27] World Food Program, (2006). Situation Analysis: WFP’s Assistance to Girl’s Primary Education in Selected Districts of NWFP. Islamabad: WFP Pakistan. 3965–71

Logedi Josephine Chahilu*, Mary Jebii Chemagosi (PhD) and Sellah Lusweti (PhD), “Influence of the School Feeding Programme on educational outcomes of pupils in public pre-primary schools in Mombasa County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.247-254 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/247-254.pdf

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The Traditional Temple Paintings in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: An Appraisal

Dr. T.A.C.J.S. Bandara – February 2022- Page No.: 255-259

Sri Lanka has a rich tradition of Buddhist Paintings. The purpose of maintaining such was to sensitizes the devotees about the essence of teachings of the Buddhist philosophy. Interior walls of a variety of buildings, celestial places, shrine rooms were adorned by such painted surfaces depicting various themes of the Buddhist practice. This paper seeks to survey the regional peculiarities manifested by the 19th century temple paintings registered in the monasteries in the Uva province. A sample representing a wider geographical area was taken as a unit of analysis of the study. Stylistic variations and subject matter of the painting were considered as the main indicators of differences of the regional tradition observed. The socio-economic background has been identified as one of the major governing factors that influence the stylistic characterization of the regional tradition of paintings in Sri Lanka during the period under study.

Page(s): 255-259                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 March 2022

 Dr. T.A.C.J.S. Bandara
Department of Sinhala, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

[1] Bandaranayake, S., 1974. Sinhalese Monastic Architecture: the Viharas of Anuradhapura. Leiden. 1977. Form and Technique in traditional rural housing in Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the National Symposium on Traditional Rural Culture of Sri Lanka. 61-73 pp.
[2] 1982. ‘The Kataluwa murals’, Ordinations 13(1): 22-37 pp.
[3] 1986. The Rock and wall Paintings of Sri Lanka, Colombo: Lake House.
[4] Bell, H.C.P., 1904, Annual Report of the Archeological Survey of Ceylon for 1897-1911, Annual Report of the Archeological Survey of Ceylon for 1908.
[5] 1917. ‘Dimbula- Gala: its caves, ruins and inspirations’, CALR 3(1): 1-12: 3(2): 64-79 pp.
[6] 1918. ‘Demala- Maha-Seya Paintings’, JRASCB 71(3-4): 199-201 pp.
[7] Coomaraswamy, A. K., 1957. ‘An Open letter to the Kandyan Chiefs’, Cultural Magazine, Colombo: Published by the Art Council Government Printers.
[8] 1906. ‘Some Survivals of Sinhala Art’ JRASCB 19(57): 72-89 pp.
[9] 1907a. ‘Degaldoruwa temple’, Kandyan 2(3): 163-168 pp.
[10] 1907. Notes on Painting, Dyeing, Lacwork, Dumbara Mats and paper in Ceylon: JRAS (CB), Vol. xix, No.58.
[11] 1914. ‘Painted ceiling at Kelaniya Vihara’, Journal of Indian Art 16 (128): 113 p.
[12] 1969. Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, New York: Pantheon Books.
[13] 1935. The Transformation of Nature in Art, Harvard University Press: Cambridge.
[14] 1913. The Arts and Crafts of India and Ceylon, New Delhi: Today & Tomorrow’s Printers.
[15] 1981. Essays in National Idealism. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publication.
[16] 1985. Fundamentals of Indian Art, the Historical Research Documentation Programme: Jaipur.
[17] Deraniyagala, P.E.P., 1954. The Human and Animal Motif in Sinhala Art, Speech for the Presidential Address. Colombo.
[18] Godakumbura, C. E., 1969b. Murals at Tivanka Pilimage: Art Series No.4, Colombo.
[19] Gomrich, R.F., 1978. ‘A Sinhalese Cloth Paintings of the vessantara Jataka’, in H. Becher ted., Buddhism in Ceylon and Studies on Religious Syncretism in Buddhist Countries, Gottingen: 77-88 pp.
[20] Gunasinghe, Siri., 1978. An album of Buddhist Paintings from Sri Lanka, Colombo: Department of Government Printers. –
[21] 1979. “Art and Architecture”, Modern Sri Lanka: A Society in Transition, ed. Tissa Fernando and Robert N. Kearney, New York: Syracuse University.
[22] -1980. “Buddhist Paintings in Sri Lanka: Art of Enduring Simplicity,” SZ, Vol. 35(l-2): 479-89 pp.
[23] Bandara, Jayanthi., 2020. Religion in Colors: Buddhist Paintings in Sri Lanka; International Journal of Arts, Vol 10(2): 39-42 pp.
[24] Wijesekara, N., 1959. Early Sinhalese Paintings. Maharagama: Saman Press.
[25] Somadeva, R., 2012. Rock Paintings and Engraving Sites in Sri Lanka, Colombo: Postgraduate Institute of Archeology. fidau;s,l” tï'” 2002″ uykqjr iïm%odfha fn!oaO is;=jï l,dj” fldT( f.dvf.a m%ldYlfhda’

Dr. T.A.C.J.S. Bandara , “The Traditional Temple Paintings in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: An Appraisal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.255-259 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/255-259.pdf

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The Egalitarianism and Muslim Minorities Grievances in Sri Lanka: Until the third wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak

Thanabalasingam Krishnamohan, Halideen Fathima Rifasha- February 2022- Page No.: 260-266

Sri Lanka is a country with a multi-cultural social structure. The majority living in Sri Lanka is Sinhalese who follow the Buddhist culture, Tamils who follow the Hindu culture, Muslims who follow the Islamic culture, also some Sinhalese and Tamils follow the Christian culture (Catholic and non-Catholic). Until now, Muslims, Christians, and some Hindus have been buried according to the cultural system, following their demise. However, the government ordered the burning of all bodies who died of the disease from the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak from March 2020 to March 2021. This study relates the relationship between the burning of dead bodies and the violation of the cultural rights of Muslims, the reasons for the burning of the bodies of Muslims who died of the Covid-19 epidemic, and the reasons behind the government’s subsequent permission to bury the dead bodies of Muslims, the World Health Organization (WHO) for burying the bodies of those who died of the COVID-19 epidemic and explores issues such as the reflection of the policy of the international community. In this research, the most common qualitative methods, include individual interviews, focus group discussions, and behavioral observations by means of thoughts, beliefs, customs, ideas, words, and phrases. Further, the Constitution of Sri Lanka and Al-Quran is used for this research. Based on the formula, ten samples were selected based on the purpose of sample selection. Of the ten chosen, four were males, and six were females. Seven of them are from Islam, and the other three are from different religions. Accordingly, information obtained through interviews with two families who had been directly affected and died of the COVID-19 pandemic, a public health officer, a former urban council member, a former mayor and teacher of Political Science, an Islamic religion leader (Moulavi), and four ordinary peoples. Secondary data were also used in this research. Data are obtained from texts, journals, research articles, websites, and the conclusion is obtained through the deductive method. Although the Sri Lankan government has consistently refused to listen to violations of the fundamental rights of Sri Lankan Muslims, it has allowed the burial of bodies after March 2021. However, the government has cremated the bodies of more than three hundred Muslim loved ones. By doing so, the government is violating the cultural and fundamental rights of Muslims. It has broken their minds and hurt and upset them.

Page(s): 260-266                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6213

 Thanabalasingam Krishnamohan
Professor in Political Science, Department of Social Sciences, Eastern University, Sri Lanka, Chenkalady, Sri Lanka.

 Halideen Fathima Rifasha
B.A (Honous) in Political Science, Research Assistant

[1] ALJAZEERA, (2021), Sri Lanka finally lifts ban on the burial of COVID victims, Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/2/26/sri-lanka-finally-lifts-ban-on-burial-of-covid-victims Al-Quran, (3:184)
[2] ASIA, (2021), Sri Lanka ends ban on Covid-19 Victims burial, Available at: https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/sri-lanka-ends-ban-on-covid-19-victims-burial/2158037
[3] BBC, (2020), Covid-19: Sri Lanka Forcibly cremates Muslim Baby sparking ange, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-55359285
[4] BBC, (2021), Covid-19: Sri Lanka chooses remote island for covid burials, Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-56249805
[5] CAFOD, (2021), How Coronavirus is affecting Sri Lanka, available at: https://cafod.org.uk/News/International-news/Coronavirus-Sri-Lanka
[6] Carukshi. A Nuwan. D.W, Surandi. J, Sumudu. A.H, Ananda. W, Nalika. G, Sapumal.D, Shamini. P, (2021), Sri Lanka’s early success in the containment of covid-19 through its rapid response: clinical & epidemiological evidence from the initial case cries, available at: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255394
[7] Dilanthi. A Nishara. F, Richard. H, Naduni. J, (2020), The covid-19 outbreak in Sri Lanka: A Synoptic analysis focusing on trends, impacts risks and science- Policy interaction processes, available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836425/
[8] Dawood.S, Deen. K.I, Haniffa. R, Hizbullah. H, Marsoof.S, Naser. K, Noordeen. F, Sheriff. R, Sheriffdeen.A. H, Wazeer. Z, (2020), Memorandum on the Disposal of Bodies of COVID19 victims, Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3739723
[9] Hansa.D, Bhargava.M.D, (2021), Coronavirus History, Availabe at: https://www.webmd.com/lung/coronavirus-history
[10] Hilmy. A, (2020), Covid Racism-Another Sri Lanka’s 1st, Available at: https://www.colombotelegraph.com/index.php/covid-racism-another-sri-lankas-1st/
[11] Marsoof.S, (2021), A Brief Note on Disposal of bodies of covid-19 victims: A Sri Lankan Perspective. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3904837
[12] Muslim inspire, Muslim Death & Burial Practical Guide, Available at: https://musliminspire.com/muslim-death-burial-practical-guide/
[13] NPR, (2020), Coronavirus is changing the Rituals of Death for many Religions, available at: https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/04/07/828317535/coronavirus-is-changing-the-rituals-of-death-for-many-religions
[14] SCM, (2017), A Practical Guide for Bereaved Muslims Fulfilling both Governmental and Islamic requirements for North Lincolnohire, Available at: https://www.nlg.nhs.uk/content/uploads/2017/06/Muslim-funeral-guide-1.pdf
[15] Subhash Unhale.S, Bilal. Q, Sanap.S, Thakhre.S, (2020), A Review on Coronavirus (Covid-19), Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340362876_A_REVIEW_ON_CORONA_VIRUS_COVID-19
[16] The Constitution of The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka As amended up to 29th October 2020) Revised Edition – 2021 URL Available on https://www.parliament.lk/files/pdf/constitution.pdf
[17] UNHR, Sri Lanka: Compulsory cremation of Covid-19 bodies cannot continue, say U.N. experts, Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=26686&LangID=E
[18] World Health Organization, (2020), Infection prevention and control for the safe management of a dead body in the context of COVID-19, Available at, https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/WHO-EVD-Guidance-Burials-14.2 @ImranKhanPTI, (2021. Feb.26), Available at https://twitter.com/ImranKhanPTI/status/1365172240686456834?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1365172240686456834%7Ctwgr%5E%7Ctwcon%5Es1_&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.aljazeera.com%2Fnews%2F2021%2F2%2F26%2Fsri-lanka-finally-lifts-ban-on-burial-of-covid-victims https://icmanaesthesiacovid-19.org/background
[19] WHO Health Emergency Dashboard, (2022) WHO (COVID-19) Homepage, Available at https://covid19.who.int/region/searo/country/lk

Thanabalasingam Krishnamohan, Halideen Fathima Rifasha, “The Egalitarianism and Muslim Minorities Grievances in Sri Lanka: Until the third wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.260-266 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6213

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Gender Diversity and Financial Performance of Sacco’s in Siaya County, Kenya

Enock Odhiambo Ong’ure, Mr. Dominic Ngaba- February 2022- Page No.: 267-272

Majority of the SACCOs in Siaya County are struggling a lot to execute local obligations let alone to apply board diversity due to their limited capability. Weak corporate governance according to various studies has been the root cause of failure of most financial institutions. Diversity of the board can also be at a greater risk to be influenced with other direction with personal agendas. The study generally examined the effect of gender diversity on the financial performance of Siaya County, Kenya. A descriptive design of research was employed. The unit of analysis are the 285 respondents drawn from the 57 SACCOs. Data was collected using questionnaires. The technique on stratified random sampling was made use of which led to the selection of 50% of the board members from each SACCO. Therefore, the sample size comprised of 143 respondents. Collection of data was done using questionnaires which were semi structured. Content validity was used through consulting the supervisor assigned by testing the tool to check whether it measures the intended purpose of the study. Test retest method was employed to ensure reliability of the questionnaires. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive analysis and utilization of inferential analysis was done in establishing the degree to which variables related which involved analysis in multiple regression. The study found that gender diversity had a positive and significant effect on financial performance. The study concludes that having a high proportion of female board members had a positive effect on financial performance. The study recommends that deposit taking Saccos in Siaya County, Kenya should try to incorporate more female members as it was proved to translate to more returns in terms of Sacco financial performance.

Page(s): 267-272                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 March 2022

 Enock Odhiambo Ong’ure
Department of Accounting and Finance, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Mr. Dominic Ngaba
Department of Accounting and Finance, School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1] Bauer, R., Gunster, N. & Otten, R. (2016). Empirical evidence on corporate governance in Europe. Journal of Asset Management, 5(2) 91-104
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[3] Bendickson, J., Gur, F. A., & Taylor, E. C. (2018). Reducing environmental uncertainty: How high performance work systems moderate the resource dependence‐firm performance relationship. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 35(2), 252-264
[4] Bhagat, S., & Black, B. (2018). The Non-correlation between board independence and long-term firm performance. Journal of Corporation Law, 27(2) 231 – 233
[5] Champion, D. J., & Sear, A. M. (2019). Questionnaire response rate: A methodological analysis. Social Forces, 4(1), 335 – 339
[6] Chepngeno, T. (2017). The effect of internal audit function on financial performance of SACCOs: The case of Nairobi County (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[7] Cho, S., Kim, A., &Mor Barak, M. E. (2017). Does diversity matter? exploring workforce diversity, diversity management, and organizational performance in social enterprises. Asian Social Work and Policy Review, 11(3), 193-204
[8] Frijns, B., Dodd, O., &Cimerova, H. (2016). The impact of cultural diversity in corporate boards on firm performance. Journal of Corporate Finance, 41, 521-541
[9] Hesborn, M. A., Onditi, A., & Nyagol, M. O. (2016). Effect of credit risk management practices on the financial performance of SACCOs in Kisii County. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom, 4(11), 612 – 632
[10] Ibrahim, A. H., & Hanefah, M. M. (2016). Board diversity and corporate social responsibility in Jordan. Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, 14(2), 279-298
[11] Ishengoma, E. K., &Towo, N. N. (2016). Bank requirements and governance for savings and credit co-operative societies (SACCOS) in Tanzania and Kenya. Enterprise Development and Microfinance, 27(3), 236-254
[12] Joecks, J., Pull, K., & Vetter, K. (2013). Gender diversity in the boardroom and firm performance: What exactly constitutes a “critical mass?”. Journal of business ethics, 118(1), 61-72.
[13] Kenani, I. M., & Bett, S. (2018). Corporate governance and performance of savings and credit cooperative societies in Kisii County, Kenya. International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration, 3(4), 101-123
[14] Kyoa, F. J. (2017). The effect of board composition on operational efficiency of deposit taking Saccos in Kiambu county, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[15] Lari, L. R. A., Rono, L. J., &Nyangweso, P. M. (2017). Determinants of Technical Inefficiency of Saccos in Kenya: Loan Output Slack Analysis. American Journal of Finance, 2(1), 1-20.
[16] Low, D. C., Roberts, H., & Whiting, R. H. (2015). Board gender diversity and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Hong Kong, South Korea, Malaysia and Singapore. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, 35, 381-401
[17] Lynall, M. D. Golden, B. R., & Hillman, A. J. (2018). Board composition from adolescence to maturity: a multitheoretic view. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 416 – 431
[18] Macharia, M. W. (2017). Effects of Board Characteristics On the Outreach Performance Of Microfinance Institutions In Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, KCA University).
[19] Mutuku, D. M. (2016). Effects of corporate governance on financial performance of savings and credit cooperative societies in Siaya and Athi-river sub-counties (Doctoral dissertation).
[20] Njenga, S. M. N. (2018). Effect of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance of Companies Listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange: Case of Commercial and Services Firms in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-Africa).
[21] Ongore, V. O., & K’Obonyo, P. O. (2011). Effects of selected corporate governance characteristics on firm performance: Empirical evidence from Kenya. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 1(3), 99-122
[22] Rajula, V. A. (2016). Effects of board diversity on financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi)
[23] Ruparelia, R. V. (2016). Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance in the Financial Services Industry: Case of Companies Listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation)
[24] Sathyamoorthi, C. R., Baliyan, P., Dzimiri, M., & Wally-Dima, L. (2017). The Impact of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance: The Case of Listed Companies in the Consumer Services Sector in Botswana. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 4(22)
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[27] Wamaitha, M. M. (2017). Effects of Corporate Governance on the Financial Performance Of Deposit Taking Microfinance Institutions In Kenya (Doctoral Dissertation, School Of Business, University Of Nairobi)
[28] Wambui, K. (2018). Influence of board diversity on the financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Strathmore University).

Enock Odhiambo Ong’ure, Mr. Dominic Ngaba, “Gender Diversity and Financial Performance of Sacco’s in Siaya County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.267-272 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/267-272.pdf

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Analysis of Levels of Learners Achievement in Basic Literacy in Primary Schools: A Case of Busia Sub-County, Kenya

Fredrick Oduori Barasa, Prof John Shiundu, Prof Stanley Mutsotso – February 2022- Page No.: 273-278

Basic Literacy is essential for children’s educational access, success, lifelong learning and communication in today’s technologically advancing society. According to UNESCO, it is considered absolutely as a human right, and yet the persistence of illiteracy remains one of the major concerns in Kenya. Literacy studies in Kenya suggest that while there have been substantial advances in expanded access to primary education, real results in literacy are still missing in different places in the country. The purpose of the study was to establish the levels of achievement in basic literacy in Busia Sub – County, Busia County, Kenya. The study adopted cross-sectional survey design to organize the study and obtain data. Head teachers, Curriculum Support Officers, language teachers, parents and class four learners in both public and private primary schools comprised the study population. The collection of data from schools was carried out through questions, interview schedules and achievement tests.The findings show that domestic environmental factors influencing the achievement of fundamental literacy skills include parent socioeconomic status, parent education level, parent employment and access to home education services.

Page(s): 273-278                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 March 2022

 Fredrick Oduori Barasa
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Prof John Shiundu
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Prof Stanley Mutsotso
Kibabii University, Kenya

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Fredrick Oduori Barasa, Prof John Shiundu, Prof Stanley Mutsotso, “Analysis of Levels of Learners Achievement in Basic Literacy in Primary Schools: A Case of Busia Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.273-278 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/273-278.pdf

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Tagore’s Song Offerings: Materialism Meets Mysticism

Tasnuva Tabassum – February 2022- Page No.: 279-283

Rabindranath Tagore is a great poet who enriched the genre of mysticism in world literature and his Nobel winning work Song Offerings presents it extensively. There is no debate about the mystic journey we experience through the contents of this outstanding piece of literature, but what we overlooked massively all these years is the point of view of Tagore that is quite opposite to his mystic poems or songs. Whenever a reader peruses the poems of Song Offerings, he or she starts to evaluate Tagore just as a mystic, but overlooks his materialist being. There is a ‘Master’ or ‘Lord’ or a ‘Thou’ to whom Tagore surrenders himself, and all the offerings through the songs are made to ‘Him’. This ‘Lord’ is not the unseen God. Tagore believes that ‘life’ is the power that gives him the spirit to experience the beautiful world. The presence of materialism does, in no way, hamper to nourish mysticism of the poems. Song Offerings indeed is a mystical journey but the mysticism does not roam around the perceived God, but the material ‘life’. Tagore shows that if material ‘life’ is the circle, the centre of that circle is mysticism. Such an innovative and unique concept builds Song Offerings. This unrevealed part of Tagore, where material body gets a mystic heart, is going to be unleashed in this paper.

Page(s): 279-283                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 February 2022

 Tasnuva Tabassum
Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Bangladesh

[1] Azad, Humayun. Rabindraprabandha: Rashtra O Shamajchinta (Essays on Rabindranath Tagore: Thoughts on State and Society). Agamee Prakashani, 1973.
[2] Bose, Buddhadeva. Tagore: Portrait of A Poet. Papyrus, 1994.
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[7] Tagore, Rabindranath. “The Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech.” The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore: a miscellany. Sahitya Akademi, 1994

Tasnuva Tabassum “Tagore’s Song Offerings: Materialism Meets Mysticism” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.279-283 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/279-283.pdf

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Comparing the Effects of TPB-Based Lecture Method and Discussion Method on Knowledge and Attitude toward Pornography

Muhamad Taufik Hidayat, Nur Kholis Ismawan, Rusnilawati- February 2022- Page No.: 284-288

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior) based lecture method and the discussion method in improving the knowledge and negative attitudes of elementary school students regarding pornography. This study was a comparative quantitative with a quasi experimental design. This study carried out in Sondakan State Elementary School (SSES) which is located on Sondakan, Surakarta City, Indonesia. The subjects of this study were sixth grade students of SSES (n = 56). The students were divided into two classes. Experiment Class 1 with 26 students, and Experiment Class 2 with 30 students. Based on the data analysis and discussion, the following conclusions can be drawn; (1) TPB-based lecture is more effective than discussion method in increasing knowledge related to pornography of sixth grade students (2) TPB-based lecture is more effective than discussion method in increasing negative attitudes related to pornography of sixth grade students. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are; (1) TPB-based lecture method can provide alternative solution in increasing sixth grade students’ understanding of the dangers of pornography. (2) TPB-based lecture method is more recomended than discussion method for children and early adolescents.

Page(s): 284-288                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6214

 Muhamad Taufik Hidayat
Department of Elementary School Teacher Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia

 Nur Kholis Ismawan
Department of Elementary School Teacher Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia

 Rusnilawati
Department of Elementary School Teacher Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Indonesia

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Muhamad Taufik Hidayat, Nur Kholis Ismawan, Rusnilawati, “Comparing the Effects of TPB-Based Lecture Method and Discussion Method on Knowledge and Attitude toward Pornography” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.284-288 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6214

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Evaluation of the effects of institutional failure on the eco-efficiency of charcoal producers in the Congo basin: the case of Cameroon

Moustapha Mounmemi, Georges Kobou, Nourou Mohammadou – February 2022- Page No.: 289-297

The objective of this paper is to assess the effects of institutional failure on the level of eco-efficiency of charcoal producers in Cameroon. The study covers 232 randomly selected producers in two socio-ecological zones in Cameroon. To analyse the data, we used a stochastic production technology and a quadratic regression model to assess the level of eco-efficiency and the effects of institutional failure on it, respectively. The result of these analyses is that bribes capturing institutional failure have negative effects (-0,0044877) on eco-efficiency indices, but when bribes exceed 49,533 FCFA, their effects become significantly positive (0 ,0000453) on eco-efficiency indices. Therefore, any policy aimed at improving sustainability in charcoal production in the region must take into account the levels of institutional constraints associated with each socio-ecological zone.

Page(s): 289-297                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 March 2022

 Moustapha Mounmemi
PhD Candidate Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Maroua, Cameroon

 Georges Kobou
Professor Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Yaoundé II, Cameroon

 Nourou Mohammadou
Professor Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

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Moustapha Mounmemi, Georges Kobou, Nourou Mohammadou, “Evaluation of the effects of institutional failure on the eco-efficiency of charcoal producers in the Congo basin: the case of Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.289-297 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/289-297.pdf

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Results of the Intervention Measures to Improve Trustworthiness of Business Students: The Progressing, the Neutralizing and the Declining

Amelie L. Chico, DM, FRIM, Vicente Montaño, DBA – February 2022- Page No.: 298-303

Not all-academic interventions yield the same effect to student recipient. Nevertheless, business educators continue to provide intervention program without examining its effect on students. This study tries to measure the effectiveness of an intervention measure among third-year students to improve their level of trustworthiness indicated in the result of the 16 Personality Factor Test (PFT). The intervention measure was embedded in their Human Behavior in Organization course, enriching the subject with cases and activities on trust as an important element in business organization, at the same time, orienting the faculty on the importance of personality on student’s future career. The study reveals that there is a significant improvement on the trust among students, those enrolled in the second term, second semester have a higher post-test performance than other periods. Due to student’ different learning and faculty teaching style result significantly varies. There are three clusters of students those who respond positively in the intervention measure, those that remained neutral and those that respond negatively. Students in the first cluster, the progressing, grasp the importance of trustworthiness in business. The second cluster, the neutrals, demonstrates trait optimism; these students try to maintain their status quo. The third cluster, the decliners, low self-efficacy attributes to the negative response.

Page(s): 298-303                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6215

 Amelie L. Chico, DM, FRIM
Research Professor, University of Mindanao (Panabo Campus)

 Vicente Montaño, DBA
CBAE-College Dean, University of Mindanao (Bolton Campus)

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Amelie L. Chico, DM, FRIM, Vicente Montaño, DBA “Results of the Intervention Measures to Improve Trustworthiness of Business Students: The Progressing, the Neutralizing and the Declining” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.298-303 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6215

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Problem Based Learning and Students’ Academic Achievements in Physics in STEM Model Public Secondary schools in Nairobi Metropolitan Kenya

Nelisa Kagendo Mbaka – February 2022- Page No.: 304-311

The purpose of this evaluation study was to investigate the effectiveness of problem based learning as a stem learning approach in improving student’s academic achievements in physics in stem model schools in Nairobi Metropolitan Region, Kenya. The evaluation used the convergent parallel mixed method design of which quantitative paradigm utilized survey design while qualitative used phenomenology approach. The target population comprised of 11principals, 60 teachers and 1120 students while 11 principal, 60 teachers and 297 students were sample size for the study. Proportionate stratified sampling and simple random sampling was used to select students while purposive sampling was used to select teachers of physics and principals. Structured questionnaires, document analysis and interview guide was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) was used in quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The study concluded that problem based learning approach is very effective in improving student’s academic achievements in physics in STEM model schools in Nairobi Metropolitan region, Kenya. STEM learning approaches like problem based learning: allow physics students to work in groups, discus and share their findings with others to come up with a joint solution to a problem or task , learn through personal experiences, boost confidence among learners, assist in knowledge retention and make students to develop positive attitude towards the teachers and physics as a subject. The study recommends that the government of Kenya through the ministry of education should conduct regular training for science teachers especially the recent graduates and enlighten them in any new and emerging teaching and learning trends. Further, the study recommends that principals should come up with strategies to review school programs and time tables in order to ensure that more time is allocated to science subjects as applying problem based learning requires more than the 40 minutes according to the lessons for Kenyan system. This will ensure that teachers adopt the problem based learning approach while teaching.

Page(s): 304-311                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6216

 Nelisa Kagendo Mbaka
PhD student at Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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Nelisa Kagendo Mbaka, “Problem Based Learning and Students’ Academic Achievements in Physics in STEM Model Public Secondary schools in Nairobi Metropolitan Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.304-311 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6216

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Work-life Balance and Employee Performance: A study of Female Academic Staff of the University of Jos

Gambo Nanven Jephthah, Echu Sunny Godwin, Tongshakap Gyang Dafeng, Olubayo John Popoola, Yusuf Yunana Pindar- February 2022- Page No.: 312-323

The notion that paid work and personal life are competing priorities rather than complementary element has called for this research. A healthy work-life balance assumes great significance for working women particularly in the current context in which both, the family and the workplace have posed several challenges and problems for women. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of work-life balance on employees’ performance of female academic staff of university of Jos, thus, structured questionnaire was used to obtain data for about 210 participants. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 26. The findings of the study revealed that flexible working schedule, family leave program, and social life has no significant relationship with employee performance. The study found out that employee assistance program has positive significant effect on employee performance of female academic staff of the University of Jos. The study recommended that the University provides work-life balance arrangements to be enforced by government legislations that will statutorily empower employees to request for a typical work patterns, that the awareness of universities be raised to the advantages of protecting workers’ rights to various leave initiatives that will improve employee wellbeing and managerial training to ensure managerial support for the demands of these policies

Page(s): 312-323                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 March 2022

 Gambo Nanven Jephthah
Department of Business Administration, University of Jos. Nigeria

 Echu Sunny Godwin
Department of Business Administration, University of Jos. Nigeria

 Tongshakap Gyang Dafeng
Department of management Studies, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria

 Olubayo John Popoola
Department of Business Administration, University of Jos. Nigeria

 Yusuf Yunana Pindar
Department of Business Administration, University of Jos. Nigeria

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[48] Thevanes, N, & Arurajah, AA. (2017), the Search for Sustainable Human Resource Management Practices: A Review and Reflections‟, Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Business Management (ICBM), University of Sri Jayewardenepura, pp. 306-328.
[49] Wheatley, D 2012, „Good to be home? Time use and satisfaction levels among home-based teleworkers‟, New Technology, Work & Employment, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 224-241.
[50] Wilson (2002): Towards comprehensive model of cognitive rehabilitation. Researchgate.net
[51] Yaday, R (2013). Work-life Balance Challenges for HRM in the Future. International Journal of Current Research. International Journal of Current Research, (5) 10, 2966-2969
[52] Yamane T. (1867): statistics: an introduction analysis. New York: Harper and Raw Publishers

Gambo Nanven Jephthah, Echu Sunny Godwin, Tongshakap Gyang Dafeng, Olubayo John Popoola, Yusuf Yunana Pindar, “Work-life Balance and Employee Performance: A study of Female Academic Staff of the University of Jos” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.312-323 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/312-323.pdf

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Common Errors in Translation of Arabic Nominal Sentences to Tamil

M.H.A. Munas- February 2022- Page No.: 324-331

Nominal sentence is the special character of Arabic Language. Non-Arabic speaking students of South Eastern University of Sri Lanka who have different language background are facing difficulties in translating from Arabic to Tamil. Even though, they have studied Arabic in Arabic colleges in Sri Lanka for 5-7 years, and thus Tamil is their mother tongue. Thus, this research aims to identify the grammar errors when translating nominal sentences to Tamil and to rely the reasons for them. To this, the research uses analytical descriptive methodology through quantitative approach. It uses questionnaire for primary data among the undergraduates of the Department of Arabic Language, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka. At the same time, secondary data were gathered from researches, books, articles, website articles. The research finds that the undergraduate have the enough theoretical knowledge about the nominal sentence. At the same time, in the practical part, they are neutral level in writing a nominal sentences, in finding the error from them a, and in translating them into Tamil. Hence, the practical part is difficult for the undergraduates than theoretical part.

Page(s): 324-331                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6217

 M.H.A. Munas
Department of Arabic Language, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka

[1] Ayoub Ali Qassem.(1985). A comparative study of the Arabic and Tamil languages at the level of minor sentences. Unpublished master’s thesis at the University of Khartoum.
[2] Hisham et al. (2017). The use of links in the Arabic language among its learners as a second language at the university level as a model for first-year students from the University of Southeastern Sri Lanka. University of Southeastern Sri Lanka: Arts Research Session.
[3] Ibn Manzur, Jamal al-Din. (1995). Arabes Tong. C 3. Beirut: Dar Al-Sadr.
[4] Youssef, Mohamed Hassan. (2006). How do you translate? Retrieval on the link http://saaid.net/Doat/hasn/index.htm
[5] Abdun Nour, Jabbour. (1984). Literary dictionary. Beirut: House of Science for Millions.
[6] Najeeb, Ezzedine. (2005). The foundations of translation. I 5. Cairo: Ibn Sina Library for printing, publishing and distribution.
[7] Al-Suhaibani, Suleiman bin Omar. (2015). Demonstration Nouns in Arabic and English: A Contrastive Study. Arab Science Journal. Deanship of Scientific Research. Retrieved at www.imamu.edu.sa
[8] Salih, Nasir. (2013). The Arabic Sentence and the English Sentence – a Contrastive Study. Journal of Education and Science.
[9] Ahmed, Ali Al-Zain. (2012). The Sentence Pattern in the Arabic and Furawan Languages (Contrastive Study). research paper from Sudan University of Science and Technology.
[10] Farid, Marouf. (2010). The verbal sentence in the Arabic language and Kalimat Verbal in the Indonesian language, research submitted for the first university degree at Sherif Hidayatullah Islamic State University, Jakarta.
[11] Ayoub Ali Qassem.(1985). A comparative study of the Arabic and Tamil languages at the level of minor sentences. Unpublished master’s thesis at the University of Khartoum.
[12] Abd Abdullah. (2017). A contrast study between Arabic and the Hausa language in pronouns. a thesis submitted for a master’s degree in arts in Arabic language from the University of Jezira.
[13] Shathifa Bint Muhammad Cassim and Shaheqa Farwinn Bint Abdul Rahim. (2015). Conjunctions and its uses in Arabic and Tamil languages – a contrastive study. Presented at the faculty of Arts and Culture Symposium at the University of South Eastern of Sri Lanka.
[14] Al-Suhaibani, Suleiman bin Omar. (2015). Demonstration Nouns in Arabic and English: A Contrastive Study. Arab Science Journal. Deanship of Scientific Research. Retrieved at www.imamu.edu.sa

M.H.A. Munas, “Common Errors in Translation of Arabic Nominal Sentences to Tamil” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.324-331 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6217

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Gender Applications in Buddhist Jurisprudence

Nishadini Peiris – February 2022- Page No.: 332-336

Jurisprudence in any society is based on the social and religious values. As a result religious and social point of view on gender is having direct effect to the ones social role define in constitutions. Social attitudes and practices of traditional society were changed due to the social effects of industrial revolution. Gradually attitudes on gender and social role of individual also changed. As a result, defined social role according to the gender was criticized and challenged by different social groups including scholars during the last century. This trend was emerged in the western world and gradually it influences globally. Buddhist teachings and practices are focusing to understand the reality. Therefore it encourage the individual to be openminded without attaching to any extreme. It encourage the individual to follow the middle path. As a result, Buddhist teachings treating the individual in a flexible manner. It has neutral approach on understanding gender differences. Purpose of this research is to find out gender equity in Buddhism and whether it can provide more practical solution for the gender base problems in the modern world.
Documentary study on Pāli Tipitaka is the method of data collecting and content analysis is used for data analysing in this research.
Gender is not a permanent factor according to Buddhist teachings. Like other factors gender also can be changed according to the mentality of a person. When it comes to the attraction to opposite gender both male and female are having equal state. According to Buddhist teachings one who wants to overcome the sexuality and gender. should overcome his or her thoughts and behaviour on one’s own gender. Buddhist teachings accept the sexual differences of individual. Individual may have different behaviours due to their sexuality. Therefore, when enact rules it gives consideration to these differences. Even though the Buddhism is having totally deferent attitude regarding the state of the woman and the man, than the main society at that time, it did not try to disturbed or challenged the reaming legal system. Instead of that it try to change the attitudes regarding woman within the main society.
Gender applications in Buddhist jurisprudence is not giving equal status to both genders or discriminate one gender. But to understand the physical and mental differences of each party. It also considered the social attitudes on gender. And precautions were made to protect its members from the negative social influence. And also to facilitate the members to archive the vision.

Page(s): 332-336                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 March 2022

 Nishadini Peiris
Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Administration, Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka

[1] Pārajika Pāli, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 1, (1959)
[2] Pācittiya Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 2:1,2, (1981-1995)
[3] Mahāvagga Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 3,4, (1959)
[4] Cullavagga Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 5:1,2, (1977-1983)
[5] Pārajika Pāli, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 1, (1959)
[6] Pācittiya Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 2:1,2, (1981-1995)
[7] Mahāvagga Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 3,4, (1959)
[8] Cullavagga Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 5:1,2, (1977-1983)
[9] Dīgha Nikāya 1,2,3, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 7,8,9 (1960-1982)
[10] Majjima Nikāya 1,2,3, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 10,11,12 (1964-1974)
[11] Saṅyuttha Nilaya 1,2,3,4,5, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 13,14,15,16,17 (1960-1982)
[12] Aṅguttata Nikāya 1,2,3,4,5,6, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 18,19,20,21,22,23, (1960-1977)
[13] Kuddhaka Nikāya IV, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 28 (1960-1977)
[14] https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/vin/sv/bhikkhu-pati.html/ 10/20/2021

Nishadini Peiris , “Gender Applications in Buddhist Jurisprudence” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.332-336 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/332-336.pdf

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Views of School Administrators on Civic Education as a Compulsory Subject in Selected Secondary Schools of Kabwe District, Zambia

Samiwe Kayaya and Dr. Oliver Magasu (PhD) – February 2022- Page No.: 337-341

The aim of this research was to explore the views of school administrators on Civic Education as a compulsory subject in selected secondary schools of Kabwe District in Zambia. Methodologically, the study took the qualitative approach. This study employed a qualitative descriptive research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the participants. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. The key findings were that most of the school administrators were in support of Civic Education as a compulsory subject because it gave learners the knowledge on political process and governance system. Civic Education helped learners acquire values commonly accepted by society which facilitated interpersonal relationships and social integration through the creation of awareness for respect, promotion of democracy and human rights. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that Civic Education should be supported as a compulsory subject by school administrators in secondary schools to actualize the goal of education in Zambia.

Page(s): 337-341                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 March 2022

 Samiwe Kayaya
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

 Dr. Oliver Magasu (PhD)
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

[1] Biesta, G J.J. (2011). Learning Democracy in School and Society: Education, Lifelong Learning and the Politics of Citizenship. London: Sense Publishers.
[2] Center for Civic Education (CCE) (1994). National Standards for Civics and Government. Calabasas, CA: Center for Civic Education. Century: A British Council Seminar Series for Latin America and the Caribbean.
[3] Chola, D.K. (2016). Assessment of Service Learning in the Teaching of Civic Education in Selected schools in Lusaka Province. Unpublished MA Dissertation, Lusaka: The University of Zambia.
[4] Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) (2012). Civic Education High school syllabus Grade:10 –12. Lusaka: Curriculum Development Centre.
[5] Halstead, M.J and Pike, M.A (2016). Citizenship and Moral Education: Values in Action. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
[6] Magasu, O. (2021). Domesticating Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model into the Teaching of Civic Education: A Case of Secondary Schools in Zambia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Sciences Vol. V (VII) p. 25-31
[7] Magasu, O., Muleya, G., & Mweemba, L. (2020a). Pedagogical Challenges in Teaching Education in Secondary Schools in Zambia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) Vol.9 No.3 p 1479-1486
[8] Magasu, O., Muleya, G., & Mweemba, L. (2020b). Teaching Strategies used in Civic Education Lessons in Secondary Schools in Zambia. International Journal of Research – Granthaalayah Vol. 8 (2) p. 39-46
[9] Mainde, D. & Chola, K. (2020). The Teaching of Civic Education in Zambian Secondary Schools as a Strategy for Effective Political Participation. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Sciences, Vol. IV, Issue XII, pp. 293 – 301
[10] Miller, R. (1990). What are Schools for? Holistic Education American Culture: Holistic Education Press.
[11] Muleya, G. (2015). The Teaching of Civic Education in Zambia: An Examination of Trends in The Teaching of Civic Education in Schools. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of South Africa.
[12] Niemi, R. G. and Junn, J. (1998). Civic Education: What Makes Students Learn, New Haven: Yale University Press. Ryan, P. (2015). Hand Book for Civic Education. Paulines Publications Africa.
[13] Sakala, E. (2016). The Responsiveness of Civic Education Teacher Training Curriculum Towards Democratic Citizenship in Zambia. Unpublished M.A Dissertation: UNZA
[14] Westheimer, J. and Kahne, J. (2004). What kind of citizen? The politics of educating for Democracy. American Educational Research Journal, 41, (2).
[15] Zambia Civic Education Association (2004). Why Zambia Needs Civic Education. Lusaka: ZCEA

Samiwe Kayaya and Dr. Oliver Magasu (PhD), “Views of School Administrators on Civic Education as a Compulsory Subject in Selected Secondary Schools of Kabwe District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.337-341 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/337-341.pdf

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An Appraisal of Hard Power in Contemporary Practice of Diplomacy

Nyam Elisha Yakubu – February 2022- Page No.: 342-351

While power is an ever-present part of international relations; state’s success in achieving its interest in the anarchical and self-help international system is a function of the available power in her possession. Before now, states are regarded as the sole most significant actors in international system, and brute force otherwise known as hard power – where military might is used to achieve a particular objective – rules the day, the situation has changed. The end of cold war in the 1990s saw many changes in international system where globalization is rapidly bringing states closer than ever before which resulted in interdependence on each other. Therefore, the use of hard power in diplomatic practice has to be scrutinized to determine its efficacy. The purpose of the study was to analyze the effectiveness and or the utility of hard power in the conduct of diplomacy in contemporary international relations. The study was hinged on the theory of Complex Interdependence. To guide the study, three research questions were raised. Content analysis was the method adopted where secondary data from research findings, articles in journals, textbooks etc. were consulted and mixed with the writer’s observation in drawing conclusions. The study revealed that globalization today has increased the interdependence of nations in so many ways such that applying hard power by one state, comes with lots of consequences. Evidence is seen in United States’ (U.S.) usage of hard power in Iraq, Kosovo, Somalia and Libya and how it negatively affected its other interests in the international system. The study concluded that soft power, though regarded as the newest and alternative form of power to be used in international relations, is also limited in its effectiveness. To balance the inadequacies of hard and soft powers, smart power is recommended where components of hard and soft powers are combined

Page(s): 342-351                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.51218

 Nyam Elisha Yakubu
Department of International Relations, Skyline University Nigeria, Kano, Nigeria

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[2] Asare, B. E. (2011). International politics: The beginner’s guide. Accra: YAMENS Press Ltd.
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[14] Green, M. (2019). To What Extent Was the NATO Intervention in Libya a Humanitarian Intervention? https://www.e-ir.info/2019/02/06/to- what-extent-was-the-nato-intervention-in-libya-a-humanitarian-intervention/
[15] Hass, R. N. (2006). On Balance, Iraq war’s impact on U.S. foreign policy ‘clearly negative’. Interview by Bernard Gwertzman, on March 14, 2006 4:57 pm (EST). Retrieved on June 18, 2021 from https://www.cfr.org/interview/haass-balance-iraq-wars-impact-us-foreign-policy-clearly-negative. J.B. Lippincott Company. New York
[16] Hoffman, b. (2021). The war on terror 20 years on: Crossroads or Cul-De-Sac?https://institute.global/policy/war-terror-20-years-crossroads-or-cul-de-sac
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Nyam Elisha Yakubu, “An Appraisal of Hard Power in Contemporary Practice of Diplomacy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.342-351 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.51218

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Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Government Capital Expenditure towards Construction and Maintenance of Educational Facilities in Enugu State, Nigeria

Okenwa V. Ebuka, Ajaelu H. Chidiebere and Alinta-Abel U. Vanessa- February 2022- Page No.: 352-356

COVID- 19 pandemic popularly called corona virus is a killer virus which started in China and spread throughout Europe, America, Africa and Nigeria is not left out. During these period activities in the construction industry was were affected as a result of lockdowns and restrictions of movement imposed by government of the country which Enugu State is also included. The COVID-19 situation in Enugu State has had a far- reaching effects on the economy of the State and this affected the budget allocation for the construction and maintenance of educational facilities in Enugu State as huge capital are channeled to health sector in order to curb the spread of the virus. The objective of this study is to examine, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic to budget and expenditure of government on educational facilities in Enugu state and to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in construction and maintenance of educational facilities in Enugu state. The respondents of this study are randomly chosen from the sample and are registered contractors in Enugu State. This study is carried out through questionnaire and all data were analyzed. The result concluded that there is correlation between the estimated budget for the construction and maintenance of educational facilities in Enugu State during COVID-19 pandemic. The recommendation is that proper planning and budgeting should be done in education sector as regards to construction and maintenance of educational facilities irrespective of the pandemic. Quantity surveyors should also be employed from design stage to finishing for advice, monitoring and control of the construction and maintenance of those educational facilities.

Page(s): 352-356                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 March 2022

 Okenwa V. Ebuka
Department of Quantity Surveying, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria

 Ajaelu H. Chidiebere
Department of Quantity Surveying, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria

 Alinta-Abel U. Vanessa
Department of Quantity Surveying, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Okenwa V. Ebuka, Ajaelu H. Chidiebere and Alinta-Abel U. Vanessa, “Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Government Capital Expenditure towards Construction and Maintenance of Educational Facilities in Enugu State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.352-356 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/352-356.pdf

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Motivating to Achieve Main Goals of Life – Buddhist Approach on Human Resource Development

Nishadini Peiris- February 2022- Page No.: 357-364

Motivation theories developed by modern management scholars focusing to set and achieve goals relevant to career life of the individual. However the question is, the purpose of these goals set by those scholars for growth or development. For whom these goals set for? Either for the individual or for the organization? Recent researches identified the modern management particles in organizations leads to mental disorders of the employees and their families. Governments like German and France also take legal framework to protect the mental wellbeing of the citizens from the modern management practices. During the last few decades some scholars were focused to identify HR with holistic approach when it comes to motivating HR for development with main four areas: physical, mental, social, and spiritual. Purpose of this study is to find out what is missing in the modern management approach when it comes to motivation for development. This research focuses to analyse the modern and Buddhist approach on holistic approach on motivating HR for human development in modern and Buddhist context. Documentary study of Buddhist and modern HRM and HRD concepts is the method used in this research for data collection. Content analysis is used for data analysing. Stephan Covey introduced four and the Ideal Performance State (IPS) model, which was developed by performance psychologist Jim based on the four areas: physical, mental, social ,and spiritual, of the individual. Buddhist approach describe these four areas in detail and also giving final goal or objective of each area and the way to fulfil them. According to it these four areas are the base of development. As a result above four areas should be consider equally when it comes to development. These four areas should develop gradually as they are interconnected. Four basic needs or focuses are like the base of a pyramid. Top of the pyramid is the highest achievements of each need which should achieved equally, to become a balanced person. When it comes to HR management and development, institutes should consider these for areas and its focus to motivate individual fully.

Page(s): 357-364                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 March 2022

  Nishadini Peiris
Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Administration, Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka

Preliminary Recourses
[1] Pārajika Pāli, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 1, (1959)
[2] Pācittiya Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 2:1,2, (1981-1995)
[3] Mahāvagga Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 3,4, (1959)
[4] Cullavagga Pāli 1,2, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 5:1,2, (1977-1983)
[5] Dīgha Nikāya 1,2,3, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 7,8,9 (1960-1982)
[6] Majjima Nikāya 1,2,3, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 10,11,12 (1964-1974)
[7] Saṅyuttha Nilaya 1,2,3,4,5, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 13,14,15,16,17 (1960-1982)
[8] Aṅguttata Nikāya 1,2,3,4,5,6, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 18,19,20,21,22,23, (1960-1977)
[9] Puggalapaṅṅapthikaranaya, Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series, Volume 47, (1976)
Secondary Resourses
[1] Armstrong, M.( 1988) A Hand Book of Personnel Management practice, Kogan Page Ltd., London.
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[5] Traitshttp://wilderdom.com/personality/traits/personalitytraitsintroduction.html
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[7] Http://www.geocities.com/kstability/learning/management/equity.html – January 12, 2008
[8] Http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia January 3, 2008
[9] Http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/staffing.html December 2018
[10] Boeree C. G. – Personality Theories http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html – June 5, 2008
[11] Https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-develop-stephen-coveys-4-intelligences-layton-cox -August 20, 2018
[12] Http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/motivation.html December 11, 2018
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[15] https://www.who.int/health-topics/mental-health#tab=tab_2 February 21,2021
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Nishadini Peiris, “Motivating to Achieve Main Goals of Life – Buddhist Approach on Human Resource Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.357-364 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/357-364.pdf

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The Challenges of the support systems in adoption of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) in Ghana

Patrick Ninson- February 2022- Page No.: 365-378

Purpose- This paper critically analyses and examine the key pre-requisite support systems necessary for smooth adoption and implementation of a financial reforms. This paper seeks to identify the key support structures in adoption and implementation of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) and to ascertain factors that affect each support systems in its processes.
Design/methodology/approach- The research employs quantitative method as a descriptive study in gathering survey data with close- ended items from respondents in order to test the hypothesis. The five (5) point Likert-Scale questionnaire is used as a research tool instrument. The alternate hypothesis is tested using Single Way Anova together with other statistical tools.
Findings- The results indicate a strong positive conclusion for the existence for support systems for smooth transition processes. The model also indicates strong positive correlation with the support functions. The results show that all the dependent variables have a positive coefficient and are significantly related to IPSAS adoption.
Research Limitations/Implications- The paper cannot be used as generalization since every territorial zone operates differently.
Practical implication: For certain accounting reforms such as IPSAS to be effective in a less structured economy, there is the need for functional support systems.
Originality: The paper suggests a conceptual framework for IPSAS adoption and implementation process. This finding helps to better understand some transitional challenges and ways to expedite them.

Page(s): 365-378                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 March 2022

 Patrick Ninson
Department of Accounting, University of Ghana

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Patrick Ninson, “The Challenges of the support systems in adoption of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.365-378 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/365-378.pdf

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The Relationship between Students’ Career Aspirations and their Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Bungoma South Sub-County, Kenya

Dennis Mukisu and Wilson Kiptala – February 2022- Page No.: 379-383

Career aspirations and academic performance are of ultimate importance to the learning process. When students know more about available career opportunities, they will be able to focus more on their academic performance. Despite numerous changes in policy and legislation, issues of gender equity in Kenyan Education system and labour market remain a concern of the Kenyan public. It is against this background that the current study focused on the relationship between career aspirations and academic performance among Form three students in Bungoma South sub- County in Kenya. The research was quantitative using expost facto research design. The sample size was 420 participants from 27 schools. Both stratified and random sampling techniques were used to select the sample for the study. The results from spearman rho correlation coefficient indicated a weak positive relationship between career aspirations and academic performance (rho (418) = 0.265, p < .01). Based on the findings, it was recommended that career mentorship programs should properly be integrated in secondary school curriculum to enable students acquire necessary information about the nature of jobs and develop interest in their aspired careers at an early stage. This might inform students’ subject selection, enhance their academic performance and increase chances of attaining their aspired careers.

Page(s): 379-383                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 March 2022

 Dennis Mukisu
Moi University, Kenya

 Wilson Kiptala
Moi University, Kenya

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[19] Rose, J. & Baird, J. A. (2013). Aspirations and an austerity state: Young people’s hopes and goals for the future. London Review of Education, 11 (2), 157–173.
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[21] Skorikov, V. B. (2007). Adolescent career development and adjustment. In V. B. Skorikov & W. Patton. (Eds.), Career development in childhood and adolescence (pp. 237-254). Sense Publishers.

Dennis Mukisu and Wilson Kiptala “The Relationship between Students’ Career Aspirations and their Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Bungoma South Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.379-383 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/379-383.pdf

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Analysis of Core-competencies of Competency-based curriculum in the light of Deweyan Pragmatism in Kenya

Kevin Longino Mbehero, Prof. Wamocha, Joseph Nasong’o and Dr. Mukonyi Wanjala Phillip- February 2022- Page No.: 384-392

The launch of the Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) in Kenya was met with mixed reaction. Some Scholars were apprehensive of the competencies envisaged in the curriculum as already entrenched in the 8:4:4 curriculum. The purpose of this paper as such was to analyze core-competencies of Competency-based curriculum in the light of Deweyan Pragmatism. The study was guided by three objectives: To Examine Deweyan Pragmatic ideas relevant to CBC education, to analyze core-competencies of Competency-based curriculum (CBC) in the light of Deweyan pragmatism and to evaluate the implications of Deweyan Pragmatic ideas on Core- competencies of CBC. The findings of this study will contribute to the ongoing discourse on Kenya’s CBC by clarifying the philosophical basis of the CBC competencies significantly ground the influence of Deweyan pragmatic on Kenya’s CBC. . Information used in this study was extracted from primary and secondary written sources. Literature informing this study was purposively selected and Document analysis was used to extract information. Critical and Speculative methods were used to analyze information extracted. It was found that experience is the key underlying idea in Deweyan pragmatism. The version of experience propounded by Dewey is both open ended and futuristic Dewey thus views experience as problematized, practical, observational and cognitive procedure of knowing that lead to active unfolding of concrete competencies from psychological and scientific perspectives It was also found that the underlying ideas in the core competencies of CBC have the potency to bring out humans who are experiential and highly efficacious with the will to power to do tasks competently. This implies that, Kenya can navigate its development virility through competent and experiential education speculated in CBC. Due to problematized nature of CBC learning procedure, the researcher recommends the introduction of philosophy and ethics as a subject at the basic level of education to boost learners’ critical thinking and creative skills as the pedestal for effecting other competencies envisioned in Basic Education Curriculum Framework .

Page(s): 384-392                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 March 2022

 Kevin Longino Mbehero
Department of Educational Foundation, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Prof. Wamocha, Joseph Nasong’o
Department of Educational Foundation, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Dr. Mukonyi Wanjala Phillip
Department of Educational Foundation, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

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Kevin Longino Mbehero, Prof. Wamocha, Joseph Nasong’o and Dr. Mukonyi Wanjala Phillip, “Analysis of Core-competencies of Competency-based curriculum in the light of Deweyan Pragmatism in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.384-392 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/384-392.pdf

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An Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change Pattern on Food Security and the Coping Strategies of the Rural Communities in Monze District of Zambia

Bornface Mafwela, Prof. Dominic Byarugaba (PhD), Prof. John Bwalya (PhD)- February 2022- Page No.: 393-415

This research is based on ‘assessing the effects of the changing climate pattern on food security in Monze district of Southern province of Zambia’. Its main purpose was to investigate compatibility issues related to improved crop varieties and how resilient the local community of Monze district in Southern province of Zambia respond to shocks as a result of changes in climate pattern. The study was guided by the following main research question ‘What are some of the compatibility issues related to improved crop varieties and how do indigenous people respond to the effects of climate change in Monze district of Southern part of Zambia?’
Both primary and secondary data were employed to collect the data used for analysis to birth this thesis. Data was gathered using semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews, weight measurement of the U5s, and content analysis. Content analysis is a method of qualitative data analysis. Research participants included: key informants obtained from community leaders as well as officials from the Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives, Ministry of Lands and Natural resources, Ministry of National Planning & Budgeting under the department of Climate Change, women and men drawn from the emerging and small-scale farmers. Relevant literature from books, academic papers, journals, newspapers and the internet were used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to interpret and further explain the facts on changing climate patterns and the security of food.
The results show that the district of Monze has been experiencing severe climatic changes making the inhabitants to initiate other several coping mechanisms. On the other hand, the results show that the rural dwellers of Monze district continued for over 3 years experiencing fluid food security (not static) and that 83 percent of this rural district had their food nutrition compromised. This is because most of the rural communities rely more on rain fed agriculture for survival, and in times when food was insecure, they opted to charcoal burning for sale, sending their children to other relatives in big cities for school, men marry several wives as cheap labour and opt to heavy drinking habits. Based on these findings, the study concluded that mean annual temperature and rainfall were not the main determinants of the rural household food security situation in Monze district. To deal with this contribution of effects of climatic change on food security, the study recommends that rural households begin to adopt other crops other than maize that can perform well under the prevailing climatic conditions. It is further recommended that the rural dwellers of Monze district should embark on other alternative ways of livelihoods and also consider running their agriculture enterprises as a business venture (typically for profit).

Page(s): 393-415                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6219

 Bornface Mafwela
United Church of Zambia Synod, Zambia

 Prof. Dominic Byarugaba (PhD)
University of Lusaka, Zambia

 Prof. John Bwalya (PhD)
University of Lusaka, Zambia

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Bornface Mafwela, Prof. Dominic Byarugaba (PhD), Prof. John Bwalya (PhD), “An Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change Pattern on Food Security and the Coping Strategies of the Rural Communities in Monze District of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.393-415 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6219

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Relationship among Absenteeism, Lateness to Work, Turnover and Psychological Withdrawal Behaviour of Academic Staff and Administrative Effectiveness of Heads of Department of Universities in Edo State

Azelema, B.A. Ph.D & Osumah, O.A. Ph.D – February 2022- Page No.: 416-421

The study examined the relationship among academic staff absenteeism, lateness, turnover and psychological withdrawal behaviours and administrative effectiveness of heads of academic departments of the universities in Edo State. One hypothesis was formulated and tested in the study. The study adopted the combination of survey method and correlational research design. The academic staff of all the three public universities and four private universities in Edo State were selected for the study. A sample of 246 respondents representing approximately 10 percent of the population was drawn using the multi-stage sampling technique. The Cronbach reliability was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The hypothesis was tested using the multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the study showed that an inverse significant relationship exists among academic staff withdrawal behaviours (absenteeism, lateness to work, staff turnover and psychological withdrawal behaviour) and administrative effectiveness of the Heads of Departments in the Universities in Edo State. The study consequently recommended among others that: the university authorities should incorporate staff records on withdrawal behaviours in annual personnel appraisal to raise staff consciousness on them.

Page(s): 416-421                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 March 2022

 Azelema, B.A. Ph.D
Department of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

 Osumah, O.A. Ph.D
Department of Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria

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Azelema, B.A. Ph.D & Osumah, O.A. Ph.D , “Relationship among Absenteeism, Lateness to Work, Turnover and Psychological Withdrawal Behaviour of Academic Staff and Administrative Effectiveness of Heads of Department of Universities in Edo State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-2, pp.416-421 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-2/416-421.pdf

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Agriculture and Ignorance: A review of the benefits of rice by-products overlooked by Ugandan rice farmers

Apollo Uma, Joseph Mbuta Munyentwari, Anthony Emaru- February 2022- Page No.: 422-434

Uganda produces 350,000 MT of rice annually which translates to 472,500 MT of rice straw, 70,000 MT of husks, 35,000 MT of bran, and 49,000 MT of broken rice. Rice straw and husks are usually burned as waste or buried while rice bran is largely used for livestock feeding purposes. Broken rice is fully consumed to an extent that it is imported. The limited utilization of rice by-products by farmers in Uganda indicates that numerous benefits are overlooked and thus missed out. The benefits overlooked range from agricultural importance, biogas potential, weaving, paper production, biochar generation, silica for concrete industries, briquette making, human health, bakery, and catering services. Rice by-products represent profound health, income, agricultural and industrial hidden potential. Judging by the steady increase in the production of rice in Uganda, the generation of waste from rice production will also increase as much as the increase in rice production. Creating awareness about the negative impacts of inappropriate disposal of rice by-products on the environment is pertinent. Potential new uses of rice by-products with the potential to improve farmers’ socio-economic conditions when used appropriately and sustainably should be given priority. Creating the perfect basic needs such as logistical facilities, courses and training for farmers, millers, officials as well as research for the by-products development in the country is very critical. There is need to widely emphasize the health and nutritional benefits of rice bran at the farmer level as a cheaper form of treatment in the long run..

Page(s): 422-434                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 March 2022

 Apollo Uma
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University-Kenya

 Joseph Mbuta Munyentwari
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University-Kenya

 Anthony Emaru
Department of Crops, Horticulture, and Soils, Egerton University-Kenya