Effect of Eco-Design on the Performance of Nigerian Bottling Company

Ademulegun, Funmilayo; Adebambo Hameed Olusegun; Alabi Kayode O.- March 2022- Page No.: 01-07

This study investigated the effect of eco-design practices on the performance of Nigerian bottling company. specifically, the study evaluated the level of eco-design practices and its effect on the performance on Nigerian bottling company. The study employed a quantitative research method conducted in a cross-sectional approach to collect primary data using structured questionnaire from selected 202 employees involved in eco-design practices in Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) using a simple random sampling technique. The collected primary data was analysed using both statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings of the study revealed that there is a moderate level of eco-design practices along the dimensions of design for raw materials, design for distribution, design for manufacturing, design for product use and design for end of life practices in the study area. The result of the test of hypotheses revealed a significant effect of eco-design on performance of NBC. However, there was no evidence of significant effect of design for product use on operational performance and design for raw material on environmental performance. the study recommends that firms should focus more on selection of materials with low impact and also endeavour to utilise products that are of low energy consumption to enhance their performance

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2022

 Ademulegun, Funmilayo
Department of Project management Technology, School of Logistics and Innovation Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Adebambo Hameed Olusegun
Department of Project management Technology, School of Logistics and Innovation Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Alabi Kayode O.
Department of Project management Technology, School of Logistics and Innovation Technology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

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Ademulegun, Funmilayo; Adebambo Hameed Olusegun; Alabi Kayode O., “Effect of Eco-Design on the Performance of Nigerian Bottling Company” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.01-07 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/01-07.pdf

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The Application of “The Looking Glass Self” to Leadership Development

Dr. Ambrues M. Nebo Sr – March 2022- Page No.: 08-14

This article introduces “The Looking Glass Self” as one of the widely discussed sociological concepts in academic settings across culture. It proffers the argument that “The Looking Glass Self” could be experimented as an approach to leadership development in the formal sector or private organization. It opines that in the context of “The Looking Glass Self” followers act as the “mirror” in which a leader must imagine how he/she appears in the eyes of followers, how he/she is evaluated based on followers’’ observation and perceptions, and how the feedbacks that comes from observation and perceptions can help influence the development of a leader’s sense of self. It employs the competency model and the values model as the theoretical framework that guided the study.
Regarding the methodology, the qualitative approach was used to explore this topic. Precisely, it employs content analysis of relevant document, articles, or papers as source of the data from Google search engine.
The paper concludes that although followers’ perception plays one of the main roles in leadership development, it all depends on how leaders interpret their followers’ perceptions.
The article recommends that as an experimental concept, “The Looking Glass Self” could be inculcated or infused into leadership development training module

Page(s): 08-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2022

 Dr. Ambrues M. Nebo Sr.
Department of Sociology, Department of Law Enforcement
Criminal Justice & Forensic Science Program- African Methodist Episcopal University
Department of Political, University of Liberia

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Dr. Ambrues M. Nebo Sr, “The Application of “The Looking Glass Self” to Leadership Development” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.08-14 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/08-14.pdf

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Founder Role Identity Strategy, Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Proclivity among Potential Retirees in Plateau State

Longret Geoffrey Shikpup, Reuel Johnmark Dakung, Monica C. Gajere – March 2022- Page No.: 15-22

this study seeks to examine the effect of founder role identity on entrepreneurial proclivity using the mediating role of entrepreneurial attitude. To achieve this purpose,four objectives were established: firstly, to determine the relationship between founder role identity and entrepreneurial proclivity, secondly to determine the relationship between founder role identity and attitude, thirdly, to determine the relationship between attitude and entrepreneurial proclivity, and lastly to determine the extent to which attitude mediate the relationship between founder role identity and entrepreneurial proclivity. Given the purpose of this study, the cross-sectional survey design was used to collate data from a population of 510 potential retirees of the Bureau for Establishment, Plateau State Secretariat. The Krejcie and Morgan sample size selection model was used to determine the sample size of 226 potential retirees randomly selected from the state secretariate in Jos.The data was properly analysed using multiple regression analysis. The results of the findings indicated that there was a positive relationship between Founder role identity and entrepreneurial proclivity, secondly Founder role identity has significant influence on attitude, thirdly attitude has significant influence on entrepreneurial proclivity, and lastly entrepreneurial attitude function as an important intermediary in the relationship between founder role identity and entrepreneurial proclivity. In conclusion, founder role identity should be planted in the perceptions of potential retirees as it helps significantly in influencing their participation in business. Also, Policy makers and the government should increase their participation in the entrepreneurial training and development of potential retirees to expand their ability that will result to starting a business before and after retirement.

Page(s): 15-22                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2022

The Moderating Role of Timespan since Parental Divorce on the Relationship between Self-Compassion and Anxiety

 Longret Geoffrey Shikpup
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

 Reuel Johnmark Dakung
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

 Monica C. Gajere
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

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Longret Geoffrey Shikpup, Reuel Johnmark Dakung, Monica C. Gajere “Founder Role Identity Strategy, Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Proclivity among Potential Retirees in Plateau State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.15-22 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6301

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History of rice in Kenya: When was rice first introduced in Kenya?

Apollo Uma- March 2022- Page No.: 23-27

Rice is the third most important cereal crop in Kenya after maize and wheat. In regards to its introduction in Kenya, the year 1907 is quoted by the majority of contemporary authors and documents. This is so unlikely because the same Asians and Arab traders who introduced the crop in Kenya had already introduced the crop in Uganda by the 1870s. Remember, the Asian and Arab traders had their headquarters in Kenya (Mombasa), and it is arguably true, that they spent most of their time in Kenya than in Uganda. Therefore, they must have cultivated or promoted the cultivation of rice in Kenya earlier than in Uganda. As rightly said by Maya Angelou in 1997, you can’t know where you are going unless you understand where you came from. This prompted the review of literature from various corners of the world about the history of colonial and pre-colonial Kenya. The review was aimed at finding out other dates and the exact period when rice was introduced in Kenya and why authors were citing 1907 as the introductory year of rice cultivation in Kenya. Delving deeper into the accounts of history reveals that one of the reasons for citing 1907 could be that it is the period that marked the end of the slave trade period. And also, it is the period beyond which the production of rice was being promoted by Kenyan communities such as the Luo. As to when rice was introduced to Kenya, one would find four possible dates in literature, i.e., 1900 to 1905, 1907, the early 1800s (1800 to 1850), and the latter half of the 1800s (1851 to 1899). Following through all the accounts that have been reviewed, quoting the 19th century (considering the period from 1800 to 1899) provides a much stronger and evidence-based meaning as far as the introduction of rice cultivation in Kenya is concerned.

Page(s): 23-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2022

 Apollo Uma
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, P.o Box 13357 – 20100, Nakuru-Kenya

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[31] Reid. (2002). Political Power in Pre-Colonial Buganda: Economy, Society, and Warfare in the Nineteenth Century.: Ohio University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/3559405
[32] Seddon, D. (1968). The Origins and Development of Agriculture in East and Southern Africa. Current Anthropology, 9(5, Part 2), 489–509. https://doi.org/10.1086/200947
[33] Sperling, C. D. (1947). The growth of Islam among the Mijikenda of the Kenya coast, 1826-1933 School of Oriental and African Studies: University of London. Africa, 17(2), 137–137. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0001972000021033
[34] Thomson, J. (1887). Through Masai land: a journey of exploration among the snowclad volcanic mountains and strange tribes: eastern equatorial Africa. Being the narrative of the royal geographical society’s expedition to mount Kenia and Lake Victoria Nyanza, 1883- 1884.
[35] Vishnu, R., & Mukami, K. (2020). Mwea Rice Growers Multipurpose Public Case Report August 2020. USAID.
[36] Waaijenberg, H. (1994). Mijikenda agriculture in Coast Province of Kenya.
[37] Walsh, M., Willis, J., & Robinson, P. W. (1993). Reviews. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 28(1), 143–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/00672709309511654
[38] Willis, J. (1947). School of Oriental and African Studies: University of London. Africa, 17(2), 137–137. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0001972000021033
[39] Ylvisaker, M. (1979). Full text of “Lamu in the nineteenth century: Land, trade, and politics.” Trustees of Boston University, 321.

Apollo Uma, “History of rice in Kenya: When was rice first introduced in Kenya?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.23-27 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/23-27.pdf

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Research Profile, Attitude, and Capability of School of Management and Entrepreneurship Faculty

Reymark S. Pabilando, Eden R. Calvez, Ronnabelle Bentor, Vic Marie Bornillo – March 2022- Page No.: 28-34

Research is a concept that practitioners, managers, and policymakers respect. But more importantly, research is an academic activity by education professionals who continuously advocate learning, finding out things, analyzing information, adapting behavior, improving modern demand of educational standards and quality teaching. Biliran Province State University sees the importance of research. However, many also experience difficulty in research. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the research profile, attitude, and capability of the School of Management and Entrepreneurship faculty members in Biliran Province State University. The total enumeration sampling technique was used in selecting respondents. A total of forty faculty members served as respondents to the study. The Attitude toward Research’ Scale developed by Papanastasiou (2005) was modified and used in the study. It was revealed that faculty members are less capable of writing results and discussion part in research and are anxious about conducting research. It is highly recommended that faculty members should undergo research training and seminars for them to improve their skills in writing research.

Page(s): 28-34                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2022

 Reymark S. Pabilando
School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Biliran Province State University, Naval Biliran, Philippines

 Eden R. Calvez
School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Biliran Province State University, Naval Biliran, Philippines

 Ronnabelle Bentor
School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Biliran Province State University, Naval Biliran, Philippines

 Vic Marie Bornillo
School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Biliran Province State University, Naval Biliran, Philippines

[1] Abarquez, R. R. & Palbaca, J. A. (2013). Research Capabilities of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Faculty Members. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research,
[2] Akcoltekin, A., Engin, A. O. & Sevgin, H. (2017). Attitudes of High School Teachers to Education Research using Classification Tree Method. Eurasian Journal of Education Research, 68, 19-47. https://bit.ly/3bC1Z6T
[3] Basilio, M. B., & Bueno, D. C. (2019). Research Skills and Attitudes of Master Teachers in a Division Towards Capability Training. 19th CEBU Philippine International Conference on Economics, Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3631867
[4] Cagaanan, J. C. A., & Gosadan, B. D. (2018). Research Competency among Elementary School Teachers: An evaluative assessment for School-Based Action Research (SBAR). JPAIR Institutional Research Journal, 11(1), https://bit.ly/2V5soDo
[5] De la Cruz, J. L. (2016). The Research Capability of Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College: A Basis for A Capability Enhancement Program. International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research, 5(7), 39-45. https://bit.ly/2yAEnkU
[6] Department of Education. (2015). DepEd order No. 13, s. 2015: Establishment of a Policy Development Process at the Department of Education. DepEd. https://bit.ly/2y5nPB4
[7] Department of Education. (2016). DepEd Order No. 39, s. 2016: Adoption of Basic Education Research Agenda. DepEd. https://bit.ly/2RHoG2b
[8] Department of Education. (2017). DepEd Order No. 16, s. 2017: Research Management Guidelines. DepEd. https://bit.ly/3aWfoH6
[9] Fetalver, M. A. (2010). Selected Predictors of Research Capability in Terms of Research Management and Research Process in State Higher Education Institutions in Region IV. Research Journal College of Engineering, 3(1). https://bit.ly/39yzs0G
[10] Gomez, M. J. S., & Panaligan, C. (2013). Level of Research Competencies and Satisfaction of the Faculty Members from the College of Criminology. Asian Academic Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, (14), 269-280. https://bit.ly/3bDy91V
[11] Macabago, S. M. (2017). Teachers’ Motivation, Attitude, Perceived Capability, and Difficulty to Conduct Action Research: A Basis for Intervention Plan for Public Elementary School Teachers (unpublished thesis). Malaybalay City, Bukidnon: Bukidnon State University.
[12] Wong, A. M. (2019). Driving Forces of Master Teachers’ Research Capability: Towards Building a Research Culture in the Division of Romblon, Philippines. International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications, 3(7), 92-97. https://bit.ly/39tzE13

Reymark S. Pabilando, Eden R. Calvez, Ronnabelle Bentor, Vic Marie Bornillo “Research Profile, Attitude, and Capability of School of Management and Entrepreneurship Faculty” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.28-34 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/28-34.pdf

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Predictive Influence of Petty Corruption on Operations of Southern African Universities

Andrew Jeremiah, Sulaiman Olusegun Atiku, Michael Ochurub, Fiina Shimaneni, Elias Kandjinga- March 2022- Page No.: 35-43

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of petty corruption on the operations of institutions of higher learning in Southern African countries. The study was prompted by the fact that Petty corruption has not received much attention as big or grand corruption from many researchers. Petty corrupt practices may cause more harm to operations in public institutions in the long term although they may appear petty and must be ignored. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted following a quantitative approach. The target population of lecturers working in the participating universities was 2684. 446 lecturers were drawn from eight (8) institutions of higher learning in Southern African countries using a stratified purposeful sampling strategy. An online survey (Google forms) was used to collect data from respondents via their email addresses, which were retrieved from their university websites. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version, 26. The study found that petty corruption negatively affects the operations of universities in the Southern African region. The implication of this study suggests that more attention should be paid to all forms of petty corrupt practices such as lateness, absenteeism, presentism, and favouritism to address impact of petty corruption on teaching and learning activities in institutions of higher learning in Southern African countries.

Page(s): 35-43                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2022

 Andrew Jeremiah
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

 Sulaiman Olusegun Atiku
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

 Michael Ochurub
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

 Fiina Shimaneni
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

 Elias Kandjinga
Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia

[1] Abjorensen, N. (2014). Combatting corruption: Implications of the G20 Action Plan for the Asia-Pacific Region. Tokyo: Konrad Adenauer.
[2] Argandona, A.C. (2005). Corruption and companies: The use of Facilitating Payments: The Journal of Business Ethics: Volume 60: 251-261.
[3] Bak, N. (2004). Completing your thesis: A practical guide. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
[4] Camargo, C.B., Sambaiga, R., Kamanyi, E., Stahl, C., & Kassa, S. (2017). Behavioural influences on attitudes towards petty corruption: A study of Social Norms and Mental Models in Tanzania. Basel: Basel Institute of Governance.
[5] Clarke, R. G. (2010). How petty is petty corruption? Evidence from Firm Surveys in Africa. World Development. 39(7): 1122–1132.
[6] Creswell, J.W. and Creswell, J.D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative & mixed methods approaches. London: Sage
[7] Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., & Lowe, A. (2003). Management research: An Introduction. London: Sage Publications.
[8] Goodman, M. (2002). The iceberg model. Hopkinton, MA: Innovation Associates Organisation Learning.
[9] Harrison-Cudjoe, S. (2015). ‘’Quiet corruption: Anti-Corruption Trojan Horse’’: Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education. 5(2).
[10] John, D. (2015). Human Resource Management in the Public Sector: Policies and practices. London: Routledge, Tailor and Francis group.
[11] Madsen, F.G. (2013). ‘’Corruption: A global common evil’’. The RUSI Journal. 158(2): 26-38.
[12] Mantzaris, E.A. (2018). ‘’Towards an evidence-based corruption index in South Africa: The First Step’’. African Journal of Public Affairs. 4(4):271-295.
[13] Morris, D.D. (2011). Forms of corruption. Retrieved: https//www.CESifo Dice Report 2/2011, Forms of Corruption, Stephen D. Morris Retrieved: 15 July 2020.
[14] Mutahaba, G. (Editor) (2013). Human Resource Management in African Public Sector: Current State and future direction. Darreslaam: African Public Sector Human Resource Managers’ Network (APS -HRMnet) – United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UNDESA).
[15] Nguyen, N. A., Doan, Q. H., Nguyen, N. M., & Tran-Nam, B. (2016). The impact of petty corruption on firm innovation in Vietnam. Crime Law Society Change, 65: 377–394.
[16] Nicaise, G. (2019). Local power dynamics and petty corruption in Burundi. Journal of Eastern African Studies. 13(4), 698-717.
[17] Riley, S. P. (1999). Petty corruption and development. Development in Practice. 9 (1-2):189-193.
[18] Saunders, M.N.K., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2019). Research methods for business. (8th Edition). London: Pearson.
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[20] Stahl, C., and Kassa, S., (2018). The ambivalence of social networks and their role in spurring and potential for curbing petty corruption: comparative insights from East Africa. Presented at the 2018 OECD Global Anti-Corruption & Integrity Forum, 27-28 March 2018, OECD, Paris.
[21] Tran-Nam, B. (2017). 12 April. The impact of petty corruption on private sector development in Vietnam. Tax and corruption symposium.
[22] World Bank. (2010). Africa development indicators 2010: Silent and lethal, how quiet
[23] Corruption undermines Africa’s development. Africa development indicators 2010. World Bank. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2431 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.

Andrew Jeremiah, Sulaiman Olusegun Atiku, Michael Ochurub, Fiina Shimaneni, Elias Kandjinga, “Predictive Influence of Petty Corruption on Operations of Southern African Universities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.35-43 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/35-43.pdf

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Comparative Effectiveness of Airfields around Jakarta as Facility Supporters in Air Defense Territorial Empowerment Strategy

Jeffry D. Ritiau, Joni widjayanto, Afrizal Hendra, Sukma Wijaya – March 2022- Page No.: 44-48

As the capital city of the country, Special Capitol Region of Jakarta has an important and strategic role in the implementation of the wheels of government both at the central level and at the local government level itself. By looking at the strategic value of the existence of Special Capitol Region of Jakarta as the capital city, it is considered important to rearrange the defense potential within the framework of empowering the defense territorial around the capital city of Jakarta. With this complexity, the existence of airports around the Special Capitol Region of Jakarta territorial is a national potential that has an impact on the economy, improving people’s welfare and also supports aspects of national defense. However, nowadays, with the development of development and the level of community population as well as the development of technological advances, in the end, it has also led to changes in the level of threat to the integrity and sovereignty of the State. One indicator that can be seen related to airports in the Special Capitol Region of Jakarta territorial is the ineffectiveness of re-operating Halim Perdana Kusuma Airport as an active airport in order to reduce the density of Soekarno Hatta Airport in terms of air transport services. The limited supporting infrastructure, incoming outgoing access and the tqausers and overcapacity for incoming and outgoing vehicles, as well as the emergence of population and vehicle density in the territorial around Halim Perdanakusuma contributed to creating new problems. This study seeks to re-map the regional potential, especially Halim Perdanakusuma and Soekarno Hatta airports as well as airports as an effectiveness effort in the context of empowering air defense territorial, especially in Special Capitol Region of Jakarta. In this study using qualitative methods, where primary data in the form of interviews with competent sources and secondary data from literature studies and analysis based on supporting theories are the material in this study.

Page(s): 44-48                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6302

 Jeffry D. Ritiau
Universe War Strategy Study Program, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 Joni widjayanto
Universe War Strategy Study Program, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 Afrizal Hendra
Universe War Strategy Study Program, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 Sukma Wijaya
Universe War Strategy Study Program, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

[1] Ministry Of Transportation. (2016). Regulation of the Minister of Transportation of the Republic of Indonesia number PM 47 of 2016 concerning Aviation Operations Safety Area.
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[4] Legiono, T. (2021). Introduction of Sysytem National Strategic Policy (SKSN), SKSN Course, Unhan.
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[6] Rachman, A. (2021). TWS 1 Introduction to war theory and QW strategy.
[7] T Ri Legiono. (2021). Jak Kelola Sumda for Kamnas, National Strategic Policy System Lecture Material, Unhan.
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[9] Wikipedia. (2022). Bandar Udara Internasional Soekarno–Hatta. https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandar_Udara_Internasional_Soekarno–Hatta.
[10] Wikpedia. (2022). Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport. Artikel.https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandar_Udara_Internasional_Halim_Perdanakusuma

Jeffry D. Ritiau, Joni widjayanto, Afrizal Hendra, Sukma Wijaya, “Comparative Effectiveness of Airfields around Jakarta as Facility Supporters in Air Defense Territorial Empowerment Strategy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.44-48 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6302

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Analysis of students’ conceptual understanding ability of calculus courses during covid-19

Nurlaili, Ambiyar, Ishak Aziz – March 2022- Page No.: 49-53

Conceptual understanding in mathematical learning is an essential aspect of achieving learning outcomes, but the previous research showed a lack of conceptual understanding still high, especially in calculus courses. This study aimed to describe the students’ conceptual understanding of the calculus course during the online learning process and analyze their mistakes when applying the concepts learned. This study used the descriptive qualitative method with 28 students as a sample. The collecting data used a conceptual understanding ability test and interviews with students. The data analysis used data triangulation in data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing. Based on the results, the students’ ability to understand the concept in online learning during the covid-19 pandemic was still low, with 17.9% of students getting poor and 21.4% getting unsatisfactory scores. Only 10.4% of students got excellent scores, 21.4% got good scores, and the average score was 28.6%. Students were confused when applying the interval concept for triple integral evaluation and the integral factor for differential equation solution. Online learning due to the covid-19 pandemic decreases student motivation because of the problems of the learning process, obstructing students from learning based on problem-solving learning. Some solutions that can address this problem are 1) using interactive problem-solving learning, 2) providing opportunities for students to construct their knowledge and understanding, 3) designing a learning model and learning media that can motivate students.

Page(s): 49-53                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 March 2022

Program Studi Doktor Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia

Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia

 Ishak Aziz
Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia

[1] E. M. E. Gitaari, G. Nyaga, G. Muthaa, and G. Reche, “Factors Contributing to Students Poor Performance in Mathematics in Public Secondary Schools in Tharaka South District , Kenya,” J. Educ. Pract., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 93–100, 2013.
[2] Y. Gusmania and N. Agustyaningrum, “Analisis Pemahaman Konsep Matematis Mahasiswa Pada Mata Kuliah Triginometri,” J. Gantang, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 123–132, 2020.
[3] S. Hadi and M. U. Kasum, “Pemahaman Konsep Matematika Siswa SMP Melalui Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Memeriksa Berpasangan (Pair Checks),” EDU-MAT J. Pendidik. Mat., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 2015.
[4] H. Rosiyanti, “Implementasi Pendekatan Pembelajaran Konstruktivisme Terhadap Pemahaman Konsep Matematika Mahasiswa Materi Transformasi Linier,” FIBONACCI J. Pendidik. Mat. dan Mat., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 25–36, 2015.
[5] N. Kania and Z. Arifin, “Aplikasi Macromedia flash untuk Meningkatkan Pemahaman Konsep Matematika Siswa,” JNPM (Jurnal Nas. Pendidik. Mat., vol. 4, no. 1, p. 96, 2020.
[6] I. P. A. A. Payadnya, P. L. Noviyanti, and K. A. Wibawa, “Analisis Kemampuan Pemahaman Konsep Mahasiswa pada Mata Kuliah Metode Statistika I selama Pandemi COVID-19,” J. Emasains J. Edukasi Mat. dan Sains, vol. IX, no. 2, pp. 288–296, 2020.
[7] Pujiati, M. Kanzunnudin, and S. Wanabuliandari, “Analisis Pemahaman Konsep Matematis Siswa Kelas IV SDN 3 Gemulung Pada Materi Pecahan,” ANARGYA J. Ilm. Pendidik. Mat., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37–41, 2018.
[8] M. Gusniwati, “Pengaruh Kecerdasan Emosional dan Minat Belajar terhadap Penguasaan Konsep Matematika Siswa SMAN di Kecamatan Kebon Jeruk,” Form. J. Ilm. Pendidik. MIPA, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 26–41, 2015.
[9] E. Zuliana, “Penerapan Inquiry Based Learning berbantuan Peraga Manipulatif dalamMeningkatkan Pemahaman Konsep Matematika pada Materi Geometri Mahasiswa PGSD Universitas Muria Kudus,” Lect. J. Pendidik., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2017.
[10] Y. Rahayu and H. Pujiastuti, “Analisis Kemampuan Pemahaman Matematis Siswa SMP Pada Materi Himpunan Studi Kasus di SMP Negeri 1 Cibadak,” Symmetry Pas. J. Res. Math. Learn. Educ., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 93–102, 2018.
[11] P. R. Ningsih, “Penerapan Metode Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) pada Pokok Bahasan Perbandingan Senilai dan Berbalik Nilai di Kelas VII E SMP IPIEMS Surabaya,” Gamatika, vol. III, no. 2, pp. 177–184, 2013.
[12] A. Trianingsih, N. Husna, and N. C. Prihatiningtyas, “Pengaruh Model Discovery Learning terhadap Pemahaman Konsep Matematis Siswa pada Materi Persamaan Lingkaran di Kelas XI IPA,” vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2019.
[13] T. P. Widianti, S. Musoffa, M. I. Maulana, A. S. Widayati, and R. Z. Falah, “Pembelajaran Daring Masa Pandemi COVID-19 Di Sekolah Indonesia Kuala Lumpur,” Tarbawi J. Pendidik. Islam, vol. 18, no. 1, 2021.
[14] S. Ahmed, M. Shehata, and M. Hassanien, “Emerging Faculty Needs for Enhancing Student Engagement on a Virtual Platform,” MedEdPublish, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2020.
[15] Gunawan, N. M. Y. Suranti, and Fathoroni, “Variation of Models and Learning Platforms for Prospective Teachers During the COVID-19 Pandemic Period,” Indones. J. Teach. Educ., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 61–70, 2020.
[16] p. K. Dewi, D. M. . Kartika, G. . Mahayukti, and G. A. . Arnaputri, “Persepsi Mahasiswa Mengenai Kuliah Daring Kalkulus diferensial di Masa Pandemi Covid- 19,” J. Pendidik. Mat. Undiksha, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 2599–2600, 2021.
[17] A. Nurcahyo, N. Ishartono, and N. A. Sudibyo, “Implementasi Pembelajaran Interaktif kalkulus dengan Wolfram CDF Player Pada Kelas Semu Schoology,” Aksioma J. Progr. Stud. Pendidik. Mat., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 883–893, 2020.
[18] I. Farida, R. R. Sunarya, R. Aisyah, and I. Helsy, “Pembelajaran Kimia Sistem Daring di Masa Pandemi Covid-19 Bagi Generasi Z,” KTI UIN Sunan Gunung Djati, pp. 1–11, 2020.
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Nurlaili, Ambiyar, Ishak Aziz “Analysis of students’ conceptual understanding ability of calculus courses during covid-19” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.49-53 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6144

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Employee Factors influencing Performance in the 21st Century Organizations

Mr. Nyakundi, Abel, B., Dr. Munyao, Solomon. M. – March 2022- Page No.: 54-59 

Although organizations are started for the purpose of achieving some set targets, their achievement has been one of the major challenges facing 21st century organizations. The result has been the collapse or liquidation of some of these organizations leaving employees jobless. Other than external environmental factors, employee factors are determinants of the extent to which an organization is likely to succeed in their specific mandate. The aim of this desktop research study was therefore to explore how employee factors influence the performance of 21st century organizations. In this regard, the study endeavored to establish how employee behaviors, employee decision-making, employee perceptions, employee motivation, and employee emotional responses contribute to organizational performance. The study employed an exploratory research design while data was collected through review of the existing literature from the global, continental, and local perspectives. The results indicated that, indeed all the five employee factors have a positive and significant influence on the performance of 21st century organizations. It can, therefore, be concluded that employees play a critical role in helping organizations achieve their set objectives and, therefore, the need for employees’ matters to be given priority by their organizational leaders.

Page(s): 54-59                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6303

 Mr. Nyakundi, Abel, B.
School of Leadership, Business and Technology, Pan Africa Christian University, P.O. Box 56875-00200, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Munyao, Solomon. M
School of Leadership, Business and Technology, Pan Africa Christian University, P.O. Box 56875-00200, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Aberese-Ako, M., van Dijk, H., Gerrits, T., Arhinful, D. K., & Agyepong, I. A. (2014). “Your health our concern, our health whose concern?”: Perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and front-line health worker motivation in Ghana. Health Policy and Planning, 29(2), 15–28. http://www.jstor.org/stable/45089870.
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Mr. Nyakundi, Abel, B., Dr. Munyao, Solomon. M. , “Employee Factors influencing Performance in the 21st Century Organizations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.54-59 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6303

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Students and Teacher’s Perception on the Effectiveness of Using Strategic Intervention Material in Science

Reymark Acedillo, Jay-ar Lagahit, Ariel Jade Macusang, Jovenil Bacatan- March 2022- Page No.: 60-68

This study aimed to determine the perceptions of the selected students who have learning difficulties in science, and their teachers regarding the effectiveness of using Strategic Intervention Material (SIM) in science. To explore and describe the perceptions of the teacher and students, a qualitative-phenomenological approach was employed. There were six (6) participants of the study composed of teachers and students which were purposely selected. The participants of the study are from one of the public schools in Island Garden City of Samal that has teachers utilizing SIM (Strategic Intervention Material) in aiding students’ least learned topics or competencies in science. The researchers used researcher-made questionnaires which were validated by a panel of experts. The researchers also utilized the focus group dicussion employing an open-ended semi-structured interview to the key informants. The researchers interviewed each of the participants and obtained some perceptions correlated to the research questions prepared by the researchers. After gathering the needed data, the researchers used thematic analysis or thematic coding as a tool for analyzing the data and drawing of the conclusion. Based on the gathered data from the participants, the researchers noticed three positive themes which were Strategic Intervention Material aids the least learned competencies, Strategic Intervention Material is simplified, and Strategic Intervention Material improves the performance of the students in class. In addition to this, there is a student, one of the participants, who stated that after Strategic Intervention Material was utilized to them, there had been an increase of her grades. Because of the positive results of the gathered data, it is possible that Strategic Intervention Material will prosper in the near future as a material that aids least the learned competencies of students. With these results also, it was recommended that the Science teachers should make their own SIM, school administrators should include the use of SIM in their planning, and similar study that has more participants and wider in scope should be conducted by future the researchers.

Page(s): 60-68                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 March 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6304

 Reymark Acedillo
Teacher Education, UM Peñaplata College

 Jay-ar Lagahit
Teacher Education, UM Peñaplata College

 Ariel Jade Macusang
Teacher Education, UM Peñaplata College

 Jovenil Bacatan
Teacher Education, UM Peñaplata College

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Reymark Acedillo, Jay-ar Lagahit, Ariel Jade Macusang, Jovenil Bacatan, “Students and Teacher’s Perception on the Effectiveness of Using Strategic Intervention Material in Science” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.60-68 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6304

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Analysis of the Major Determinants of Remittances to Nigeria: 1990 – 2019

Dr Victor O. Okoye, Kenechukwu J. Nwisienyi- March 2022- Page No.: 69-76

The study investigated the major determinants of remittances to Nigeria from 1990 to 2019. The study adopted the least square method for this purpose. A dummy variable was introduced in the model to represent the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. The result showed that inflation and real effective exchange rate are statistically insignificant and so have no effect on remittances. The parameter for the COVID-19 pandemic also came out insignificant in the study. This shows that the pandemic hasn’t really affected the host countries as at 2019. Broad money supply and unemployment rate were statistically significant with remittances with coefficients of 0.675 and -1.377 respectively. The result showed that, within the period under study, broad money supply and unemployment rate were major determinants of remittance inflows to Nigeria. The study recommends, amongst other things, that more research on the subject matter should be done to determine the extent of influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on remittances as the pandemic is still ravaging the world.

Page(s): 69-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 March 2022

 Dr Victor O. Okoye
School of Financial Studies, Department of Banking and Finance, Federal Polytechnic Oko Anambra State, Nigeria

 Kenechukwu J. Nwisienyi
School of Financial Studies, Department of Banking and Finance, Federal Polytechnic Oko Anambra State, Nigeria

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Dr Victor O. Okoye, Kenechukwu J. Nwisienyi, “Analysis of the Major Determinants of Remittances to Nigeria: 1990 – 2019” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.69-76 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/69-76.pdf

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Skill Variety and Work Engagement among Bankers in Nigeria

Olukemi ADE-ADENIJI – March 2022- Page No.: 77-83

Work engagement has been a major concern to organizations for over three decades, because it is what drives business. For the employee, engagement brings meaningfulness into work, which leads to commitment to the organization and to a sustained relationship with people. Skill variety as a core dimension of Job Characteristics Model, is a necessity for bank workers who face a high work demand requiring efforts, talents and diverse skills. The banks in Nigeria play a very important role in the economy of Nigeria, but they are faced with work overload and stress that bother on work engagement. This study was a descriptive one that used the mixed method approach of both quantitative and qualitative research and was carried out on banks in the Lagos metropolis. A total of 438 copies of questionnaires were distributed, and 353 copies were retrieved, and 15 members of senior staff were randomly selected for the interview. Method of analysis was structural equation modeling (Partial Least Square) for the quantitative, while thematic analysis was used for the qualitative. The results of the hypotheses revealed that skill variety significantly influenced physical work engagement (R-square = 0.346); emotional work engagement (R-square = 0.272); and cognitive work engagement (R-square = 0.438). The study concluded that skill variety is significant to work engagement among bankers in Nigeria. The study recommended that banks should provide adequate opportunities for the use of diverse skills to achieve a higher level of work engagement in the banks.

Page(s): 77-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2022

Management and Social Science, Southwestern University, Ogun State, Nigeria

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Olukemi ADE-ADENIJI, “Skill Variety and Work Engagement among Bankers in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.77-83 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/77-83.pdf

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Agricultural Foreign Aid Allocation in Sub-Saharan Africa: The importance of Democracy and Quality of Governance

Mfouapon Alassa, Kamdem Cyrille Bergaly, Mohammadou Nourou – March 2022- Page No.: 84-100

The objective of this research is to revisit the determinants of the allocation of foreign aid to agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on the effects of democracy and quality of governance. The data for the study cover the period 1996-2018 in 47 Sub-Saharan African countries. Since democracy and quality of governance are a complex and multidimensional concepts, we measure them using three variables for democracy and five variables for quality of governance. In the quantitative analyses, we perform two estimations: country fixed effects and feasible generalized least squares regressions. We find that the strength of democratic institutions and government voice and accountability positively determine foreign aid to agriculture. Moreover, the quality of governance affects the allocation of foreign aid. Indeed, political stability and absence of violence/terrorism, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption positively determine the allocation of foreign aid to agriculture. Our findings have strong policy implication for Sub-Saharan Africa countries, which shows that it is more desirable to promote good governance and improving the processes of democratization in each country to shift agricultural aid flows from international aid agencies and donor’s countries

Page(s): 84-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2022

 Mfouapon Alassa
Ph.D Student, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Maroua, Cameroon

 Kamdem Cyrille Bergaly
Associate Professor, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Yaounde-II, Soa, Cameroon

 Mohammadou Nourou
Professor, Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

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Mfouapon Alassa, Kamdem Cyrille Bergaly, Mohammadou Nourou, “Agricultural Foreign Aid Allocation in Sub-Saharan Africa: The importance of Democracy and Quality of Governance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.84-100 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/84-100.pdf

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Factors Influencing the Adoption of Orange Fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) Production among Smallholder Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

Emmanuel David, Amos, A. Olasore, Abdullahi Mohammed, Ambrose Asagba, Stephen A. Adams, Salihu Yakubu, Moses, A. Omonayin – March 2022- Page No.: 101-105

This study aimed to determine the factors that influence the adoption of Orange Fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) as well as the constraints to non-adoption of (OFSP) varieties among small holder farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from one hundred and twenty (120) sweet potato farmers (sixty adopters and sixty non-adopters each). The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools like, percentage, mean scores and likert scale. The results of the study revealed that larger percent of both adopters and non-adopters of OFSP were males. Also, the majority of adopters had high knowledge, while non-adopters had moderate knowledge of OFSP. The adopters were motivated to adopt the OFSP mainly as a result of its high yield, pleasant taste, nutrient content of the roots, profit from the sale of OFSP roots and early maturing. The Perceived constraints to the adoption of OFSP by non-adopters were inadequate capital to carry out necessary farm activities, high cost of required inputs (herbicides, Organic fertilizer, and OFSP vines) for OFSP production and difficulty in integrating OFSP production technologies into existing production system. It was recommended that, concerted effort should be made to include OFSP in the mandate of extension workers and provide adequate incentives to them so that they can sensitize farmers on the importance of this crop. Also, farm inputs should be subsidized for farmers in order to promote OFSP production.

Page(s): 101-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2022

 Emmanuel David
Extension Management Division, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, ARMTI, Ilorin, Nigeria

 Amos, A. Olasore
Enterprise Development Management Division, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, ARMTI, Ilorin, Nigeria

 Abdullahi Mohammed
Rural Infrastructures and Institutions Development Division, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, (ARMTI), Ilorin, Nigeria

 Ambrose Asagba
Research Division, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, ARMTI, Ilorin, Nigeria

 Stephen A. Adams
Research Division, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, ARMTI, Ilorin, Nigeria

 Salihu Yakubu
Women and Youth Development Division, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, ARMTI, Ilorin, Nigeria

 Moses, A. Omonayin
Women and Youth Development Division, Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, ARMTI, Ilorin, Nigeria

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Emmanuel David, Amos, A. Olasore, Abdullahi Mohammed, Ambrose Asagba, Stephen A. Adams, Salihu Yakubu, Moses, A. Omonayin , “Factors Influencing the Adoption of Orange Fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) Production among Smallholder Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.101-105 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/101-105.pdf

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Empowering Leaders for Youth Nurture and Retention Through Social Media in Togo Conference

Sessou Kwasi Selom Pastor – March 2022- Page No.: 106-113

Young people in the Togo Conference complained that their leaders are not much involved with them in discussions held on their social media platforms. The statistics of the Seventh-day Adventist Church globally reveal that the church is losing its members among which there are a great number of young people. Most of these young people are social media users. Should church leaders use social media platforms to nurture Young Adventist Members in order to retain them in the Church in Togo? To answer that question, it was deemed necessary and important to obtain reliable empirical quantitative and qualitative data among young people and Pastors at Togo Conference. It is in this context that Interviews were conducted and quantitative studies were done at the Togo Conference to confirm the need for leaders’ empowerment for youth nurture and retention through social media. The study also provided Biblical and social principles for youth nurture through social media platforms in the Togo Conference.

Page(s): 106-113                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2022

 Sessou Kwasi Selom Pastor
Department of Youth and Young Adult Ministry, Adventist University of Africa, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

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Sessou Kwasi Selom Pastor, “Empowering Leaders for Youth Nurture and Retention Through Social Media in Togo Conference” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.106-113 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/106-113.pdf

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Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Styles and Achievement of Students in the Colleges of Education

Francis Britwum, Edwin Adjei, Samuel Obed Amoah, Esther Twewa Djan, Henry Yaw Acheampong, Sandra Aidoo, Elizabeth Adoma Sefah – March 2022- Page No.: 114-122

The study assessed the effectiveness of leadership styles and achievement of students in the Colleges of Education in Ghana. The descriptive cross-sectional survey design was employed in the study. A multi-stage sampling procedures were used in selecting the sample. In all, 10 principals and vice principals as well as 15 teachers and 125 students were selected from five Colleges of Education to participate in the study. Leadership Questionnaire was self-developed to collect data from the respondents. Structural Equation Model was used as the statistical tool in validating the questionnaire as well as testing the hypothesis. The convergent validity results revealed that leadership questionnaire have some amount of convergence validity. The factor loadings requirement was met by leadership questionnaire. The study found that leadership questionnaire has partial discriminant validity. The validity of the leadership questionnaire in the Ghanaian setting is limited, according to our analysis. While some of the study’ indicators demonstrated a satisfactory level of validity, others did not. With the exception of two items, all of the factor loadings satisfied the 0.30 requirement. In contrast, the AVEs were poor for three of the subdimensions that did not meet the 0.50 threshold. In addition, while the estimated indices were close to the standard criterion, the majority of the model fit indices departed from the criteria provided. The findings again, showed that leadership styles; authoritarian and democratic were not significant predictors of students’ academic achievement. Laissez-faire was only the leadership style that predicted students’ academic achievement in the Colleges of Education in Ghana. The study recommended that principals in the Colleges of Education should make use of different combination of leadership styles to enhance smooth running of the Colleges of Education in Ghana.

Page(s): 114-122                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2022

 Francis Britwum
University of Cape Coast, Department of Education and Psychology

 Edwin Adjei
Agona SDA College of Education, Department of Education Studies

 Samuel Obed Amoah
St. Monica’s College of Education, Department of Education Studies

 Samuel Obed Amoah
St. Monica’s College of Education, Department of Education Studies

 Esther Twewa Djan
Berekum College of Education. Department of Education Studies

 Henry Yaw Acheampong
St. Monica’s College of Education, Department of Education Studies

 Sandra Aidoo
University of Cape Coast, Department of Vocational and Technical Education

 Elizabeth Adoma Sefah
St. Monica’s College of Education, Department of Education Studies

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Francis Britwum, Edwin Adjei, Samuel Obed Amoah, Esther Twewa Djan, Henry Yaw Acheampong, Sandra Aidoo, Elizabeth Adoma Sefah , “Assessing the Effectiveness of Leadership Styles and Achievement of Students in the Colleges of Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.114-122 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/114-122.pdf

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Workplace Spirituality and Work Values of Philippine National Police Personnel in Davao City

Richelito P. Maagad, Nestor C. Nabe – March 2022- Page No.: 123-131

The study investigated the influence of workplace spirituality on the work values of police personnel in Davao City. It used both descriptive and inferential statistics to answer the problems. The mean and standard deviations identified the respondents’ workplace spirituality and work values. Pearson r determined the significance of the relationship between the variables, while the regression analysis determined the importance of the influence of workplace spirituality on work values. 258 police personnel from different police precincts selected through stratified random sampling responded to the survey. Results showed high levels of workplace spirituality and work values among PNP personnel. Also, the correlation coefficient suggested a weak, positive, but significant relationship between workplace spirituality and work values. Likewise, the regression coefficient revealed a considerable influence of workplace spirituality on work values. The results have implications for the policies and practice of policing. For example, motivating police personnel in exercising workplace spirituality and work values may eliminate deviant behaviors resulting in better performance of duties. Furthermore, the results have substantial implications for the chaplaincy and moral recovery programs of the Philippine National Police (PNP).

Page(s): 123-131                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2022

 Richelito P. Maagad
Master of Science in Criminal Justice, Professional Schools, The University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines

 Nestor C. Nabe
Master of Science in Criminal Justice, Professional Schools, The University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines

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Richelito P. Maagad, Nestor C. Nabe “Workplace Spirituality and Work Values of Philippine National Police Personnel in Davao City” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.123-131 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/123-131.pdf

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Analysis of the Impact of Hoax News during the Covid-19 Pandemic from the Perspective of National Defense

Mohammad Iqbal Dwi Prasetyo, Priyanto, I Wayan Midhio – March 2022- Page No.: 132-137

Hoax is information that is engineered to cover up the actual information, in other words Hoax is defined as an attempt to distort the facts by using information that is convincing but cannot be verified, it can also be interpreted as an act of obscuring the true information, by flooding the media with false messages so that it can cover up the correct information. Hoax or fake news is one form of Cyber Crime that seems simple, easy to do but has a big impact on people’s social life. Furthermore, the search results obtained were grouped according to the research objectives, namely 1. Description of hoax news, 2. The concept of hoax news and its distribution in the Hoax community, 3. The Impact of Hoax News in Society and 4. National Defense and Security During the COVID-19 Pandemic. obtained then analyzed and discussed, and finally drawn conclusions. We cannot avoid the impact of hoax news in the community, this is because hoax news circulating in the community will directly have an impact on the formation of public opinion against them. Where in the formation of public opinion in the community will also have a very significant impact on social life. In fact, hoaxes are like a disease that can attack anyone at any time. If one person has been vaccinated, at least one person will be immune to various diseases. The same applies to hoax news. After preparing digital literacy protectors, the public hopes that hoax news will not enter. Adhere to digital literacy and expect someone to sift through information, regardless of whether the information is meaningful or not, whether there are arguments, data or facts.

Page(s): 132-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6306

 Mohammad Iqbal Dwi Prasetyo
Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia, Bogor, Jawa Barat Prodi Strategi Perang Semesta

Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia, Bogor, Jawa Barat Prodi Strategi Perang Semesta

 I Wayan Midhio
Universitas Pertahanan Republik Indonesia, Bogor, Jawa Barat Prodi Strategi Perang Semesta

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Mohammad Iqbal Dwi Prasetyo, Priyanto, I Wayan Midhio “Analysis of the Impact of Hoax News during the Covid-19 Pandemic from the Perspective of National Defense” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.132-137 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6306

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Mapping the Prevalence of Measles among Risk Population in Zamfara State, Nigeria

Dr Abubakar Garba Fada – March 2022- Page No.: 138-144

Disease maps can be used to highlight populations at risk of a disease and its seasonal variability. Measles has been and is still being considered as one of the most infectious and perhaps the highest childhood mortality diseases world-wide. This paper examined the spatial risk of measles in Zamfara State, Nigeria with the objective highlighting areas of high risk and possible link with seasons and the available healthcare facilities. Measles prevalence and relative risk data of 2017 from the 14 LGAs of the state were used for the study. Relative risk rates were computed using ‘at risk’ population of ages 1-9 years as a proportion of the aggregated data. The maps were corroborated with seasons and distribution of healthcare facilities. While the raw data showed LGAs of highest risk located at the southernmost parts of the state, the reverse was the case with the relative risk rates. The later also highlighted relationships of relative risk rates with seasons and availability of healthcare facilities. It was concluded that the type of map drawn and the nature of data used could portray different virtualizations of disease pattern, and that both seasonality and availability of healthcare facilities play a role in the prevalence of measles in Zamfara State. It is recommended that, although the findings shed some light on the possible causal factors, more detailed studies should be carried out on these factors with a view to uncovering them for any informed actions to reduce the risk of the disease and its possible transmission chain, more especially with the current spate of banditry and forced migrations in the state.

Page(s): 138-144                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2022

 Dr Abubakar Garba Fada
Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

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Dr Abubakar Garba Fada, “Mapping the Prevalence of Measles among Risk Population in Zamfara State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.138-144 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/138-144.pdf

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The Moderating Role of Timespan since Parental Divorce on the Relationship between Self-Compassion and Anxiety

Narendra Bayutama Wibisono, Saiful, Sabar Napitupulu – March 2022- Page No.: 145-152

This study aims to find out the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety on how young adults experience divorce from both parents. The total number of participants was 66 people and young adults aged 18-25 years. Compassion is measured using the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF), anxiety is measured using the State-Trait anxiety Inventory Trait Scale (STAI-T). The results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between self-compassion and anxiety in young adults who experienced divorce from both parents. Then it was found that anxiety was higher in participants who had taken an undergraduate or diploma education compared to participants who had just taken high school education and equivalent.

Page(s): 145-152                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6305

 Narendra Bayutama Wibisono


 Sabar Napitupulu

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Narendra Bayutama Wibisono, Saiful, Sabar Napitupulu, “The Moderating Role of Timespan since Parental Divorce on the Relationship between Self-Compassion and Anxiety” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.145-152 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6305

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Characterization in Brako

Isaac Oduro, Olivia Donkor, Yaa Asantewaa Bediako, Emelia Amuaful, David Adu Tuffour, Wilson Oduro, Collins Owusu, Peter Fosu, Mercy Asantewaa – March 2022- Page No.: 153-163

: This paper analyses characterization in Kwabena Adi’s Akan novel, Brako. The objectives of this paper are to describe the nature of the characters and identify reasons for their creation. Since the characters in the novel were twenty-six,a total enumeration sampling technique was used to cover all the characters assigned different roles to play in the novel. The study applied descriptive qualitative method to analyze the data. The data were sourced from Kwabena Adi’s Akan novel, Brako. The findings indicate that the author’s consideration of characterization of the novel was based on the following: character selection, character role, character symbolism, character complexity, character similarity, Character relationship, and character contrast. The social relevance of these various character traits are to help teach did actic lessons such as patriotism, hard work, traditional wisdom, and traditional knowledge. Beside the above reason, the projection of some cultural and traditional belief systems to readers is eminently clear in the novel. The pedagogical implication is that the teaching and learning of literature must be more practically oriented than theory based in order to help learners relate their learning experiences to a real-life situation for better understanding.

Page(s): 153-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2022

 Isaac Oduro
Department of Languages, St. Monica’s College of Education,Mampong Ashanti

 Olivia Donkor
Department of Languages, St. Monica’s College of Education,Mampong Ashanti.

 Yaa Asantewaa Bediako
Department of Languages, St. Monica’s College of Education,Mampong Ashanti.

 David Adu Tuffour
Department of Languages, Atebubu College of Education, Atebubu, Bono East region.

 Wilson Oduro
Department of Languages, E. P. College of Education, Amedzofe, Volta region.

 Collins Owusu
Department of Languages, Agogo Presbyterian Women’s College of Education.

 Peter Fosu
Department of Ghanaian Languages, Akrokerri College of Education

 Mercy Asantewaa
Department of Languages, St. Monica’s College of Education,Mampong Ashanti.

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Isaac Oduro, Olivia Donkor, Yaa Asantewaa Bediako, Emelia Amuaful, David Adu Tuffour, Wilson Oduro, Collins Owusu, Peter Fosu, Mercy Asantewaa “Characterization in Brako” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.153-163 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/153-163.pdf

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Upstream Supply Chain Coordination on Performance of Zimbabwean Agro Processing Sector: A Transaction Cost Theory Approach

Judith Charumbira, Florance Shumba, George Shava, Mlisa Jasper Ndlovu – March 2022- Page No.: 164-175

The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of trust, communication and relationship transaction-specific investments on the coordination of upstream supply chain activities and assess its impact on the performance of the Zimbabwean agro-processing sector. The conceptual framework of the study was drawn from Williamsons’ (1975, 1985) transaction cost theory of coordination and seven hypotheses were developed. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey of the Zimbabwean agro-processing sector. Data were collected from fifty-nine stratified randomly sampled Zimbabwean agro-processing organisations and twenty purposively sampled supplier organisations. A self-administered questionnaire containing 7 points Likert scale ranging between (1) representing strongly disagree and (7) representing strongly agree was used. Descriptive statistical measures were used to analyze and present the quantitative data leading to the formulation of a theoretical model which was tested using structural equation modelling. From the model five hypothesis affect supply chain coordination i.e.; trust among supply chain players has a positive influence on supply chain coordination, communication has a positive influence on supply chain coordination, supply chain coordination has a positive impact on organisational performance, trust among supply chain players has a positive impact on organisational performance and transaction-specific investments have a positive impact on organisational performance. However, the study revealed that transaction-specific investments do not influence supply chain coordination while communication has no impact on organisational performance. The study, therefore, concluded that trust and communication among supply chain players have a positive influence on supply chain coordination. The findings also conclude that supply chain coordination, trust among supply chain partners and transaction-specific investments have a positive impact on organisational performance.

Page(s): 164-175                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2022

 Judith Charumbira
Lecturer in the Department of Marketing, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo.

 Florance Shumba
Lecturer in the Department of Accounting, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo

 George Shava
National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo.

 Mlisa Jasper Ndlovu
Lecturer in the Department of Business Management, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo.

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Judith Charumbira, Florance Shumba, George Shava, Mlisa Jasper Ndlovu, “Upstream Supply Chain Coordination on Performance of Zimbabwean Agro Processing Sector: A Transaction Cost Theory Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.164-175 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/164-175.pdf

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The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Marital Harmony among Married Catholics in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

Obiemeka, Eucharia Nkechi, Ph.D, Prof. Ugoji, Florence Ngozi, Agboola, James Odunayo Ph.D- March 2022- Page No.: 176-179

This study examined the relationship between social intelligence and marital harmony among married Catholics in Edo and Delta States. Using the multi-stage sampling procedure, the study investigated the relationship between social Intelligence and marital harmony among 606 married Catholics from 43 catholic parishes in Edo and Delta State Nigeria. Two instruments were used. These include the Social Intelligence Scale and Marital Harmony Scale. Data were analysed using simple regression and multiple regression analysis. The result suggested that social intelligence, moderating variables of duration of marriage and educational status have a positive correlation with marital harmony of the married Catholics. It was however, recommended that marriage counsellors should organize workshops, seminars for intending couples and married persons on how to spend quality time and instil the skills of social intelligence in their relationship.

Page(s): 176-179                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2022

 Obiemeka, Eucharia Nkechi, Ph.D
Department of Educational Evaluation and Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

 Prof. Ugoji, Florence Ngozia
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria

 Agboola, James Odunayo Ph.D
Department of Education, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

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Obiemeka, Eucharia Nkechi, Ph.D, Prof. Ugoji, Florence Ngozi, Agboola, James Odunayo Ph.D, “The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Marital Harmony among Married Catholics in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.176-179 March 2022 DOI: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/176-179.pdf

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No jab, No job”: Employee Perceptions on Mandatory Coronavirus Vaccinations at Workplace in Zimbabwe

Regis Muchowe, Dumisani Mawonde and Hazel Mubango- March 2022 Page No.: 180-185 

The inspiration behind this article is the prevalence of Covid-19 policies in organizations in Zimbabwe which are dominated by ‘no jab, no job’ policies during the third wave of the pandemic. The article seeks to parade the perceptions and attitudes of employees across all sectors in Zimbabwe on ‘no jab, no job’ policies, and mandatory vaccinations at the workplace. In probing the problem at hand, the researcher used quantitative methodologies to generate data from a sample size of one thousand and two hundred respondents (n = 1 200). In deriving employee perceptions the study observed that 82.5% of study respondents had at least received a first dose jab. The article displays that enterprises across Zimbabwe have Covid -19 policies, and a number of them enforce the ‘no jab, no job’ pinnacle. The last section of the article transmits that employees in Zimbabwe are opposed to the ‘no jab, no job’ policy, and there is a general belief that it is unethical and illegal. There is a general belief that mandatory vaccinations lead to poor industrial relations and reduced productivity. There is an urgent need for employers to educate employees on the need for vaccination in order to demystify circulating conspiracy theories.

Page(s): 180-185                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2022

 Regis Muchowe
Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe

 Dumisani Mawonde
Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe

 Hazel Mubango
Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe

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Regis Muchowe, Dumisani Mawonde and Hazel Mubango “No jab, No job”: Employee Perceptions on Mandatory Coronavirus Vaccinations at Workplace in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.180-185 March 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/180-185.pdf

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Effects of Extroversion Traits on Domestic Abuse among inmates in Prisons in Kiambu County, Kenya

Harun Issack Hassan, Dr. Mokua Gilbert Maroko, Dr. Jane Karimi- March 2022- Page No.: 186-190

This study examined the effects of extroversion traits on domestic abuse. This study examined extroversion traits among prison inmates in Kiambu County, Kenya. A sample size of 370 representing a target population of 10,334 inmates with a margin of error of 0.05 was selected. The study found that 66.2% of inmates who participated in the study with extroversion personality had a more solidary, quiet, and reserved trait while 33.5% had an outgoing, friendly, and energetic, trait. Respondents who were more solidary, quiet and reserved, 27.5% strongly agreed that they had experienced domestic abuse, 44.5% agreed, 9.0% strongly disagreed, 13.7% disagreed, while 5.2% were not sure. Regarding respondents who were outgoing, friendly, and energetic, 30.8% strongly agreed they had experienced domestic abuse, 51.4% agreed, 10.3% strongly disagreed, 4.7% disagreed, while 2.8% were not sure. There is a weak negative correlation (0.119) between extroversion personality type and domestic abuse. However, the negative correlation (-0.105) between extroversion and type of domestic abuse perpetrated was weak at a significance of 0.066. In addition, there was a positive correlation (0.203) between extroversion personality type and type of physical assault perpetrated. Also, the study found a negative correlation (0.144) between extroversion and physical assault trends of whether the physical assaults increased, stayed the same or decreased before imprisonment.

Page(s): 186-190                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6307

 Harun Issack Hassan
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Mokua Gilbert Maroko
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Jane Karimi
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

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Harun Issack Hassan, Dr. Mokua Gilbert Maroko, Dr. Jane Karimi, “Effects of Extroversion Traits on Domestic Abuse among inmates in Prisons in Kiambu County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.186-190 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6307

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Social Economic Conditions of Communities in The Post-Natural Disaster Relocation: Case of Permanent Residence of Tondo and Duyu Villages

Edhi Taqwa, Muslimin, Nudiatulhuda Mangun, Elimawaty Rombe, Maskuri Sutomo – March 2022- Page No.: 191-200

The research aims to Analyze changes in socio-economic conditions experienced by residents in the Permanent Housing area (Huntap) Tondo and Huntap Duyu, Analyze socio-economic activities needed by Huntap residents, Knowing and analyzing which parties are dominant in the recovery of socio-economic conditions in the Huntap area. The data used in this study is in the form of primary data sourced from 60 respondents consisting of 30 respondents residing in the Huntap Tondo area and 30 respondents residing in the Huntap Duyu area. In addition to the 60 respondents in this study also conducted interviews with Community Leaders, village head, Entrepreneurs, Employees of Zhu Chi Buddhist Foundation, and the State Civil Apparatus located in the Huntap Tondo and Huntap Duyu areas which amounted to 9 respondents. Analytical methods used Descriptive analysis through qualitative and quantitative approaches used to explain the activities of people living in the Huntap area from social and economic aspects, and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), used to determine priority socio-economic activities and the dominant party in establishing social economic conditions in the Huntap region. The results showed that the disaster of September 28, 2018 has negatively impacted the social and economic conditions of affected communities living in the Huntap area characterized by deteriorating family member education, loss of some family members, increasing erratic types of work, decreased income, decreased quality of residence, and reduced property ownership. People affected by disasters living in the Huntap area still need the construction/arrangement of housing, living costs, and job opening, with priorities in order of need: job opening, cost of living assistance, followed by residential development. The parties who play the most role in the development/recovery of economic and social conditions in the Huntap region respectively are the government sector, private sector/entrepreneurs, and followed by Non Governmental Organization.

Page(s): 191-200                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6308

 Edhi Taqwa
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business Tadulako University

Department of Management Faculty of Economics and Business Tadulako University

 Nudiatulhuda Mangun
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business Tadulako University

 Elimawaty Rombe
Department of Management Faculty of Economics and Business Tadulako University

 Maskuri Sutomo
Department of Management Faculty of Economics and Business Tadulako University

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Edhi Taqwa, Muslimin, Nudiatulhuda Mangun, Elimawaty Rombe, Maskuri Sutomo, “Social Economic Conditions of Communities in The Post-Natural Disaster Relocation: Case of Permanent Residence of Tondo and Duyu Villages” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.191-200 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6308

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Neurotic Personality Traits: Prevalence of domestic abuse among inmates in prisons in Kiambu County, Kenya

Harun Issack Hassan, Dr. Mokua Gilbert Maroko, Dr. Jane Karimi – March 2022- Page No.: 201-205

The prevalence of domestic abuse in Kenya is about 39% and is heavily exacerbated by issues such as the individuals’ personality traits and their past experiences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neurotic personality traits on domestic abuse among prisoners convicted for domestic abuse in prisons in Kiambu County, Kenya. The study used both correlational and phenomenological research designs. The target population was 10,334 inmates convicted of domestic related crimes with a sample size of 370. From the findings the respondents who were more confident, resilient, and secure and the type of physical abuse they perpetrated, 28.8% indicated physical abuse, 21.2% indicated sexual abuse, 16.0% indicated financial abuse, and 17.9% indicated emotional abuse while 16.0% were not sure. This study concluded that prevalence of domestic abuse is determined by neurotic personality traits. An implication of this finding is discussed.

Page(s): 201-205                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6309

 Harun Issack Hassan
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Mokua Gilbert Maroko
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Jane Karimi
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

[1] Aphane, M. P., & Mofokeng, J. T. (2018). An analysis of attitudes and perceptions of domestic violence against women in rural areas of Lepelle-nkumpi municipality, Limpopo province. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 10(1), 189–204.
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[14] WHO. (2017, November 29). Violence against women. Retrieved September 12, 2020, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women
[15] Williams, T. F., & Simms, L. J. (2018). Personality traits and maladaptively: Unipolarity versus bipolarity. Journal of personality, 86(5), 888-901

Harun Issack Hassan, Dr. Mokua Gilbert Maroko, Dr. Jane Karimi “Neurotic Personality Traits: Prevalence of domestic abuse among inmates in prisons in Kiambu County, Kenya ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.201-205 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6309

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Teachers Preparedness in Implementation of Alternative Assessment in Primary Schools within the Competency Based Education System of Kenya

Pius M. Mutiso (M.Ed.), Karen T. Odhiambo (Ph.D.)- March 2022- Page No.: 206-217

The aim of the study was to evaluate teachers’ preparedness for the implementation of alternative assessment in primary schools in Kenya. The location for the research was Matungulu Sub-County in Machakos County in Kenya. The survey design was adapted in the study. The study was guided by three objectives, which aimed at determining teachers’ knowledge and skills for the implementation of alternative assessment (AA), application of alternative assessment strategies at classroom level and teachers’ perception for the implementation of AA. The study involved 32-schools with 32 Grade-3 teachers as respondents. Qualitative method was applied using questionnaires. Findings indicated that grade three teachers had insufficient knowledge and skills hampering practice. However, they tend to lean towards traditional assessment strategies. Further, the findings revealed that grade three teachers had near positive verses negative perception towards implementation of AA. This may mean that teachers will be ready for the changing learning landscape towards competency-based education. The teacher’s perception levels reveal an acceptable but not optimum level of readiness to manage education process within a self-regulated learning whose focus is on development of thinking skills more so critical thinking. The findings are supported by the fact that that the three predictor variables had a positive and significant association with implementation of alternative assessment as denoted by their beta coefficients of 0.727, 0.709 and 0.641 respectively, with all having p values < 0.05. On this basis, it could be concluded that since perception is shaped by belief and experience, then the experience of teacher could be regarded as meaningful regarding AA. This can then be said to be tangible and not implied. In terms of knowledge and skills, there is an element of knowledge however, key issues are below threshold such as knowledge of portfolio and confidence in suing AA. At the same time there could be a challenge for both teachers and learners in finding their reserve to flourish as they regulate their roles thus deeming the desire to be autonomous in learners learning and as critical thinkers. There is need for further training and getting all to know and understand their perception. The end result for education researchers is to build a theoretical basis for describing educational dispositions on alternative assessment practice. The results do not provide a trend or pattern. Thus, the proposal for further research and thought in this area as the literature is also not conclusive.

Page(s): 206-217                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6310

 Pius M. Mutiso (M.Ed.)
University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Karen T. Odhiambo (Ph.D.)
University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Pius M. Mutiso (M.Ed.), Karen T. Odhiambo (Ph.D.), “Teachers Preparedness in Implementation of Alternative Assessment in Primary Schools within the Competency Based Education System of Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.206-217 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6310

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Impact of Tsangaya Education System on the Development of Arabic Language in Zamfara State: A Study of Some Selected Tsangaya Schools in Gusau Town

Dr. Sirajo Muhammad Sokoto, Dr. Abubakar Adamu Masama, Dr. Bello Muhammad & Dr. Murtala Marafa – March 2022- Page No.: 218-223

Tsangaya system of education is a programme designed to cater for the Almajirai/students who are out-of-school not only in Zamfara State, but also throughout northern Nigeria. The programme is aimed at integrating traditional Qur’anic Schools and western education under Universal Basic Education Commission. The establishment of Tsangaya or almajiri integrated education is one of the current issues that require special intervention from the governments at all levels to take measures to curtail the menace of street begging, drug abuse, child trafficking and youth in the name of pursuing Qur’anic Education. The Tsangaya or almajiri (Itinerant Qur’anic School Pupils) constitutes the largest group of out-of-school children in Nigeria numbering over nine (9) million children (Universal Basic Education Commission UBEC, 2010). This segment of Nigerian population poses tremendous challenges to the attainment of Education For All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The study examines five Tsangaya schools within Gusau town whose contributions to the Arabic language cannot be over emphasized. The study also adopts both qualitative and quantitative approach of data collection in order to be able gather more reliable information. It also uses both primary and secondary sources for information gathering.

Page(s): 218-223                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 April 2022

 Dr. Sirajo Muhammad Sokoto
Department of Arabic Language, Federal University Gusau

 Dr. Abubakar Adamu Masama
Department of Arabic Language, Federal University Gusau

 Dr. Bello Muhammad
Department of Arabic Language, Federal University Gusau

 Dr. Murtala Marafa
Department of History, Sokoto state University, Sokoto.

[1] Adam, M., Sokoto, S.M., Usman, A.I., Sarkin-kebbi, M. & Sifawa, A.A. (2016). Tradition Versus Modernity: The Origin and Development of Islamiyya Schools in Sokoto State. An IBR TETFUND Research Seminar Paper. Presented at University Lecture Theatre, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria. On 21st January, 2006.
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[9] Sulaiman, A.K. (2000). The almajiri phenomenon study of the youth in traditional Qur’anic scholarship in Northern Nigeria. The Humanities Journal 1(1), 27-47.
[10] Taiwo, F.J. (2013). Transforming the almajiri education for the benefit of the Nigerian society. Journal of Education and Social Research. V 3(9), 67-72.
[11] Universal Basic Education Commission UBEC (2010). Implementation of Almajiri Education Programme by Federal Government. Almajiri Education Unit: Universal Basic Education Commission, Nigeria.
[12] Yusha’u, M.A., Tsafe, A.K., Babangide, S.I. and Lawal, N.I. (2013). The problems and prospect s of integrated almajiri education in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Pure and Applied ScienceV 2(3), 125-134.
[13] Wike, E.N. (2013). Improving access and inclusive education in Nigeria: Update on the almajiri education programme. Presented at National Economic Council, Nigeria.
[14] Zakir, A., Abubakar, U., Lawal, U.S., Imran, H., Habibu, I.T., Hassan, I.H. & Harande, M.M. (2014). The practice of almajiri: Prospect and socio-medical challenges in Northern Part of Nigeria. Journal of African Studies and Development. DOI; 10~5897/JASD2014.0273P. 128-131.

Dr. Sirajo Muhammad Sokoto, Dr. Abubakar Adamu Masama, Dr. Bello Muhammad & Dr. Murtala Marafa, “Impact of Tsangaya Education System on the Development of Arabic Language in Zamfara State: A Study of Some Selected Tsangaya Schools in Gusau Town” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.218-223 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/218-223.pdf

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A Critique of the Positivist Paradigm in Human Sciences

Jaja, Ibifuro Robert, Idoniboye, Omiete, Amadi, Cornelius Chukwudi PhD – March 2022- Page No.: 224-229

Positivism is prominent term in the human sciences due to its cherished claim of objective knowledge. However, the continuous scrutiny of our knowledge claims has shook the very foundation in which positivism stands on. The rather slow reaction of proponents of positivism to the criticisms levied on their paradigm have also truncated the development of the human sciences. This paper therefore critically appraises the positivism with the intention to make clear its strong points and pitfalls. We established the philosophical foundations of the positivist paradigm and the philosophical implication of the tenets of positivism was highlighted. The study contended that the attainment of objective knowledge and generalizable laws in the human sciences is almost impossible. In conclusion, this paper calls for the accommodation of other methodologies or paradigms in the human sciences and a reconsideration of the objective of the human sciences.

Page(s): 224-229                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 April 2022

 Jaja, Ibifuro Robert
Department of Philosophy, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Idoniboye, Omiete
Department of Philosophy, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Amadi, Cornelius Chukwudi PhD
Department of Philosophy, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Jaja, Ibifuro Robert, Idoniboye, Omiete, Amadi, Cornelius Chukwudi PhD , “A Critique of the Positivist Paradigm in Human Sciences” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.224-229 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/224-229.pdf

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Facility dose reference levels for radiation doses for paediatric head CT examination at Moi teaching and referral hospital

Tima Nassir, Onditi Elias, Festus Njuguna, Jack Odunga – March 2022- Page No.: 230-234

Objective: To establish facility dose reference levels for radiation doses for paediatric head CT examination at Moi teaching and referral hospital.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study done at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. A total number of 127 patients aged between 0 to 15years were recruited into the study using systematic sampling technique. Data was collected from the Computed tomography console and estimated effective dose calculated. Categorical variables were summarized as frequencies and percentages. Bivariate analysis was done using T-test to test for association between the dependent and independent variables between the groups. Pearson correlation coefficient and scatter plots were used to describe the relationship between the radiation doses, age and Body Mass Index. A P value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: The mean age for the participants studied was 5.21years. The most common indication for Computed tomography was hydrocephalus (24%). The average Computed Tomography Dose Index, Dose Length Product and effective dose was 32.84 mGy, 1006.1 mGy.cm and 4.01mSv respectively.
The Facility reference level was set as the median value for CTDIVOL, DLP and effective dose at 36.5mGy, 850.6mGy.cm and 3.75mSv respectively.
Conclusion: Computed Tomography Dose Index of the patients are within normal parameters with other places in the world. The Dose Length Product and effective dose are within range with the ones of National Diagnostic Reference Level for Kenya but higher than others countries such as Turkey. There was statistically significant correlation between age and effective dose.

Page(s): 230-234                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 April 2022

 Tima Nassir
Department of Radiology and Imaging, Moi University School of Medicine

 Onditi Elias
Department of Radiology and Imaging, Moi University School of Medicine

 Festus Njuguna
Department of Child Health and Paediatrics, Moi University School of Medicine

 Jack Odunga
Department of Reproductive Health, Moi University School of Medicine

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[5] Vawda Z, Pitcher R, Akudugu J, Groenewald W. Diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography. SA Journal of Radiology. 2015;19(2).
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[14] van der Merwe CM, Mahomed N. An audit of radiation doses received by paediatric patients undergoing computed tomography investigations at academic hospitals in South Africa. SA J Radiol. 2020;24(1):1823-.
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[17] Kritsaneepaiboon S, Trinavarat P, Visrutaratna P. Survey of pediatric MDCT radiation dose from university hospitals in Thailand: a preliminary for national dose survey. Acta radiologica. 2012;53(7):820-6.

Tima Nassir, Onditi Elias, Festus Njuguna, Jack Odunga “Facility dose reference levels for radiation doses for paediatric head CT examination at Moi teaching and referral hospital” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.230-234 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/230-234.pdf

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Input Analysis of Strategic Management Approach to Organizing Adult Literacy Programme in Ondo State, Nigeria

Emoruwa Felix Oladapo Ph.D, Erinsakin Martins Ph.D- March 2022- Page No.: 235-239

The implementation of the adult literacy programme is to make adults become literate. However, the organization of the programme is faced with many challenges; thus the need for this study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population comprised personnel of the Adult Literacy Programme in Ondo State, Nigeria. The sample size of the study was forty six (46) respondents, selected through a purposive simple random sampling technique. An instrument developed by the researcher, titled “questionnaire on input analysis of strategic management approach in adult literacy programme was used to collect data. It was fashioned on four likert rating scales. The research instrument was validated through the use of the test-retest method with the outcome of 0.73 coefficient reliability obtained. Findings showed that effective planning and goals could be achieved through a strategic management approach. Based on this finding, recommendations were made that; managers of the programme should be well trained in the use of strategic management approach and always use it when handling the programme in order to achieve the goals of the programme, increase productivity, efficiency and effectiveness in the organisation of Adult literacy programme.

Page(s): 235-239                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 April 2022

 Emoruwa Felix Oladapo Ph.D
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, Adeyemi Federal University of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Erinsakin Martins Ph.D
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, Adeyemi Federal University of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

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[14] Nkemchor, E.M. & Ezeanolue, E.T. (2021). Effect of strategic management on organizational performance in tertiary institution in Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Social Science and Humanities Research 9 (3): 75-89.
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[19] Samad, S, Yusuf, Y.M, Ahmed, A & Yakimbi, M (2015). Modelling strategic management planning, transformational leadership and organizational performance: The integration of strategic management theories. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 9 94-99
[20] St – Hilaire, W.G.A (2011). “Empirical evaluation test of the strategic planning process on the overall performance of the company”. Global Journal of Management and Business Research. 11 (1). 41-50.

Emoruwa Felix Oladapo Ph.D, Erinsakin Martins Ph.D, “Input Analysis of Strategic Management Approach to Organizing Adult Literacy Programme in Ondo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.235-239 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/235-239.pdf

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In Kano State, Nigeria, The Effects of Cooperative Instructional Strategies on The Performance of Secondary School Students in Geography

Zubairu Suleiman Abubakar Ph.D, Ogunlade Bamidele Olusola Ph.D & Ibrahim Bala – March 2022- Page No.: 240-246

The impacts of cooperative instructional methodologies (think-pair-share and Student Teams-Achievement Divisions) on secondary school students’ performance in geography in Kano State, Nigeria were explored. The study used a pre-and post-test quasi-experimental design. A total of four intact classes from two senior secondary schools in the Nassrawa Educational Zone of Kano State, Nigeria, were used to collect data. For the study, three research questions and three hypotheses were developed. For data collection, the researcher used two instruments: the Geography pre-diagnostic test and the Geography post-diagnostic test. To answer research questions, mean and standard deviation were employed, and hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with pre-test scores as covariates to correct for the sample’s baseline differences. A partial eta squared value of 0.017 suggested a substantial association between the pre-test and post-test scores on the Geography Performance Test. The findings showed that therapy had a significant negative impact on students’ performance (t(93) =-0.633, p=0.528) and (t(93) = 1.415, p=0.160).Based on the findings, it was suggested that geography teachers engage in collaboration in which students are held accountable for each other’s achievements. There are no gender differences between the two tactics. Students who were taught using the think-pair-share and student team accomplishment division methodologies outperformed those who were taught using the traditional method.

Page(s): 240-246                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2022

 Zubairu Suleiman Abubakar Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundation and Curriculum ABU, Zaria, Nigeria

 Ogunlade Bamidele Olusola Ph.D
Department of Educational Technology, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science, and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Ibrahim Bala
Department of Educational Technology, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science, and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

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[9] Esan, A. O. (2009). Effects of cooperative and individualistic problem-solving strategies on students learning outcomes in secondary school mathematics. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Teacher Education. University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
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[18] Omoshehin, M. F. (2004). Effects of a training program in cooperative learning of pre-service teachers ‘classroom practice and pupils’ learning outcomes in social studies. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Teacher Education. University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
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Zubairu Suleiman Abubakar Ph.D, Ogunlade Bamidele Olusola Ph.D & Ibrahim Bala, “In Kano State, Nigeria, The Effects of Cooperative Instructional Strategies on The Performance of Secondary School Students in Geography” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.240-246 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/240-246.pdf

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Impact of Family Structure on Household Economy in Malawi: A Case of Chinsapo 2 and Area 49, an Urban Setting in Lilongwe City in Malawi

Lovemore G. Mwanandi and Cherrie Mwanandi – March 2022- Page No.: 247-260

This study assessed the impact of family structure on household well-being using family savings, family income and food security as variables. Data was collected from 102 households and analyzed using descriptive statistics by computation of means, percentages, variances, standard deviations and frequency distributions, and inferential statistics. The results show that there is a positive relationship between family structure and household economy, and that people living in the urban are better off than those in the semi-rural or rural areas. The study further indicated that female and youth headed households or families are disadvantaged as compared to male and adult headed households or families.

Page(s): 247-260                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2022

 Lovemore G. Mwanandi
Private Industry Practioners

 Cherrie Mwanandi
Private Industry Practioners

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Lovemore G. Mwanandi and Cherrie Mwanandi, “Impact of Family Structure on Household Economy in Malawi: A Case of Chinsapo 2 and Area 49, an Urban Setting in Lilongwe City in Malawi” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.247-260 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/247-260.pdf

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A Comparative Analysis of Kierkegaardian and African Existentialism

Purissima Emelda Egbekpalu, PhD – March 2022- Page No.: 261-265

Existentialism is a philosophical trend that concerns itself with concrete experience of man. This paper comparatively studies Kierkegaard’s and African existentialism. It discovers that Western existentialism springs mainly from the notion of nothingness of human existence and man’s limiting existential conditions. Kierkegaard himself emphasizes subjective existence through the challenging experiences of life as the sure way to authentic existence. On the other hand, while positioning itself in direct opposition to this pessimistic understanding of man’s existence, African existentialism spices itself with optimism grounded in the understanding that man is the beauty and apex of God’s creation. The paper also establishes various notions of Kierkegaard’s existentialism that are comparable to that of Africans. It therefore concludes that both existential perspectives strive to understand man in his lived experiences in order to direct him towards authentic existence but from diverse points of subjective and communal life’s experiences. It concludes that African existentialism offers a more balanced attitude to life through the interplay of personal and community existence. .

Page(s): 261-265                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 March 2022

 Purissima Emelda Egbekpalu, PhD
Department of Philosophy, Madonna University, Nigeria

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Purissima Emelda Egbekpalu, PhD, “A Comparative Analysis of Kierkegaardian and African Existentialism” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.261-265 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/261-265.pdf

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The Church as A Pathway to National Rebirth in Nigeria: A Reflection on Matthew 5:13

Ogunlusi Clement Temitope (Phd) & Aina Oluwatobi Opeyemi – March 2022- Page No.: 266-272

The work studied how the Church could serve as a pathway to national rebirth with emphasis on Matt 5: 13-16. Using analytical and descriptive methods, the paper discussed the theological implications of the Church being salt and light in the context of Nigeria. The metaphorical parlance and symbolic understanding of these elements of light and salt both in the Biblical and social world is not only significant but instructive. For instance, salt is a sign of covenant while light is a sign of orderliness and progress. In other words, salt preserves while light is a guide and could also be a warning light. In the face of endemic corruption, bad leadership, lack of value for human life, materialism, greed, covetousness, worldly pleasure, instant glory through rituals among young people and the likes that are prevalent in contemporary Nigeria, one then wonders what impact Churches are making in the country. Jesus enjoined his followers to “let their light shine before others, so that they may see their good works and give glory to the father in heaven (Matt. 5:16). The work therefore emphasized areas where the Church in Nigeria can make appreciable impacts and further explained that even though our society is corrupt and full of abominable things, the Church must be the salt and the light. This it maintains could be achieved if she retained her distinctiveness, stand for and speak out the truth, protest against folly, deceit and wickedness. The paper recommended that the Church should rise to the challenge of Matt 5:13-16 in order to achieve a successful national rebirth.

Page(s): 266-272                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6311

 Ogunlusi Clement Temitope (Phd)
Department of Religious Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria/span>

 Aina Oluwatobi Opeyemi
Department of Religious Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria

References are not available

Ogunlusi Clement Temitope (Phd) & Aina Oluwatobi Opeyemi “The Church as A Pathway to National Rebirth in Nigeria: A Reflection on Matthew 5:13” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.266-272 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6311

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Relationship between Worker Participation in the Implementation of Safety Standards and Employee’s Performance in Textile Manufacturing Companies in Selected Counties in Kenya

Collins N. KERAKA, Jane OMWENGA, James KILIKA, Lawrence O. Alaro- March 2022- Page No.: 273-278

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of workers participation in implementation of safety standards in textile manufacturing companies in Kenya. Theories that anchored the study include: Heinrich domino theory, Human factor theory, behavioral based Safety theory, system theory and social exchange theory. Methods: The target population included all the 22 textile manufacturing companies in the export processing zone. This study sampled 400 respondents and adopted a descriptive cross sectional research design. Data was collected using questionnaire and key informant’s interviews and coded for computerized data entry. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential analysis which were done using statistical package for social Sciences. Inferential statistics was carried out by the use of multiple regression analysis to determine the significance of the independent variable and moderating variable in respect of employee performance in textile industries in Kenya. Hypothesis testing was carried out using t-test. Result: Inferential statistical analysis revealed that there was a correlation between worker’s participation and employee performance (r = 0.701). Conclusion: The study concluded that workers participation in implementation of safety standards if properly utilized contributes to improved employee performance in textile manufacturing companies in Kenya. The study recommends that textile manufacturing companies should conduct periodic safety training and awareness of safety standards among their employees. Well-structured policies should be formulated and enforced to ensure compliance among employees. It further recommended that workers should be involved in decision making of safety standards.

Page(s): 273-278                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2022

 Collins N. KERAKA
Department of Recruitment Training and Development, Muranga University Technology, Kenya

Department of Entrepreneurship Technology Leadership and Management, Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

Department of Business Administration, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Lawrence O. Alaro
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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[16] Williams, J. H. (2003). “People-Based Safety: Ten Key Factors to Improve Employees’ Attitudes.” Professional Safety (2), 32-36.
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Collins N. KERAKA, Jane OMWENGA, James KILIKA, Lawrence O. Alaro, “Relationship between Worker Participation in the Implementation of Safety Standards and Employee’s Performance in Textile Manufacturing Companies in Selected Counties in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.273-278 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6111

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Analysis of the Added Value of Arabica Coffee in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency, East Java, Indonesia

Indah Dwi Kurniawati, Sri Tjondro Winarno, Mubarokah- March 2022- Page No.: 279-282

The purpose of this study was to analyze the added value of Arabica coffee in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency, East Java, Indonesia. The location determination was carried out in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency with the consideration that the research location is one of the Arabica coffee development areas in East Java Province. The population in this study consisted of group leaders, coffee farmers, coffee processors and the Department of Agriculture in Mojokerto Regency. A sample of 10 respondents from a total of 13 respondents was taken using a purposive technique. To determine the amount of added value obtained from processing cocoa and coffee, using the value added calculation method used by Hayami, et.al (1987). The results showed that the value added analysis of the Arabica coffee processing business in Ketapanrame Village and Trawas Village resulted in the added value of natural processed green bean coffee of IDR 3,284.09 with a value added ratio of 30.1%. The added value of ground coffee is Rp. 9,750.00 with a ratio of 48.75%. Meanwhile, the added value analysis of green bean processing Wine method in coffee processing farms in Ketapanrame and Trawas villages is Rp. 10,022.06 with a ratio of 56.79%. The added value of ground coffee processing in Ketapanrame and Trawas villages is Rp. 23,083.33 with a ratio of 69.25%.

Page(s): 279-282                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2022

 Indah Dwi Kurniawati
Master of Agribusiness Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, UPN Veteran, East Java, Indonesia

 Sri Tjondro Winarno
Master of Agribusiness Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, UPN Veteran, East Java, Indonesia

Master of Agribusiness Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, UPN Veteran, East Java, Indonesia

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[3] Priantara, I.D.G.Y., Mulyani, S., Satriawan, I.K. 2016. ANALISIS NILAI TAMBAH PENGOLAHAN KOPI ARABIKA KINTAMANIBANGLI. Jurnal Rekayasa dan Manajemen Agroindustri. 4 (4): 33-42.
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[6] Winarno, S.T., Darsono, Harisudin, M., & Sudiyarto. (2018). Retensi Kopi Lokal Yang Bersaing Di Pasar Global. CV. Mitra Sumber Rejeki.

Indah Dwi Kurniawati, Sri Tjondro Winarno, Mubarokah, “Analysis of the Added Value of Arabica Coffee in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency, East Java, Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.279-282 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/279-282.pdf

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Appraising Cameroon Students Communicative Competence in English

Jean Désiré Banga Amvéné – March 2022- Page No.: 283-286

Despite the adoption of the competency-based approach and the establishment in Cameroon of the teaching of English right from primary schools some twenty years ago, communicating in English is still a difficult task among French-speaking students. The present survey shows that, out of seventy-two students cumulating at least nine years of English studies, only three were able to prove themselves competent in an elementary communication situation that required them to introduce themselves by correctly forming five sentences indicating the following: name, age, date and place of birth, number of years they had been studying English. It seems therefore, that the teaching of communicative English may not have been effective in the Cameron education system whose lack of internal efficiency is also confirmed

Page(s): 283-286                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6320

 Jean Désiré Banga Amvéné
Department of Subjects Didactics, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon

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[18] Wilkins, D. A. (1972). Grammatical, Situational and Notional Syllabuses. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Jean Désiré Banga Amvéné “Appraising Cameroon Students Communicative Competence in English” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.283-286 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6320

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A Study on the Role of Online Services in Mental Healthcare Access

Lovely Singh – March 2022- Page No.: 287-294

Mental health (MH) has always been disassociated from physical health in the mainstream healthcare domain, and so has mental healthcare access. However, with the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, it was not just about physical health; the pandemic and the ensuing lockdown highlighted the challenges people face with mental health issues. With a global pandemic, there was a sudden drastic change in the lives of the people, such as restricted movements, lack of human warmth/touch, change in work and study mode, loss of loved ones, heightened emotions and very few ways to process or express them resulted in the rise of mental health issues. For a problem to be resolved, acknowledgement is required first. An increase in MH issues came with a positive acknowledgement around of problem. Some with acceptance, some with initial denial, started to look for ways to deal with the changes. In this age of technology, seeking help regarding MH issues is also moving online, and this paper will deal with this question. We are going to look at the dimensional change in accessing MH care service in the age where most of the time of people is being spent online.

Page(s): 287-294                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2022

 Lovely Singh
School of Global Affairs, Ambedkar University Delhi

[1] Chandrashekar, P (2018, March 23). Do mental health mobile apps work: evidence and recommendations for designing high-efficacy mental health mobile apps. National Center for Biotechnology Information, US. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897664/
[2] World Health Organization. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on mental, neurological and substance use services: results of a rapid assessment. Geneva. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from The impact of COVID-19 on mental, neurological and substance use services (who.int)
[3] Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment. (2019, September). National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/technology-and-the-future-of-mental-health-treatment
[4] Naresh, N (2021, October 14). Increased use of Mental Health Apps during the Covid-19. Inventiva. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from https://www.inventiva.co.in/stories/inventiva/increase-mental-health-app/
[5] Sontag-Padilla, L. M., Kase, C. A., Woodbridge, M. W., & Stein, B. D. (2016). Evaluation of CalMHSA Student Mental Health Online Resources. In Evaluation of CalMHSA Student Mental Health Online Resources (pp. 1–10). RAND Corporation. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt1b67wk1.1
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[7] Stiefel, S. (2018, May 1). ‘The Chatbot Will See You Now’: Mental Health Confidentiality Concerns in Software Therapy. SSRN. Available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3166640. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3166640
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J Med Internet Res 2018;20(6):e10141
URL: https://www.jmir.org/2018/6/e10141
DOI: 10.2196/10141
[10] Wang, K., Varma, D. S., & Prosperi, M. (2018). A systematic review of the effectiveness of mobile apps for monitoring and management of mental health symptoms or disorders. Journal of psychiatric research, 107, 73–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.10.006
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Lovely Singh “A Study on the Role of Online Services in Mental Healthcare Access” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.287-294 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/287-294.pdf

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Contributions of roof covering material to Acoustic and Thermal Effect on Learning Activities in Institution Buildings in Nigeria

Akugbe Collins Oviasogie- March 2022- Page No.: 295-303

The material that makes up the institution buildings for learning activities must meet the required standard for temperature and sound level, else, learning process and the end-users will be affected. Meanwhile, aluminium material that has gained incessant usage as roof covering material for institution buildings in Nigeria is known to be poor insulator of sound and heat. This study, therefore, investigates the contribution of roof covering materials to the acoustic and thermal effect on learning activities in institution buildings with a view to improve the learning environment and health of the end-users in Nigeria. The buildings studied are the lecture halls, library, and student hostel. Using the Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table, a total of 384 sample sizes drawn with the questionnaire were administered, and the number returned and filled was analysed using chi-square and regression analysis. The findings show the disadvantage of aluminium roof covering that includes sound interference during learning activities, diverted attention among students and reduced teaching ability of the teacher or instructors mostly in both the lecture hall and the library. In addition, the material’s poor heat insulation nature causes increased sweating and headache. Therefore, recommendations that can sustain the available material best fit the available cost were made based on the study research findings

Page(s): 295-303                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2022

 Akugbe Collins Oviasogie
Department of Architecture, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria

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Akugbe Collins Oviasogie, “Contributions of roof covering material to Acoustic and Thermal Effect on Learning Activities in Institution Buildings in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.295-303 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/295-303.pdf

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The Adoption and Use of Digital Literacy among Selected Libraries in Tertiary Colleges in Tanzania

Bulugu, Paskazia Patrick and Julius Tunsaje Tweve – March 2022- Page No.: 304-309

This study chiefly aimed at assessing the adoption and use of digital literacy among libraries in selected tertiary colleges. Two tertiary college were selected as cases studies, namely, Tanzania Public Service College (TPSC) and Dar es Salaam Maritime Institute (DMI).The study aimed at examining the status of digital literacy adoption, determining the use of digital literacy on their day-to-day activities, and identifying challenges of digital literacy adoption and use among libraries in selected colleges. A sample of 98 library users were selected as respondents. Data was collected through questionnaire and face-to-face interview. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, while content analysis was used for qualitative data.
The findings show that majority of the respondents were aware of the adoption and use of Digital Literacy, but faced challenges such as technophobia, lack of enough and supported instructions on digital literacy, poor power supply to support internet, and insufficient digital literacy facilities. In fact, the majority of respondents had adopted and used digital literacy for less than a year. The use of digital literacy has a number of benefits such as easy and quick access of information, retrieval of library information in cataloguing and classification, as well as accessing different databases to acquire relevant data and information.
The study recommends that the government and top management of institutions or colleges should make available more funds to support libraries in the adoption and use of digital literacy, allow librarians to take short courses to enhance adoption and use of digital literacy, purchase more digital literacy facilities, purchase a strong standby generator, and accommodate digital literacy programmes in college curricula.

Page(s): 304-309                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6312

 Bulugu, Paskazia Patrick
Tumaini University, Tanzania

 Julius Tunsaje Tweve
Tumaini University, Tanzania

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Bulugu, Paskazia Patrick and Julius Tunsaje Tweve, “The Adoption and Use of Digital Literacy among Selected Libraries in Tertiary Colleges in Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.304-309 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6312

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Monetary Policy and Deposit Money Banks Lending in Nigeria 2000-2020

Obi-Nwosu Victoria O; Chukwu, Kenechukwu Origin – March 2022- Page No.: 310-321

This study investigated the effect of monetary policy on deposit money banks lending in Nigeria (2000 – 2020) using secondary data from Statistical bulletin of Central Bank of Nigeria. The research work used the Vector Autoregressive Estimates to test the effect of the independent variables (Monetary Policy Rate, Liquidity Ratio, Cash Reserve Ratio and Loan to Deposit Ratio) on the dependent variable (Total loans and advances). The study found that monetary policy has negative and significant effect on deposit money banks lending in Nigeria within the period of the study. The study therefore advocates that monetary authority should strive to maintain a reasonable interest rate that will tends to reduce cost of borrowing and lending in the economy. There is need to strengthen bank loan and advance and monetary policy through effective and efficient regulation and supervisory framework. Government should through the Central Bank of Nigeria ensure working monetary policy instrument and make a periodic review of the polices in a way that will encourage bank lending. Monetary authority should manage the lending rate properly for it to be attractive and affordable for investors to borrow money from the bank. In conclusion, monetary policy rate, liquidity ratio, cash reserve ratio and loan to deposit ratio should be looked into by monetary authority in a way that is friendly to loan advancement especially relating to those who are in need of it. Finally, monetary policy should not be used in isolation but in collaboration with fiscal policy

Page(s): 310-321                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2022

 Obi-Nwosu Victoria O
Department of Banking and Finance, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Chukwu, Kenechukwu Origin
Department of Banking and Finance, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Obi-Nwosu Victoria O; Chukwu, Kenechukwu Origin “Monetary Policy and Deposit Money Banks Lending in Nigeria 2000-2020” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.310-321 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/310-321.pdf

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Learning Assignment and Quality of Business Studies Textbook in Secondary Schools in Kenya

Sarah Getahun Bekele, Paul Odundo Amollo, John Kamau Mwangi, Ganira Khavugwi Lilian – March 2022- Page No.: 322-328 

Properly designed business studies textbook promotes effective and independent learning through appropriate learning assignments yielding achievement of learning objectives for sustained academic results in business studies. Learning assignments in business studies textbook offers learner with opportunity to develop skills and master requisite knowledge accelerating exciting learning process paving way for lively episodes of learning in and outside classroom. However, inappropriate or amorphous questions in core textbook limits realization of specific objectives blocking knowledge construction and as a result degrading learners’ mean score in business studies. The study adopted exploratory research design through quantitative and qualitative approach to data collection and analysis. Counts, percentages, means, standard deviations, Chi square tests and content analysis were used for data analysis. Cross tabulation of results indicated that learning assignments significantly influence quality of Business studies textbook implying that appropriate learning assignment supports achievement of learning for sustained learning experience. Further analysis showed that subject goals, skill development and concept mastery influence quality of learning assignments encouraging knowledge retention and recall ability among leaners. Therefore, it is recommended that relevant learning assignments be provided in business studies textbook in order to accelerate learning across the school system.

Page(s): 322-328                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6313

 Sarah Getahun Bekele
Department of Educational Communication Technology and Pedagogical Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Paul Odundo Amollo
Department of Educational Communication Technology and Pedagogical Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 John Kamau Mwangi
Department of Educational Communication Technology and Pedagogical Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Ganira Khavugwi Lilian
Department of Educational Communication Technology and Pedagogical Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Bekele S. G., Odundo P. A., Mwangi J. K., Ganira K. L., (2022) Instructional Content and Quality of Business Studies Textbook in Secondary School in Kenya, International Journal of Educational Technology and Learning, Scientific Publishing Institute, vol. 12(1), pages 1-9.
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Sarah Getahun Bekele, Paul Odundo Amollo, John Kamau Mwangi, Ganira Khavugwi Lilian “Learning Assignment and Quality of Business Studies Textbook in Secondary Schools in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.322-328 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6313

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Armed Banditry, Coercive Approach and Human Security in the Northwest Nigeria

Ibrahim Abdullahi- March 2022- Page No.: 329-338

Localized banditry had swiftly grown with a bush fire effect consuming almost the entire Northwest geo-political region of Nigeria in recent times, its rapid transformation to becoming a more deadly attrition, and the potential of overturning the socio-economic, security and political wellbeing of the entire Northern region. This study examines the remote and immediate causes of tribalized security challenges as armed banditry, with a special interest from the aftermath of 2015 elections and the emergence of Muslim, Hausa-Fulani President, with an anti-corruption inclination, which coincided with unprecedented diverse uprisings and security impasses. The study also examines the armed banditry trend, extent of their appalling activities and how it affects socio-economic wellbeing within the affected region. The study further assesses the appropriateness and effectiveness of coercive approach to such localized upheavals, leveraging on propositions of Securitization (Copenhagen) Theorist, whose primary assumptions are hinged around multifaceted approach to security; and their justification for taking extraordinary and rule breaking measures in handling insecurity. The study further explores effectiveness of forcible approaches in other context through a peer-review analysis to infer likely outcome of current strategy applied by Nigeria. The study offers more suitable solutions and proffer practical policy recommendations. Most recent studies on the subject matter would be studied and credible data from existing research would be reviewed.

Page(s): 329-338                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2022

 Ibrahim Abdullahi
PhD. Candidate – Conflict, Peace and Strategic Studies (CPS), Department of Political Science, Nile University of Nigeria

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[11] Baysoy, E. (2018) Human Security from the Critical Theory Perspective: EU and the Refugee Crisis – https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328576937_HUMAN_SECURITY_FROM_THE_CRITICAL_THEORY_PERSPECTIVE_EU_AND_THE_REFUGEE_CRISIS accessed 31.01.22
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Ibrahim Abdullahi, “Armed Banditry, Coercive Approach and Human Security in the Northwest Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.329-338 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/329-338.pdf

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The Effects of Global Sourcing on Supply Chain Performance in Dairy Manufacturing Companies in Zimbabwe

Dumisani Mawonde, Josphat Nyoni, Peter Ngarize and Servious Gaviro – March 2022- Page No.: 339-342

This study aimed to determine the effects of global sourcing on supply chain performance in dairy manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe. A mixed-method approach was used and a sample size of 24 procurement staff for the questionnaire was selected from a population of 25 procurement professionals in dairy manufacturing companies. Interviews were carried out with procurement professionals from dairy manufacturing companies. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used to analyze quantitative data whilst thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings of the study show that global sourcing practices had a significant positive effect on the quality of purchased materials, an insignificant positive effect on landing cost of materials, and a significant negative effect on stock availability of materials. The study concluded that the adoption of global sourcing may not guarantee improved supply chain performance in dairy manufacturing companies. This means that the effectiveness of global sourcing may depend on the sector and context in which it is applied. Therefore, it was recommended that dairy manufacturing companies need to consider adopting global sourcing practices and other supportive local sourcing strategies to improve their supply chain performance in the context of developing countries.

Page(s): 339-342                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 April 2022

 Dumisani Mawonde
Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe

 Josphat Nyoni
Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe

 Peter Ngarize
Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe

 Servious Gaviro
Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe

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[20] Zimbabwe Association for Dairy Farmers. (2013). The dairy industry in Zimbabwe A brief history overview. Retrieved from Available at ZimbabweAssociation-of Dairyfarmers.html.

Dumisani Mawonde, Josphat Nyoni, Peter Ngarize and Servious Gaviro, “The Effects of Global Sourcing on Supply Chain Performance in Dairy Manufacturing Companies in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.339-342 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/339-342.pdf

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Solo On and Off Duty: Challenges of Selected Solo Parent Employees in Call Center Companies and the Implication of Republic Act 8972

Ralph Joseph C. Tuazon, Jessa C. Butiu, Sittie Farhannah C. Natangcop, Jessa Mae L. Lonzaga, Marie Katrina A. Lim – March 2022- Page No.: 343-350

The study aims to unravel the challenges that solo parent workers face in their workplace while simultaneously exploring their struggles beyond their career or profession. The implementation of Republic Act No. 8972, also known as the “Solo Parents’ Welfare Act of 2000” Section 6 (Flexible Work Schedule) and Section 8 (Parental leave) were also assessed by the proponents on randomly selected BPO companies in the Philippines. The purpose of this study is to create a narrative based on the stories of solo parents and how the implementation of the stated legislation affects them.

This study revealed different narratives on how solo parents face challenges, how the people around them affect them, and the instances they consider as the most challenging as a solo parent. In addressing the challenges faced by solo parent employees, it was emphasized that both companies and the government has its role to play. In the perspective of the offices concerned with the mentioned sector, implementing the legislation for solo parents will be favorable for the company because it can improve their solo parent employees’ productivity since they can exert more focus on their job. Moreover, it is conspicuous that most solo parent participants are not that knowledgeable regarding the other provisions of the law. Motions in the Congress about the amendments of the said law are mentioned as well. The study was completed with the intention to benefit solo parent workers, company’s productivity together with its human resource department that exercises the legislation’s virtue efficiently.

Page(s): 343-350                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6314

 Ralph Joseph C. Tuazon
Vox Nova

 Jessa C. Butiu
Community of Human Resource Management (CHRS), and Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Branch (PUP Quezon City)

 Sittie Farhannah C. Natangcop
Community of Human Resource Management (CHRS), and Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Branch (PUP Quezon City)

 Jessa Mae L. Lonzaga
Community of Human Resource Management (CHRS), and Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Branch (PUP Quezon City)

 Marie Katrina A. Lim
Community of Human Resource Management (CHRS), and Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Branch (PUP Quezon City)

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[40] Stack, R. J. (2017, October 17). The Impact of Financial Hardship on Single Parents: An Exploration of the Journey from Social Distress to Seeking Help. Journal of Family and Economic Issues. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10834-017-9551-6?error=cookies_not_supported&code=2d1d2144-9166-4e90-bf9a-be62f7a6fc1f
[41] Stephen, E.N. & Udisi, L. (2016). SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON CHILDREN: A STUDY OF AMASSOMA COMMUNITY IN BAYELSA STATE https://www.idpublications.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Full-Paper-
[42] Strengths and challenges of single mothers in Helsinki, Dawadi, Diaconia University, 2019 https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/265227/FINAL%20THESIS-.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y
[43] The Importance of Work-Life Balance On Employee Performance Millennial Generation In Indonesia. (2020). Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(09). https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.09.203
[44] The Manila Times, (2014, January 27). Solo parent has right to flexible work schedule that does not affect company productivity. The Manila Times. https://www.manilatimes.net/2014/01/27/legal-advice/dearpao/solo-parent-has-right-to-flexible-work-schedule-that-does-not-affect-company-productivity/71158/
[45] The Manila Times, (2016, April 29). Labor benefits of a solo parent. The Manila Times. https://www.manilatimes.net/2016/04/30/legal-advice/dearpao/labor-benefits-of-a-solo-parent/259240/
[46] Woessmann, L. (2020, July 15). An International Look at the Single-Parent Family. Education Next. https://www.educationnext.org/international-look-single-parent-family/

Ralph Joseph C. Tuazon, Jessa C. Butiu, Sittie Farhannah C. Natangcop, Jessa Mae L. Lonzaga, Marie Katrina A. Lim “Solo On and Off Duty: Challenges of Selected Solo Parent Employees in Call Center Companies and the Implication of Republic Act 8972” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.343-350 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6314

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Reaching Jayapura City by Applying Christ’s Method for Immigrants

Adie Alfrets Lantu, Hendriks Stimson Hutagalung, Rolyana Ferinia- March 2022- Page No.: 351-355

There are many problems and challenges of urban evangelism facing the Protestant church in Jayapura City, Papua – Indonesia. the purpose of this paper is to find the best methods and strategies to reach immigrants in Jayapura city with the gospel of Jesus Christ. How the Protestant Church in Jayapura reached out to the residents of the city of Jayapura, the majority of whom were immigrants. How is applying Christ’s method in the context of the modern world so important? The methodology used in this research is a literature study, the authors develop the topic of discussion by reviewing articles from websites, books, scientific articles and other literature that have discussed the same and relevant topics. The analysis and research results emphasize the method of Christ that will provide success in evangelism in the city of Jayapura and its application in modern times. Through the center of influence program, digital ministry, congregation planting and small groups that will be carried out by the Christian church in the city of Jayapura will have a major impact on the progress of evangelism in the city of Jayapura. The involvement of all church members to evangelize will bring success in the work of preaching the gospel.

Page(s): 351-355                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6315

 Adie Alfrets Lantu
Program Pasca Sarjana Magister Filsafat Universitas Advent Indonesia

 Hendriks Stimson Hutagalung
Program Pasca Sarjana Magister Filsafat Universitas Advent Indonesia

 Rolyana Ferinia
Program Pasca Sarjana Magister Filsafat Universitas Advent Indonesia

[1] Costa, F. M. (2015, 06 05). Jayapura, Light from the East. Retrieved from Kompas: https://web.archive.org/web/20160304103619/http:/print.kompas.com/baca/2015/06/05/Jayapura,-Cahaya-dari-Timur
[2] Jubi. (2019, 08 29). The name of Jayapura City is proposed to be changed to Port Numbay. Retrieved from Jubi.co.id: https://www.teras.id/news/pat-20/179668/nama-kota-jayapura-diusulkan-diganti-jadi-port-numbay
[3] Mambor, V. (2020, 09 19). Papua Live Matter. Retrieved from Jubi.co.id: https://jubi.co.id/enembe-sebut-jumlah-oap-di-provinsi-papua-23-juta-jiwa/
[4] Mission, A. (2021). Using Christ’s Method. Retrieved from Adventist Mission: https://am.adventistmission.org/using-christs-method
[5] Moyer, B. C. (1992). The Challenge of the Cities. Retrieved from Encyclopedia of Seventh-Day Adventist: https://www.ministrymagazine.org/archive/1992/11/the-challenge-of-the-cities
[6] Samaan, P. (2012). Christ’s Method Alone. Retrieved from Advent Source: https://www.adventsource.org/store/adult-ministries/community-services/christs-method-alone-37147
[7] Sennet, R. (1994). Flesh and Stone. New York: Norton.
[8] Shenk, W. (1995). Writing the Vision. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press.
[9] Stikom. (2018). Social Media Means. Retrieved from repository.dinamika.ac.id: https://repository.dinamika.ac.id/id/eprint/2324/5/BAB_III.pdf
[10] White, E. G. (2021). The Ministry of Health and Healing. Retrieved 08 13, 2021, from EGW Writings: https://m.egwwritings.org/en/book/2715.557
[11] Widyananda, R. F. (2020, 06 04). Types of Social Media Most Often Used by Indonesians. Retrieved from Merdeka.com: https://www.merdeka.com/jatim/10-macam-media-sosial-yang-paling-sering-digunakan-oleh-orang-indonesia-kln.html
[12] Wilson, L. (2018, 08 29). What Digital Ministry Means. Retrieved from Apps4God: https://apps4god.org/artikel/apa-artinya-pelayanan-digital-dan-apa-kaitannya-dengan-kreativitas
[13] Johnson, K. W. (2014). Frienship Evangelism. Retrieved from Sabbath School and Personal Ministries: https://www.sabbathschoolpersonalministries.org/page-436
[14] White, E. G. (2021). The Ministry of Health and Healing. Retrieved from EGW Writings: https://m.egwwritings.org/en/book/2715.557
[15] Ellen G. White, Gospel Workers, 136-139. {ChS 49.1}
[16] Peter Wagner, Church Planting for a Greater Harvest, (Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1990), 11.
[17] Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church, vol. 7, p. 16).
[18] Kominfo, (2020). http://kominfo.jayapurakota.go.id/2018/03/08/sejarah-singkat-kota-jayapura/
[19] Badan Pusat Statistik, https://www.industry.co.id/read/3866/bps-delapan-kota-ini-dengan-biaya-hidup-paling-mahal-di-indonesia

Adie Alfrets Lantu, Hendriks Stimson Hutagalung, Rolyana Ferinia, “Reaching Jayapura City by Applying Christ’s Method for Immigrants” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.351-355 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6315

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Anxiety and Stress as Correlates of Financial Adjustment among Pre-Retirement Age Public Primary School Teachers in North-East Geo-political Zone of Nigeria

Akafa, Ranyang Nyangwae, E.G. Egbe-Okpenge (Prof), & A. O. Amali (Prof)- March 2022- Page No.: 356-361

The study investigated how anxiety and stress correlates with financial adjustment among pre-retirement age public primary school teachers in North-Eastern Nigeria. Three specific objectives with corresponding research questions guided the study and three hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a correlational research design. The population of the study made up of 53,142 public primary school teachers in 10, 173 schools in North Eastern, Nigeria. The sample size for the study was 397 public primary school teachers. The selection of sample size was done using proportionate stratified random sampling and convenience sampling techniques. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “Anxiety, Stress and Financial Adjustment Questionnaire (ASFAQ)”. The questionnaire was validated by five experts and its reliability was established using Cronbach Alpha method. The reliability coefficients were 0.65 for the anxiety scale, 0.72 for stress scale and 0.61 for financial adjustment scale. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) and Multiple Regression Analysis were used for data analysis via Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings of the study revealed that anxiety and stress correlated negatively with financial adjustment among pre-retirement age public primary school teachers. The test of hypotheses found that anxiety and stress significantly predict financial adjustment of pre-retirement age public primary school teachers in North–Eastern Nigeria. The study concluded that anxiety and stress play significant roles in determining the financial retirement adjustment of pre-retirement age public primary school teachers. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that, counsellors should adopt interventions like the pre-retirement counselling therapy to help teachers with anxiety issues who are finding it difficult to make social decisions that can have impact on their lives during retirement.

Page(s): 356-361                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 April 2022

 Akafa, Ranyang Nyangwae
National Open University of Nigeria, Jalingo Study Centre, Taraba State

 E.G. Egbe-Okpenge (Prof)
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph Sarwuan Tarkaa University, Makurdi

 A. O. Amali (Prof)
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph Sarwuan Tarkaa University, Makurdi

[1] Adetunde, C.O.(2017). Socio-Economic Adjustment of Retired Civil Servants in Kwara and Lagos States, Nigeria: A Qualitative Study. A PhD Dissertation, Covenant University, Otta, Nigeria. Retrieved on 19 February, 2020 from www.eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/10107/1ADETUNDE%2C%20/CHRISTINA%20/OLUFUNKE.pdf
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[4] Eze, J. U (2010). Differentials in pre-retirement preparation strategies of secondary school teachers in Anambra and Enugu states of Nigeria: Implications for workplace counseling. The Counsellor Volume 28,47-57
[5] Fontielle, A (2020). Budgeting for the four Financial Phases of Retirement. Retrieved on 1/6/2021 from www.invostopedia.com/article/personal-finances/110315/4-phases-retirement-and-how-budget-them
[6] Galadanchi, A.A. (2012). Effects of stress and creativity on academic performance among secondary school students in Katsina state, an unpublished Dissertation submitted to the Department of Education, UDU, Sokoto.
[7] Igbo, H.I. & Awopetu, R.G. (2012). Strategies for Curbing Pre-Retirement Anxiety among Primary School Teachers in Gboko LGA of Benue state. Interdisciplinary journal of Contemporary Research in Business. 4(6): Retrieved on 10 July, 2020 from ijcrb,webs.-comjournal-disciplinary
[8] Jah, I; Franchie, B. N; and Anyeh, P.M (2019). Retirement preparedness of public sector employees in Cameroon: The case of civil servants in the Buea Municipality. A Theses submitted to the department of Business and Managementstudies of PAID-WA. Retrieved on19/2/2020 fromwww.paidafrica.org/images/data/isatou_jah.pdf
[9] Kwesi, N.W. & Ellen, A.M.A. (2012). Retirement planning and counselling: Issues and challenges for teachers in public schools in the Sekondi Circuit. US- China Education Review A8 (2012): 755-767 David Publishing. Retieved on 4 November, 2019 from files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED53645/.pdf
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[12] Nweke, J. O. (2015). Post-retirement stress under non-contribution pension regime: A study of retired civil servants in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Canadian Social Sciences, 11(16), 109-117. doi:10.3968/7106
[13] Nyoro, K.N & Otieno, O.J (2016). Predictors of employee preparedness for retirement in public institutions within Mombasa County, Kenya. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 3 (1): 136-145.
[14] Obioma S.N. (2016). The problems of retirement as perceived by retired secondary school teachers in Imo State: Implications for counseling. The counsellor, 35 (1&2): 39-53
[15] Ogujiofor, E.N. (2018). Assessment of retirement preparedness among civil servants in state health board of Enugu state; Nigeria. Retrieved on the 19th February,2020 from www.oee.unn.edu.ng/read/assessment-of-retirement-preparedness-among-civil-servants-in-state-health-board-of-enugu-state-nigeria?rdr=1
[16] Olatunde, A. & Onyinye, T, (2013). Problems and prospects of retirement adjustments on families of retirees among civil servants in Ekiti state, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal by European Scientific Institute ESI, Special Education, 1: 241-246. Retrieved on 4 November, 2019 from eujournal.org.index.php/esj/article/view/125/1261
[17] Olowookere, D. (2017). FG takes 5tr loan from pension funds to pay salaries, others. Retrieved on 14/01/2022 from www.businesspost.ng/economy/fg-takes-n5tr-loan-from-pension-funds-pay-salaries-others
[18] Peter, K.V., Samuel, K.A., Yayra, D., & Kwesi, N.W. (2018). Managing pre-retirement anxiety among Teachers in Yilo-Krobo Municipality in Eastern Region of Ghana’ US-China Education Review B Retrieved from Doi: 10-117265/2161-6248/2018.03.001
[19] Redhwan, A.A., & Robert, C. (2011). Stress and coping strategies among retired people in Malaysia: A Qualitative study. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2(2), 143-147
[20] Ugwu, E. L., Enwereuzor, K.I., Mefoh, C.P., Ugwu, I.L., & Onyishi, E.I. (2019). Pre-retirement anxiety: development and validation of a measurement instrument in a Nigerian sample. Journal of Psychology in Africa. 29 (1), 43-48. Retrieved on 10/7/2021 from https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2019.1568054

Akafa, Ranyang Nyangwae, E.G. Egbe-Okpenge (Prof), & A. O. Amali (Prof), “Anxiety and Stress as Correlates of Financial Adjustment among Pre-Retirement Age Public Primary School Teachers in North-East Geo-political Zone of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.356-361 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/356-361.pdf

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Home Environment as Correlates of Primary School Pupils’ Literacy Skills Development in Ibadan Metropolis

M. D Amosun and Tayo, C. Ogunyebi – March 2022- Page No.: 362-366

One serious problem currently facing primary education in Nigeria is illiteracy. An alarmingly high percentage of primary school children are not learning to read, that is, they cannot use reading as a tool of learning, a problem which is also synonymous to writing. Researchers have also identified factors such as teachers’ quality, school factor and availability of reading materials, foreign language usage, as factors that could be responsible for such marred development of literacy skills in children. However, most studies on the influence of home language on children’s literacy skills were all foreign studies. In view of these, this study investigates home environment as correlate of literacy skills of primary pupils in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted a correlational survey research design. Simple random sampling technique was used to select one and twenty (120) primary three pupils. Pupils reading assessment (0.92), Pupils’ Home-environment and literacy Questionnaire (0.70) as well as Writing assessment scale (0.91) were the instruments used in the study. Two research question were answered using inferential statistic of Pearson product movement correlation. The findings revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between home environment and reading skills of pupils. (r=0.30; p<0.05), but no significant relationship between home environment and writing skills (r=-0.04; p>0.05). The study recommended that effort must be made on the part of the parents to ensure that their home environment is such that facilitates and stimulates the literacy skills of their children

Page(s): 362-366                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 April 2022

 M. D Amosun
Department of Early Childhood and Educational Foundations, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 Tayo, C. Ogunyebi
Department of Early Childhood and Educational Foundations, University of Ibadan, Nigeria/span>

[1] Asodike, J. D & Ikpitibo, C. L. (2014). Basic Issues in Primary Education delivery in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal 8(1): 150- 164
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[11] Iroegbu, V.I. & Igweike, O. M.(2020). Effect of parental involvement on the reading skills of pupils in lower primary school in Ondo state, Nigeria Journal of Education & Social Policy Vol. 7(4), 89-96
[12] Jaiyeoba, A. O. (2011). Primary School Teachers’ Knowledge Of Primary Education Objectives and Pupils Development. African Educational Research Network. 11(1): 4-8
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[16] OECD (2012). Literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environment: Framework for the OECD survey of adult skills. OECD publishing. Retrieved 7th April, 2014 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/numeracy
[17] Okon N., (2003). Improving literacy through vocabulary acquisition’s. Appl.Lit. Reading. 1(1): 125-132.
[18] Otache, I. (2020). Poor reading culture in Nigeria: the way forward. African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Research Vol. 3( 4), 25-37
[19] Oyetunde,T.O, Ojo,G,. Korb,K.A., Babudoh, G. (2016). Improving Literacy Instructional Practices in Primary Schools in Nigeria: Strategies That Work. Journal of Literacy Information and Computer Education 6(2), 2323-2328
[20] Raymond, E.(2019). Factors responsible for the poor reading achievement of pupils in public primary schools from teachers’ perspectives: A case study of Yola South and North Local Government area of Adamawa state. International journal of Research -Granthaalayah Vol.7(5), 209-229.
[21] Sebastian, J. Moon, J. & Cunningham, M. (2017). The Relationship of School – based parental involvement with student‟s achievement: a comparison of principal and parent survey reports from PISA 2012. Educ.Stud 43, 123 – 146. Doi. 10.1080/03055698.2016.1248900.
[22] Tarraga V, Garcia, B. & Reyes, J. (2017). Home – based family involvement and academic achievement: a case study in primary educational studies. Educ.stud 44, 361 – 375. Doi:10.1080/03055698.2017.1373C36
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[24] Whitehurst, G.J & Longman, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent Literacy. Child Development 69(3), 848-872.

M. D Amosun and Tayo, C. Ogunyebi, “Home Environment as Correlates of Primary School Pupils’ Literacy Skills Development in Ibadan Metropolis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.362-366 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/362-366.pdf

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The Role of Civics Teachers to Improve Student Obedience to the Norms Applicable in the School Environment at 5 Tanete Junior High School, Mamasa Regency

Muh. Asri Tapa, Yoel Sambira, Andi Alim – March 2022- Page No.: 367-371

This study aims to determine the obedience of students to the norms that apply at the Junior High School 5 Tanete and also to find out the efforts made by Civics teachers in increasing student obedience to the norms that apply in schools. This research is a type of qualitative research. The informants consisted of the principal, Civics teacher and several students. This research is located in Sapan Village, Pana’ sub-district, Mamasa Regency, West Sulawesi, to be precise at the Tanete 5 Junior High School. Data collection techniques using documentation, observation and interviews. Data analysis begins with data reduction, presentation of verification data, and concluding. The results showed that the description of students’ obedience to the norms that apply at Junior High School 5 Tanete is quite good, it can be seen from the record of violations that are still quite small and there are no fatal violations of norms, the interaction between students looks friendly and disciplined, this is enough to explain that students in these schools generally obey the prevailing norms. Meanwhile, the efforts made by Civics teachers to increase students’ obedience to the norms that apply in schools are by acting as coaches, motivators, trying to be good role models and giving sanctions to students of Tanete 5 Junior High School.

Page(s): 367-371                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 April 2022

 Muh. Asri Tapa
Faculty Pancasila and Civic Education, University of Pejuang Republic Indonesia

 Yoel Sambira
Faculty Pancasila and Civic Education, University of Pejuang Republic Indonesia

 Andi Alim
Faculty Pancasila and Civic Education, University of Pejuang Republic Indonesia

[1] J. J. Macionis, “Sociology,” Sixth Edit., New Jersey: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997.
[2] S. Kusumadewi, T. Hardjajani, and A. N. Priyatama, “Hubungan antara Dukungan Sosial Peer Group dan Kontrol Diri dengan Kepatuhan terhadap Peraturan pada Remaja Putri di Pondok Pesantren Modern Islam Assalaam Sukoharjo,” J. Ilm. Psikol. Candrajiwa, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 01–10, 2013.
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[8] R. Jungjunan, “Peran Guru PKn Dalam Membentuk Karakter Disiplin Siswa: Studi Deskriptif Analitis di SMAN 1 Ciasem Kabupaten Subang,” Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, 2012.

Muh. Asri Tapa, Yoel Sambira, Andi Alim “The Role of Civics Teachers to Improve Student Obedience to the Norms Applicable in the School Environment at 5 Tanete Junior High School, Mamasa Regency” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.367-371 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/367-371.pdf

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Assessment of pre-harvest losses of banana and the social wellbeing of farmers in Boyo Division, North West Region of Cameroon

Nkwain K. T., Odiaka E. C., & Ikwuba A. A. – March 2022- Page No.: 372-377

The study assessed pre-harvest losses of banana and its effect on the social wellbeing of farmers in Boyo Division. It have as objectives to; assess banana production systems in Boyo division, examine the extent of pre-harvest losses of banana in Boyo division, and assess the effect of the losses on the social wellbeing of the farmers. The study employed multi-stage sampling techniques to select 380 respondents from three out of four Sub-divisions in Boyo Division. Data was obtained from the respondents with the aid of Questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant Interviews. The data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics and relational content analysis. The results revealed that majority of banana farmers practiced banana-coffee intercrop with farm sizes ranging from 0.1-4 hectares. Majority of the producers (87%) were smallholders’ farmers. The results further revealed that during the 2019/2020 cropping cycle, an estimated amount of 89,272 banana suckers were planted/maintained, 61,055 plants harvested, while 28,217 plants were lost at pre-harvest stage. Most of the losses (21-30%) were recorded in the banana-coffee intercrop system. These quantity lost subjected a significant proportion, 81% and 59% of the farmers’ households to food shortages, inability to access good health facilities and societal commitments. The study therefore, concludes that pre-harvest losses of bananas significantly affect the social wellbeing of the farmers and recommend that intercropping should be reduced and improved cultivation practices provided to the farmers.

Page(s): 372-377                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 April 2022

 Nkwain K. T.
Centre for Food Technology and Research (CEFTER), Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Odiaka E. C.
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Ikwuba A. A.
Department of Sociology, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

[1] Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), (2020). Trade and Market: Banana Facts and Figures. Banana Cultivars. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United State. http;//www.fao.org/economic/est/est-commodities/bananas/bananafacts/en/#.XjQQDB7TU0N. Accessed on 6th November, 2020.
[2] Ajambo, S., Rietveld, A., Nkengla, L.W., Niyongere, C., Dhed’a, D.B., Olaosebikan, D.O., Nitunga, E., Toengaho, J., Kumar, L. P., Hanna, R., Kankeu, R. S. & Omondi, A. (2018). Recovering banana production in bunchy top-affected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: developing gender- responsive approaches. Actu Hurticulturae, 1196: 1-9.
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[5] Olumba, C.C. & Onunka, C. N. (2020). Banana and Plantain in West Africa: Production and Marketing. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition, and development, 20 (2): 15474-15489.
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[9] Avana-Tientcheu, M- L., Sime, C, H., Tsobou, R. & Tchoundjeu, Z. (2019). Diversity, Ethnobotanical Potential and Sustainability Assessment of Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Cancer in Boyo Division, North-West Region, Cameroon. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 27 (3): 1-22.
[10] Jacobsen, K., Fogain, R., Mouassom, H. & De Waele, D. (2004). Musa-based cropping systems of the Cameroon highlands: a case study of the West and Northwest provinces of Cameroon, with emphasis on nematodes. Fruits, 59 (5): 311–318.
[11] African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF). (2009). Feasibility Study on Technologies for Improving Banana for Resistance Against Bacterial Wilt in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Agricultural Technology Foundation, pp. 92.
[12] Muchuruza, Y. P. & Melchior, H. R. (2013). The Effects of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (Bxw) on Food Security and the People’s Livelihood: The Case of Nshamba and Rubale Divisions in Kagera Region, Tanzania. KADETFU and CDI organizations, Tanzania. Pp. 44.
[13] Keshavarz, M., Karami, E. & Vanclay, F. (2013). The social experience of drought in rural Iran. Land Use Policy, 30: 120–129.

Nkwain K. T., Odiaka E. C., & Ikwuba A. A. , “Assessment of pre-harvest losses of banana and the social wellbeing of farmers in Boyo Division, North West Region of Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.372-377 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/372-377.pdf

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Social Measure Adopted by Accommodation Establishment Amid Global Health Pandemic in Naval, Biliran

Reymark S. Pabilando, Teofilo Tapaya, Jose Mari Sale – March 2022- Page No.: 378-384

This paper presents a social measure adopted by accommodation establishment amid global health pandemic in Naval, Biliran. The aim is to evaluate the social measure practices of different accommodation establishment to provide recommendations for the improvement of the Hospitality industry during this pandemic. This paper used descriptive approach to assess the demographic profile of the respondents such as age, sex, civil status, name of the establishment, services offered, total number of rooms, amenities and the social measure used by the establishment. It was revealed that majority of the accommodation establishments has set a limit on the number of bookings and guests in order to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the area. During working hours, the majority of the employees engages in social distancing and employs social measures and the management adapt DOH social measures as a policy in their workplaces. Thus, it is recommended that the management should follow protocols from the government to avoid spread of the Covid-19. Data and profiling of guests and staff should be monitored by management so that they can be easily tracked down.

Page(s): 378-384                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 April 2022

 Reymark S. Pabilando
School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Biliran Province State University, Naval Biliran, Philippines

 Teofilo Tapaya
School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Biliran Province State University, Naval Biliran, Philippines

 Jose Mari Sale
School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Biliran Province State University, Naval Biliran, Philippines

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[16] Liu, J., Huang, J., Li, Z., Qu, X., Zheng, X., Tu, C., et al., 2020. A High-Efficiency Hospital Emergency-response Mode is Key to Successful Treatment of COVID-19 Patients in
[17] Zhuhai. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-20125/v1.Lodder, W., de Roda Husman, A.M., 2020. SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater: potential healthrisk, but also data source. Lancet Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1 https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30087-X.
[18] Malhotra, N., Birks, D., 2007. Marketing Research: an Applied Approach: 3rd EuropeanEdition. Pearson education.
[19] Malhotra, R., Venkatesh, U., 2009. Pre-crisis period planning: lessons for hospitality andtourism. Worldw. Hosp. Tour. Themes 1 (1). https://doi.org/10.110817554210910949896.

Reymark S. Pabilando, Teofilo Tapaya, Jose Mari Sale , “Social Measure Adopted by Accommodation Establishment Amid Global Health Pandemic in Naval, Biliran” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.378-384 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/378-384.pdf

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Radiation Doses of Children, Undergoing Computed, Tomography of the Head at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital

Tima Nassir, Onditi Elias, Festus Njuguna, Jack Odunga- March 2022- Page No.: 379-386

Objective: To determine the Volumetric Computed Tomography Dose Index, Dose Length Product and the effective dose of radiation delivered during routine head Computed tomography examination in children less than 15 years at Moi Teaching and Referral hospital and their association with Body Mass Index and age.
Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study done at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. A total number of 127 patients aged between 0 to 15years were recruited into the study using systematic sampling technique. Data was collected from the Computed tomography console and estimated effective dose calculated. Categorical variables were summarized as frequencies and percentages. Bivariate analysis was done using T-test to test for association between the dependent and independent variables between the groups. Pearson correlation coefficient and scatter plots were used to describe the relationship between the radiation doses, age and Body Mass Index. A P value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mean age for the participants studied was 5.21years. The most common indication for Computed tomography was hydrocephalus (24%). The average Computed Tomography Dose Index, Dose Length Product and effective dose was 32.84 mGy, 1006.1 mGy.cm and 4.01mSv respectively. The effective radiation dose decreased as age increased (4.31 to 3.25 mSv, with a P= 0.025 and R=0. 511. There was no association between Body Mass Index and the effective dose (R=0.076). Conclusion: Computed Tomography Dose Index of the patients are within normal parameters with other places in the world. The Dose Length Product and effective dose are within range with the ones of National Diagnostic Reference Level for Kenya but higher than others countries such as Turkey. There was statistically significant correlation between age and effective dose.

Page(s): 379-386                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 April 2022

 Tima Nassir
Department of Radiology and Imaging, Moi University School of Medicine

 Onditi Elias
Department of Radiology and Imaging, Moi University School of Medicine

 Festus Njuguna
Department of Child Health and Paediatrics, Moi University School of Medicine

 Jack Odunga
Department of Reproductive Health, Moi University School of Medicine

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Tima Nassir, Onditi Elias, Festus Njuguna, Jack Odunga, “Radiation Doses of Children, Undergoing Computed, Tomography of the Head at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.379-386 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/379-386.pdf

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Impact of COVID-19 on the On-going Refugees Economic Inclusion in Kenya: Difference-in-Differences Analysis

Serge B. Hounton, Dulo Nyaoro – March 2022- Page No.: 387-400

This paper examines how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the refugee’s livelihood and the on-going economic inclusion in Kenya. We analyse the impact of the pandemic on various refugee settlements such as, Kalobeyei Settlement, and urban areas in the host country compared to the formal camps (Kakuma and Dadaab), Kenya. By doing so, we use the Difference-in-Differences evaluation analysis to access the impact of the pandemic on the refugee’s livelihood (refugees’ income) and the economic inclusion (relief services). We use data collected by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) from May to July 2020 in Kenya to empirically analyse the effect of COVID-19 on the refugees. Our findings show that the refugees in the Kalobeyei settlement and urban areas livelihoods have been negatively and significantly affected than the refugees in the formal camps, Kakuma and Dadaab. Moreover, our analysis reveals that the pandemic has increased the aid dependency of Kalobeyei and urban refugees in Kenya. That means the COVID-19 has negatively impacted on-going refugees’ economic inclusion in Kenya.

Page(s): 387-400                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 April 2022

 Serge B. Hounton
Master of Arts Student in Forced Migration Moi University, Kenya

 Dulo Nyaoro
Peace Institute Coordinator Moi University, Kenya

[1] Alaoui, S. (2020). Inside Dadaab Refugee Camps: Safe-Proofing Relief Distribution During COVID-19. United Nations Foundation (UNF). https://unfoundation.org/blog/post/inside-dadaab-refugee-camps-safe-proofing-relief-distribution-during-covid-19/
[2] Betts, A., Easton-Calabria, E., & Pincock, K. (2021). Localising Public Health: Refugee-led organisations as first and last responders in COVID-19. World Development, 139: 10531(03), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105311
[3] Bhagat, R. B., Harihar, R. R. S., Archana, S., Roy, K., & Govil, D. (2020). The COVID-19, Migration and Livelihood in India: A Background Paper for Policy Makers (Issue April). https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.12528.00008
[4] Braam, D. H., Srinivasan, S., Church, L., Sheikh, Z., Jephcott, F. L., & Bukachi, S. (2021). Lockdowns, lives and livelihoods: the impact of COVID-19 and public health responses to conflict affected populations – a remote qualitative study in Baidoa and Mogadishu, Somalia. Springer, 15(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/S13031-021-00382-5
[5] Bukuluki, P., Mwenyango, H., Katongole, S. P., Sidhva, D., &Palattiyil, G. (2020). The socio-economic and psychosocial impact of Covid-19 pandemic on urban refugees in Uganda. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2(1), 100045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100045
[6] Dempster, H., Ginn, T., Graham, J., Guerrero Ble, M., Jayasinghe, D., Shorey, B., Beltramo, T., Fix, J., Mejia-Mantilla, C., Schmieding, F., Tabasso, D., Tanner, J., Hirose, Y., Huang, C., Lang, H., Lee, E., Post, L., Saez, P., Ruaudel, H., & Schwartz, E. (2020a). Locked Down and Left Behind: The Impact of COVID-19 on Refugees’ Economic Inclusion. https://www.cgdev.org/
[7] Dempster, H., Ginn, T., Graham, J., Guerrero Ble, M., Jayasinghe, D., Shorey, B., Beltramo, T., Fix, J., Mejia-Mantilla, C., Schmieding, F., Tabasso, D., Tanner, J., Hirose, Y., Huang, C., Lang, H., Lee, E., Post, L., Saez, P., Ruaudel, H., &Schwartz, E. (2020b). Locked Down and Left Behind: The Impact of COVID-19 on Refugees’ Economic Inclusion (Issue July). https://www.cgdev.org/
[8] Finsterwalder, J., Kabadayi, S., Fisk, R. P., & Boenigk, S. (2020). Creating hospitable service systems for refugees during a pandemic: leveraging resources for service inclusion. Journal of Service Theory and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-07-2020-0175
[9] Golesorkhi, L. Z., Fortson, G., Harder, K., & Riedmann, T. (2020). Centering community in COVID-19 responses: refugee women’s livelihoods in a global pandemic. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-07-2020-0332
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[11] ILO. (2020). As job losses escalate, nearly half of global workforce at risk of losing livelihoods. ILO. http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_743036/lang–en/index.htm
[12] Lau, L. S., Samari, G., Moresky, R. T., Casey, S. E., Kachur, S. P., Roberts, L. F., & Zard, M. (2020). COVID-19 in humanitarian settings and lessons learned from past epidemics. In Nature Medicine (Vol. 26, Issue 5, pp. 647–648). Nature Research. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0851-2
[13] Mulu, N. T. (2021). COVID-19 and its Effects on the Lives and Livelihoods of Congolese Female Asylum Seekers and Refugees in the City of Cape Town. African Human Mobilty Review, Volume 7 N(May), 1–22.
[14] UNHCR. (2020a). Kenya – Socio-economic impact of COVID-19 on refugees in Kenya. UNHCR Web Page. https://microdata.unhcr.org/index.php/catalog/245
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Serge B. Hounton, Dulo Nyaoro, “Impact of COVID-19 on the On-going Refugees Economic Inclusion in Kenya: Difference-in-Differences Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-3, pp.387-400 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-3/387-400.pdf

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Indigenous Language Education for Entrepreneurial Skills and Youth Empowerment in Nigeria

Awoláoyè, S.O. Ph. D, Emoruwa, O.T. Ph. d & Saka, I.O. – March 2022- Page No.: 401-405

Education is a process of imparting knowledge, skill and attitudes to the learners through the appropriate use of languages. The state of Nigeria’s education system had hindered the process of empowerment of youths in the country. The paper examines the role of indigenous languages as an instrument for the provision of qualitative and functional education that would instill in the life of the youth an entrepreneurial skill for self-reliance. Education, formal and non-formal, public awareness and training are considered as key processes by which humans and the society can reach their full potential. However, despite the huge investment of Nigerian government in education at all levels, many Nigerians are still wallowing in abject p