Indigenous Conflict Resolution: Social Institutions and their Role in Peacebuilding in Ethiopia’s Gamo Community

Heron Gezahegn Gebretsadik- April 2022- Page No.: 01-14

This paper showcases the conflict resolution mechanisms used by populations indigenous to the Gamo areas of Ethiopia. The Gamo system represents a time-honored, informal, and socially equitable method of resolving types of personal and business disputes found among the general populace.
This research work investigates and demonstrates the utility of the Gamo customary method for addressing perceptual and behavioral elements of conflict that are present in all societies across the country. To attain this objective, the article employed both secondary and primary data sources. Both primary and secondary data were organized thematically and analyzed through systematic interpretation and triangulation of various sources.
The article found that conflicts are manifested at a family, neighborhood, and clan (Dere) levels with varying magnitude. The indigenous conflict resolution institution among Gamo has three stages of conflict resolution. The higher (Dere), middle (Guta), and lower stages. Conflict resolution at the higher and middle stages is used to lead by elders from the Gamo traditional political system. Conflicts at the lower stage are used to be resolved by elders selected by the disputant parties. The three stages of conflict resolution are highly interconnected and refer to cases from one setting to another.
From a positional standpoint, this study proposes the indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms among Gamo and draws out lessons for Ethiopia and other countries to build sustainable peace.

Page(s): 01-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6401

 Heron Gezahegn Gebretsadik
School of Global Health & Bioethics, Euclid University (Pôle Universitaire Euclide)

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Heron Gezahegn Gebretsadik, “Indigenous Conflict Resolution: Social Institutions and their Role in Peacebuilding in Ethiopia’s Gamo Community” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.01-14 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6401

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An assessment of the effects of operational risk prevalence on food-aid distribution efficiency in Zimbabwe

Peter Ngarize, Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu and Felix Chari- April 2022- Page No.: 15-24

Background
The frequent occurrence of disasters and their disruptive impact, have been felt by communities throughout the world, forcing, governments and other humanitarian stakeholders to distribute food aid to disaster victims to save lives. In the process of distributing food-aid humanitarian stakeholders, face operational risks, along the food-aid supply chain network, which this study seeks to assess and establish the effect of risks on food-aid distribution efficiency in Zimbabwe.
Objectives
This study intends to achieve the following objectives:
1. To establish the operational supply chain risks prevalent in food aid distribution in Zimbabwe?
2. To assess the impact of operational risks on food-aid distribution efficiency in Zimbabwe?
Methods
A mixed research method was adopted, in this study. Quantitative data and In-depth qualitative face to face structured and semi structured interviews were conducted from 80 government and civil society workers who implement and oversee food-aid distribution programmes in the seven drought prone districts of Zimbabwe. Quantitative data was analyzed using STATA Version 12 and presented in tables while qualitative research material was analyzed using NVivo and presented in vignettes.
Results
The results of this study revealed that operational risks significantly affected the efficiency of implementing humanitarian food- aid distribution operations.
Conclusion
Operational risks affect food aid distribution efficiency, by creating negative impacts on food aid flows resulting in the futility of efficient food aid distribution.

Page(s): 15-24                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 April 2022

 Peter Ngarize
Durban University of Technology

 Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University

 Felix Chari
Bindura State University

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Peter Ngarize, Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu and Felix Chari, “An assessment of the effects of operational risk prevalence on food-aid distribution efficiency in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.15-24 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/15-24.pdf

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Constructing Online Political Habitus: Unpacking Filipino Generational Political Facebook Posts Using Multiple Correspondence Analysis

Jason O. Manaois, PhD- April 2022- Page No.: 25-36

Social networking sites had become influential as a platform for discourses, social interaction, and self-presentation (Delise, 2014). Facebook (FB) had become mainstream that its feature of posting political posts and information impacts the society. It is the objective of this study to explore the nature of online political posts and its users. A purposively sampled participants were selected (n=200), and their online political posts were coded and analyzed. Using exploratory sequential mixed methods, six major motivations to use social media was identified thru content analysis. Multiple correspondence analysis was done to cluster individuals into defined groups, namely: political activism, political slacktivism, and politically enmeshed. Moreover, the structure of online political habitus was constructed. It is cognitively structured by the individual level of political knowledge and socially constructed by political participation. Implications of the result show the crucial role of values formation during the early formative years in a person’s life. The established beliefs and values later dictate a person’s online political engagements. Moreover, educational attainment also contributed to the development of online political habitus of individuals wherein they are instinctively motivated to do political posting.

Page(s): 25-36                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6402

 Jason O. Manaois, PhD
Psychology Department, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

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Jason O. Manaois, PhD, “Constructing Online Political Habitus: Unpacking Filipino Generational Political Facebook Posts Using Multiple Correspondence Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.25-36 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6402

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Porous Borders and Armed Proliferation: Nigeria’s Endless Security Dilemma

Mezie-Okoye, Charles Chukwurah, Ph.D.- April 2022- Page No.: 37-41

This article discusses how Nigeria’s porous borders have fostered insecurity. The protection of human life and property inside a given jurisdiction necessitates border security. Smugglers of various kinds of illegal goods, including small weapons, use Nigeria’s land borders as free entry and exit points. They operate practically unabated by the country’s security forces. Our borders in the northeast and northwest are like thoroughfares without the resistance of Nigerian security officers. A qualitative approach was adopted for this study, a secondary method of gathering data was used; data was gathered from textbooks, journals, articles, published and unpublished works, and the internet. The link between porous borders, arms proliferation, and insecurity allows for the unrestricted flow of small guns into and out of Nigeria, with the majority of these weapons ending up in the hands of non-state actors who use them to stir up trouble and render society unfriendly, ungoverned, and unsafe. This study’s theoretical framework is the failed state theory. The failed state theory outlines a situation in which a government fails to fulfill its duties. Nigeria’s large land and marine borders, on the other hand, are extremely porous and poorly monitored and policed. The key findings of this article are that border porosity caused a food shortage in the northeast and that individuals in the quest for food ended up with significant problems. Kidnappings and insecurity have also escalated in that region, as well as in Nigeria as a whole. The research emphasizes the critical significance of border security in resolving the country’s security concerns. This is because tiny arms and light weapons, as well as criminals, enter the country quite easily and occasionally wreak mayhem.

Page(s): 37-41                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6403

 Mezie-Okoye Charles Chukwurah, Ph.D.
Department of Sociology/Centre for Peace and Security Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Mezie-Okoye, Charles Chukwurah, Ph.D., “Porous Borders and Armed Proliferation: Nigeria’s Endless Security Dilemma” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.37-41 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6403

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Third World Dependency and 2008 Global Financial Crisis: An Analysis of the Sustainability of Global Capitalist System

Udoh Ukeme Victor – April 2022- Page No.: 42-48

Since third world countries was created in the hands of colonial masters, from then still date their economic was link up with that of the western capitalist structures. By so, exposing them to deadly wars of capitalism. The integration of third world economic structures into the global capitalist system have exposed third world countries to the crisis of underdevelopment, exploitation and expropriation of their resources to the foreign land. And by so keeping them in a depending state, so that capitalist goals will continues to be achieved by the capitalist west. To this end, this study seeks to justify the argument “Whether Global Capitalist System is sustainable and what is the way out for third world countries from the woods of the current global system. The study is anchored on Dependency Theory as its theoretical framework. The study adopted secondary methods of data collection as method of gathering data and content analyzed. Also, ex-post facto survey design was employed. Tools such as percentages, chart etc to were used to corroborate the analysis. The findings of the study shows that capitalism as the current global system would face off in 2050, also that third world countries will completely face off, if they still continue in the capitalist ideology. In the light of this, the study recommended some alternative approach for third world countries like automatic Delink from Western capitalist ideology, and that Third World countries, especially in Africa, should adopt Auto- Ecodemocratic System Ideology.

Page(s): 42-48                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2022

 Udoh Ukeme Victor
Department of Political Science University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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[15] Stokes, R.G. and Anderson, B.A. (1990). Disarticulation and human welfare in less developed countries. American Sociological Review. 55: 63-74.
[16] Udoh, U. (2019). Leadership pathology and African’s underdevelopment. Unpublished Conference Proceedings of Institute of African Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3rd 2019 Chinua Achebe International Conference.
[17] World Bank, (2010). Global economic prospects 2010: crisis, Fiancé and growth. World Bank, Washington, DC

Udoh Ukeme Victor, “Third World Dependency and 2008 Global Financial Crisis: An Analysis of the Sustainability of Global Capitalist System” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.42-48 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/42-48.pdf

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Building International Youth Coalition through Youth Exchange Program Volunteering Between China and the Philippines

Jessaree J. Ramos, Randolf Warren Gregorio T. Mayo II, Melchor L. Cuizon – April 2022- Page No.: 49-54

This study expands one understanding of coalitions between countries and how they might help resolve some issues and conflicts. The youth exchange programs and youth volunteering can be an avenue to uncover the possibility of establishing an International Youth Coalition between China and the Philippines by examining their similarities and differences. The mission of the International Youth Coalition is to promote collaboration among the youths across the globe by providing them opportunities as well as enriching their experiences through cultural diversity.
This helps bridge a gap between China and the Philippines, particularly among its youth. Youths are unique as this study promotes the youths internationally to strengthen links and collaboration. Thus, the study aims to know whether the youth in the Philippines and China using the variables of the youth exchange program and volunteering could build an International Youth Coalition despite the tension between the two countries. In support of the above thesis the following questions need to be elucidated: (1) What are the salient features of Youth Exchange Programs and Volunteering between China and the Philippines? (2) What are the similarities and differences between China and Philippines Youth Exchange Programs and Volunteering? (3) How does the Youth Exchange Program and Volunteering to influence the possibility of an International Youth Coalition between China and the Philippines?

Page(s): 49-54                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6404

 Jessaree J. Ramos
Department of Social Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Philippines

 Randolf Warren Gregorio T. Mayo II
Department of Social Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Philippines

 Melchor L. Cuizon
Department of Social Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Philippines

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[6]. Mill, J.S. (1843). A System of Logic, Raciocinative and Inductive: Being a Connective View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation (8th Ed.). New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers. file:///C:/Users/asus/Downloads/A%20System%20of%20Logic,%20Ratiocinative%20and%20Inductive%20(Classic%20Reprint)%20by%20J.%20S%20Mill%20(z-lib.org).pdf.
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[9]. Scheer, T. (1997). Vowel-zero alternations and their support for a theory of consonantal interaction.
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Jessaree J. Ramos, Randolf Warren Gregorio T. Mayo II, Melchor L. Cuizon “Building International Youth Coalition through Youth Exchange Program Volunteering Between China and the Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.49-54 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6404

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Belonging and Becoming: Boundary and Identity Issues in the North West Region of Cameroon

Mathias Azang Adig (PhD)- April 2022- Page No.: 55-60

Inter-ethnic boundary crises are hallmarks of Cameroon with the North West Region (NWR) gaining notoriety with high propensity of aggravation. The varied ramifications of crises related to boundaries in this region, orchestrates unanimity among academics and researchers that the issue is topical and preoccupying. What seamlessly surfaced from the boundary crises is the ethnic identification. Boundaries divided ethnic groups, rendered some stranded and landless. The main thrust of this paper is the nexus between boundary and identity issue in the NWR of Cameroon. The study investigates how ethnic groups in this region belonged and/or became with the implantation of boundaries among them. The paper establishes the premises that the advent of formal boundaries in the region, a phenomenon hitherto absent, triggered the identity question. It concludes that the notion of dual, lost and void identities in the NWR owed their origins to the advent of formal boundary, introduced by the Chamba, officialized by the colonial administrations and adopted and/or adjusted by the post-colonial government.

Page(s): 55-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2022

 Mathias Azang Adig (PhD)

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[8] Fardon R.“The Bali-Chamba: A Comparative of Tribal Foreign Policies”, PhD Thesis in Anthropology, University of London, 1980
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[11] Hongie G. “Balikumbat and Her Neighbours, from 1898 to 1998”, MA Dissertation in History, University of Yaoundé, 2005. The Relevance of Warfare in the Foundation and Sustenance of the Bali- Chamba, 1830-2000: A Historical Perspective”, PhD Thesis in History, University of Yaoundé I, 2003
[12] Hunt W. E.“The Bali in Bandop Area”. NAB, 1925
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[18] Pelican M.“The Mbororos Claim to Regional Citizenship and Minority Status” In Africa, no 4, 2008
[19] Pinyinchu M. “The Balikumbat-Bafanji Intermittent Land Conflict, 1925-1998”. MA Dissertation in History. ENS Yaoundé, 2002.
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[21] Rhamani A. “The Political and Socio-economic History of the Mbororos in Mezam Division in the 20th Century”. MA Dissertation in History. University of Yaoundé I, 2004.
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[23] Sobseh E.Y. “The Demise of Colonialism and the Emergence of Boundary Conflicts in the Bamenda Grassfields of Cameroon”, in Boundary and History in Africa, Festschrift in Honour of Fanso Verkijika G., Yaoundé, University of Yaoundé., 2011
[24] Smith A. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford. Blackwell, 2001.
[25] Udogu E. The Issues of Political Ethnicity in Africa. Hampshire. Ashgate, 2001
[26] Yenshu Emmanuel Vubo and Ngwa Goerge A. . Changing intercommunity relations and the politics of identity in the Northern Mezam area, Cameroon” Cahiers d’études africaines,, 2001, p.163-90

Mathias Azang Adig (PhD), “Belonging and Becoming: Boundary and Identity Issues in the North West Region of Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.55-60 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/55-60.pdf

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The democratic republic of Vietnam delegation with Geneva conference in 1954

Dr. Nguyen Manh Ha- April 2022- Page No.: 61-67

Geneva Conference discussed re-establishing peace in Indochina at the official opening on May 08, 1954. On July 21, 1954 the agreement on stopping war in Vietnam was signed, and the countries attending the Conference ratified the Final Declaration. This is a large multipartite international convention The Democratic Republic of Vietnam joining for the first time. Passed 68 years, but there are still different perceptions and assessments of researchers about the Conference. The following study concentrates on exchanging some of the current opinions and arguments about Vietnam’s participation in the Conference and the results that Vietnam achieved at the Geneva Conference in 1954.

Page(s): 61-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6405

  Dr. Nguyen Manh Ha
Associate Professor, Ex-Director Vietnam Communist Party History Institute, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Vietnam

[1] Academy of International Relations (1997). Summary of 50 years of struggle on the diplomatic front of the Party and State of Vietnam 1945-1995, vol.1 (1945-1975). Internal References, Vietnam.
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[3] Communist Party of Vietnam (2001). Complete Party Document, Vol. 15. The National Political Publishing House, Vietnam.
[4] Communist Party of Vietnam (2014). Dien Bien Phu, Geneva Conference – Party Documents. The National Political Publishing House, Vietnam.
[5] Department of Diplomatic History Research (2004). Scientific Conference on July 27, Vietnam.
[6] Ho Chi Minh (2011). Complete Volume, Vol. 8. The National Political Publishing House, Vietnam.
[7] Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2015). Geneva Agreement: 50 years in retrospect. The National Political Publishing House, Vietnam.
[8] Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1976). Diplomatic struggles in the people’s democratic national revolution (1945-1954), Vol.2, (typed copy), Vietnam.
[9] People’s Newspaper (1954). No. 205, from July 25 to 27, 1954, Vietnam.
[10] Tien Giang (2005). Zhou Enlai, and Geneva Conference, Historical Publishing House of the Communist Party of China. Translation kept at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, translated by Tran Thu Minh and Duong Danh Dy (2008), Vietnam.
[11] Vu Duong Huan (2019) Geneva Conference on Indochina: 65 years in retrospect. Party History Review, No. 7-2019, Vietnam

Dr. Nguyen Manh Ha, “The democratic republic of Vietnam delegation with Geneva conference in 1954” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.61-67 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6405

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Application of Digital Technology in the Understanding of Young Adult Literature

Diala Edwin Lionel, Prof. Ikechukwu Akude, Ike Chinyere Mariagoratti and Ohanaka Bethrand Uchenna – April 2022- Page No.: 68-73

Digital communications are thoughtfully influencing young adult communications. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how young adult novels portray digital communications features using text messages, e-mails, or blogs. This study explores adult authors’ representations of characters in young adult literature (YAL) using digital communication like text messaging, blogs, instant messaging (IM), social networking websites, and email. The argument is that digital communication presents a new feature of young adult literature which has not yet been satisfactorily and adequately explored. The paper examines how the incidence of digital communication in contemporary society is signified in texts developed for the teens by illustrating who, what, and why of digital communication found in the texts. The paper also examines meta-themes available in the texts as the characters themselves reveal how digital communication impacts their life. The study found that the young adult literature texts used many forms of communication to maintain the narrative voice including blogs, e-mail, IM, text messages and social networking sites. The themes of establishing interpersonal connections, constructing identity and relationships with family were also illustrated and portrayed through the texts.

Page(s): 68-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6406

 Diala Edwin Lionel
Department of Language and Humanities, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria

 Prof. Ikechukwu Akude
Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria

 Ike Chinyere Mariagoratti
Department of ICT Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria

 Ohanaka Bethrand Uchenna
Department of ICT Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria

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Diala Edwin Lionel, Prof. Ikechukwu Akude, Ike Chinyere Mariagoratti and Ohanaka Bethrand Uchenna , “Application of Digital Technology in the Understanding of Young Adult Literature” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.68-73 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6406

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Who is to be blamed for The Transatlantic Slave Trade in Africa? A Focus on the Role Played by Africa in the Trade

Mathew Awine Ayamdooo – April 2022- Page No.: 74-81

This paper examines the Trans-Atlantic slave trade with a special focus on the role that Africans played in the trade to determine the extent to which a party in the trade can be blamed for the trade that has now been seen as a forgotten crime against humanity. The paper employs the qualitative research methodology, using the desktop review approach, to peruse and analyze secondary materials on the topic under study. The paper establishes the distinct nature of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade that distinguished it from the Trans-Saharan slave trade and other forms of slavery experiences in Africa and elsewhere. The paper also establishes that, Africans played a very significant role in the transatlantic slave trade, as they voluntarily played the role of suppliers of slaves to European slave buyers. The paper also acknowledges the instances where Africans were coerced by their European trading partners into slavery or slave trade, but establishes that Africans traded in equal terms with the Europeans and sometimes dictated the terms of trade, as they aimed at benefiting from the lucrative trade. The paper also indicates how Africans exchanged slaves for fire arms which they needed badly to protect themselves from invasion by neighbours. The paper argues that the slave trade was a trade between two parties – Africans and foreigners and both parties benefited from the spoils of the trade and cannot be exonerated from any blame that may arise from the consequences of the trade.

Page(s): 74-81                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6407

 Mathew Awine Ayamdoon
Accra College of Education

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Mathew Awine Ayamdooo “Who is to be blamed for The Transatlantic Slave Trade in Africa? A Focus on the Role Played by Africa in the Trade” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.74-81 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6407

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The Effects of Financial Inclusion on Female Entrepreneurship in Cameroon: Product Innovation, Market Development and Product Renovation

Emmanuel Nghoshigo Yakum, Dr. Nkiendem Felix – April 2022- Page No.: 82-88

This paper examines the effects of financial inclusion on female entrepreneurship in Cameroon. The research applied secondary data from Cameroon Enterprise survey 2016. The researcher employed descriptive statistics and binary logit model analysis to analyse the data. The results of our findings revealed that Usage and access to working capital from commercial banks have positive and significant effects on female entrepreneurship in Cameroon; however, working capitals from Microfinance Institutions as well as Non-bank financial institutions both have positive and insignificant effects. The Pseudo R-Square shows that financial inclusion indicators used account for 7.6% of variations in female entrepreneurship. Variations in female entrepreneurship in Cameroon can therefore be explained by financial inclusion. Thus Laws on property ownership should be revised to permit women have access to acquired landed property to increase their collateral and make them obtained high loans from Commercial bank rather than only microloans from Microfinance Institutions. Microfinance Institutions should reduce the interest rate in order to attract female entrepreneurs

Page(s): 82-88                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2022

 Emmanuel Nghoshigo Yakum
MSc Banking and Finance, HOD Banking and Finance; Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences University of Bamenda Cameroon

 Dr. Nkiendem Felix
MSc Banking and Finance, HOD Banking and Finance; Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences University of Bamenda Cameroon

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[3] Beck, T., Demirguc-Kunt, A., & Levine, R. (2006). Finance, Inequality and Poverty.World Bank policy research working paper no. 3338. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
[4] Blanchflower, Philip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman (2003). Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market. The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol85, No.4 (Nov,.2003), pp. 930-943. http://www.jstor.org/stable3211816.
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[10] Storey, D. 2004. “Racial & gender discrimination in the micro firms credit market: Evidence from Trinidad and Tobago”. Small Business Economics, 23(5): 401–422.
[11] Tabi A, Adze (2020). Gender-based Credit Constraints and Firm Performance in Cameroon; African Economic Research Consortium, available at 9966610731,978996610737
[12] Zimmerman, M. T. & S. Jonathan A. 2006. “Women-owned businesses and access to bank credit: Evidence from three surveys since 1987”. Venture Capital, 8(1): 51–6

Emmanuel Nghoshigo Yakum, Dr. Nkiendem Felix , “The Effects of Financial Inclusion on Female Entrepreneurship in Cameroon: Product Innovation, Market Development and Product Renovation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.82-88 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/82-88.pdf

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Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction as Correlates of Responsiveness among Nurses in Abua Multi-System Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State

Dr. Timothy Ihinmoyan- April 2022- Page No.: 89-93

Responsiveness is a service quality widely acknowledged for its beneficial impact. Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction is a measure of workers’ contentedness with their job, whether they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision, Job Involvement refers to the psychological and emotional extent to which someone participates in his/her work, profession, and company.
The study was a cross-sectional survey in which 68 nurses comprising 25 males and 43 females were purposively selected. Participants were drawn from nurses in Abua Multi-System Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. A structured questionnaire divided into four sections and contained standardised scales that measured responsiveness, job involvement, and job Satisfaction was used for data collection. The scales were revalidated during pilot study to ascertain their reliability and suitability for use within the Nigerian cultural context. They all yielded high Cronbach alpha coefficients. Three hypotheses were tested in the study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance.
Results showed significant joint influence of’ job Satisfaction and job involvement on empathic behaviour, F (2,68) 12.68, p<. 01); female nurses were significantly higher on empathic behaviour than male nurses t (68) 2.40; p< .05; and younger nurses displayed higher level of responsiveness than older nurses, (234) 12.15; 01. The results of the study and its implications were discussed in line with the findings. It was recommended that Health jobers should be regularly sent for courses on human behaviour, resource management, interpersonal relation, stress management and crisis interventions.

Page(s): 89-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2022

 Dr. Timothy Ihinmoyan
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Administration and Management Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko Ondo State, Nigeria

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[3] Grandey, A. A, & Goldberg L. S., (2011). Why and when do stores with satisfied employees have satisfied customers? The roles of Responsiveness and store busyness. Journal of Service Research: 4(4)397.
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[15] Franken, R. (2001). Human motivation (5th ed.) Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Dr. Timothy Ihinmoyan, “Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction as Correlates of Responsiveness among Nurses in Abua Multi-System Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.89-93 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/89-93.pdf

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Social Media and Governance: Appropriation and Modalities of Use in Kakamega County Governance in Kenya

Brenda Mulama – April 2022- Page No.: 94-99

Continuous communication to citizens is significant in any government. Therefore, employing social media as a communication tool in accessing public opinion is imperative. The two tiers of government in Kenya- central and county are progressively incorporating social media. To determine the efficacy and use of social media, there is a need to examine how it is used at the grassroots. This study looked at how the County Government of Kakamega in Kenya is using social media to enhance governance based on the factors informing appropriation of social media and modalities of use of social media in governance. A mixed-methods approach, using the convergent parallel mixed-method research design was utilized. The target population was 34 participants in charge of the communication units at the County. The study concluded that Facebook was the overriding social media platform for enhancing governance and that social media use in governance is ineffective in the Kakamega county government. The study recommends that the county government should train more personnel on social media and digital marketing tools to enhance the usage of social media to disseminate information to the residents. It is hoped that the findings of this research will benefit scholarship as social media is still a new sensation, especially at the grassroots, and there is a significant gap on what it can and cannot do in relation to governance.

Page(s): 94-99                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2022

 Brenda Mulama
Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Nairobi, Kenya

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[9] Kamau, S. C. (2017). Democratic engagement in the digital age: youth, social media and participatory politics in Kenya. Communication, 43(2), 128-146.
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[13] Liu, J. (2017). “The Role of Media in Promoting Good Governance and Building Public Perception About Governance: A Comparison Of China And The United States”. Wayne State University Dissertations. https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/oa_dissertations/183
[14] Morozov, E. (2011). The net delusion: How not to liberate the world. Penguin UK.
[15] Ndiege, J. R. A. (2019). Social media technology for the strategic positioning of small and medium‐sized enterprises: Empirical evidence from Kenya. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 85(2), e12069.
[16] Nyabola, N. (2018). Digital democracy, analogue politics: How the Internet era is transforming politics in Kenya. Zed Books Ltd.
[17] Oginni, S. O., & Moitui, J. N. (2015). Social media and public policy process in Africa: Enhanced policy process in digital age. Consilience, (14), 158-172.
[18] Pfetsch, B., Adam, S., & Lance Bennett, W. (2013). The critical linkage between online and offline media: An approach to researching the conditions of issue spill-over. Javnost-The Public, 20(3), 9-22.
[19] Smith, T. (2017). Politicizing digital space: Theory, the Internet, and renewing democracy (p. 154). University of Westminster Press.
[20] Storck, M. (2011). The role of social media in political mobilisation: A case study of the January 2011 Egyptian uprising. University of St Andrews, Scotland, 20.

Brenda Mulama “Social Media and Governance: Appropriation and Modalities of Use in Kakamega County Governance in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.94-99 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/94-99.pdf

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Management of Account Receivable and Payable for Improved Financial Performance of Small Scale Industries in Imo State, Nigeria

Honesta C. Anorue, & Ernest.O. Ugwoke – April 2022- Page No.: 100-107

The study was conducted to determine management of account receivable and payable for improved financial performance of small enterprises in Imo state. The study used a survey research design, with 1390 participants, including 70 Accounting lecturers, 1,300 small scale enterprises operators and 20 professional accountants. The study used a multistage sampling procedure to draw a sample size of 396 participants. To answer the research questions, the collected data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation while the ANOVA statistic was used to test the two null hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance. In particular, the research identified effective ways for managing account payable and receivable of small scale enterprises for financial performance in Imo state. Based on the research findings, it was proposed, among other things, that a retraining initiative for the owners or potential owners of small scale enterprises in the state be established to educate them on the effective ways to manage accounts payable and receivable for efficient financial performance and business success.

Page(s): 100-107                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6408

 Honesta C. Anorue
Department of Business Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 Ernest.O. Ugwoke
Department of Business Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

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Honesta C. Anorue, & Ernest.O. Ugwoke, “Management of Account Receivable and Payable for Improved Financial Performance of Small Scale Industries in Imo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.100-107 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6408

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Causes of Undergraduate Stress in Enugu State, Nigeria: Students Viewpoint

Evelyn Ijeoma Ezepue, Chukwuemeka Joseph Chukwu, Chukwubuike Obiora Ezepue, and Udechukwu Felix Ezepue- April 2022- Page No.: 108-116

Stress can explain some suicides among youths and students of tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria. Recently there has been reports of youths and undergraduates of tertiary educational institutions succumbing to stress and committing suicides, not only in Nigeria but around the world.
We therefore set out to determine the viewpoint of students on the causes of stress among youth and undergraduates.
In a qualitative study using facilitated focus group discussions we identified and listed the causes of stress among the students at the Federal College of Dental Technology & Therapy, Trans-Ekulu Enugu, and the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Ituku-Ozalla Campuses.
Financial difficulties, academic issues, emotional and relationship issues, conflicts with school authorities, family and parental issues, welfare, state of municipal amenities, security concerns and cybernetwork and social media related issues were the chief causes of stress among the students.
If stressed students are recognized early, they could be helped to make appropriate adjustments; specialized institutional units, friends and better parenting could be useful.

Page(s): 108-116                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 April 2022

 Evelyn Ijeoma Ezepue
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Chukwuemeka Joseph Chukwu
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Chukwubuike Obiora Ezepue
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria

 Udechukwu Felix Ezepue
epartment of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria

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[18] Ogbonnaya, N. O. (2016). Classroom Organization and Management: Issues, Principles and Practices. Meks Publishers.
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[20] Reddy K. Jayasankara, Menon M. S. Karishma Rajan, & Thattil Anajana. (2018) Academic Stress and its sources among University Students. Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal. 11(1), 531 – 537. https://biomedpharmajournal.org/vol11no1/academic-stress-and-its-sources-among-university-students
[21] Rotimi, S. O., and Gordon, K.O., (2012). Assessment of Stigma Discrimination Experienced by People Living with HIV and AIDS Receiving Care/Treatment in UITH Ilorin Nigeria. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care 11(2), 121-127. https://doi.org/10.1177/1545109711399443
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[25] Trombitas Kate. (2012). Financial Stress: An Everyday Reality for College Students. Inceptia White Paper. https://www.inceptia.org/PDF/Inceptia_FinancialStress_whitepaper.pdf
[26] Umeano, E. C. (2019). Communication: in the classroom and beyond. (The 160th Inaugural Lecture). Nsukka: University of Nigeria Senate Ceremonials Committee.
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Evelyn Ijeoma Ezepue, Chukwuemeka Joseph Chukwu, Chukwubuike Obiora Ezepue, and Udechukwu Felix Ezepue, “Causes of Undergraduate Stress in Enugu State, Nigeria: Students Viewpoint” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.108-116 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/108-116.pdf

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Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Suicidal Tendencies, Among Undergraduates Students of University of Benin

Chukujindu Joyce Okafor Phd, Nwakaego Elizabeth Oyana- April 2022- Page No.: 117-128

This study examined the interplay between emotional intelligence and suicidal tendencies among undergraduates of University of Benin. A non-experimental research design was employed, namely a correlational survey research design. Data were collected from a sample size of 396, utilizing the proportional sampling technique. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire, which comprised of two sections, section A was used for collecting demographic characteristics of the respondents and sections B and C was used for testing variables of interest which were tested. Reliability test was conducted by employing Cronbach’s alpha, which yielded a coefficient alpha value of 0.85. Findings showed that there was no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and suicidal tendencies among undergraduates @ r=0.014, p=0.785. The study also revealed no relationship between self-awareness and suicidal tendencies @ r= 0.003 but however revealed a weak direct relationship between self-regulation and suicidal tendencies @ r= 0.072, p= 0.154. The study therefore recommended, among others, that major stakeholders such as school administrators, lecturers and parents should keep in mind that the students are vulnerable to suicidal tendencies and as such should show more understanding towards students’ plight and be less judgmental.

Page(s): 117-128                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6409

 Chukujindu Joyce Okafor Phd
Faculty of Arts and Education, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City

 Nwakaego Elizabeth Oyana
Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nursing Science, University of Benin

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[4] Suicide ideation among college students: A multivariate analysis. Journal of International Academy for suicide research, 13(3):230-246.
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[9] Chang, D. (2003). Dimensions of emotional intelligence and their relationships with social coping among gifted adolescents in Hong Kong. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 3(2), 409-418.
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[11] Concordia University, Portland, (2017). Daniel Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence Theory Explained. Retrieved from https://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/cl.
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[16] Goleman, D.(1995). Emotional intelligence, why it can matter more than IQ. New York Press, Bantam Books.
[17] Goleman, D.(2011), The Brian and Emotion Intelligence: New Insights.
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Chukujindu Joyce Okafor Phd, Nwakaego Elizabeth Oyana, “Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Suicidal Tendencies, Among Undergraduates Students of University of Benin” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.117-128 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6409

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Integrated Intelligentsia of Social Systems

Syed V Ahamed, Professor Emeritus- April 2022- Page No.: 129-137

This paper integrates the roles of inspirational, acquired, and genetic intelligentsia that dominant the actions in everyday life. This unique blend of intelligence permits entities to solve, resolve, refine, and to iterate the solutions to an economically viable optimal limit. The law of diminishing returns is foreseen in the solution by the proposed social machines rather than the human perception. The paper also presents the implementation in a computer environment and extends it further in a network and communication environment, including the Internet. The clue lies in organizing and managing such rapid flow of immense flow in a mindset that is very slow in comparison. As reaffirmed in the conclusion, the approach outlined in the paper should be valuable for much of humankind and for social organizations

Page(s): 129-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6410

 Syed V Ahamed, Professor Emeritus
City University of New York, College of Staten Island
Staten Island, NY 10314

[1] Ahamed, S.V., Evolution of Knowledge Science: Myth to Medicine: Intelligent Internet-Based Humanist Machines, Boston, Science Direct, Elsevier, Inc., 2017.
[2] Ahamed, S. V. “Human Interactions”, ’A Mathematical Framework of Human and Corporate Interactions’ MBA Thesis, written in collaboration with Professor R. Kavesh, Former Chair, Department of Economics, Stern Graduate School of Business Administration, New York University.
[3] Mead G.H., Social theory, http://routledgesoc.com/profile/george-herbert-mead, Website accessed January. 16, 2016. Mead’s noteworthy contribution are also documented in “The Social Self”’, “The Philosophy of Act”, Movements of Thought ”, “The Individual and the Social Self”. Also see Mead’s contribution in Mead G. H. Mind, self and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1934.
[4] Ahamed, S. V., “The Architecture of a Wisdom Machine,” International journal of Smart Engineering Systems Design, Vol. 5, Issue 4, October -December 2003, pp 737-545.

Syed V Ahamed, Professor Emeritus, “Integrated Intelligentsia of Social Systems” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.129-137 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6410

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Survey of Science Teachers’ Use of Innovative Methods of Teaching

Apochi, M. A. and Okpaje, O. Joseph- April 2022- Page No.: 138-142

This paper investigated science teachers use innovative teaching methods in FCT senior secondary Schools, Abuja. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 242 was selected from the population of science teachers using simple random sampling technique. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. A structured questionnaire made up of 30 items was used for the purpose of data collection. The questionnaire was validated by experts in Science Education and a reliability index of 0.91 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha. The data collected were analyzed with SPSS version 23 using mean, standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested using t-test. Findings of the study revealed that the extent to which science teachers in FCT senior secondary schools use innovative teaching methods is high. It was also found that there was no significant difference between male and female Science Teachers’ use of innovative methods of teaching in Senior Secondary Schools of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that Science Teachers should be encouraged to increase the use of innovative methods of teaching in senior secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja through attending of conferences, workshops and seminars.

Page(s): 138-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 April 2022

 Apochi, M. A.
Department of Science and Environmental Education, Faculty of Education, University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Okpaje, O. Joseph
Department of Science and Environmental Education, Faculty of Education, University of Abuja, Nigeria

[1] Achor, E. E., Samba, R. M., & Ogbeba, J. A. (2010). Teachers’ awareness and utilisation of innovative teaching strategies in secondary school science in Benue State, Nigeria. Educational Research 1(2), 32-38.
[2] bdulwahab, N., Oyelekan, O. S., & Olorundare, A. S. (2016). Effects of Cooperative Instructional Strategy on Senior School Students’ Achievement in Electrochemistry. Eurasian Journal of Physics and Chemistry Education, 8(2), 37- 48.
[3] Afolabi, J. O. & Lawal, B. M. (2021) Assessment of Collaborative Learning in Improving Mathematics Achievement of Students of varying Abilities in Ifo Local Government Area of Ogun State. Academic Journal of Research and Development (AJORAD), 14(1), 103-109.
[4] Aina, J. K. & Langenhoven, K. (2015). Teaching method in Science Education: The need for a Paradigm shift to peer Instruction (PI) in Nigerian schools. International Journal of Academic Research and Reflection 3(6), 2309-0405.
[5] Ajaja, O. P. (2013). Which strategy best suits biology teaching? Lecturing, concept mapping, cooperative learning or learning cycle? Electronic Journal of Science Education, 17(1), 1-37.
[6] Alabi, T. O., Lasisi, N. & Thaddeus, H. (2016). Influence of guided discovery and problem solving strategies on Academic achievements and retention of male and female students in volumetric analysis in Minna metropolis. Journal of Information, Education, Science and Technology (JIEST), 3(1), 20-33.
[7] Gambari, A. I., Ezenwa, V. I. & Anyawu, R. C. (2014). Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement. Journal of Contemporary Educational Technology, 5(2), 110-120.
[8] Gambari, A. I., Yusuf, M. O., & Thomas, D. A. (2015). Effects of computer-assisted STAD, LTM and ICI cooperative learning strategies on Nigerian secondary school students’ achievement, gender and motivation in Physics. The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(4), 11-26.
[9] Khurshid, F., & Zahur, B. (2013). Comparison of teachers’ awareness and utilisation of innovative teaching strategies in private and public sector secondary schools. Elixir Psychology 45, 12242-12245.
[10] Lamidi, B. T., Oyelekan, O. S. & Olorundare, A. S. (2015): Effects of mastery learning instructional strategy on Senior School students’ achievement in the mole concept. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 9(5), 1-20.
[11] Miles, R. (2015). Tutorial instruction in science education. Cypriot Journal of Educational Science, 10(2), 168-179
[12] Ogbonnne, U. T. & Offorma, G. U. (2013). Effect of Collaborative learning method on secondary student interest in English Language tenses. International Journal of educational Research. 12(2), 28-135.
[13] Okpaje, J. O., Bello, R. M. & Babagana, M. (2018). Assessment of science teachers’ level of awareness on laboratory management techniques at senior secondary schools level in FCT, Abuja. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference of the School of Science and Technology Education (SSTE), Federal University of Technology, Minna. 117 – 123.
[14] Okpaje, J. O. (2021). Assessment of science teachers’ level of laboratory safety regulation knowledge in Federal Capital Territory senior secondary schools, Abuja. Academic Journal of Research and Development (AJORAD) Special Edition, 14(1), 81-87.
[15] Olaiya, W. A. (2018). Evaluation of Teachers’ Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Knowledge as Determinant of Physics Achievement of Secondary School Students in Borgu, Niger State. An unpublished Master Degree Dissertation of the Department of Science Education, School of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
[16] Oyelekan, O. S., Igbokwe, E. F. & Olorundare, A.S. (2017). Science teachers’ utilisation of innovative strategies for teaching senior school science in Ilorin, Nigeria. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Science, 5(2), 49 – 65.
[17] Sabiru, D. Y. (2014) Effect of collaborative learning on Chemistry Students’ Academic achievement and anxiety level in balancing chemical Equation in Secondary School in Kastina Metropolis. Nigerian Journal of Education and Vocational Research, 5(2), 43-48.
[18] Tufail, I. & Mahmood, M. K. (2020). Teaching Methods Preferred by School Science Teachers and Students in their Classroom. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education, and Learning, 4(2), 332-347.

Apochi, M. A. and Okpaje, O. Joseph, “Survey of Science Teachers’ Use of Innovative Methods of Teaching” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.138-142 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/138-142.pdf

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Local Government and Community Participation; Prospect of the Unit Committee Model in Ghana´s Decentralization Program

Paul Kwaku Larbi Anderson – April 2022- Page No.: 143-149

The unit committee model representing the basic structure of Ghana’s decentralization and local government program plays a crucial role in grassroots mobilization and community participation in the decision-making and implementation process. This paper reviews the prospects of the unit committee models as a unique feature of Ghana´s decentralization and local government policy for promoting participation at the local level. Data for the study was obtained through semi-structured interviews, non-participant observation, focused group discussions, documents, and material culture analysis. The study was conducted within the Nsawam-Adoagyiri and Suhum Municipalities in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The study revealed that local expectation from the unit committee members is inconsistent with their formal role as the basic structure of the decentralization and local government policy in Ghana. Unrealistic public expectations coupled with inadequate financial resources have resulted in total disregard for the functioning of the unit committee system. This makes the unit committee model seems to exist only by name since its impact is not so much felt at the local level making the position of the members who are elected and partly appointed a mere formality. This study recommends effective public education and institutional mechanisms to enhance the functioning of the unit committee model for members to effectively commit to their role to achieve the purpose for which the system was instituted.

Page(s): 143-149                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 April 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6411

 Paul Kwaku Larbi Anderson
Center for Planning and Evaluation of Social Services (ZPE, University of Siegen, Germany

[1] Abraham, N.T. (2010). The praxis of development and underdevelopment. Benin City, Nigeria: Ethiope Publishing Corporation.
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[11] Lenin, V.I. (1976). The development of capitalism in Russia Moscow: Progress Monthly Review.
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Paul Kwaku Larbi Anderson, “Local Government and Community Participation; Prospect of the Unit Committee Model in Ghana´s Decentralization Program” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.143-149 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6411

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Loneliness as Correlate of Marital Satisfaction among Civil Servants in Nassarawa and Benue States, Nigeria

Aiyegbenin Charles Ubunyemen, Gbenda Batur-Laha, Joseph Audu Obida – April 2022- Page No.: 150-155

This study examined loneliness as correlate of marital satisfaction among civil servants in Nassarawa and Benue States. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. Correlational Design was adopted. Sample size of 400 civil servants out of the population of 56,962 was used. Two self-developed questionnaires titled ‘Psycho-Social Factors Questionnaire (PSFSQ) and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire’ (MFQ) were used to collect data. For the reliability of the instrument, the questionnaires were administered on 40 participants comprising of 20 men and 20 women. The test yielded a reliability coefficient of .84 Cronbach’s Alpha on Psycho-social factors and .85 Cronbach’s Alpha on marital satisfaction. The questionnaires yielded a reliability coefficient of .90 Cronbach’s Alpha. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentage were employed for the demographic variables while Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation coefficient was used to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses at .05 significance level. Result showed that, there was significant relationships between the variable (Loneliness) and marital satisfaction of civil servants in Nassarawa States of Nigeria. It was recommended that civil servants should be counselled during premarital counselling and marital counselling to create time for bonding as a couple in order to avert loneliness in their marriage.

Page(s): 150-155                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 May 2022

 Aiyegbenin Charles Ubunyemen
Department of Educational Foundations, Benue State University, Makurdi-Nigeria

 Gbenda Batur-Laha
Department of Educational Foundations, Benue State University, Makurdi-Nigeria

 Joseph Audu Obida
Department of Educational Foundations, Benue State University, Makurdi-Nigeria

[1] Abra, R. (2001). Determinants of Marital Satisfaction among Ghanaian Couples, unpublished master’s thesis. University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast
[2] Baumeister, R. F. (1998). The self. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.). The handbook of social psychology (pp. 680–740)
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Aiyegbenin Charles Ubunyemen, Gbenda Batur-Laha, Joseph Audu Obida “Loneliness as Correlate of Marital Satisfaction among Civil Servants in Nassarawa and Benue States, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.150-155 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/150-155.pdf

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The Potential Water, Food, and Energy Security-Related Impacts of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam – Gerd Amharic: ታላቁ የኢትዮጵያ ሕዳሴ ግድብ on the Lower Stream Riparian States and Egypt’s Distinct Concern Scepticism: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis

Heron Gezahegn Gebretsadik- April 2022- Page No.: 156-165

The Nile River is remained to be a critical resource and center of contradiction among the Nile basin states. Scholars argue that Egypt had an upper hand over the use of the Nile River. However, Egypt’s hegemony over the Nile has been significantly challenged since the initiation of the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) in 2011. This creates heavy tension, particularly between Ethiopia and Egypt in the last decade. Though the GERD has been filling the reservoir over the last two years and recently started to generate electric power, the potential negative impacts of the dam over the lower riparian countries remained unclear. This systematic review and meta-synthesis investigated the potential water, food, and energy security-related transboundary impacts of the GERD on the lower riparian states. Furthermore, the research work explored Egypt’s distinct concern over GERD.
The reduction in Nile water volume and velocity, the likelihood of water loss through evaporation, the impoverishment of agricultural lands, the depletion of water reserve, easing of hydroelectric power generation, and the ever-increasing threats in water security are reported to be some of the major water, food, and energy security-related transboundary impacts of the GERD on the lower stream riparian states. On the other hand, the fear of a potential reduction in water supply from the Nile and the consequent occurrence of drought during the dry seasons, and the unresolved tripartite disagreement on the operational detail of the mega-dam are identified to be the major concerns of Egypt over the GERD. Ethiopia has reportedly said the GERD has no significant harm on the lower riparian states. The country believes that the mega project is a way forward to facilitate economic development among the riparian states and mitigate the shortage of electric power in the region.

Page(s): 156-165                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 May 2022

 Heron Gezahegn Gebretsadik
School of Global Health & Bioethics, Euclid University (Pôle Universitaire Euclide)

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Heron Gezahegn Gebretsadik, “The Potential Water, Food, and Energy Security-Related Impacts of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam – Gerd Amharic: ታላቁ የኢትዮጵያ ሕዳሴ ግድብ on the Lower Stream Riparian States and Egypt’s Distinct Concern Scepticism: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.156-165 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/156-165.pdf

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Subsidized secondary education policy on pass rates in Kenya certificate of secondary education in public secondary schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

Herman, J. Wachiye, Ph.D, Jackline, K.A. Nyerere, PhD, Thaddaeus, O. Rugar, PhD- April 2022- Page No.: 166-170

Subsidization of the public secondary school education by the government of Kenya in 2008 witnessed a tremendous growth in the student population at this level of education. This scenario led to an over enrollment and a strain on the existing learning facilities and infrastructure in most public secondary schools in Kenya, including those in Bungoma County . Under these circumstances, the question that remained unanswered was ; what was the effect of the subsidized secondary education policy (SSEP) on the student pass rates in the Kenya certificate of secondary education (KCSE) in the public secondary schools in Bungoma County ? The purpose of this study was to analyze the change brought about by the SSEP on the student pass rates in the KCSE in public secondary schools in Bungoma County, Kenya. The findings of this study revealed that, the subsidized secondary education policy significantly improved the student pass rates in KCSE in the public secondary schools in the County, from a mean of 70.53% before the introduction of the subsidy, to a mean of 75.82% after introduction of the subsidy, with a p-value of less than 0.05( p<0.05). In conclusion, the SSEP improved the student pass rates in the KCSE. On the basis of the conclusion, it was recommended that the government should uphold the subsidized secondary education policy in public secondary schools, because it has the potential to sustain improved student pass rates in KCSE in public secondary schools in Bungoma County and Kenya at large.

Page(s): 166-170                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6412

  Herman, J. Wachiye, Ph.D
Department of Educational Planning and Management, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya

  Jackline, K.A. Nyerere, PhD
Department of Education Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

  Thaddaeus, O. Rugar, PhD
Department of Education Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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Herman, J. Wachiye, Ph.D, Jackline, K.A. Nyerere, PhD, Thaddaeus, O. Rugar, PhD, “Subsidized secondary education policy on pass rates in Kenya certificate of secondary education in public secondary schools in Bungoma County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.166-170 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6412

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A New Historicists Analysis of J. A. Annobil’s Abotar

Comfort Bonsu – April 2022- Page No.: 171-178

This paper aims at employing the New historicism theory in analyzing J. A. Annobil’s Abotar. The New Historicism theory, as propounded by Stephen Greenblatt, is based on the idea that a literary composition is affected by the author’s time and circumstances, however, the critic’s evaluation of the work is also affected by his surroundings, beliefs, or preconceptions. The Analysis of J. A.. Annobil’s Abotar captures how a writer’s literary composition mirrors his/her milieu. On citing instances from the text, Ghanaian culture (specifically Akan) and aspects of Ghanaian history are well demonstrated and explained

Page(s): 171-178                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 May 2022

 Comfort Bonsu
University Cape Coast, Ghana

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[4] Anobil, J. A. (1958). Abotar. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages.
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[12] Pobee, J. S. (1979). “Towards an African Theology”. Nashville: Abingdon.

Comfort Bonsu , “A New Historicists Analysis of J. A. Annobil’s Abotar” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.171-178 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/171-178.pdf

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Consumer contracts under the Zambian Law: Does the legislation Provide Adequate Consumer Protection

Liambela Muyunda Leakey (PhD), Mubiana Mubiana – April 2022- Page No.: 179-196

Owing to the shift of the Zambian economy from a countrywide manipulative economic system to a free market economy, there has been neediness for the government to efficiently regulate the economic system to promote honest opposition and client safety. To achieve this, need the authorities enacted the Competition and Fair-Trading Act of 1994 which geared toward regulating anti-competitive practices and customer exploitations within the marketplace. Following some of the changes that have taken area within the Zambian financial system, Parliament enacted the Competition and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 which incorporates diverse revolutionary provisions which might be supposed to address modem financial demands inside the Zambian economic system. This paper focuses on establishing whether Consumer contracts under the Zambian Law if it Provides adequate Consumer Protection by evaluating its effectiveness within the selling and law of sincere competition, patron safety and financial increase in Zambia. It verifies whether the Competition and Consumer Protection Act has effectively and efficiently addressed winning social and financial desires of Zambia’s monetary expedient. The findings were that Competition and Consumer Protection Act become enacted with numerous progressive provisions which were probably presupposed to cope with modem monetary conditions in Zambia. Through those upgrades, the Competition and Consumer Protection Act has quite addressed triumphing monetary desires in the Zambian economic operations. However, despite enhancing the Law, the legislation has not Provided Adequate Consumer Protection as evident by the increasing number of cases being recorded in Zambia regarding consumer protection.

Page(s): 179-196                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6413

 Liambela Muyunda Leakey (PhD)
Technical and Vocational Teachers College, Zambia

 Mubiana Mubiana
Technical and Vocational Teachers College, Zambia

BOOKS
[1] Burns. J. W. A Study of the Antifrust Laws; Their Administration, Interpretation, and Effect. New York: Central Book Company, Inc, 1958.
[2] Neale. A. D. The Antitrust Laws of the USA; A Study of Competition Enforced By Law, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966.
[3] Taylor. M. D. International Competition Law: A New Dimension for the WTO? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
[4] Walker. D. Oxford Companion to Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.
[5] Wilberforce. R., e tal. The Law of Restrictive Practices and Monopolies. London: Sweet and Maxwell, 1966.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
[6] Bunda. V. “No Return, no Refund” Disclaimer’: Post Newspaper Article, 28th February, 2011.
[7] Mulozi. I. ‘Disclaimer: Supply of Defective Products,’ Post Newspaper, (13th Sept, 2010).
[8] Musonda. Y. Market Enquiries in the Competition and Consumer Protection Act; Post Newspaper Article, 2010.
[9] Phiri. E. ‘Consumer Right’; Post Newspaper Article, 2nd August, 2010.
[10] Phiri. E. ‘Unfair trading Practice, the Competition and Consumer Protection Bill’; Post Newspaper Article, 6th September, 2010
[11] Sampa. C. ‘The Competition and Consumer Protection Act no. 24 of 2010’; Post Newspaper Article, 8th November, 2010.
REPORTS
[1] Zambia Competition Commission; Annual Report, 2004
[2] Zambia Competition Commission; Annual Report, 2006.
[3] Zambia Competition Commission; Annual Report, 2007.
[4] Zambia Competition Commission; Annual Report, 2017.
[5] Zambia Competition Commission; Annual Report, 2018.
[6] Zambia Competition Commission; Annual Report, 2019.
[7] Zambia Competition Commission; Annual Report, 2020.
[8] Ministerial Council Report on Consumer Affairs Meeting; Review of Australia’s Consumer Policy Framework: Commonwealth of Australia, 2010.
JOURNALS
[1] Jones. F. D. ‘Historical Development of the Law of Business Competition.’ (Yale Law Journal. Vol. 36, 1926).
[2] OBLIGATORY ESSAYS
[3] Bwembya. M. ‘Competition Law in Zambia: The Relevance and Adequacy of Such Laws in Consumer Protection in Zambia’; Obligatory Essay, 2010.
[4] Gandoo. H. M. ‘Consumer Protection Law in Zambia’; Obligatory Essay, 1983/84.
[5] Sinyinda. M. ‘Consumer Protection in Zambia’; Obligatory Essay, 1995.
OTHER MATERIALS
[1] Mutati. F. National Assembly Deliberations on the Competition and Consumer Protection Bill, (27th July, 2010).
[2] UNCTAD, ‘Competition Policy, Trade and Development in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa: Series on Issues in Competition Law and Policy,’ Geneva. UNCTAD, 1999.
[3] S. K. Mwenechanya, Legal Empowerment of the Poor: Empowering Informal Businesses in Zambia; An Issues Paper Prepared for the UNDP- Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, 2007.
STATUTES
[1] The Bank of Zambia Act, Chapter 360 of the Laws of Zambia
[2] The Competition and Consumer Protection Act, No. 24 of 2010
[3] The Competition and Fair Trading Act, Chapter 417 of the Laws of Zambia
[4] The Control of Goods Act, Chapter 421 of the Laws of Zambia.
[5] The Disposal of Uncollected Goods Act. Chapter 410 of the Laws of Zambia
[6] The Energy Regulation Act, Chapter 436 of the Laws of Zambia
[7] The English Law (Extent of Application) Act, Chapter 1 1 of the Laws of Zambia
[8] The Food and Drugs Act, Chapter 303 of the Laws of Zambia
[9] The Prices and Incomes Commission Act No. 9 of 1981
[10] The Public Health Act Chapter 295
[11] The Sale of Goods Act 1893
[12] The Securities Act, Chapter 354 of the Laws of Zambia
[13] The Standards Act, Chapter 416 of the Laws of Zambia
[14] The Supply of Goods & Services Act 1982
[15] The Trade Marks Act
[16] The Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977
[17] The Weight & Measures Act, Chapter 403
[18] The Zambia Development Agency Act, No. I I of 2006
[19] The Zambia Information and Communication Technology Authority, Act No. 15 of 2009
CASES
[1] Lafarge v CCPC Ruling on stay of execution appeal No. 2018/CCPT/001/COM
[2] ECZ v Reliance Technology Limited Appeal No. 194/2010 (2014 ZMSC) 30th October 2014
[3] National Insurance Co Limited v Hindustan Safety Glass works Ltd. Civil appeal 3883/2007 (and other connected appeals, (2017) 5 SCC 776, two Judge benches
[4] OM Prakash v Reliance General Insurance Civil appeal 15611/2017, (2017) 9 SCC 724 two judge benches.
[5] Darcy v Allein (1602) 74ER1131
[6] Nordenfelt v Maxim Nordenfelt Guns AC535

Liambela Muyunda Leakey (PhD), Mubiana Mubiana “Consumer contracts under the Zambian Law: Does the legislation Provide Adequate Consumer Protection” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.179-196 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6413

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An exploratory study on factors affect on Elderly Depression in Sri Lanka

L.I. Ekanayake, Asanka Bulathwatta – April 2022- Page No.: 197-206

This exploratory study tries to explore the factors affect on Elderly depression in a qualitative manner. In order to meet the objectives of present study it was carried out with ten elderly females and males of above 65 years who were clinically diagnosed with Depression were selected from the Psychiatric clinic, National Hospital in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Consent was received from the participants prior to the research carried out. This qualitative study was carried out using a semi structured interview and collected data were analyzed using a thematic analysis in which participants responses narrowed down in to particular themes. According to the thematic analysis it was found five main themes as factors that most of these elderly people suffer from depression due to the factors such as Past Failures, Worthlessness, Suicidal Thoughts, and Lack of Hopes about future, Loss of Energy. Results revealed that female people were likely to show depressive symptoms due to the matter of obsessive on their past failures and feel of worthlessness whilst more male people are suffering from suicidal thoughts, lack of hopes about future and loss of energy due to physical disabilities. Especially both male and female people have shown depression mainly focusing on of their life worth due their age.

Page(s): 197-206                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6414

 L.I. Ekanayake
Postgraduate Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

 Asanka Bulathwatta
Department of Psychology, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

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L.I. Ekanayake, Asanka Bulathwatta , “An exploratory study on factors affect on Elderly Depression in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.197-206 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6414

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Parental Involvement in Reducing Learner Absenteeism in Selected Primary Schools of Kazungula District in the Southern Province of Zambia

Peggy Muyabi, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Kaiko Mubita, Sanny Mulubale, Patrick Sikayomya, Nicholas Haambokoma, Inonge Milupi and Kasonde Mundende- April 2022- Page No.: 207-214

Parental involvement is an important component of children’s early school success and is recognized as a significant ingredient in reducing learner absenteeism and improving the quality of children’s education. To this effect, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of parental involvement in reducing learner absenteeism in selected primary schools of Kazungula District. The objectives were to: establish ways through which parents are involved in reducing learner absenteeism, explore the benefits of parental involvement in reducing learner absenteeism, ascertain challenges that limit parental involvement in reducing learner absenteeism and establish interventions put in place by schools to improve parental involvement in reducing learner absenteeism in three selected primary schools. A sample of 15 learners, 15 parents, 03 grade teachers and 03 head teachers was purposively drawn from three selected primary schools in Kazungula district. A qualitative approach and a descriptive research design were employed for the study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions. The data were analysed through thematic analysis.
The findings of the study revealed that there was parental involvement in the sampled primary schools as parents participated in PTA meetings, helping children with home work, paying school fees, attending open days, volunteering at school, providing school requirements and food. With regard to the benefits of parental involvement in reducing learner absenteeism, the study revealed that parental involvement improved school attendance, brought about understanding of the importance of attendance and reduced teacher work load. It also increased parent contact with school, made parents become more supportive of schools and improved positive behaviour among learners.
The major barriers of parental involvement as revealed by the study were busy schedules among parent, non-parent invitation to involvement in school activities, poor relationships between schools and parents. Other barriers included long distance to school, negative attitudes towards partnership and poverty among parents.
The study found schools improving communication, becoming more welcoming to parents, encouraging parents to serve in school committees and inviting parent to volunteer in school activities and attend meetings as intervention measures to improve parental involvement in reducing learner absenteeism

Page(s): 207-214                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 May 2022

 Peggy Muyabi
Senkobo Primary School, Zambia

 Kalisto Kalimaposoi
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special education

 Kaiko Mubita
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Sanny Mulubale
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Patrick Sikayomya
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Nicholas Haambokoma
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Religious Studies

 Inonge Milupi
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Kasonde Mundende
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

[1] Black, N. (1994). Why we Need Qualitative Research. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 48, No. 5, (October 1994), pp. 425-426, ISSN 0143-005X
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Peggy Muyabi, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Kaiko Mubita, Sanny Mulubale, Patrick Sikayomya, Nicholas Haambokoma, Inonge Milupi and Kasonde Mundende, “Parental Involvement in Reducing Learner Absenteeism in Selected Primary Schools of Kazungula District in the Southern Province of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.207-214 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/207-214.pdf

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Historiographical Analysis of Rebels’ Eating Habits under the Maquis in West-Cameroon (1957-1960)

Kévine Raïssa Atemkeng Makowa – April 2022- Page No.: 215-223

: In the aftermath of the Second World War, several states on the African continent embarked on the race for freedom; the peoples living under the domination of French power expressed their desire to leave the colonial yoke. In Cameroon, it is through the nationalists that voices are raised against the colonial government in place. It was also through their initiative that a political party was born in 1948: the Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC). This political formation clearly poses the problem of the reunification and independence of Cameroon; which earned him his ban by an ordinance, signed on July 13, 1955, by the French High Commissioner Roland Pré. This prohibition pushes its militants and the nationalists to go underground. Thus ensued a war characterized by a series of assassinations. The case of the MP Samuel Wanko, assassinated in 1957, is important since it marks the official beginning of the maquis in Bamileke land. During the war, the escalation of violence will generate the displacement of “rebel” populations from their usual lands to the bush. Unlike other research on the maquis, which places particular emphasis on nationalists’ battles, the present study shows how these maquisards adapted their eating habits and diet not only to their new environment, but also to the war situation they were facing. In this perspective, this research aims to make a historiographical analysis of the eating habits of the nationalists living under the maquis in the Bamileke land, by answering the question of knowing: how did the maquisards of the Bamileke land feed themselves during this pivotal period in the history of Cameroon? Methodologically, the resolution of this problem is based on the analysis of written and oral data. This consists of the collection, processing, criticism and interpretation of the said data, as well as the use of a multidisciplinary approach integrating anthropology and sociology. It appears from the data that during the maquis, the nationalists adopted new eating habits, some of which persisted well after this pivotal period in the history of the Bamileke people. More so, they used foodstuffs to defend themselves.

Page(s): 215-223                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 May 2022

 Kévine Raïssa Atemkeng Makowa
Department of History and Archeology, University of Dschang, Cameroon

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[22] Waté Sayem, G. (2013). Les enfants soldats dans la résistance armée en pays bamiléké (1957-1971). Master’s Thesis in History: University of Dschang.

Kévine Raïssa Atemkeng Makowa “Historiographical Analysis of Rebels’ Eating Habits under the Maquis in West-Cameroon (1957-1960)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.215-223 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/215-223.pdf

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The Export Performance of the Sri Lankan Tea: An Econometric Analysis

M. W. A. De Silva, N. S. Cooray – April 2022- Page No.: 224-227

Sri Lanka is the fourth-largest tea producer and the world’s third-biggest tea exporter. It is vital to investigate why Sri Lanka lost her second place as an exporter of tea and how she can regain this status. Current research fills the literature gap by exploring the tea export industry. The current research uses time-series data from 1989 to 2020, and the time-series properties were evaluated using the ADF unit root test. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model looked at the long-run and short-run relationship between variables. The ARDL bound test showed that tea export is cointegrated with the other three variables (tea production, real exchange rates, and foreign exchange earnings). When considered, the foreign income has a substantial long-run and short-run influence on tea exports, whereas real exchange rates suggest only significant short-run effects. Total tea production serves as a supply constraint and has a significant long-run effect, while one-period lag tea production has a significant short-run impact. This study recommends that policymakers ensure an export quality tea production to acquire a place before on the global export market.

Page(s): 224-227                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 May 2022

 M. W. A. De Silva
Department of Decision Sciences, Faculty of Management Studies & Commerce, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Colombo, Sri Lanka

 N. S. Cooray
Graduate School of International Relations (GSIR), International University of Japan, 777 Kokusai-Cho, Minami Uonuma-Shi, Niigata 949-7277, Japan

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[11] Karunasena, A. G. (1988). A Macro-Econometric Model for Sri Lanka. Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Colombo.
[12] Oiro, M.O. (2015). Real Exchange Rate Volatility and Exports in Kenya: 2005-2012. Journal of World Economic Research. Vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 115-131. DOI: 10.11648/j.jwer.20150405.12.
[13] Perman, R. (1991). Cointegration: An Introduction to the Literature. Journal of Economic Studies, Vol 18, No 3, 1991, pp 3-30 © MCB University Press. 0144-3585
[14] Pesaran, M.M. H. & Shin, Y. (1999). An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Modeling Approach to Cointegration Analysis, In: Strom, S., Holly, A., Diamond, P. (Eds.), Centennial Volume of Rangar Frisch, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[15] Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y. & Smith, R.J. (2001). Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of long run relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16, 289–326.
[16] Tea Exporters Association, Sri Lanka, https://teasrilanka.org/ceylon-tea, Views on 30.03.2021.
[17] Tiwari & Shahbaz (2013)
[18] Vieira, F.V. & MacDonald, R. (2016). Exchange rate volatility and exports: a panel data analysis. Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 43 Issue: 2, pp.203-221.
[19] Wei, G., Huang, J. & Yang, J. (2012). The impacts of food safety standards on China’s tea exports. China Economic Review, Vol. 23, pp.253–264.
[20] Were, M., Njuguna S. Ndung’u Alemayehu G., Stephen N. and Karingi. (2002). Analysis of Kenya’s Export Performance: Macroeconomics Division Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis KIPPRA Discussion Paper No. 22 November 2002.

M. W. A. De Silva, N. S. Cooray, “The Export Performance of the Sri Lankan Tea: An Econometric Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.224-227 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/224-227.pdf

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Evaluation of the Administration and Management of Peer Teaching at the University of Zambia: Lessons from Geography Education Students

Kasonde Mundende, Kaiko Mubita, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Nicholas Haambokoma, Inonge Milupi and Patrick Sikayomya – April 2022- Page No.: 228-235

This study sought to evaluate the administration and management of peer teaching at the University of Zambia (UNZA). The aim of the study was to determine the practical way(s) to enhance the administration and management of peer teaching in geography education at UNZA. The main objectives were to: (i) evaluate the effectiveness of the peer teaching at UNZA; (ii) explore practical ways of administering and managing peer teaching to enhance quality at UNZA. The study used qualitative approach, and the case study design. 47 learners (21 male & 26 female) and one male lecturer participated in the study. The key findings were (i) majority of learners agreed that peer teaching was well organised at UNZA; (ii) majority of learners disagreed that the time allocated to the peer teaching was adequate; (iii) learners faced various challenges which included inadequate time allocated to peer teaching experience, lack of teaching resources, difficulties in lesson management, lecturers’ attitude and their punctuality. Because of these findings the study recommends the following: (i) increase in the time allocation to peer teaching activity, to between 20 and 40 minutes, (ii) beginning peer teaching early in the year, (iii) departmental involvement in providing teaching and learning resources to be used during the peer teaching experience, and that lecturers should be punctual and should give feedback after each learner presenter.

Page(s): 228-235                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 May 2022

 Kasonde Mundende
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Kaiko Mubita
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Kalisto Kalimaposo
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special education

 Nicholas Haambokoma
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Religious Studies

 Inonge Milupi
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Patrick Sikayomya
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

[1] Boud, D., Cohen, R., and Sampson, J. (Eds.) (2014). Development of Self – Management Skills and Managing with Others. London and New York: Routledge.
[2] Boud, D, Cohen, R, Sampson, J. (2001). Peer Learning in higher Education Learning from and with each other. London: Kegan Page Ltd
[3] Bradford – Watts, K. (2011). Students Teaching Students? Peer Teaching in the ELF Classroom in Japan. Kyoto Women’s University.
[4] Chirwa, C and Mubita, K. (2021). Preparedness of Teachers and Learners in the integration of Information Communication Technologies in the teaching and learning of geography in selected schools of Petauke District of Eastern Province in Zambia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume V, Issue III, March 2021|ISSN 2454-6186
[5] Chirwa, C and Mubita, K. (2021). The use of ICT in teaching of Geography in selected schools of Petauke district in eastern province of Zambia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume V, Issue X, October 2021|ISSN 2454-6186
[6] De Lisi, R. (2002). From Marbles to Instant Messenger: Implications of Piaget’s Ideas about Peer Learning. Theory and Practice, 14 (1), pp 5 – 12.
[7] Hoepfl, C.M. (1997). Choosing Qualitative Research: A Primer for Technology Education Researchers. Journal of Technology Education, 9(1), pp 47 – 63.
[8] Farquhar, D.J. (2012). Case Study Research for Business. Los Angeles: SAGE.
[9] Keup, J., Rogan, S., and Kenedy, R. (2015). An International Perspective on Peer Education and Leadership best Practices in the Fye and Beyond. Conference Presentation
[10] Lako, P and Mubita, K. (2021). Barriers to Geography Teachers’ Engagement with Research in Selected Secondary Schools of Serenje District in Central Zambia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) 5 (2), 72-78
Lako, P and Mubita, K. (2021). Geography Teachers’ Perspectives on Research Engagement in Selected Secondary Schools in Serenje District of Central Province of Zambia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume V, Issue VIII, August 2021|ISSN 2454-6186
[11] Mundende, K. (2015). Implementation of Geography Field Project in Zambian High Schools: A Survey of Livingstone and Monze Towns. International Journal of Research in Geography (IJRG), 1(2), 38 – 52.Lincoln, Y. S
[12] Manchishi, P.C. and Mwanza S. D. (2019). Teacher Preparation at the University of Zambia: Is Peer Teaching still a Useful Strategy? International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 3(11),
[13] Mundende, K., and Namafe, M. C. (2019). Exploring the Concept of Equal Opportunity in Teaching and Learning of Geography in Selected Secondary Schools of Kabwe District, Zambia. International Journal of Research in Geography (IJRG), 5(4), 23 – 33
[14] Mynard, J. and Almarzougi, I. (2006). Investigating Peer Tutoring. ELT Journal, 60 (1), 13 – 22
[15] Velez, J.J. (2011). Cultivating Change through Peer Teaching. Journal of Agricultural Education, 52 (1), pp 40 – 49.
[16] Stone, R., Cooper. S and Cant, R (2013). The Value of Peer Learning in Undergraduate Nursing Education: A Systematic Review: ISRN Nursing

Kasonde Mundende, Kaiko Mubita, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Nicholas Haambokoma, Inonge Milupi and Patrick Sikayomya “Evaluation of the Administration and Management of Peer Teaching at the University of Zambia: Lessons from Geography Education Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.228-235 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/228-235.pdf

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Participatory disaster information gathering approach for urban flood resilience

R.U.K. Piyadasa, H.M.M.S.D. Herath – April 2022- Page No.: 236-243

Flooding is an indivisible component of nature facing by the human across the world. It is proven that ‘flood’ is highly required to the cyclical process of river based ecosystems. During the last few centuries, the global urbanization has been severely affected by the phenomena of flood among all types of natural disasters which occur worldwide, as the most frequent disaster occurrence. The artificial alterations plus over exploitation of the natural functioning of water cycle have been causing devastating flood events increasingly. Sustainable Development of the human settlements is being threatened by frequent flood occurrences and their consequences where flooding has become a negative event in the context of rapid urbanization. On this background, this study aims to achieve the objective of examining the applicability of community based information to increase the flood resilience in the urban regions affected by storm water and flood occurrences, taking Kalu Oya Basin of Northern Colombo, Sri Lanka as the case study region. In the context of mixed urban to rural continuum of Kalu Oya basin, the utilized tools of community based information gathering techniques were proven greatly successful enabling a fruitful interaction to gather the different scenarios on living with flood.

Page(s): 236-243                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 May 2022

 R.U.K. Piyadasa
Department of Environmental Technology, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

 H.M.M.S.D. Herath
Department of Environmental Technology, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

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R.U.K. Piyadasa, H.M.M.S.D. Herath, “Participatory disaster information gathering approach for urban flood resilience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.236-243 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/236-243.pdf

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Determining Effectiveness of Learners’ Intellectual Skills in Supporting Authentic Learning within a Competency Based Education Model in Secondary School Education: A Case of Kenya

Karen T. Odhiambo and George Okoth Ouma – April 2022- Page No.: 244-257

This study was carried out to determine IQ levels, learner preference of intellectual skills as well as impact of IQ on academic performance in secondary schools in Kenya. The study was based on the fact that learning today requires a shift in philosophy that relies on intellectual frame of mind, a forerunner of critical thinking skills and metacognitive perspectives of learning in the 21st Century. The study adopted a descriptive research design with a total of 160 students, 20 per school out of 8-schools identified. The study revealed that majority of learners who took the test attained below average intelligence IQ range at 85 – 114 with 56.06% male and 31.82% female learners in this IQ range. The other dominant category of learners attained above average intelligence with IQ range of 115 – 129 with 36.36% male and 45.45% of females. The study also revealed that the males tend to prefer technical tasks such as logical mathematical and bodily-kinesthetic compared to girls who were more inclined towards linguistics, musical and interpersonal intelligence. As for the results on academic performance in relation to intellectual skills, the relationship was inverse. It can be concluded that intellectual patterns arising from the study reflect a narrow sense of intellectual abilities leading to disjointedness in the learning process without the depth required. There is need for more research for a more solid theoretical foundation to be able to draw comparisons and determine trends regarding learner intelligence in secondary schools in Kenya.

Page(s): 244-257                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6415

 Karen T. Odhiambo Ph. D
Psychology Department, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 George Okoth Ouma M. Ed
Psychology Department, University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Karen T. Odhiambo and George Okoth Ouma “Determining Effectiveness of Learners’ Intellectual Skills in Supporting Authentic Learning within a Competency Based Education Model in Secondary School Education: A Case of Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.244-257 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6415

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Emotional self – regulation and Academic Achievement among Form Two Students in public Secondary Schools Nairobi County, Kenya

Patricia Wakanyi Kimani, Dr Philomenah Ndambuki, Dr. Samuel Mutweleli – April 2022- Page No.: 258-266

Low academic achievement has been of great concern worldwide for a long time. Research studies that have been done, attribute this to various causes including environmental and psychological factors. More specifically, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between students’ emotional self-regulation and academic achievement in Nairobi County, Kenya. Golman’s Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence theory guided the study. The study adopted a correlational research design in order to establish the relationship between the variables. The target population was all year 2019 form two students in public secondary schools in Nairobi County. Purposive, stratified and simple random sampling procedures were used to select location, level and participants respectively. A total of 738 questionnaires for students selected from eight public secondary schools in Nairobi County were analyzed. Emotional self-regulation scale for Adolescents and Children was adopted and used to measure students’emotional self-regulation. Students’ academic achievement was inferred from their examination grades obtained from school records. A pilot study was conducted involving 34 students in one co-educational day school within the county to establish and enhance validity and reliability of the study instruments. Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Hypotheses were tested at a = .05 level of significance. The results revealed that emotional self-regulation was positively and significantly correlated to academic achievement (r (738 = .0.074, P < .0.05. Among the two levels of emotional self-regulation, only cognitive reappraisal reported a statistically significant correlation with academic achievement. Expressive suppression and academic achievement revealed a weak negative statistically non-significant relationship. Therefore, the study recommended that educators consider teaching students emotional intelligence skills to foster use of proper emotional control strategies in order to enhance academic achievement.

Page(s): 258-266                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6416

 Patricia Wakanyi Kimani
Department of Educational Psychology, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr Philomenah Ndambuki
Department of Educational Psychology, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Samuel Mutweleli
Department of Educational Psychology, School of Education, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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Patricia Wakanyi Kimani, Dr Philomenah Ndambuki, Dr. Samuel Mutweleli, “Emotional self – regulation and Academic Achievement among Form Two Students in public Secondary Schools Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.258-266 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6416

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Challenges Faced by Pregnant Students at the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana and Strategies for Supporting Them

Gifty Nordzi, Seyram Dusu, Dr. Hinneh Kusi – April 2022- Page No.: 267-272

This study explored the challenges faced by pregnant students at the University of Education, Winneba and strategies for supporting them. It was a qualitative study underpinned by interpretive philosophical thought. The study employed a case study approach and collected data using the semi-structured interview. Snowball sampling strategy was employed to select thirty (30) pregnant students, maximal variation sampling technique to select five (5) counsellors, and convenient sampling technique to select five (5) lecturers for the study. The study revealed that the social challenges faced by the students were related to the attitudes of lecturers and students towards them, while the academic challenges included slow pace of studying, which affected their performance negatively. The study pointed out that the pregnant students coped with their social challenges mainly through the avoidance coping mechanism and the academic challenges by managing their time effectively and joining group discussions. It was concluded, among others, that the pregnant students at the university experienced some difficulties in their academic work because the available facilities as well as their colleagues and lecturers in the institution do not support their condition or situation. It was recommended, among others that, the university’s counselling centre should educate students and lecturers on how to handle and associate with the pregnant students and treat them as individuals with special needs.

Page(s): 267-272                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 May 2022

 Gifty Nordzi
St. Francis College of Education, Hohoe Education Department, Post Office Box 100, Hohoe

 Seyram Dusu
Mampong Technical College of Education, Department of Education and Professional Studies, Post Office Box 31, Ashanti Mampong

 Dr. Hinneh Kusi
Department of Educational Administration and Management, Faculty of Educational Studies, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

[1] Anane C., Adangabe A. A. and Inkoom D. (2021). Coping Strategies and Perceived Support of Student-Mothers at the University of Education, Winneba-Campus. South Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2(3): 151-169 http://doi.org/10.48165/sajssh.2021.2310.
[2] Brickhouse, N. W. (2005). Embodying Science: A feminist perspective on learning. Journal of Research in science Teaching, 38(3), 282-295.
[3] Dlamini, L. S.(2002). The problems of teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Pretoria: University of South Africa.
[4] Durdella N. (2019) Qualitative dissertation methodology: A guide for research design and methods. Sage Publication.
[5] Etuah P. A., Gbagbo F. Y. and Nkrumah J. (2018). Coping with Pregnancy in Academic Environment: Experiences of Pregnant Students in a Public University in Ghana. Journal of Women’s Health-2(2):1-11 doi10.14302/issn.2381-862x.jwrh-18-2090.
[6] Luttrell, W. (2003). Pregnant bodies, fertile minds: Gender, race and the schooling of pregnant teens. New York: Routledge.
[7] Mamhute, R. (2011). The educational challenges of pregnant and nursing adult learners: a case study of Morgenstern teachers’ college. South Africa: University of South Africa.
[8] National Health Ministries (2006). Stress and the College Student: PC ( USA).
[9] NUS (2009). Meet the parents: the experience of students with children in further and higher education. National Union of Students, London. www.nus.org.uk/News/News/Meet-the-Parents-/
[10] Orr, D., Schnitzer, K. &Frackmann, E. (2008). Euro student report III 2005–2008: social and economic conditions of student life in Europe. Hannover, Germany: Higher Education Information System (HIS). www.eurostudent.eu/results/reports
[11] Saidah, M. N. & Dinah, T. K. (2006). Studying and Parenting: Experiences of student mothers in Ugandan Universities; Uganda; Monograph Series, Number 17.
[12] Sekgobela, C. B. (2008). Pregnancy- related challenges encountered by student nurses
[13] at the South African Military Health Services Nursing College. Pretoria: Unisa.
[14] Sincero S. M. (2012). Theories of Coping. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from Explorable.com: http://exploreble.com/theories-of-coping.
[15] Universities UK (2008) The future size and shape of the HE sector in the UK: demographicprojections. Universities UK, London. Retrieved May 14, 2011. Website: www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/Publications/Pages/Publication-282.aspx
[16] Ward, K. &Bensimon, E. M. (2002). Engendering socialization. In K. Renn& A. Martinez Aleman (Eds.), Women in Higher Education: An encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 431-434.

Gifty Nordzi, Seyram Dusu, Dr. Hinneh Kusi “Challenges Faced by Pregnant Students at the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana and Strategies for Supporting Them” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.267-272 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/267-272.pdf

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Election as a Rector Appointment System in Turkish Universities; Academic freedom or autonomy?

Abdullah Murat Tuncer – April 2022- Page No.: 273-276

Higher Education Council (YÖK) has been a controversial institution due to the military regime environment on the day it was founded. In November 1981, YÖK took its place in the 1982 constitution, whose principles and legal formation were revealed with the law numbered 2547. Before YÖK, the Law on Universities No. 4936, published in the Official Gazette on 18 June 1946, regulated the appointment of rectors by-election. The YÖK law, which was established according to the Constitution adopted on November 4, 1982, put an end to the process of appointing the rectors by-election.
On July 7, 1992, an amendment was made to the article of the Higher Education Law regulating the election of the rector, and the election was brought again in the appointments of the rectors.
On October 29, 2016, with a change in the conditions of the state of emergency, the rectorate elections were ended again.
Misapplications in the appointment or election of rectors have led to serious turmoil in the university environment caused by dissatisfaction, political intervention and pressures, ideological and internal conflicts, slander, and defamation for a long time. Academic freedom is important in universities, but where is the limit of autonomy? It is difficult to say autonomy about universities whether public or private because they are responsible for public service and they use public resources. Therefore, full financial and administrative autonomy pushes the limits for universities.
In terms of academic freedoms, the rector’s performance and merit are more important than the way the rectors’ appointment system.
This paper discusses election as a rector appointment system in Turkish Universities regarding academic freedom and autonomy.

Page(s): 273-276                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6417

 Abdullah Murat Tuncer
Ph.D. Student, Political Science, Conley University, Honolulu, USA

[1] Bergan S, Gallagher T and Harkavy I (eds) (2020) Academic freedom, institutional autonomy, and the future of democracy. Council of Europe Higher Education Series No. 24.
[2] Brooks C, Manza J (1997). Social cleavages and political alignment; US Presidential Elections, 1960 TO 1992. American Sociological Review, 62;937-946.
[3] Degtyarova I, Woźnicki J (2018). Competition vs. Searching as a Mechanism of the Rector’s Selection in Higher Education Institutions in Poland. Journal of Intercultural Management 10;19–39.
[4] Karran T (2007). Academic Freedom in Europe: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis. Higher Education Policy, 20;289– 313.
[5] Küçük HÖ, Toklu İT (2020). What factors affect voting behavior in elections? Research on generation Z. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal 8; 4546-4574.
[6] Ndereyimana, L. (2021) The History of Academic Freedom in Africa: Issues, Challenges, and Perspectives. Advances in Literary Study, 9, 154-158. DOI: 10.4236/als.2021.93017.
[7] Pérez-Fernández R, García-Lapresta JL and Baets DB (2018). Chronicle of a Failure Foretold: 2017 Rector Election at Ghent University. Economies MDPI, 7;1-11.
[8] Tuncer MA, Tatar M and Şahin İ (2017). University hospitals in Turkey: Structural crisis in financing or consequence of mismanagement? Journal of Hospital Administration 6;52-60.
[9] Tuncer MA (2021). YÖK Raporu; Yüksek Öğretimde Sorunlar ve Çözüm Önerileri. Armoni Yayıncılık, İstanbul.Türkiye.
[10] https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/russia-ukraine-tensions-mar-rectoral-poll-stolen-ballot-box (February 2022)
[11] https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20201113063532958 (February 2022)
[12] https://www.yok.gov.tr/Documents/Yayinlar/Yayinlarimiz/the-law-on-higher-education.pdf (February 2022).
[13] https://www.yourunion.net/representation/rector/election/ (February 2022)

Abdullah Murat Tuncer, “Election as a Rector Appointment System in Turkish Universities; Academic freedom or autonomy?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.273-276 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6417

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Classroom Practices of Senior High School Physics Teachers in the Hohoe Municipality

Maxwell, Dah, Rose, Dognia – April 2022- Page No.: 277-287

The purpose of the study was to investigate the activities and practices of physics teachers in terms of their pedagogical skills and assessment practices. The study was limited to physics teachers and students in eight (8) senior high schools in the Hohoe Municipality of the Volta Region, Ghana. Descriptive cross-sectional survey design was employed in carrying out the study. A total sample of 200 senior high school physics students and 2 physics teacher were involved in data collection. A questionnaire consisting mainly of closed ended items and observation schedule were used in collecting data from respondents. Data collected was analysed using simple frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. It was found that, most of the physics teachers do not often respond appropriately to students’ wrong answers and misconceptions. Most physics students also raised concerns about their physics teachers not often linking what they teach to their daily life occurrences. However, evidence from observation indicates that physics teachers possess and exhibited sufficient knowledge on diverse pedagogical skills. Physics teachers often use interactive formative assessments such as oral question and answer technique. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, physics teachers should carefully pay attention to and often address their students’ wrong answers and misconceptions, make learning of physics interesting by making students appreciate the importance of what they teach.

Page(s): 277-287                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6418

 Maxwell, Dah
Mfantsipim School, Ghana-Cape Coast

 Rose, Dognia
Bolga Girls SHS, Ghana-Bolgatanga

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Maxwell, Dah, Rose, Dognia “Classroom Practices of Senior High School Physics Teachers in the Hohoe Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.277-287 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6418

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Employee Engagement and Competitive Advantage during Covid 19 Pandemic in Small to Medium Enterprises, Catering Industry, Harare

Mubango Hazel and Muzariri Calvin – April 2022- Page No.: 288-292

The unexpected coming of Covid -19 to the whole world came with shocking effects on business. Zimbabwe as a country was not spared by this pandemic and in particular, Harare’s small to medium catering industry was seriously affected. This research paper focused on the level of engagement of employees in the Small to Medium Enterprises in the catering industry with the intention to find out how engagement can provide leverage for competitiveness. The concept of engagement has an adverse effect on employee performance and the financial position of the organization. The research was based on documentary analysis to gather information on the unfolding events in Harare. The research revealed that employees in the catering industry were disengaged from the effects of Covid -19 which frustrated the work systems and plans.
The research findings revealed that employees were disengaged due to the changes in work processes. Much of the disengagement came from job insecurity caused by continued lockdowns and poor income generation by the companies. It was recommended that management must support the engagement process as they are key in facilitating employee productivity and company success. Also, the government must encourage dialogue in managing the political, Socio-Cultural and economic issues to at least avert the problems of disengagement

Page(s): 288-292                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 May 2022

 Mubango Hazel
Women’s University in Africa, Zimbabwe

 Muzariri Calvin
Women’s University in Africa, Zimbabwe

[1] AON (2018). Trends in Global employee engagement study.
[2] Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong’s handbook of human resources management practice, 12th ed, London, Library of Congress Cataloguing.
[3] Bedarkar, M. and Pandita, D. (2014). A study on the drivers of employee engagement impacting employee performance. Social and Behavioral Sciences 133 pp 106 – 115
[4] Cataldo, P. (2011). Focusing on Employee Engagement: How to Measure It and Improve IT. Kenan Flager Business School. UNC
[5] Chanana, N. and Sangeeta (2020). Employee engagement practices during COVID-19 lockdown. Wiley
[6] Chandani, A., Mehta, M., Mall, A., & Khokhar, V. (2016). Employee engagement: A review paper on factors affecting employee engagement. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(15), 1–7.
[7] Chaora, B. (2020. Impact of Covid 19 Lockdown on Micro small and medium scale enterprises in Zimbabwe. SIVIO Institute
[8] Christian M. S, Garza A. S, Slaughter J. E. (2011). Work engagement: A quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology; 64(1): 89-136
[9] Zhao, S., Bin, Y., Chen, Y.-M., Wang, W., Song, Z.-G., & Yi, H. (2020). A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature, 579, 265–269
[10] Formato, B. (2014). Why employee engagement is so critical during tough times. Groove Management Blog. Retrieved from https://www.groovemanagement.com/blog/why-employee-engagement-is-socritical- during-tough-times
[11] Ghosh, A. K., Brindisi, M., Shahabi, D., Mackenzie, E. C., & Andrew, D. M. (2020). Drug development and medicinal chemistry efforts toward SARS-coronavirus and Covid-19 therapeutics. Chemistry Europe: European Chemical Societies Publishing, 15, 907–932.
[12] Harter J.K., Schmidt F.L. and Hayes, T.L. (2002). ‘Business unit level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis’. Journal of Applied Psychology. 87(2). 268-279.
[13] Hewitt, A. (2013). Trends in global employee engagement; New York: Consulting, Performance, Reward and Talent AON plc.
[14] Industrial Psychology Consultants (IPC) (2019). National Employee Engagement Benchmarking Report, Zimbabwe.
[15] Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724. https://doi.org/10.2307/256287
[16] Kaplan, J., Frias, L., & Mefall-Johnsen, M. (2020). Business Insider India. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.in/international/News/a-third-of-the-global-population-is-on-coronavirus-lockdownx2014-hereaposs-our’s-constantly-updated-list-of-countries-and-restrictions/Slidelist/75208623.cms
[17] Lee, C., Alonso, A., Esen, E., Coombs, J., Mulvey, T., Victor, J., & Ng, H. (2016). Employee job satisfaction and engagement: Revitalizing a changing workforce. Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/trendsand-forecasting/research-and-surveys/Documents/2022-Employee-Job-Satisfaction-and-Engagement-Report.pdf
[18] Little B, Little P. (2006). Employee engagement: conceptual issues. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict. 10(1): 111-120.
[19] Magaisa, G., & Matipira, L. (2017). Small and Medium Enterprises Development in Zimbabwe. An International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, Vol (6), No (2)
[20] Mangundjaya,W.(2012). Are Organizational commitment and Employee engagement important in achieving individual readiness for change? Humanitas, 9(2), p. 186-191
[21] Masson, M. (2009). Employee engagement in tough times. Workforce.com. https://www.workforce.com/news/employee-engagementin-tough-times-part-two
[22] Matkin, J. (2016). Keeping employees engaged during tough times. LinkedIn. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/keeping-employees-engaged-during-tough-times-jo-matkin/
[23] McGregor, D. (1960). The Human Side of Enterprise. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York
[24] Medina, R. G. (2011). Human Behavior in the Organization. Manila, Philippines: Rex Book Store, Inc.
[25] Nguwi. M. (2012) National Employee Engagement Levels Up http://www.ipcconsultants.com
[26] Ortiz, D.A., Cernas, Lau & Qin, H. (2013) Quantitative analysis of impacts of employee engagement on continuance and normative commitment. International Journal of Services and Standards.
[27] Owoeye, I., Kiiru, D., & Muli, J. (2020). Recognition Practices and Employee Performance: Understanding Work Engagement as a Mediating Pathway in Kenyan Context. Journal of Human Resource Management, 8, 163-171.
[28] Patro, C. S. (2013). The impact of employee engagement on organization’s productivity. 2nd international conference on managing human resources at the workplace, December 13–14. ISBN: 978-81-922146-5-8.
[29] Presbitero, A., Roxas, B., & Chadee, D. (2016). Looking beyond HRM Practices in Enhancing Employee Retention in BPOs: Focus on Employee-Organisation Value Fit. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27, 635-652.
[30] Saks, A. M. (2017). Translating employee engagement research into practice. Organizational Dynamics, 46(2), 76–86.
[31] Shoko, M. and Zinyemba, A.Z. (2014). Impact of Employee Engagement on Organizational Commitment in National Institutions of Higher Learning in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences. Vol. 3 No. 9 |
[32] Siddhanta, A. & Roy, D. (2010).Employee engagement: Engaging the 21st century Workforce. Asian Journal of Management Research, 3, p.2229 – 3795. (S.I 77 of 2020)
[33] Deal, J. J., Stawiski, S., Graves, L., Gentry, W. A., Weber, T. J., & Ruderman, M. (2013). Motivation at work: Which matters more, generation or managerial level? Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 65(1), 1–16.
[34] Tembo, D. (2020). International Free Trade Center. Small Business in Africa Must Innovate to Survive COVID 19: Retrieved from https://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine 25 Jan 2022 small-businesses-africa-must-innovate-survive-covid-19.
[35] Vickers, M. (2019, January 24). Boosting worker engagement in tough times. American Management Association. Retrieved from https://www.amanet.org/articles/boosting-worker-engagement-in-toughtimes/
[36] World Health Organization. (2020c). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1

Mubango Hazel and Muzariri Calvin, “Employee Engagement and Competitive Advantage during Covid 19 Pandemic in Small to Medium Enterprises, Catering Industry, Harare” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.288-292 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/288-292.pdf

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Anthropometric Characteristics of Elite Male Rugby Players at the Rio and Tokyo Summer Olympic Games: A Systematic Review

Michael D. Otieno, Nicholas K. Bailasha, Elijah G. Rintaugu – April 2022- Page No.: 293-299

This study reviewed the anthropometric characteristics of age, height and mass of elite male rugby players at the Rio and Tokyo summer Olympic games. A total of 149 rugby players who participated in the Rio Olympic games and 156 players who participated in the Tokyo Olympic games were profiled. Both games had 12 participating teams with each team consisting of either 12 or 13 players as per World Rugby requirements. Data was collected from team profiles that contained the ages, height and mass of all the players (Wikipedia, 2021). The means and standard deviations were subsequently calculated and Pearson’s correlation used to determine the relationship between the final performances and age, height and mass respectively. Findings showed no significant correlation between performance and age, height and mass at both Rio and Tokyo except for performance and age at the Tokyo Olympics. The findings suggested that the following anthropometric characteristic were dominant: ages between 21and 29; height between 1.80m and 1.90m and mass between 91kg and 100kg.

Page(s): 293-299                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 May 2022

 Michael D. Otieno
Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Nicholas K. Bailasha
Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Elijah G. Rintaugu
Department of Recreation and Sport Management, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Barr, M; Newton, R; & Sheppard, J (2014). Were Height and Mass Related to Performance at the 2007 and 2011 Rugby World Cups? International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching. 9 (4) 671-680
[2] Brazier J, Antrobus M, Stebbings GK, Day SH, Callus P, Erskine RM, Bennett MA, Kilduff LP, Williams AG (2020). Anthropometric and Physiological Characteristics of Elite Male Rugby Athletes. Journal of Strength Cond Res.;34(6):1790-1801. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002827. PMID: 30138238.
[3] Dobbin, N; Highton, J; Moss, S; & Twist, C (2019). Factors Affecting the Anthropometric and Physical Characteristics of Elite Academy Rugby League Players: A Multiclub Study. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 14 (7): 958-965.
[4] Gabbett TJ (2002). Influence of Physiological Characteristics on Selection in a Semi-Professional First Grade Rugby League Team: a case study. Journal of Sports Science.;20(5):399-405. doi: 10.1080/026404102317366654. PMID: 12043829.
[5] Glazier,P.S (2017). Towards a grand United Theory of Sports Performance. Journal of Human Movement Science. 56: 139-156
[6] Longo, A; Siffredi, C; Cardey, M; Aqulino, G; & Lentini, N (2016). Age of Peak Performance in Olympic Sports: A comparative research among disciplines. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise 11(1)DOI:10.14198/jhse.2016.111.03
[7] Minson, C (2015). How Does Ageing affect Athletic Performance? The Sydney Morning Herald. 7th July 2015. amp.smh.com.au
[8] Natacha, G.T; Mabliny, T & Sara, P (2020). Sports Performance and Systems Theory. Project in Project
[9] Nicholas, C.W (1997). Physiological Characteristics of Rugby Union Football Players. Sports Med. 23 (6): 375-396
[10] Pasin, F; Caroli, B; Spigoni, V; Cas, A; Volpi, R; Galli, C & Passeri, G ( 2017). Performance and Anthropometric Characteristics of Elite Rugby Players. Acta bio-medica. 88(2): 172–177.
[11] Stoop, R; Hohenauer, E; Rucker, A; & Clijsen, R (2019). Anthropometric Properties versus Physical Performance in Rugby Union Forwards and Backs – A systematic review. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 6 (2): 1-13.
[12] Thomson, C.B (2009). Descriptive Data Analysis. Air Medical Journal. 28(2): 56-59. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amj.2008.12.001
[13] Till, K; Darrall-Jones, J; Weakley, J.; Roe, A.; & Jones, B. (2017). The Influence of Training Age on the Annual Development of Physical Qualities Within Academy Rugby League Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: 31 (8) 2110-2118
[14] Till, K; Cobley, S; Morley, D; O’hara, J; Chapman,C; & Cooke, C (2016) The influence of age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on career attainment outcomes in rugby league, Journal of Sports Sciences, 34:13, 1240-1245, DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1105380
[15] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, September 13). Rugby sevens at the 2020 Summer Olympics – Men’s team squads. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 06:21, November 25, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rugby_sevens_at_the_2020_Summer_Olympics_%E2%80%93_Men%27s_team_squads&oldid=1044069469

Michael D. Otieno, Nicholas K. Bailasha, Elijah G. Rintaugu “Anthropometric Characteristics of Elite Male Rugby Players at the Rio and Tokyo Summer Olympic Games: A Systematic Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.293-299 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/293-299.pdf

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The Neglect and Ramifications of The Political Opinion of Chief Nyenti Stephen Eyong and The Cameroon Commoner’s Congress (1959-1961)

James Takor Tabe – April 2022- Page No.: 300-307

The article traces the activities of Cameroon Commoners Congress (CCC) under the auspices of Chief Nyenti Stephen Eyong and reasons for neglect of the political opinion advocated by his party during the 1961 plebiscite in Southern Cameroons. It also examines the political, economic and socio-cultural impact of the neglect on the territory. The article made use of secondary and primary sources for the collection of data. Concerning the secondary sources, use was made of an extensive literature that offered some general and specific information about the article. After critical analyses of archival data, tangible evidence emerged as to the fact that Southern Cameroonian inhabitants be they indigenes or non-indigenes were affected negatively due to this neglect. To ensure an easy understanding, we adopted a conventional analytical pattern. We used both the chronological and topical approaches aimed at chronologically illustrating the political neglect and thematically examining the changes that Southern Cameroons experienced over time. Our findings reveal four central issues: Firstly, that by neglecting political opinion of Chief Nyenti, the independence of Southern Cameroons was neglected also. Secondly, minority former British Southern Cameroons citizens have raised their voices for being marginalized by their majority French Cameroonians counterparts. Thirdly, personal interest took precedence over common interest. Fourthly, the neglected political opinion of Chief Nyenti was regretted because some citizens later called for a separate political entity for Southern Cameroons. The article argues that the neglect of the third option in the plebiscite laid ground for Anglophone problem, mutual suspicion and mistrust between Anglophones and Francophone in Cameroon.

Page(s): 300-307                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 May 2022

 James Takor Tabe
Depatment of History, University of Buea, South West Region, Cameroon

Books
[1] Kale, P. M., (1968). Political Evolution in the Cameroons: Buea. Government Printer.
[2] Mbile, N.N., (2000). Cameroon Political Story: Memories of an Authentic Eyewitness: Limbe: Presbyterian Printing Press.
[3] Ngoh V. J., (1996). History of Cameroon since 1800: Buea: Press book Limbe.
[4] ————–. (2004).Cameroon from a Federal to a Unitary State 1961-1972:A critical study. Limbe, Design House
[5] —————., (2011).The Untold Story of Cameroon Reunification: 1955-61 : Limbe : Press Print Flc.
[6] Phillipson S., (1959). Financial, Economic and Administrative Consequences to the Southern Cameroons of Separation from the Federation of Nigeria: Buea
Articles:
[1] Ebune J. (2004). “The Making of the Federal System in Cameroon from a Federal to a Unitary State 1961-1972”in Ngoh, V. T (ed)., House , Limbe, ,pp.48-49
[2] Ngoh V. J., ( 2011) “Unraveling the History of Cameroon Reunification, 1959-61” In Eden X’tra N0.001
[3] Unpublished Sources
Archival
[1] National Archives, Buea (NAB)
[2] NAB, File No. Vc/b 1959/6, “Statement to the Fourth Committee of UN.” 24thSeptember,” 1959, Dr. EML Endeley.
[3] NAB, File No. Vc/b,1959/6,“Statement to the Fourth Committee of UN,” on the 24th September,1959 by J N Foncha.
[4] NAB, File No.Vc/b, 1959/6, “Fourth Committee of United Nations Organisation,” 1959.
[5] NAB, File No. Vc/b, 1960/1, “London November Talks, Press Release No 1084, Southern Cameroons information Service October-November,” 1960.
[6] .NAB,File No.IS.111, Vb/b1961/3, “Cameroon Commoners Congress” ,1961.
[7] NAB File No. 3552 VC/9 (1961/5),“Southern Cameroons plebiscite,” 1961.
Archive of United Nations Organisation ( UNO) in Yaounde
[1] UN, Document No. T/1440 “Election Broadcast by J. N. Foncha, President-General of the KNDP,” 16 January 1959.
[2] UN, Document No.4A/4404, “Report of the Trusteeship Council,” 7 August, 1959 – 30 June, 1960, NewYork, 1960.
[3] UN, Document No.4, A/4404, “Report of the Trusteeship Council 7 August, 1959 – 30 June, 1960,”NewYork, 1960.
[4] UN, “Yearbook of 1946-47,” New York, Kraus Reprint, 1974.
Magazine
[1] Cameroon Radio and Television ( CRTV)
[2] CRTV,Bate Besong, Senior Lecturer University of Buea on “Hellow Programme,” National Television Yaounde , 2th March 2007.
Unpublished Sources.
Theses, Dissertations and Memoirs
[1] Nchong, M. A.(1984).“Emmanuel Tabi Egbe,”Maitrise Dissertation in History, University of Yaounde,
[2] Ngarka,S.T. (1984). “The Third Alternatives Element in the 1961 Southern Cameroons Plebiscite: Issues and Perspectives, Ph.D Thesis in History, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Nigeria
[3] Samah, T. T. (2006). “Chiefs (Traditional Rulers) in Anglophone Cameroon and Modern Governance, (1961-2000),” Ph.D Thesis in History, University of Yaoundé I
[4] Tabe, J. T. (2005). “Chief Nyenti Stephen Eyong of Bachuo-Ntai, Mamfe: A Traditional Ruler and Politician: ( 1925-1999),” MA Dissertation in History, University of Yaoundé 1
[5] ————–. (2007). “The Chieftaincy Institution Among the Banyang and Ejagham of Manyu Division(1922-2011):An Intersection of Tradition and Politics in Cameroon”,Ph.D Thesis in History, University of Yaounde 1
List of Informants
[1] Tabong Micheal Kima,Age 85 Years, Minister Plenitentiary and Chief of Bakebe ,Buea,9th March 2012
[2] Abangma Samson N., Age 65 Years,Former Registrar of Universityof Buea and Chief of Bache
[3] Village, Buea, 8th February2013
[4] Nyenti Ashu Elizabeth, Age 61 Years, Retired Primary Teacher and Wife of Chief Nyenti
[5] Stephen Eyong,Mamfe, 21st October 2006

James Takor Tabe “The Neglect and Ramifications of The Political Opinion of Chief Nyenti Stephen Eyong and The Cameroon Commoner’s Congress (1959-1961)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.300-307 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/300-307.pdf

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The Generosity of the Macedonian Christians: A Godly Model for Christian Giving

Iddrissu A. Shaibu (Phd) – April 2022- Page No.: 308-312

In recent times, concerns have been raised by section of the Church regarding the excessive demands for money by the Church. The argument is that the excessive demands are to the detriment to the personal needs of the congregants. What is more, the presence of Covid-19 has partially led to worsen economic situations, which has in a way affected the giving pattern of the Church. This situation drew the attention of this researcher to the generosity of the Macedonian Christians as found in 2 Cor. 8 & 9. Using secondary sources and the theory of gratitude this paper established that the Macedonian Christians exhibited prosocial behaviour and were energised to sustain their moral behaviour through giving in the midst of severe afflictions. They gave not only to show appreciation for the extension of the Gospel to them, but to aid in the mission work of the Church. In this regard, severe economic and social situations should not deter believers from giving to the Church.

Page(s): 308-312                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 May 2022

 Iddrissu A. Shaibu (Phd)
Department of Religion and Human Values, College of Humanities and Legal Studies
University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana-West Africa

[1] Barnett, P. (1999). Jesus and the rise of early Christianity: A history of New Testament times. Illinois: InterVarsity Press.
[2] Beckmann, M. David (1975). Eden revival spiritual churches in Ghana. London: Concord Publican House.
[3] Bisagno, J.R.(2002) Successful church fundraising: Capital campaigns you can do yourself. U.S.A.: Broadman Holman Publishers.
[4] Bruce, F. F.(1971). 1 & 2 Corinthians: New Century Bible (ed.) R.E. Clement & M. Black: London: Oliphants.
[5] Chadwick, H. W.(1967). The early church. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books.
[6] Church, F. L. (ed.)(1960). Matthew Henry’s commentary: On the whole Bible in one volume-Genesis to Revelation. Britain. Billings & Sons Limited.
[7] Hengel, M.(1980). Acts and the history of earliest Christianity. London: SCM Press.
[8] Hughes, E. P.(1962). Commentary on the second epistle to the Corinthians. Grand Rapid: Eerdmans.
[9] Iddrissu A. Shaibu (2010). ‘‘The Practice of Offertory in the Early Church in Comparison with the Classical Pentecostal Churches in Ghana: A Case Study of some Selected Churches in the Ashanti Region.’’ An unpublished Master of Philosophy thesis submitted to the Department of Religion and Human Values, University of Cape Coast.
[10] Iddrissu A. Shaibu (2018). ‘‘A critical assessment of the strategies of fundraising in the Ghana Church: A study of some Churches in the Cape Coast Metropolis’’. An unpublished Doctor of Philosophy thesis submitted to the Department of Religion and Human Values, University of Cape Coast.
[11] Kraftchick, S. J.(1968) “Death in us, Life in you.” In D. M. Hay (Ed.). Pauline Theology, Vol. II: 1 and 2 Corinthians, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993, pp. 156-181.
[12] Martin Luther King Jnr. ‘‘The American Dream,’’ Negro History Bulletin, Vol. 31, p.12.
[13] Mbiti, J. S.(1989) African religions and philosophy, 2nd edition. London: Heinemann.
[14] McCullough, M.E., Kilpatrick, J.D., Emmons, R.A., & Larson, D.B.(2001) “Is gratitude a moral affect?” Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249-266.
[15] Melick Jr. R.Richard (1989). “The collection for the Saints: 2 Corinthians 8-9.” In Criswell Theological Review, (4) 1,pp. 97-117.
[16] Morris, Leon (1978). 1 Corinthians (Downers Grove IVP, 237.
[17] Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome (1991). The theology of the second epistles to the Corinthians. London: Cambridge University Press.
[18] Ogereau, Julien M. (2012)‘‘The Jerusalem collection as Koinonia: Paul’s global Politics of socio-economic equality and solidarity. ‘‘New Testament Studies’’ 58, no. 3;360-378.
[19] Pao, D.W.(2002).Thanksgiving: An investigation of Pauline theme. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.
[20] Plummer, A.(1966). A critical and exegetical commentary on the second epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. Reprint (ed.) The International critical commentary series. Edinburgh: T & T. Clark.
[21] Scott, J. M.(1998). 2 Corinthians. New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.
[22] Skidmore, E. J.(1997).The Christian stewardship of money and possessions. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, McCormick Theological Seminary. Chicago, Illinois, (pp. 12-16). Retrieved from URL: http// www.allaboutgod.comChristian Stewardship on 19 January, 2021.
[23] Thomas, L. C. (2015). Notes on second Corinthians. Retrieved from URL:http// www. Soniclight.com. on 16 October, 2020.
[24] Tolson, C. L.(2003). Proven principles for finding funds: A guide for church and Non-profit Leaders. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books.
[25] Turner, H.W.(1967) History of an African independent church, Vol. 2. London: Clarendon Press.
[26] “World Bank. 2020. Ghana Poverty Assessment. World Bank, Washington, DC. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/34804 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”

Iddrissu A. Shaibu (Phd), “The Generosity of the Macedonian Christians: A Godly Model for Christian Giving” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.308-312 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/308-312.pdf

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Personhood as a Foundation of Morality in Africa: A Critical Analysis of Ethical Norm-Dead Donor Rule from an African Moral Perspective”

Jonathan Kathenge, PhD – April 2022- Page No.: 313-317

Our conceptual understanding of personhood in Africa guides of moral determination, as well our moral concept in African context affects our perception of personhood. Therefore, the concept of morality, personhood and health in African context should be understood as co-related either by cause or effect relationship with issues pertaining to each either springing from or leading to the other. Morality deals with individual character and the moral rules that govern and limit our conduct. It investigates questions of right and wrong, duty and obligations, and moral responsibility. With this perspective, it can be argued that the moral rightness or wrongness of any ethical norm in the African context should be judged not solely from an outside world view of an individual, but also taking consideration of the African conceptual perspective of morality and personhood because of their co-relationship. It is from this understanding I discuss in this paper an important ethical norm known as Dead Donor Rule, an ethical norm formulated as follows; ‘Organ Donors must clinically be dead before procurement or harvesting of organs can begin. Procurement of the organs must not cause or be the cause of the Donors death’. The problem I am addressing is, “Is it permissible from an African perspective of morality and personhood to directly bring about the disabling mutilation of a human being, even to delay the death of other person or persons? What criteria can we use to make a morally acceptable decision in such a case?” The hypothetical ethical rule or moral norm tested here is Dead Donor Rule. The ethical theory that I apply here is Kantian ethical theory or Kantian categorical imperative. This philosophical discourse is carried out through a mixture of armchair philosophical reflection and existing literature. The conclusion draws out emerging of two opposing groups one supporting and the other opposing the application of the Dead Donor Rule. The recommendation is further unbiased discussion on the objective criteria for organ donation/organ harvesting that also take into account an African concept of personhood and moral standards that conceive human life as sacred and transient beyond physical life.

Page(s): 313-317                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 May 2022

 Jonathan Kathenge, PhD
Chuka University, Kenya

[1] Cottingham, J. (2008). Western Philosophy: An Anthology (2nd Ed.). Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.
[2] _____________ . (1988). Descartes: Principles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[3] Kass, Leon. (1984). Toward a More Natural Science: Biology and Human Affairs. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
[4] ___________. (2002). The Challenge for Bioethics. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
[5] Popper, Karl. (2002). Essay on Open Society and its Enemies. London. Routledge.
[6] Runzo, J., Hick, J. & Martin, N. (2001). The Religious Meaning of Life. Oxford: Oneworld.
[7] Russel, Betrand. (1991). The Problems of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[8] Santayana, G. (1969). The World as Will and Representation (Translated by Payne, E.F.J.). New York: Dover Publications.
[9] Taylor, T. (1967). The Meaning of Life. Oxford: Blackwell.
[10] Wijdicks, E. F. (1995). Determining Brain Death in Adults: Neurology. New York: American Journal of Medicine.
[11] Williams, B. (1981). The Identity of Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jonathan Kathenge, PhD “Personhood as a Foundation of Morality in Africa: A Critical Analysis of Ethical Norm-Dead Donor Rule from an African Moral Perspective”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.313-317 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/313-317.pdf

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Open-Doors Policy and Economic Contribution of Urban Refugees in Host Countries: Evidence from Benin

Hounton, S, Abuya Willice O. – April 2022- Page No.: 318-332

This paper assesses the economic contribution of urban refugees in Benin. The main objective of the research is to assess the economic contribution of urban refugees settled in Cotonou to the host community in Benin, examine the challenges they are facing, and the refugee’s policy impact. Therefore, this study used a mixed-methods approach to design and collect primary data on refugees from Central Africa Republic (CAR) who re-sides in the urban areas of Benin in Cotonou. In addition, the study used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. The qualitative data collected enable us to understand the challenges facing refugees and policies and practices in Benin. Meanwhile, the theory used in this research is inspired by the neoclassical theory of demand and new institutional economics. Moreover, the quantitative analysis is strengthened by the econometric framework analysis. The results revealed that the refugees in the urban areas of Benin in Cotonou face a lot of challenges in terms of employment. The larger population of them lack a consistent income to strengthen their livelihood. But the refugee’s policies and practices are in their favour. Thus, the regression analysis revealed that the refugees in Benin contribute positively and significantly to the host community’s economy.

Page(s): 318-332                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 May 2022

 Hounton, S
Dept of Political Science, Moi University, Kenya

 Abuya Willice O.
Dept. of Sociology, Anthropology & Psychology, Moi University, Kenya

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Hounton, S, Abuya Willice O., “Open-Doors Policy and Economic Contribution of Urban Refugees in Host Countries: Evidence from Benin” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.318-332 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/318-332.pdf

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Trauma-Informed Teaching as Correlates of Academic Performance Among Students with Special Education Needs in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria

OLADIMEJI Oyeyemi Omolayo & OLORODE Gbolaro Babatunde – April 2022- Page No.: 333-340

Academic Performance of student with Special Education Needs (SENs) had been widely researched, but few researches have considered it based on trauma-informed teaching. To fully implement the relationship between the two, this study investigated trauma-informed teaching as correlates of academic performance of students with special needs in Ibadan. The study employed correlational design. One hundred and fifty (150) Junior Secondary Class (JSS1-3) students from five public secondary schools in Ibadan that answered the questions on the different areas of special needs and indicated how it led to their past experiences of trauma and also adverse childhood experience of trauma participated in the study. Two instruments: namely Academic Performance Rating Scale (APRS) Revised and a well structured questionnaire were administered to elicit responses from the participants. The data realized were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation PPMC and Multiple Regression. There was a positive significant relationship between trauma-informed teaching and academic performance (r = .669**, N= 150, p<.05).There is also a joint contribution of trauma-informed teaching on academic performance of students with special needs. Also, there is a significant relative contribution of trauma-informed teaching (β =0.669, t= 10.965, p < 0.05) on academic performance of students with Special needs. Trauma-informed teaching fostered the academic performance of students with special needs. Conclusion and recommendations were made accordingly.

Page(s): 333-340                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 May 2022

 OLADIMEJI Oyeyemi Omolayo
Dept. Of Education For Learners With Intellectual Disability, Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, Nigeria

 OLORODE Gbolaro Babatunde
Dept. Of Education For Learners With Intellectual Disability, Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo, Nigeria

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OLADIMEJI Oyeyemi Omolayo & OLORODE Gbolaro Babatunde “Trauma-Informed Teaching as Correlates of Academic Performance Among Students with Special Education Needs in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.333-340 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/333-340.pdf

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Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement among Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria

Dr. Ukaigwe, P. C. & Goi-tanen, Keesiop Evelyn – April 2022- Page No.: 341-347

The study investigated the effects of computer-assisted instruction on mathematics achievement among secondary school students in Rivers State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design was quasi-experimental. The population of the study was 215 students in a senior secondary school Kpor in Gokana. The sample of the study was 35 students. The sample size was drawn using simple random sampling technique. The instrument used to collect data was multiple choice achievement test. The instrument was validated by experts in computer science education and the researchers, while the reliability of the instrument was established at 0.81. Mean and standard deviation was used to analyze pre-test and post-test scores to answer research questions, while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The findings of the study showed that students taught with computer assisted instruction performed higher than those taught with traditional instructional methods. Findings also revealed that there is a significant difference between the pretest and post-test achievement scores of students taught Mathematics with computer assisted instructional method. The study recommended among others that government should integrate computer and educational software into the mainstream of mathematics curriculum from the junior secondary school level as this will help to prepare students for stellar performance in Mathematics at senior secondary level.

Page(s): 341-347                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 May 2022

 Dr. Ukaigwe, P. C.
Department of Educational Management and Planning, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Goi-tanen, Keesiop Evelyn
Department of Educational Technology, School of Education, National Open University of Nigeria

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[12] Ragasa, C. Y. (2008). A comparison of computer-assisted instruction and the traditional method of teaching basic statistics. Journal of Statistics Education, 16 (1) 3-10
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[14] Roschelle, J., Shechtman, N., Tatar, D., Hegedus, S., Hopkins, B., Empson, S., Knudsen, J. & Gallagher, L. (2010). Integration of technology, curriculum, and professional development for advancing middle school mathematics: Three large-scale studies. American Educational Research Journal, 47(4), 833-878. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/250184906_Integration_of_Technology_Curriculum_and_Professional_Development_for_Advancing_Middle_School_Mathematics_Three_Large-Scale_Studies
[15] Schoppek, W., & Tulis, M. (2010). Enhancing arithmetic and word problem-solving skills efficiently by individualized computer-assisted practice. Journal of Educational Research, 103(4), 239-252. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228652394_Enhancing_Arithmetic_and_Word-Problem_Solving_Skills_Efficiently_by_Individualized_Computer-Assisted_Practice
[16] Seo, Y., & Bryant, D. (2012). Multimedia CAI program for students with mathematics difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 33(4), 217-225. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0741932510383322
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[18] Spiezia, V. (2010). Does computer use increase educational achievements? Student-level evidence from PISA. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 7(6), 76-83. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227461330_Does_Computer_Use_Increase_Educational_Achievements_Student-level_Evidence_from_PISA
[19] Spradlin, K., & Ackerman, B. (2010). The effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in developmental mathematics. Journal of Developmental Education, 34(2), 12-42. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.679.9011&rep=rep1&type=pdf
[20] Tabuena, A. C., & Pentang, J. T. (2021). Learning motivation and utilization of virtual media in learning mathematics. Asia-Africa Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 1, 65-75. https://journals.iapaar.com/index.php/AAJRSR/article/view/20
[21] Ukaigwe, P. C. & Igbozuruike (2020). Planning and integration of technologies for effective implementation of blended learning in universities in Rivers State, Nigeria. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(1) 452-462. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339134527_Planning_and_Integration_of_Technologies_for_Effective_Implementation_of_Blended_Learning_in_Universities_in_Rivers_State_Nigeria
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Dr. Ukaigwe, P. C. & Goi-tanen, Keesiop Evelyn, “Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Mathematics Achievement among Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.341-347 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/341-347.pdf

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Exploring the Implication of Gender Balance and the Factors Affecting Women’s Attainment to Top Leadership Positions in Organization

Alabi-Sessou Omobonike Adeola – April 2022- Page No.: 348-358

Underrepresentation of women in top leadership positions in organizations is a global phenomenon. Though studies show an increase in the number of women pursuing higher education globally (Catalyst, 2020) and approximately 47.1% of women have employment globally as well (International Labor Organization, 2014a), yet the obvious reality is that only few women occupy top leadership positions globally. This article reviews the implications of gender balance in leadership in organizations, discusses the leadership theory and leadership styles that serve as bedrock to this article, explains the apparent factors affecting women’s attainment to top leadership positons in organization (Individual, Socio-cultural and Organizational Factors) and it concludes by highlighting the need to eliminate or mitigate the effects of these factors so that more women can attain to top leadership positions in organizations.

Page(s): 348-358                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 May 2022

 Alabi-Sessou Omobonike Adeola
Seventh Day Adventist Church, West-Central Africa Division, Ivory Coast

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Alabi-Sessou Omobonike Adeola “Exploring the Implication of Gender Balance and the Factors Affecting Women’s Attainment to Top Leadership Positions in Organization” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.348-358 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/348-358.pdf

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Study Habits/Attitudes among University of Cape Coast One-Year, 3-Semester B. Ed Programme Cohort 1 Students at Koforidua SDA College of Education Study Centre

Derrick Nii Quarcoopome Sackey, Albert Bekoe Mensah, Florence Doe, Stella Akosua Kayi, Endurance Serwa Lah – April 2022- Page No.: 359-364

This study was conducted to determine the study habits/attitudes among the University of Cape Coast one-year, 3-semester B.Ed. Programme Cohort 1 students at Koforidua SDA College of Education study centre. A sample of 185 students was selected using the simple random sampling technique. A self-administered close-ended questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents sampled for the study. Data were analysed with frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviation, etc. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that it is good habit for students to read materials prior to it being covered in the class. Again, the study concluded that female and male students do not show variance/difference in study habits. It is recommended that when facilitators actively engage students in lesson, it will help improve their learning habits/attitudes. Also, when facilitators pay attention to individual needs of students, it motivates them to improve their study habits/attitudes.

Page(s): 359-364                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6419

 Derrick Nii Quarcoopome Sackey
Department of Social Sciences, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

 Albert Bekoe Mensah
Department of Languages, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

 Florence Doe
Department of Mathematics, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

 Stella Akosua Kayi
Department of Languages, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

 Endurance Serwa Lah
Department of Vocational Education, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

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Derrick Nii Quarcoopome Sackey, Albert Bekoe Mensah, Florence Doe, Stella Akosua Kayi, Endurance Serwa Lah “Study Habits/Attitudes among University of Cape Coast One-Year, 3-Semester B. Ed Programme Cohort 1 Students at Koforidua SDA College of Education Study Centre” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.359-364 April 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6419

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An Assessment of the Inhibitors of Electronic Business Adoption in the Zimbabwean Service Sector

Eliot Dzindikwa, Gabriel Kabanda – April 2022- Page No.: 365-368

Electronic commerce is being used by businesses in Zimbabwe as a means of increasing profitability and productivity. While there are numerous advantages to electronic business adoption, there are also numerous barriers to this growth. The study examines the barriers to implementing electronic business in Zimbabwe’s service industry. A field survey of senior information technology executives was performed to investigate the barriers to electronic business adoption. The underlying structural characteristics of inhibitors impacting the adoption of electronic business were determined using a sample of 100 CEOs. The research was conducted in a qualitative manner. The study used a method called purposeful sampling. As research tools, in-depth interviews were used. The findings reveal that insufficient infrastructure and a lack of confidence are the main barriers to electronic business adoption. As research tools, in-depth interviews were used. The findings reveal that insufficient infrastructure, a lack of trust, and a lack of security are the main barriers to electronic business adoption. It was suggested that large investments in infrastructure, a secure and reliable internet, and global awareness be used to boost electronic business adoption.

Page(s): 365-368                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 May 2022

 Eliot Dzindikwa
Faculty of Commerce, Zimbabwe Open University

 Gabriel Kabanda
Faculty of Commerce, Zimbabwe Open University

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Eliot Dzindikwa, Gabriel Kabanda, “An Assessment of the Inhibitors of Electronic Business Adoption in the Zimbabwean Service Sector” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.365-368 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/365-368.pdf

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Influence of Role Conflict on Social Work Practice of Selected Hospitals in Port Harcourt

Sylvaline Mbata – April 2022- Page No.: 369-382

This study examined the influence of role conflict on social work practice of hospitals in Port Harcourt. Role conflict (role ambiguity) has been examined as the independent/predictor variable in this paper. Also, social work practice served as the key dependent variable or criterion variable under which the measures such as employee burnout and employee job performance have been appraised. The population of the study consisted of 350 administration and middle administrative social workers from the selected hospitals. The study sampled 350 respondents out of which 331 of them were found useful and valid for the study analysis. The study used a mixed methods approach, utilized structured questionnaire consisting of open-ended, closed- ended questions and multiple-choice questions with the Likert scale measurement. Thematic content analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were used to analyse the data. The study used Pearson Products Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) to test the hypotheses with the aid of SPSS 25.0. The reliability of the research instrument was tested using the Cronbach alpha to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The study revealed that social work job roles and responsibilities are very clear. The study found that directives and instructions given within the department are vague. Also, the study found that no information is provided on how social workers are being appraised for promotion. The study revealed that a negative relationship between role conflict and employee burnout exists. The study revealed that role conflict directly influences employee job performance. It was revealed from the study that the role conflict reduces the level of employee job performance. The study revealed that hospital social workers are developers, educators, advocates, case managers, coordinators, counselors, and many more things but they are overall built to address needs and serve the marginalized. They are of a great resource to communities, hospitals and other organisations. These findings suggest that individuals may be able to reduce the negative individual impact of role conflict in their environment by adopting positive behavioural styles while avoiding negative ones. Understanding how a hospital social worker’s number of years of experience in their field can have a moderating effect on how role conflict impacts on social work practice. It is important to consider harmonizing/synchronizing various roles when hiring an individual for a hospital social work practice

Page(s): 369-382                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 May 2022

 Sylvaline Mbata
M. Sc. Student, Department of Psychology, Rivers State University, Nigeria

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Sylvaline Mbata “Influence of Role Conflict on Social Work Practice of Selected Hospitals in Port Harcourt” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.369-382 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/369-382.pdf

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People’s Satisfaction with Land Acquisition Complaint Settlement in Bac Ninh City, Vietnam

Pham Phuong Nam, Dao Thu Ha – April 2022- Page No.: 383-388

The study aims to assess the level of satisfaction and factors affecting the satisfaction of land users with the decision to settle complaints when the State recovers land. Data were collected from agencies, units, and complainants in Bac Ninh city and processed using SPSS20.0 software. During the 2017-2021 period, there were 108 complaints cases of which 91 cases were completed with a rate of 84.26%. Complainants are satisfied with the mean level (level 3, rating index 3.06). The satisfaction index for 4 – factor groups is 2.37, 3.05, 3.30, and 3.51 respectively. The group of factors relating to the preparation and submission of land claim dossiers has the strongest impact on satisfaction (impact rate of 47.24%), followed by groups of factors receiving results, human resources, facilities, and equipment with impact rates of 32.54%, 14.32%, 5.89% respectively. Proposed solutions include completing preparation procedures; diversifying forms of application submission; improving the quality of cadres and the quality of land acquisition complaint settlement. Providing solutions to limiting social instability will help the state recover land and implement investment projects faster for local economic development.

Page(s): 383-388                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 May 2022

 Pham Phuong Nam
Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam National University of Agriculture

 Dao Thu Ha
Department of Natural Resources and Environment of Bac Ninh province

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Pham Phuong Nam, Dao Thu Ha, “People’s Satisfaction with Land Acquisition Complaint Settlement in Bac Ninh City, Vietnam” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.383-388 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/383-388.pdf

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Factors which Influence the Corporate Culture of an Entity- Analysing the Dynamics of Culture Stability and Inevitable Change

Tassisius Muzivi, Dennis Maravanyika, Ranzi M. Rusike, Judith Mwenje – April 2022- Page No.: 389-395

The main objective of the paper is to evaluate literature on corporate culture to assess the ideal culture and to explain how corporate culture change occurs within an organisation. Focus is given to types of corporate culture, the respective attributes and specific factors that influence corporate culture change. The study is based on available literature from journal publications and related authoritative sources of academic literature. During the study the types of corporate culture and the respective attributes were discussed. Prior studies show that corporate culture is intrinsic and unique to a particular entity, defines the social values of group members, is developed over time and passed from one generation to the other. Further reviews also show that corporate culture is man-made, social in nature, controls the mind-set of members and is generally static over time. Discussions made postulates that corporate culture needs to be stable for it to be associated with the identity of a particular entity. Nevertheless, inevitable change exists in response to various factors. There is a gap in literature in that prior studies falls short in identifying the best corporate culture. From this review it has been concluded that there is no a single ideal corporate culture. Rather, a hybrid corporate culture is beneficial because it adopts the benefits of many cultures and avoids the associated demerits. Finally, it has been revealed that the stability nature of corporate culture can be compromised in pursuit of inherent change.

Page(s): 389-395                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 May 2022

 Tassisius Muzivi
Graduate School of Business, Bindura University of Science Education

 Dennis Maravanyika
Graduate School of Business, Bindura University of Science Education

 Ranzi M. Rusikee
Department of Mathematics, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

 Judith Mwenje
Department of Languages, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

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Tassisius Muzivi, Dennis Maravanyika, Ranzi M. Rusike, Judith Mwenje “Factors which Influence the Corporate Culture of an Entity- Analysing the Dynamics of Culture Stability and Inevitable Change” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.389-395 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/389-395.pdf

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Improving Soil Fertility and Crops Yields through Organic and inorganic inputs in Smallholder Farmers’ fields in Western Kenya

Josephine Nanjala Barasa, Julius O. Ochoudho, Syphyline J. Kebeney, Augustine Wafula Barasa – April 2022- Page No.: 396-405

Organic (FYM) and inorganic (Mavuno) manure and their combination were evaluated on sorghum grain yields and some soil chemical characteristics in the 2016 SR and 2017 LR growing seasons FYM, Mavuno and or their combinations significantly (p<0.05) increased soil N, P and pH in the immediate and residual seasons. The sorghum grain yields trends for Busia site were such that: (FYM + Mavuno) >FYM>Mavuno>Control with (1.36, 1.29, 1.19 and 0.35) t ha-1 respectively in 2016 short rains season. The sorghum grain yield trends for 2017 long rains were as follows: (Mavuno) >(FYM=Mavuno)with same yields>Control giving (2.28, 2.17, 2.17 and 1.67) t ha-1 respectively. The grain yields for Teso site were: (FYM + Mavuno) >FYM>Mavuno>Control that resulted into (1.65, 1.49, 1.11 and 0.34) t ha-1 sorghum grain yields respectively in 2016 SR and (FYM+Mavuno) >FYM>Mavuno>Control giving (2.86, 2.79, 2.76 and 1.59) t ha-1 respectively for 2017 LR cropping seasons. All treatments resulted in significantly higher nutrient concentrations in the soil above the control with FYM (5.32,Mavuno (5.31),FYM+Mavuno(5.20) and Control (4.45) in 2016 SR and FYM (5.15),Mavuno (5.20),FYM+Mavuno(5.23) and Control (5.06) in 2017 LR for Busia. Teso had a similar trend with FYM (5.55),Mavuno (5.21),FYM+Mavuno (5.28) and Control (4.42) in 2016 SR and FYM (5.64),Mavuno (5.65),FYM+Mavuno(5.55) and Control (5.36) in 2017 LR .Soil pH, due to its effect on nutrient availability contributed to higher soil total N, P contents due to treatments application. Therefore, FYM, Mavuno and their combination can improve sorghum grain yield on nutrient deficient smallholder farms.

Page(s): 396-405                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 May 2022

 Josephine Nanjala Barasa
University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Soil Science,

 Julius O. Ochoudho
University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Soil Science,

 Syphyline J. Kebeney
University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Soil Science,

 Augustine Wafula Barasa
University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Economics

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Josephine Nanjala Barasa, Julius O. Ochoudho, Syphyline J. Kebeney, Augustine Wafula Barasa, “Improving Soil Fertility and Crops Yields through Organic and inorganic inputs in Smallholder Farmers’ fields in Western Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.396-405 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/396-405.pdf

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Perceived Influence of Verbal and Non-verbal Communication Skills on Marital Stability among Married Lecturers of Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State Nigeria

Bagudu Alhaji Adamu, Binta Ado Ali – April 2022- Page No.: 406-411

The paper tries to find out the perceived influence of verbal and non-verbal communication skills on marital stability. The main aim of the study is to investigate the perceived influence of verbal and non-verbal communication skills on marital stability among married Lecturers of Federal University Dutsin-ma. The study was guided by three (3) objectives. Three research questions were answered and one hypothesis was tested. The descriptive research design was adopted for the study to investigate perceived influence of verbal and non-verbal communication Skills on Marital Stability among Lecturers of Federal University Dutsin-ma Katsina State. The target population of the study consisted of all married Lecturers of Federal University Dutsin-ma Katsina State. Thus, purposive sampling techniques was adopted to target only married Lecturers. Sample of sixty four Lecturers were randomly selected. The instrument for data collection ‘Working Couples’ Utilization of Communication Strategies’ (WCUCS) was adapted from Makinde & Adebanyi (2019) A pilot test of the instrument of data collection was done and obtained Cronbach value of 0.67 which makes it adequate for this study. Results show that there is significant influence of verbal and non-verbal Communication Skills on marital stability among married Lecturers of Federal University Dutsin-ma; There is significant influence of burnout experience at work on couple’s use of communication skills at home; There is significant influence of couple’s length of marriage on their utilization of communication skills; There is no significant gender difference of the influence of working couples communication skills on marital stability among married couples. Recommendations were made thus: Married couples should spare time within their matrimonial home to talk about pleasant and unpleasant issues before sleeping and married couples are strongly encouraged to be open and use verbal and non-verbal communication that can foster marital stability.

Page(s): 406-411                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6420

 Bagudu Alhaji Adamu
Department of Educational Foundations, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

 Binta Ado Ali
Department of Educational Foundations, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

[1] Akinade, E. A. (2011).impact of two counselling strategies on burnout among married working nursing mothers in Ibadan An Unpublished Ph.D thesis. Faculty of Education, University of Lagos
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[6] Isiaka, S. B. 2005. The relationship between divorce and spousal communication. Unpublished master project,the University of Ilorin Nigeria.
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[8] Makinde, B.O.(2007). Communication skills in Practicum. In Osarerenren N. (ed). Fundamentals of Practicum in Guidance and Counselling. Lagos. Vitaman Educational Books
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Bagudu Alhaji Adamu, Binta Ado Ali “Perceived Influence of Verbal and Non-verbal Communication Skills on Marital Stability among Married Lecturers of Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.406-411 April 2022 DOI :https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6420

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Getting Involved In Ministering to Christian Young PeopleThrough Social Media

Sessou Kwasi Selom – April 2022- Page No.: 412-418

It is a fact that young people worldwide and even Christians are increasingly using social media. The new norm of our societies is to see young people getting involved in social media platforms’ activities. In many parts of the world, church attendance is seriously dropping and church leaders are looking for ways to curb this tendency. Since Christian young people can be found on social media platforms, it becomes a golden opportunity for church leaders to know how to get involved with young people on such platforms. This paper is intended to provide a guideline for pastors, elders, youth leaders, and religious leaders at large, who want to get involved in ministering to young people through social media platforms, thus becoming a Digital Nurturing Agent. The paper outlines the importance of having a digital nurturing program in a church and a step-by-step way to put in place a vibrant digital nurturing program in a local church or a district or even for personal independent ministry.

Page(s): 412-418                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 May 2022

 Sessou Kwasi Selom
Department of Youth and Young Adult Ministry, Adventist University of Africa, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

[1] Benefits of internet and social media, June 16, 2017.http://au.professionals.reachout.com/benefits-of-internet-and-social-media
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[3] Elda Tartari, “Benefits And Risks Of Children And Adolescents Using Social Media,” European Scientific Journal, Vol 11 No 13 (2015): ESJ May Edition, Accessed 04/08/2020, http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/5654
[4] Hadjipanayis et al. “Social media and children: what is the paediatrician’s role?”, in European Journal of Pediatrics, August 30, 2019. Accessed February 20, 2022. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31468108/
[5] Megan Claassens, and Sinal Govender. “ WhatsApp group administrators may be responsible for members’ content.” May 30, 2017, accessed on February 20, 2022. https://www.socialmedialawbulletin.com/2017/05/whatsapp-group-administrators-may-responsible-members-content/#:~:text=A%20Whatsapp%20admin%20is%20automatically,removed%20from%2C%20the%20group%20chat
[6] “Nurture” Definition, Cambrige Dictionary, Accessed 12/07/2022.https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/nurture
[7] Paul Armstrong, “How To Run A Successful WhatsApp Group,” April 29, 2018, accessed, February 20, 2022. https://www.forbes.com/sites/paularmstrongtech/2018/04/29/how-to-run-a-successful-whatsapp-group/?sh=291f22436364
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[9] Shayne, “13 Types of Social Media You Should Be Using in 2022”, in InVideo, Accessed on February 20, 2022. https://invideo.io/blog/types-of-social-media/ Blogging Platforms, in Gartner Glossary, accessed February 20, 2022.https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/blogging-platforms#:~:text=Blogging%20platforms%20are%20broadcast%2Dstyle,syndications%20systems%20and%20social%20networks
[10] “Social media” definition. Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, accessed April 2, 2022.https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/social-media#:~:text=social%20media-,noun,big%20part%20of%20my%20life.
“Social Network” definition. Cambridge Dictionary, accessed April 2, 2022. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/social-network “Social networking” definition. Merriam-Webster Dictionary, accessed April 2, 2022. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20networking.
[11] Sudhinta Sinha, Social Media And Our Youth: An Analysis, June 16, 2017.http://ijellh.com/social-media-and-our-youth-analysis
[12] Turkle, “Young people’s priorities for support on social media: “It takes trust to talk about these issues” 2011. Accessed 11/09/19.
[13] V. Michelle Bernard, “Do’s And Don’ts Of Church Social Media”, in Columbia union, accessed, February 20. 2022. https://columbiaunion.org/content/dos-and-donts-church-social-media

Sessou Kwasi Selom, “Getting Involved In Ministering to Christian Young PeopleThrough Social Media” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.412-418 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/412-418.pdf

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Fee-Free Education and Infrastructural Situation for Students with Disabilities in Public Secondary Schools in Morogoro Municipality

Ben Sanga, Dr. Daphina-Libent Mabagala, Dr. Theresia J. Shavega – April 2022- Page No.: 419-425

There has been less knowledge on whether the introduction of fee-free education has affected learning environment particularly infrastructural situation for students with disabilities in public secondary schools in Tanzania. This study aimed at examining the influence of fee-free education to the infrastructural situation for students with disabilities in public secondary schools in Morogoro Municipality. The study employed cross-sectional design, whereby, questionnaires were used to collect data. The study sample included one (1) Educational Officer, five (5) heads of schools, and 24 students with disabilities, who were obtained through purposive sampling technique. Other study sample included 73 teachers and 98 students without disabilities, obtained by stratified sampling technique, making a total study sample of 201 respondents. Factor, linear regression and correlational analyses were employed. It was revealed that fee-free education had significant influence to the infrastructural situation for students with disabilities in public secondary schools. The study recommended that since government is a major funder of fee-free education in public secondary schools, adequate budgets should be allocated to finance schools to enable provision of education in a friendly manner to all students including students with disabilities.

Page(s): 419-425                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 May 2022

 Ben Sanga
Phd Candidate, Faculty of Education, The Open University of Tanzania. P.O. Box 23409, Dar es Salaam.

 Dr. Daphina-Libent Mabagala
Faculty of Education, The Open University of Tanzania. P.O. Box 23409, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

 Dr. Theresia J. Shavega
Faculty of Education, The Open University of Tanzania. P.O. Box 23409, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

[1] Bakari, M. M. (2017). Accessibility of Infrastructure for Students with Disabilities on Performance and Psychology in Government Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Ilala Municipality. (Masters’ Thesis), The University of Dodoma, Dodoma.
[2] Canadian Human Rights Commission (2017). Left Out: Challenges Faced by Persons with Disabilities in Canada’s Schools. Monitoring the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. HR4-41/2017E-PDF.
[3] Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th Ed). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
[4] DFID (2012). Education for Children with Disabilities-Improving Access and Quality. Retrieved from http// www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads /attachment _data /file/67664/3du_chi_disabil_guid_note.pdf.
[5] HakiElimu (2008). Do Children with Disabilities Have Equal Access to Education? A research report on accessibility to education for children with disabilities in Tanzanian schools. Dar es Salaam: HakiElimu.
[6] Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. A Global Perspective, 7th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.
[7] Kabuta, L. G. (2014). Problems Facing Students with Physical Disabilities in Higher Learning Institutions in Tanzania. (Unpublished Master’s thesis), The Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam.
[8] Kattan, R. B. (2006) Implementation of Free Basic Education. Education Working Paper Series, No. 7.
[9] Khamati, M. J., & Nyongesa, W. J. (2013). Factors Influencing the Implementation of Free Secondary Education in Mumias District, Kenya. Journal of Social Science for Policy Implications. 1(1): 32-47.
[10] Kiyuba, J., & Tukur, S. Y. (2014). Challenges of Providing Special Education to Children with Disabilities: View of Teachers and Education Officials. (Student Thesis), University of Gavle, Sweden.
[11] Kilonzo, P. K. (2007). An Investigation of Head Teacher related Factors affecting the Implementation of free primary Education in Yathui Division in Machakos District. (M.Ed Thesis), University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[12] Pacific News (2005). Heralds Free Education for Solomon Islands Children. January 4th.
[13] Musabila, A. K. (2012). The Determinants of ICT Adoption and Usage among SMEs: The Case of the Tourism Sector in Tanzania. Amsterdam: VRIJE Universiteit, Academisch Proefschrift.
[14] Musalia, F.G. (2005). Challenges facing Head teachers in the Implementation of Free Primary Education in Suba East Division, Migori District, Nyanza Province. (M.ED Thesis), University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[15] Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS SURVIVAL MANUAL: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS, 4th edition. Maidenhead – Berkshire, England: McGraw – Hill Education.
[16] Phukubje, J., & Ngoepe, M. (2016). Convenience and Accessibility of Library Services to Students with Disabilities at the University of Limpopo in South Africa. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 1–11.
[17] Riddell, A (2003) The Introduction of Free Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2003/4, Gender and Education for All: The Leap to Equality. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001469/146914e.pdf
[18] Sanga, B. (2016). The Rising Cost of Schooling and the Rate of Dropout among Ward Secondary School Students in Morogoro Urban District. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 4(4), 180-185.
[19] Saroso, O. (2005). “The Poor Still Waiting for Government Assistance.” The Jarkarta Post, March 23, 2005.
[20] Saunders, M. N. K., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2016). Research Methods for Business Students Eighth Edition. United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
[21] Taylor, B. (2016). Free Basic Education. Retrieved from http://www.tzaffairs.org/2016/01/education-11/
[22] Tembo, B. & Ndhlovu, G. (2005). Government Strives to Increase Access to Education: News from Africa. Kenya. N.p.
[23] The Kesho Trust (2013). Access to and Provision of Pre-Primary and Primary Education to Children with Disabilities in Tanzania. Retrieved from with-disabilities-in-Tanzania.pdf.
[24] UNESCO, (2000). World Education Forum, Dakar Framework for Action. France: Graphoprint.
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Ben Sanga, Dr. Daphina-Libent Mabagala, Dr. Theresia J. Shavega “Fee-Free Education and Infrastructural Situation for Students with Disabilities in Public Secondary Schools in Morogoro Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.419-425 April 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-4/419-425.pdf

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Effect of the timeout, response cost and corporal punishment as aversive therapy in the reduction of indiscipline among Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria

Denwigwe, Chiaka Patience Ph.D., Mboto, Odey Akomaye Ph.D- April 2022- Page No.: 426-432

This study determined the use of timeout, response cost and corporal punishment as aversive therapy in reducing indiscipline among secondary school students of Government Secondary School Oyibo, Rivers State, Nigeria. The survey design involving pre-test and post-test was used. Secondary classes I and II (SS1 and SS2) students were purposively selected. From a population of 650 SS1 and SS2 students in Government Secondary School Oyibo, Rivers State, Nigeria, fifty-four students identified through direct observation as having disciplinary problems based on the frequency of exhibition of certain acts of indiscipline were used as the sample for this study. The acts of indiscipline targeted to be reduced were noisemaking, lateness to school, and truancy. The aversive therapy techniques applied in a bid to reduce these acts of indiscipline were time-out, response cost, and corporal punishment respectively. The instrument for data collection was an observation chart designed by the researchers, while the instrument for data analysis was a t-test for a related sample. Three hypotheses were formulated for this study and tested at 0.05 significant level. Findings revealed that the time-out technique significantly reduced the frequency of noisemaking, response cost significantly reduced the frequency of lateness to school, while corporal punishment did not significantly reduce truancy. Counselling implications of the study were stated, and useful recommendations were made such as: while using time out a technique which can effectively reduce noisemaking, the child should only be made to stay in a boring place for a few minutes; to effectively use the response cost technique to control lateness to school, the desirable possessions, points, tokens, or privileges of the offenders should be removed in planned, incremental steps; and the use of corporal punishment to reduce undesired behaviour such as truancy should be avoided since it models injurious behaviour and is not very effective; if however it must be used, it must be applied with caution and love.
since corporal punishment models injurious behaviour, it should be applied with caution and love.

Page(s): 426-432                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6421

 Denwigwe, Chiaka Patience Ph.D.
Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Calabar Nigeria

 Mboto, Odey Akomaye Ph.D
Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Calabar Nigeria

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[8] Fox, A.E.& Pietras, C.J. (2013). The effects of response cost punishment on instructional control during a choice task. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour 99(3) 346-361.
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Denwigwe, Chiaka Patience Ph.D., Mboto, Odey Akomaye Ph.D, “Effect of the timeout, response cost and corporal punishment as aversive therapy in the reduction of indiscipline among Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-4, pp.426-432 April 2022 DOI :https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6421

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