Rising Inflation: Lessons from India’s response to rising inflation in recent history

Sameer Kumar – September 2022- Page No.: 01-04

This paper examined inflation, its causes, and, as a case study, the reason for the year 2008 inflation rate increase and India’s response to combating the same. From the year 2000 until the end of 2007, India’s inflation rate remained relatively stable between 5 and 7 percent. Although the Reserve Bank of India had set a target inflation rate of 4.11 percent for 2008, the inflation rate skyrocketed, shocking everyone. Recent inflation rate growth has kept India’s central bank, RBI, on edge. This article examines the dynamics of inflation, the reason for its sudden rise, and India’s response to containing inflation. Speculation in the markets, a lack of food products, a rise in global prices, and an overabundance of money are discussed as some of the major causes of India’s rising inflation rate. We also discuss the inflation of 2022, which is caused by a variety of factors, such as supply chain disruptions caused by the Covid-19 pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine war.

Page(s): 01-04                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

 Sameer Kumar
Department Asia-Europe Institute, University of Malaya, Malaysia

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Sameer Kumar “Rising Inflation: Lessons from India’s response to rising inflation in recent history” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.01-04 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/01-04.pdf

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Regulatory and Policy Arrangement of The Textile Industry and National Textile Products for Clothing Resilience

Sugeng, Adi Nur Rohman, Widya Romasindah, Saiful S – September 2022- Page No.: 05-15

This article discusses the challenges and prospects in the national textile industry. As an important industry in economic development, the textile industry needs regulatory support and strategic policies to overcome several upstream and downstream obstacles. From the upstream industry, TPT includes the fiber industry, spinning, and yarn, knitting, stamping, and finishing, while downstream, it includes the apparel industry. Through the right policies, the textile industry is expected to be able to absorb labor, support national economic growth, and realize clothing resilience. This research uses empirical juridical research methods through tracing and studying secondary data in the form of laws and regulations, academic manuscripts, policy recommendations, and scientific papers of experts in the cybersecurity and empowerment of the small and medium enterprises sector. Secondary data are obtained through Library Research from printed and electronic library materials. Doctrinal research is needed to understand the legal norms that are currently in force (Law in the Book) through a statute approach and a conceptual approach (Conceptual Approach). The results showed that some of the obstacles to the textile industry include limited transportation and electricity infrastructure, low quality of human resources, and access to financing, which is still narrow. For this reason, regulations and policies are needed to guarantee the financing of the textile industry, as well as innovation support for research institutions and related institutional cooperation—notably the Indonesia Central Bank (B.I.) and Financial Services Authority.

Page(s): 05-15                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6901

 Sugeng
Department Faculty of Law, Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya University, Indonesia

 Adi Nur Rohman
Department Faculty of Law, Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya University, Indonesia

  Widya Romasindah
Department Faculty of Law, Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya University, Indonesia

  Saiful S
Department Faculty of Law, Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya University, Indonesia

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Sugeng, Adi Nur Rohman, Widya Romasindah, Saiful S “Regulatory and Policy Arrangement of The Textile Industry and National Textile Products for Clothing Resilience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.05-15 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6901

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The Contributions of Market Facilities in Industrial Location at the 9th Mile Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

Ogbu, S. Okonkwo – September 2022- Page No.: 16-28

This study on importance of market in the location of industries determined the relative contribution of market facilities in the locations of industrial plants at the 9th Mile area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Survey research design was involved and field data were obtained using the methods of questionnaire, guided interview, documentary materials, and field observations. The statistical techniques used in the analyses of the field data were; Percentage contributions and graphs (pie, and bar graphs), the weights of raw material inputs per month/year were compared with the weights of the products per month/year using Weber’s Material Index (M.I.) method, standardised matrix score, and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analytical technique which was used to identify the level of significance of the market contributions in the locations of the industrial plants in the study area. The results of the analyses reveal that market facilities contributed in the location decisions of 28 (87.5%) of the 32 studied industrial plants in the area in which 17 and 11 industrial plants indicated that it is 1st and 2nd order factors in their locations in the study area respectively. Only 4 (12.5%) industrial plants did not consider market as an important variable in their decision to locate in the area. With frequency score of 28 (8.8%), it obtained 2nd position among the 23 identified factors in the locations of the studied 32 industrial plants in the area. The result of MLR analyses showed that market facilities contributed significantly (0.042) in the locations of the 32 sampled industrial plants in the area. In this regard, it is recommended for entrepreneurs to have eyes in the market facilities in their location decisions. Also, industries should be attracted in the study area as a result of the influx and the available industrial resources in the area.

Page(s): 16-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

 Ogbu, S. Okonkwo
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences,
Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu, Nigeria.

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Ogbu, S. Okonkwo “The Contributions of Market Facilities in Industrial Location at the 9th Mile Area of Enugu State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.16-28 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/16-28.pdf

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A Historical Perspective of The Impact of Rice Policies and Strategies in Kenya

Apollo Uma – September 2022- Page No.: 29-35

Agricultural policies in Kenya tend to influence agricultural related aspects such as resource allocation to agriculture, input and out price stability, budget allocation and investments in agriculture. Rice has always been considered in the blanket agricultural policies and strategies such as the earliest National Development Plans that were developed immediately after gaining independence. However, it is of recent that stand-alone rice-related policies and strategies have emerged. To understand the impacts of agricultural policies in Kenya on rice value chain, a review based on the already published literature from the colonial period to date was conducted. During the colonial period, government policies were favourable towards export crops such as tea, coffee, cotton and pyrethrum. Rice indirectly benefited from the general rehabilitation of infrastructure. During the post-independence era, the main goal of policies within Kenya were equitable distribution of income, transfer of land, smallholder development. It was marked with establishment of main rice irrigation schemes. In 2008, a stand-alone rice specific National Rice Development Strategy phase one was developed to drive the development within the rice value chain. The second phase runs from 2019 to 2030. Most of the targets have been achieved, however, productivity has still stagnated thus the reliance on importation to meet the domestic demand. Inclusion of rice farming communities in the development of rice-related strategies and interventions can generate greater ownership of rice interventions. Learning from the previous intervention and fast tracking the implementation of the plans and policies can better guide the attainment of the objectives.

Page(s): 29-35                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

 Apollo Uma
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, P O Box, 20115, Njoro, Kenya

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[35] Vishnu, R., & Mukami, K. (2020). Mwea Rice Growers Multipurpose Public Case Report August 2020. USAID.

Apollo Uma “A Historical Perspective of The Impact of Rice Policies and Strategies in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.29-35 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/29-35.pdf

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The Significance of Problems Associated with the Management of Commercial Properties in Enugu Metropolis

Stanley Chika Nwaogu, Ihemeje Ifeanyi Edwin, Chidubem Grace Ugwu – September 2022- Page No.: 36-41

The principal objective of property management is to maintain a property in a state to command the greatest possible net return and to protect the owners capital investment at all times. Commercial properties are often relatively large and complex buildings which are multi-stored or high rise type. The complexity is viewed in terms of the bigness of the structure and diverse multiple occupants inform the need for specialized skill and training for effective and efficient service delivery. The absence of property management negatively affects the physical condition of commercial property due to poor maintenance. Therefore, it is important that the commercial properties are maintained in a sound condition to provide the greatest possible economic return. Effective property management is the only antidote necessary to generate maximum returns on property investment especially at this period of global economic crunch. The study adopted quantitative design. The population of the study are Estate Surveying and Valuation firms located in Enugu State. Hence the total population for the study is Forty-two (42). The study adopted simple random method while sample size is 38. The data was computed using factor analysis, variance, rotated component matrix and multiple regression analysis. The result confirms that poor usage of commercial properties is major problem confronting the management of commercial properties in Enugu which are not significant on commercial properties in Enugu. The implication is that problems associated with the management of commercial properties in Enugu does not have adversely affect the prospects attributed to such property investment.

Page(s): 36-41                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

 Stanley Chika Nwaogu
Department of Estate Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria

 Ihemeje Ifeanyi Edwin
Department of Estate Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria

 Chidubem Grace Ugwu
Department of Estate Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria

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Stanley Chika Nwaogu, Ihemeje Ifeanyi Edwin, Chidubem Grace Ugwu “The Significance of Problems Associated with the Management of Commercial Properties in Enugu Metropolis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.36-41 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/36-41.pdf

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COVID-19 and Sustainable Development: An Assessment of Global Efforts Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 in Nigeria

AMODU, Akeem Adekunle; OYEDOKUN, Dolapo Michael, & ADEOLU-AKANDE Modupeola Atoke – September 2022- Page No.: 42-51

Ever since the Coronavirus (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic in early 2020, it has spread to over 200 countries across the globe, claiming over 6 million lives, disrupting the world economy, and impeding the United Nations global development framework (Sustainable Development Goals). Due to the challenges posed by the virus, several agreements, policies, and efforts have been made at the international level to curb the spread of the deadly virus. This study, therefore, examined the global policies of COVID-19 towards the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Nigeria with a specific focus on SDG-3 which aims at “Good Health and Well‐Being”. The data analysed in this study were sourced through a structured questionnaire. 70 copies of questionnaires were distributed Oyo State SDGs Office and some selected health institutions in Oyo State. The results of the findings showed that WHO and the World Powers have been assisting Nigeria with health equipment, funds, and the development of healthcare centres in the fight against the epidemic. The study, however, concluded that the achievement of the SDG-3 by the year 2030 depends on the actions and policies of the government, the policy-makers and the several agencies saddled with a matter concerning health matters and national development. The study implored the world powers and other developed countries to continue with the supply of humanitarian, materials, medical and financial assistance to the developing countries so the entire world can achieve SDG-3 by 2030. The study further recommends that. the government, health institutions, and several concerned Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) take necessary actions to ensure other health-related issues are not neglected while tackling COVID-19.

Page(s): 42-51                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6902

 AMODU, Akeem Adekunle
Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

  OYEDOKUN, Dolapo Michael
Department of Politics and International Relations, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

  ADEOLU-AKANDE Modupeola Atoke
Department of Management and Accounting, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

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AMODU, Akeem Adekunle; OYEDOKUN, Dolapo Michael, & ADEOLU-AKANDE Modupeola Atoke “COVID-19 and Sustainable Development: An Assessment of Global Efforts Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.42-51 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6902

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The Placement of Sonobuoy and Sound Surveillance Systems in Strategic Straits to Support Underwater Defense Systems in the Archipelagic State of Indonesia

Nanang Hery S, Yohannes Enggar R, Hikmat Zakky Almubaroq – September 2022- Page No.: 52-74

ALKI waters as strategic straits are Indonesian seawaters that have complex characteristics and are prone to infiltration by foreign ships. Currently, the Indonesian Navy is still focusing on security at sea level, while with current technological advances, many foreign submarines are using the underwater area to commit transnational crimes. The area under the water surface that is used is the shadow zone, which has the potential as a hiding place for submarines. The shadow zone is a safe zone where the temperature and salinity of the layer reflect the propagation of incoming sound waves so that submarines can avoid detection by Sonar. This paper aims to provide an alternative solution to the use of acoustic tomography technology by installing the Sonobuoy and Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) to monitor the movement of foreign submarines entering Indonesian territory, especially through strategic straits. This study uses mixed methods, to process quantitative data from the questionnaires from the respondents regarding the criteria and alternatives to determine the coordinates of the Sonobuoy placement with the Analytic Network Process (ANP) and the detection probability theory approach. To process the quantitative data (shadow zone and submarine detection), the researchers simulated and modeled sound wave propagation from SOSUS using the parabolic equation method which was processed using MATLAB and the Act up v.2.2L toolbox, and processing qualitative data from interviews with experts would be analyzed to complete the quantitative data. The results of the research showed that the optimal placement priority and number of Sonobuoys were obtain. From the optimization of the sound wave propagation simulation by paying attention to hydro-oceanographic data in the form of temperature, salinity, and speed of sound. It is also obtaining the placement position and number of SOSUS with the concept of fixed sonar array operation, which is expect to be able to know the shadow zone and detect foreign submarines to support the underwater defense system in the Indonesian archipelago

Page(s): 52-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

 Nanang Hery S
Defense Management, Republic Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia

 Yohannes Enggar R
Naval Hydrographic-Oceanography Center, Indonesia

 Hikmat Zakky Almubaroq
Defense Management, Republic Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia

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Nanang Hery S, Yohannes Enggar R, Hikmat Zakky Almubaroq “The Placement of Sonobuoy and Sound Surveillance Systems in Strategic Straits to Support Underwater Defense Systems in the Archipelagic State of Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.52-74 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/52-74.pdf

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The influence of Christian Ethics and Job Satisfaction on Employee Retention in the Security Services in Ghana

YIDAAN, Peter Yin-nyeya – September 2022- Page No.: 75-85

What role does empirical research play in developing a constructive theory of Christian ethics, job satisfaction, and employee retention in Ghana’s security services? Specific empirical investigation of Christian ethics, employee work happiness, and retention are discussed in this paper. The paper examines the influence of Christian ethics and job satisfaction on employee retention in the security services in Ghana. Organizations can avoid the inconvenient consequences of high attrition by identifying the factors that drive employee retention and how to improve them. In recent years, the academic idea of Christian ethics, job satisfaction and employee retention has piqued the interest of researchers in the domains of the security services, management, social psychologies, and practical operations. The influence of Christian ethics on employee job satisfaction and retention has a positive impact on employee retention in the security services in Ghana. Several factors directly or indirectly impact employee’s satisfaction at work hence their retention. Security services that create work cultures that attract, motivate, and retain skilled individuals will do better in today’s competitive world. Organizations’ key challenges today are not only managing their human resources but also satisfying and retaining them. Securing and retaining a talented workforce is critical for every organization, especially in the Ghanaian security services as their knowledge and skills have become increasingly significant in achieving and maintaining security at its highest standard.

Page(s): 75-85                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

 YIDAAN, Peter Yin-nyeya
Communication Department, Ghana Armed Forces, Ghana

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YIDAAN, Peter Yin-nyeya “The influence of Christian Ethics and Job Satisfaction on Employee Retention in the Security Services in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.75-85 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/75-85.pdf

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Election Related Violence in Nigeria: Evidence Based Strategies for Prevention, Control and Mitigation

Obi Peter Adigwe, Gamaliel Ajoku, Kelvin Chukwuneta Adigwe – September 2022- Page No.: 86-99

Electoral Related Violence (ERV) is a common feature of elections in some countries around the world; however it is more prevalent in developing countries. The resultant effects of ERV are similar in most settings where it is experienced. Such effects include poor democratic systems, unpopular governments and loss of lives and property among others. ERV is broadly divided into pre election, election and post election violence. This study seeks to explore the measures that can be taken towards the prevention, control and mitigation of ERV. For the purpose of this study, the mixed methods research was employed, both qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed in the data gathering process. A total of 500 randomly selected respondents who were employees of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) were used for the study. A cross sectional survey was carried out; the respondents were interviewed and further issued questionnaires designed to gather relevant data. Data from this study showed that the male participants (68%) constituted the majority of the total respondents who participated in the study. The age distribution of respondents showed that 38% of the respondents belonged to the age bracket of 31 and 40 years, furthermore, about 71% of the respondents have witnessed various forms of ERV and only about 3% of the respondents still held some excitement about participating in core electoral activities. Results obtained from the study showed that the mitigation of ERV will mainly require a comprehensive health policy to cater for the needs of those affected by ERV. The study explored other settings where there were incidences of ERV and the measures that were taken to address it. The study further proffered recommendations on measures that can be taken to prevent, control or mitigate ERV. It recommended proper training for electoral workers, improved voter education, De-glamorization of Political Office, improved security presence and performance, control of corruption and the adoption of modern technology in the electoral process among other measures.

Page(s): 86-99                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 September 2022

 Obi Peter Adigwe
National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Plot 942 Cadastral Zone C16, Idu Industrial District 1B, P.M.B. 21, Garki.Abuja, Nigeria

 Gamaliel Ajoku
Independent National Electoral Commission, Plot 436 Zambezi Crescent, Maitama District, FCT Abuja, Nigeria

 Kelvin Chukwuneta Adigwe
Adigwe and Associates, Suite 15, Bolingo Hotel, Independence Avenue, Central Business District, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria

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Obi Peter Adigwe, Gamaliel Ajoku, Kelvin Chukwuneta Adigwe “Election Related Violence in Nigeria: Evidence Based Strategies for Prevention, Control and Mitigation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.86-99 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/86-99.pdf

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Negotiated Spaces and Contested Terrain: Abagusi Women’s Quest for Political Participation Amidst the Survival of Patriarchy in Parliamentary Elections in Kenya Since 2010

James Mbeta Matoke, George Odhiambo, Isaiah Onjala – September 2022- Page No.: 100-110

This paper explores Kisii women’s participation in general elections since 2013. Contrary to scholarship that overemphasizes how patriarchal mechanisms keep women out of the political sphere, the chapter explores the experiences of women in their local context to show the reality of how the interplay between patriarchal structures and processes within the realm of Abagusi traditions and state projects, and the persistence of matrilineal practices and ideologies has contributed to the way women navigate the political space in Kisii county. We focus on how women negotiated the patriarchal electoral terrain in their positions as political ‘managers’ – as mobilizers and convincing agents. We argue that women’s political participation has been shaped by historical, social and cultural processes, and continues to be informed by gendered maternal ideologies that formed a crucial ground for negotiation and renegotiation of women’s political performances in the general elections. We conclude that while the prevailing patriarchal climate in Kisii county inspired largely by tradition and kin relations, limits women’s ascension into elective positions, it complexly provides them an opportunity to perform public politics.

Page(s): 100-110                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2022

 James Mbeta Matoke
Masters Student Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology (JOOUST), Kenya

 George Odhiambo
Lecturer JOOUST, Department of Social Studies, Kenya

 Isaiah Onjala
Senior Lecturer JOOUST, Department of Social Studies, Kenya

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James Mbeta Matoke, George Odhiambo, Isaiah Onjala “Negotiated Spaces and Contested Terrain: Abagusi Women’s Quest for Political Participation Amidst the Survival of Patriarchy in Parliamentary Elections in Kenya Since 2010” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.100-110 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/100-110.pdf

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Self-Help Groups as Alternative Vehicles for Sustainable Development Among Households in Kisumu East Sub-County, Kenya

Paul Okello Atieno; George N Mose; Peter G Oino – September 2022- Page No.: 111-120

Self-help groups (SHGs) generate social and economic interventions for sustenance of livelihoods by harnessing group power to solve social-economic dilemmas. Like other development initiatives, groups provide a reachable alternative for millions suffering relative economic backwardness and deprivation in rural and informal settlements. Government and private support in Kenya has seen tremendous increase in number of SHGs over the past decade. Despite growing investments in group-based livelihoods promotion, little consensus on sustainable impact of their programs on development exist. This study sought to assess SHGs as an alternative vehicle for sustainable development among households in Kisumu East sub-county, Kenya. Specific study objectives were; to establish the main economic activities of SHGs and to assess the types of benefits accrued from the economic activities of SHGs in Kisumu East sub-county. Collective theory guided the study that applied descriptive research design to gather qualitative and quantitative data. A sample of 105 respondents drawn from a target population of 320 in 15 groups with over 10 years of operation participated. Noticeable completed projects and revenues in economic empowerment processes formed inclusion criterion. Questionnaires and focus group discussions got used to gather data for cleaning, coding and analysis for presentation in percentages, frequencies, tables, and narratives. The findings indicated that SHGs in Kisumu East sub-county devised various income generating activities for income improvement and sustained economic development. Further indicated women in groups, improved their status economically by economic activity(ies). SHGs enabled members to economic benefits like access to credit for businesses. It is recommended for policies enactment enhancing SHGs activities as economic empowerment vehicles in Kisumu East sub-county. SHGs Capacity building process should train and equip members for generation of regular sustainable income. Programs by non-governmental organization and civic advocacy actors towards ensuring SHGs have better capacities be collaboratively undertaken for greater benefits

Page(s): 111-120                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2022

 Paul Okello Atieno
Kisii University, Kenya

 George N Mose
Muranga University of Technology, Kenya

 Peter G Oino
Kisii University, Kenya

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Paul Okello Atieno; George N Mose; Peter G Oino, “Self-Help Groups as Alternative Vehicles for Sustainable Development Among Households in Kisumu East Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.111-120 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/111-120.pdf

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The Influence of Public Procurement and Disposal of Public Assets Authority Advisory Role on Corruption in Kabale Municipal Council, Uganda

Ssekalema Abdulhasib, and Ssendagi Muhamad – September 2022- Page No.: 121-127

The study assessed the influence of the Advisory role of PPDA Authority on corruption in Kabale municipal council. The main objective was to establish the influence of the Advisory role of PPDA Authority on corruption in Kabale municipal council. A descriptive correlational research design was used to get information from a cross-section of respondents using census and simple random sampling techniques; a sample size of 147 respondents was selected from a target population of 233 subjects. Data was analyzed using SPSS and the results were as follows. The average of results of the claims set in the questionnaires obtained indicate that PPDA’s advisory role was found to be significant on corruption in Kabale municipal council. Basing on correlation co-efficient between PPDA roles and corruption, the study thus concluded that PPDA roles significantly combat corruption especially through its advisory roles. In recommendation, PPDA Authority should routinely apply and enhance its advisory and compliance monitoring roles while carrying out pilot schemes to actually predict their impact. PPDA Authority should develop interim, spot checks and progress audits to promote transparency, accountability and value for money. PPDA Authority should develop and advocate for programs to monitor the welfare of procurement officers including sponsorship for professional courses irrespective of whether they are central or local government employees. PPDA should advocate for inclusion of area political representatives for certification of completed works, supplies and services to improve the quality in contracted projects

Page(s): 121-127                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2022

 Ssekalema Abdulhasib
Department of Procurement and Logistic Management, Team University Kampala, Uganda

 

 Ssendagi Muhamad
Department of Finance and Accounting, Faculty of Business and Management, Islamic Call University Kampala, Uganda

 

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[3] Agaba, E., & Shipman, N.. Procurement Systems in Uganda. International Handbook of Public Procurement, 393. 2008
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[5] Ahimbishibwe, A., & Muhwezi, M. Contract Management, Inter Functional Coordination, 2015
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[8] Asiimwe, E. N., Wakabi, W., & Grönlund, Å. Using technology for enhancing transparency and accountability in low resource communities: experiences from Uganda. ICT for Anti-Corruption, Democracy and Education in East Africa, 37, 37-51. 2013
[9] Basheka, B. C., & Sabiiti, C. K. Compliance to Public Procurement Reforms in Developing Countries: An Exploratory Study of Uganda’s Experience of the Critical Challenges. Paper presented at the 18 th IPSERA Conference Supply Management 2009
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[18] Muzaale, T., & Auriacombe, C. Policy challenges to road infrastructure projects [5] performance-trends, issues and concerns in Uganda. African Journal of Public Affairs, 10(3), 134-154. 2018
[19] Mwelu, N., Davis, P. R., Ke, Y., & Watundu, S. Compliance within a Regulatory Framework in Implementing Public Road Construction Projects. Construction Economics and Building, 18(4). 2018
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[21] Oluka, P. N., Ssennoga, F., & Kambaza, S. Tackling supply chain bottlenecks of essential drugs: A case of Uganda local government health units. Paper presented at the 4th International Procurement Conference. 2013
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Ssekalema Abdulhasib, and Ssendagi Muhamad “The Influence of Public Procurement and Disposal of Public Assets Authority Advisory Role on Corruption in Kabale Municipal Council, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.121-127 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/121-127.pdf

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Implementation of ‘Pet Society’ as a Stress Alleviation Program for Call Center Agents

Angelito Boctoy, Llyla Wendy Dela Cruz, Janice Nacion, Maricel Otis, Julie Ann Sagum, and Sheryl Morales – September 2022- Page No.: 128-134

Call Centers became evident in the Philippines for international companies eyed building their BPO organization within this country for its cheap workforce and efficient employees. But because of the growing demand brought by the job, call center agents experience bad effects on their health and well-being.
The Pet Society is a program that aims to reduce the effects of stress to call center agents by using animal-assisted therapy. Named after a famous Facebook game, “Pet Society” is created for call center agents to make use of the rest of their rest time to pet animals which in turn, can lessen stress. This study aims to prove the feasibility of ‘Pet Society’ as a stress alleviation program for call center agents. To determine whether or not the program could be implemented, qualitative study was conducted. Researchers performed an online interview with five participants, and their responses were analyzed thematically. The findings of the study, stress has serious consequences on the physiological and psychological health of the individual. As a result, call center agents are seen to have low work productivity, as evidenced by lengthy calls and poor call performance. Additionally, research indicates that a pet can serve as a friend, social support, and stress reliever. As stated by the participants, the adoption of the Pet Society program in the call center business has great potential but requires careful planning

Page(s): 128-134                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 September 2022

 Angelito Boctoy
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines– Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Llyla Wendy Dela Cruz
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines– Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Janice Nacion
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines– Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Maricel Otis
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines– Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Julie Ann Sagum
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines– Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Sheryl Morales
Research Management Office, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines (Thesis adviser)

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Angelito Boctoy, Llyla Wendy Dela Cruz, Janice Nacion, Maricel Otis, Julie Ann Sagum, and Sheryl Morales, “Implementation of ‘Pet Society’ as a Stress Alleviation Program for Call Center Agents” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.128-134 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/128-134.pdf

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Government Interventions in Promoting Education-The Educational Development in Sierra Leone Since the End of the War in 2000

Alhaji Bakar Kamara – September 2022- Page No.: 135-144

Sierra Leone’s educational system has made a remarkable recovery in several interventions over the years. The Government of Sierra Leone is firmly committed to building a solid foundation for quality education. With this priority given to the education sector, the Government is firmly committed and puts a premium on resource allocation to the education sector for sustainable development. Representatives of the ministry of education, universities authorities and communities, were also engaged in focus group discussion for an in-depth idea about the topic under review. Additional information was sought from literature published by the institutions, especially the Ministry of education and Universities. The research was limited to the Western Area. The instruments used to collect data include a questionnaire, interview and discussion. The data were analysed qualitatively. Various parameters were analysed, such as compulsory Education by law, Free Primary education, principles of Discrimination, the building of schools all over the country, Distance Education programs, Guidance and Counselling in Schools, Emphasis on Girl child education, and Quality education for quality life in Sierra Leone, Promoting accessibility and many more. This research yielded a very fruitful result in the development of the country over these years to the present. Compulsory Education with the strict conditions attached to it increased the roll of pupils in schools. Today illiterate parents can boast of literate children, wherein such children give birth to children that they can take care of in terms of basic needs such as education, food, morals, shelter, clothing etc. With adult education all over the country, there is a considerable reduction in illiteracy countrywide. Education is made accessible throughout the country, with at least a secondary school in all the chiefdoms. The teachers are made available in schools that are in remote areas. Guidance and Counselling help correctly place school pupils in their excellent careers in life, making education relevant and meaningful. The researcher recommended that the Government maintain continuity in its policies, continue to promote Guidance and Counselling in schools and establish a local languages department at the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.

Page(s): 135-144                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6903

 Alhaji Bakar Kamara
Director of Academic Planning (Curriculum Planning)
University of Management and Technology, Freetown, Sierra Leone

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[22] Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2007). Sierra Leone Education Sector Plan – A Road Map to a Better Future-2007-2015.
[23] UNITE For Quality Education – Better Education for a better world. The human right to education – what is quality education, and why is it a human right? https://www.unite4education.org/about/what-is-qualityeducation/retrievedjune,2020

Alhaji Bakar Kamara “Government Interventions in Promoting Education-The Educational Development in Sierra Leone Since the End of the War in 2000” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.135-144 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6903

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Online Modality of Learning in A Higher Education Institution During the Pandemic: Satisfaction and Difficulties of Criminology Students in The Philippines

Samuel B. Damayon, Calvin Klein L. Carlos, Jeremy M. Abad, John Ryan D. Cauilan, Cherry Ann K. Lubiton – September 2022- Page No.: 145-151

The pandemic has brought challenges both to students and teachers in higher education. This study determined the level of satisfaction and difficulties encountered by criminology students at Saint Mary’s University Bayombong Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines during their online modality of learning. A quantitative, inferential, and descriptive research design was used among sixty (60) respondents from sophomore to senior criminology students. The study found that criminology students were satisfied with the methods of teaching, teacher’s class requirements, teaching platforms, teacher’s consideration, time schedule of classes, and student support from the department and that they experienced difficulty to a moderate extent with the gadgets used in online classes and availability of academic resources, Respondents have a neutral level of difficulty in terms of financial source, the strength of internet signal and time availability for doing class requirements. There is a significant difference in their level of satisfaction in terms of their year level in relation to the teachers’ method of teaching, teaching platforms, teachers’ consideration, and with their internet connectivity. There is also a significant difference in their level of difficulty in online learning when the students were grouped according to their year level, financial source, gadgets, and time schedules of classes; internet connectivity when it comes to financial source, internet signal, gadgets, and academic resources; and gadgets used (Laptop) when it comes to internet signal and academic resources.

Page(s): 145-151                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6904

 Samuel B. Damayon
School of Teacher Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 Calvin Klein L. Carlos
School of Teacher Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 Jeremy M. Abad
School of Teacher Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 John Ryan D. Cauilan
School of Teacher Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 Cherry Ann K. Lubiton
School of Teacher Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

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[5] Gikas, J., & Grant, M. M. (2013). Mobile computing devices in higher education: Student perspectives on learning with cellphones, smartphones & social media. Internet and Higher Education. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1096751613000262, diakses tanggal 15 Oktober 2020.
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[7] Harsas, M., & Sutawijaya, A. (2018). Determinants of student satisfaction in online tutorial: a study of a distance education institution.https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/409614.
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[10] Moralista, R., & Oducado, R. (2021). Faculty perception toward online education in a state college in the Philippines during the Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3636438
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[14] Sun, P. C., Tsai, R. J., Finger, G., Chen, Y. Y., and Yeh, D. (2008). What drives a successful e-Learning? An empirical investigation of the critical factors influencing learner satisfaction. Comput. Educ. 50, 1183–1202. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2006.11.007
[15] Cheng, Y.-M. (2014). Extending the expectation-confirmation model with quality and flow to explore nurses’ continued blended e-learning intention. Inform. Tech. People 27, 230–258. doi: 10.1108/ITP-01-2013-0024
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[17] Abante, S. Cruz, R., Guevarra, D., Lanada, M.I., Macale, M.J., Roque, M.W., Salonga, F., Santos, L., & Cabrer, W. (2021). A comparative analysis on the challenges of online learning modality and modular learning modality: A basis for training program. https://www.ijmra.in/v4i4/Doc/17.pdf.
[18] Manalo, F., & De Villa, F. (2020). Secondary teachers’ preparation, challenges, and coping mechanism in the pre-implementation of distance learning in the new normal. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3717608
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[20] Obana, J. (2021). Learning management system: An essential tool to enhance remote education. https://www.grantthornton.com.ph/insights/articles-and-updates1/from-where-we-sit/learning-management-system-an-essential-tool-to-enhance-remote-education/
[21] Jones, N. (2021) Remote learning exposes internet connectivity issues. https://www.weboost.com/blog/remote-learning-exposes-internet-connectivity-issues.

Samuel B. Damayon, Calvin Klein L. Carlos, Jeremy M. Abad, John Ryan D. Cauilan, Cherry Ann K. Lubiton “Online Modality of Learning in A Higher Education Institution During the Pandemic: Satisfaction and Difficulties of Criminology Students in The Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.145-151 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6904

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The Relationship between Cultural Socialization and Mental Health among Higher Education Students in A’Sharqiyah University in the Sultanate of Oman

Dr. Esam Al Lawati, Dr. Fatema Al Mukhaini – September 2022- Page No.: 152-158

The current study used the explanatory position to distinguish the relationship between cultural socialization and mental health, considering several variables for the members of the study community, who are students at A’Sharqiyah University. The sample consisted of 800 students, 435 female students, 365 male students. The current study includes five colleges of the university, namely the College of Arts and Humanities, the College of Engineering, the College of Law, the College of Business Administration, and College of Applied and Health Science and the university includes various academic degrees, namely the diploma, the bachelor’s, Master’s, for the academic year 2021/2022. The researcher used the Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure scale (CSBM) Derlan et al (2016) and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing scale (WEMWBS) Brown and Platt (2007). To answer the research question the researchers used Mean and standard deviation, and to analyze the data it has been using T. test and ANOVA , the results show there are correlation between cultural socialization and mental health, in addition, the results indicate a noteworthy difference between male and female students in terms of cultural socialization and mental health which means this finding interpret the females are more socially and they have a more positive health pattern than males. The researcher tested the psychometric properties of the scales used in the current study, and in order to answer the three questions of the study, the following mathematical statistics were used; Pearson’s correlation coefficient, T-test, one-way ANOVA, LSD test, and regression analysis. The results of the study concluded that there is a relationship between cultural socialization and mental and psychological health, in addition to the presence of indications that there is a difference in favor of female students in cultural socialization and its impact on mental and psychological health. As for the majors offered at the university, the study did not find an impact on mental health.

Page(s): 152-158                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6905

 Dr. Esam Al Lawati
Associate Professor of Educational Psychology- Head of Psychology Department,
A’Sharqiyah University, Ibra, Sultanate, Oman

 Dr. Fatema Al Mukhaini
Assistant professor of Arabic Language – Arabic Language and Literature Department,
A’Sharqiyah University, Ibra, Sultanate, Oman

[1] Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Ani Yazedjian, and Mayra Bámaca-Gómez (2004). Developing the Ethnic Identity Scale Using Eriksonian and Social Identity Perspectives. An International Journal of Theory and Research, 4(1), 9–38.
[2] Anderson, C., Keltner, D., & Oliver, J. (2003). Emotional convergence between people over time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1054–1068.
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[5] Derlan CL, Umaña-Taylor AJ. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents’ ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure. Journal of Adolescence. 2015; 41:1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.02.002.
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[9] McMichael, P. (2000). Development and social change: A global perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
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[11] Small, M. L. (2002). Culture, Cohorts, and Social Organization Theory: Understanding Local Participation in a Latino Housing Project. The American Journal of Sociology, 108(1), 1-54.
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[14] Tayebeh Fasihi, Maryam Mohammed and Tayebeh Dehghan (2011). The correlation of social support with mental health: A meta-analysis. Electron Physician. 9(9): 5212–5222. doi: 10.19082/5212.
[15] Wei-Chin Hwang, Hector F. Myers, Jennifer Abe-Kim, Julia Y. Ting (2008). A conceptual paradigm for understanding culture’s impact on mental health: The cultural influences on mental health (CIMH) model. Clinical Psychology Review 28, pp. 211–227.
[16] Wood, D., Kurtz-Costes, B., & Copping, K. E. (2011). Gender differences in motivational pathways to college for middle class African American youths. Developmental Psychology, 47(4), 961-968. doi: 10.1037/a0023745

Dr. Esam Al Lawati, Dr. Fatema Al Mukhaini “The Relationship between Cultural Socialization and Mental Health among Higher Education Students in A’Sharqiyah University in the Sultanate of Oman” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.152-158 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6905

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Rainfall Variability and Vegetation Cover Dynamics in the Northern Part of the Southern Rivers: from Basse Casamance (Senegal) to Rio Gêba (Guinea Bissau)

Dome TINE, Mbagnick FAYE, Guilgane FAYE – September 2022- Page No.: 159-166

The aim of this contribution is to analyse the impact of rainfall variability on vegetation cover dynamics in the northern part of the Southern Rivers. The methodology adopted is based on the processing of rainfall data (1961-2018), Landsat satellite images and time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The results show a highly contrasted rainfall variability, highlighted by the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). The latter shows that annual variations in rainfall are slightly in favour of drought. The temporal profile of the NDVI revealed two periods with different rates of change. A first period from 1984 to 2000, characterised by good phenological activity, with good vegetation cover, and a second period from 2001 to 2018, marked by a significant decrease in vegetation cover. Spatial analysis of the evolution of vegetation formations reveals a north-south density gradient accompanied by an increase in dense forest and the regression of open savannah.

Page(s): 159-166                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2022

 Dome TINE
Cheikh Anta DIOP University of Dakar, Department of Geography, Applied Remote Sensing Laboratory (ARL), BP 5005, Dakar, Senegal

  Mbagnick FAYE
Cheikh Anta DIOP University of Dakar, Department of Geography, Laboratory of Climatology and Environmental Studies (LCE), BP 5005 Dakar, Senegal

 Guilgane FAYE
Cheikh Anta DIOP University of Dakar, Department of Geography, Physical Geography Laboratory, BP 5005 Dakar, Senegal

[1] Andrieu J. (2008). Dynamique des paysages dans les régions septentrionales des Rivières-du-Sud (Sénégal, Gambie, Guinée-Bissau). Thèse de doctorat, Université Paris Diderot, 532 p.
[2] Paturel J. E., Servat E., Delattre M.O. (1998). Analyse de séries pluviométriques de longue durée en Afrique de l’Ouest et centrale non sahélienne dans un contexte de variabilité climatique. Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques, Volume 43 (3), 937-945.
[3] Michel P. (2l au 26 novembre 1988). La dégradation des paysages au Sénégal. La Dégradation des Paysages en Afrique de l’Ouest, Dakar. https://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exldoc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_7/b_fdi_03_01/35482.pdf
[4] Le Borgne J. (1988). La pluviométrie au Sénégal et en Gambie. Dakar : ORSTOM ; Ministère Français de la Coopération, 95 p. multigr. https://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/num-dakar-02/26481.pdf
[5] Garba A. (2015). Évolution comparée du couvert végétal en zone de brousse et en zone agricole de1992 à 2014 dans le bassin d’approvisionnement en bois-énergie de Niamey (Niger). Mémoire de mastère spécialisé, AgroParisTech, 49 p.
[6] Jacquin A. (2010). Dynamique de la végétation des savanes en lien avec l’usage des feux à Madagascar. Analyse par série temporelle d’images de télédétection. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Toulouse, 146 p.
[7] Pennober G., (2003). Dynamique littorale d’un delta estuarien : les Bijagós (Guinée-Bissau). Cahiers Nantais, n° 59, pp. 139-148.
[8] Diop E. S. (1990). La côte ouest-africaine du Saloum (Sénégal) à la Mellancorée (Rep. De Guinée). Thèse de doctorat, Université de Strasbourg, 366 p.
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[12] Bouiadjra S. E. B., El Zerey W. & Benabdeli K. (2011). Étude diachronique des changements du couvert végétal dans un écosystème montagneux par télédétection spatiale : cas des monts du Tessala (Algérie occidentale), Physio-Géo, Volume 5, pp. 211-225.
[13] OMM (2012). Déclaration de l’OMM sur l’état du climat en 2012. OMM- No. 1108, 15 p.
[14] GIEC (2014). Changement climatique 2014 : Rapport de synthèse. Contribution des Groupes de travail I, II et III au cinquième Rapport d’évaluation du Groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat [Sous la direction de l’équipe de rédaction principale, R. K. Pachauri et L. A. Meyer]. GIEC, Genève, Suisse, 161 p.
[15] Diello P., Mahé G., Paturel J. M., Dezetter A., Delclaux F., Servat E. & Ouattara F. (2005). Relations indices de végétation et pluie au Burkina Faso : cas du bassin versant du Nakambé. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 50 (2) 2.
[16] Layelmam M. (2008). Calcul des indicateurs de sécheresse à partir des images NOAA/AVHRR. HAL Archives Ouvertes. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00915461
[17] Soumaré S., Fall A., Andrieu J., Marega O, Diémé B. E.A. (2020). Dynamique spatio-temporelle de la mangrove de Kafountine dans l’estuaire de la Basse-Casamance des années 1972 à nos jours : Approche par télédétection. IOSR Journal of Engineering (IOSRJEN), 10(9), pp. 01-14.
[18] Servat, E., Paturel, J.-E., Lubes-Niel, H., Kouame, B. Masson, J.-M. (1997). Variabilité des régimes pluviométriques en Afrique de l’Ouest et centrale non sahélienne. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences. vol. 324 n°10. p. 835-838.
[19] Boudet G. (1972). Désertification de l’Afrique tropicale. Adansonia, vol.12, pp. 505-524, 1972.
[20] Koné M., Aman A., Yao A. C. Y., Coulibaly L. & N’guessan K. E. (2007). Suivi diachronique par télédétection spatiale de la couverture ligneuse en milieu de savane Soudanienne en Côte d’Ivoire”, Télédétection, vol. 7, pp. 433-446.
[21] Diallo H., Bamba I., Barima Y. S. S., Visser M., Ballo A., Mama A., Vranken I., Maïga M. & Bogaert J. (2011). Effets combinés du climat et des pressions anthropiques sur la dynamique évolutive de la végétation d’une zone protégée du Mali (Réserve de Fina, Boucle du baoulé). Sécheresse, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 97-107.
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Dome TINE, Mbagnick FAYE, Guilgane FAYE “Rainfall Variability and Vegetation Cover Dynamics in the Northern Part of the Southern Rivers: from Basse Casamance (Senegal) to Rio Gêba (Guinea Bissau)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.159-166 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/159-166.pdf

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Analysis of Kantian Ethical Principles of Morality in Relation to Examination Cheating in Kenya

Monica Achieng Odero, Prof Joseph Nasongo, & Dr Philip Mukonyi – September 2022- Page No.: 167-173

The level of exam cheating around the world has alarmed stakeholders in education who, by default, are expected to have developed students into morally upright people. The purpose of the study was an analysis of Kantian ethical principles of morality in relation to examination cheating in Kenya. The paper was guided by two objectives as follows; the phenomenon of examination cheating in Kenya and Kantian ethical principles of morality. Critical method guided the methodology of the paper. The findings concluded that the main motivator to examination cheating was institutional level compared to individual and cross-cutting levels. Also, the findings indicated that educational stakeholders and teachers were at the forefront in fostering cheating as opposed to Kantian deontological theory of ethics. Lastly, the findings concluded that the principles of universality and humanity formula are the best to be emulated by individuals to bridge the gap of disrespect to humanity rights and obligations.

Page(s): 167-173                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2022

 Monica Achieng Odero
Department of Educational Foundations, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P. O. BOX 190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya

 Prof Joseph Nasongo
Department of Educational Foundations, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P. O. BOX 190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya

 Dr Philip Mukonyi
Department of Educational Foundations, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P. O. BOX 190-50100, Kakamega, Kenya

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[4] Aullo, P.A (2004).An investigation into factors contributing to examination irregularities in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) in Eastern Province (unpublished M.Ed. Project).Nairobi, University of Nairobi.
[5] Bernedette U.,Cornelius-Ukpepi & R. Ndifon (2012). Factors that influence Examination Malpractice And Academic Performance in primary science among primary six pupils in cross river state Nigeria.
[6] Gicharu, S. (2016). Education now back on the night track Saturday Standard December 3,2016Nairobi.Nation Media.
[7] Gregor, J. (1996). A Commentary on Kants Critique of practical reason. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.
[8] Ikupa, J.C, (1997). Causes & Cure of examination Malpractices. The Business Administrator.
[9] Kant, I., (1996). Immanuel Kant. Paris: International Burea of Education.
[10] Kithuka, M. (2004). Educational Measurement &Evaluation Egerton,Egerton University Press.
[11] Musyoka, (2015). An investigation of student’s perception on cheating national examinations in Mwingi East sub-county, Kitui County.
[12] Mwandikwa & Ocharo, J.B (2007). Tough measures; Exam cheats put on Notice. Elimu News, 2, 12-13
[13] Mwenesi, J. (2016). Kantian Perspective in Mitigating Radicalisation in Kenyan Secondary Schools (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[14] Namwamba, T.D. (2005). Essentials of critical and creative thinking .Nairobi: Njiguna Books.
[15] Njoronge, R. J.,and Beenars, G.A.(1986).Education and Philosophy in Africa.
[16] Nyamwange, C., Ondima, P. and Onderi P. (2013). “factors Influencing Examination Cheating Among Secondary school students,A case of Masaba South District of KIsii County, Kenya,”Elixir Psychology.
[17] Obudigha, W. (2010). Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Schools. Unpublished Research Paper.
[18] Onguti, Robert O. (2011). A study of malpractices among boys and girls in mixed public secondary schools in South Gucha District, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, university of Nairobi, Kenya)
[19] Oyieko J. (2017). Examination rules and regulations and examination malpractices in Secondary Schools ;(students perception) a case study of schools in Bondo, Kenya.
[20] Tambawal, M.U.(2013).Examination Malpractices, Causes, Effects and Solutions. Unpublished paper presented to stakeholders, Nigeria.
[21] Ufuoma,O.K (2015)Sociological Perspective of Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Univ ersities. International Journal of Social Sciences Vol.5No.2.
[22] Kibogo, K.(2016) Cheating In National Examinations In Kenya; Aristoteian Akratic Analysis Of Causes and Remedies. UON Med Unpublished Thesis
[23] Naliaka, P., Odero, P, & Poipoi M (2015) Perceived psychological-social and school- students in Kakamega- Central Sub-County; Implications for Counselling. International Journal of Psychology & Counselling.
[24] Wasanga & Muiruri, (2002). Exam Malpractices in Kenya.

Monica Achieng Odero, Prof Joseph Nasongo, & Dr Philip Mukonyi “Analysis of Kantian Ethical Principles of Morality in Relation to Examination Cheating in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.167-173 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/167-173.pdf

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Market Efficiency in Agricultural commodities: Vector error correction model (VECM) Approach

Mahmoud Ali AMASSAIB, Mohammed Salih Adam ABDALLA, Tarig GIBREEL – September 2022- Page No.: 174-179

The study was conducted in Elobied Crops Market to investigate the efficiency market hypothesis (EMH) for sesame, groundnut, and Arabic gum crops. The study used Augmented-Dickey Fuller (ADF) method, Johansen multivariate approach, and Vector error correction model (VECM), and co-integration method. Data was obtained from the Elobied Crops Market database for annual prices and quantities of trading commodities from 1990 to 2017.The study concluded that there is a weak form of EMH for sesame and groundnut and a semi-strong of EMH for Arabic gum.

Page(s): 174-179                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6906

 Mahmoud Ali AMASSAIB
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Faculty of Natural Resource and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan, Oman

 Mohammed Salih Adam ABDALLA
Department of Projects, Institute of Research and Consultancy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, Oman

 Tarig GIBREEL
Department of Natural Resources Economics, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

[1] Aráujo, A., Lobato, T., Carvalho, B. and Sousa, I. (2018). The Market Efficiency Hypothesis: thecase of coffee in Brazil’s future market. GestãoeDesenvolvimento magazine, Vol.4, No.1, Pp. 87-96.
[2] Awosola, O. O., Oyewumi, O. and Jooste, A. (2006). Vector Error Correction Modeling of Nigerian Agricultural Supply Response,Agrekon, 45(4): 421-436.
[3] Bitencourt, W. (2007). Empirical essays on the efficiency of the future coffee market. Dissertation (Master in Administration) – Federal University of Lavras
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[5] Dupernex, Samuel (2007). Why Might Share Prices Follow A Random Walk? Student Economic Review, Vol. 21, Pp. 167-179
[6] Elroy Dimson and MassoudMussavian, (2000). Market Efficiency. The Current State of Business Disciplines. Vol.3, Pp. 959-970.
[7] Engle, R. F. and Granger, C. W. J. (1987). Cointegration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing. Econometrica, 55(2): 251-276.
[8] Hallam, D. andZanoli, R. (1993). Error Correction Models and Agricultural Supply Response. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 20(2):151-166.
[9] Hwang, J. (2002). The Demand for Money in Korea: Evidence from the cointegration Test, International Advances in Economic Research, 8(3):188-195.
[10] Lai, Kon S. and Lai, Michael (1991). A Cointegration Test for Market Efficiency. The Journal of Futures Markets, Vol. 11, No. 5, Pp 567-575
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[13] Vanrammawia, K. (2015). Agricultural Marketing Efficiency in Mizoram. Social Change and Development. Vol. XII No.1, Pp. 97-108

Mahmoud Ali AMASSAIB, Mohammed Salih Adam ABDALLA, Tarig GIBREEL “Market Efficiency in Agricultural commodities: Vector error correction model (VECM) Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.174-179 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6906

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Supply Response of Field Crops to Price and Environmental Factors in Traditional Rainfed Agriculture

Mahmoud Ali AMASSAIB, Mohammed Salih Adam ABDALLA, Tarig GIBREEL – September 2022- Page No.: 180-189

This study aimed to estimate supply response crops, i.e., sesame, groundnut, sorghum, and millet, in traditional rainfed agriculture, in North Kordofan State, Sudan, from 1990 to 2015. The response is estimated as the yield and area responses to prices, temperature, and rainfall. The study depended mainly on secondary data obtained from the records of the Ministry of agriculture and animal resources, Elobied Crops Market, and Elobied Airport Metrological Station. The co-integration and vector error correction approaches were applied to estimate the response. The results found that the estimated responses of crop yield in the long run to price were negative and inelastic for sesame, groundnut, and elastic for sorghum. It was positive and inelastic for yield millet yield. The estimated responses of crop area to price in the long run were negative and inelastic for sesame, sorghum, millet, and elastic for groundnut. The estimated responses of crop yield in the long run to temperature were negative and elastic for all crops and ranged from-24.01 to -197.83. The estimated responses of crop area in the long run to temperature were positive and elastic and ranged from 37.121 to 411.747.The estimated responses of crop yield to rainfall index, in the long run, were positive and elastic for groundnut (2.357), sorghum (4.667), and millet (1.142), but it is inelastic for sesame (0.509). The responses of crop area to rainfall index were negative and elastic and ranged from -13.745 to -1.086. The study concluded that rainfall index and temperature factors are the most dominating factors influencing yield and area behavior in the long-run, hence farmers’ decisions.

Page(s): 180-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6907

 Mahmoud Ali AMASSAIB
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Faculty of Natural Resource and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Elobeid, Sudan, Oman

 Mohammed Salih Adam ABDALLA
Department of Projects, Institute of Research and Consultancy, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, Oman

 Tarig GIBREEL
Department of Natural Resources Economics, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

[1] Ali, A.A. 1978. On the supply response of traditional farmers. Economic and Social Research Centre, Bulletin No. 69, ESRC, National Research Centre, Khartoum.
[2] Awosola, O. O., Oyewumi, O. and Jooste, A. (2006). Vector Error Correction Modeling of Nigerian Agricultural Supply Response. Agrekon, 45(4): 421-436.
[3] Banerjee, A., Dolado, J. J., Galbraith, J. W. and Hendry, D. (1993). Co-integration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of 7on-Stationary Data: Advanced Texts in Econometrics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[4] Binswanger, H. P. 1989. The policy response of agriculture, pp. 231-258. In: Proceeding of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics. Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Khartoum, 2004.
[5] Deb, S. (2003). Terms of Trade and Supply Response of Indian Agriculture: Analysis in Cointegration Framework. Working Paper No. 115, Centre for Development Economics, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, Delhi University
[6] Engle, R. F. and Granger, C. W. J. (1987). Cointegration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing. Econometrica, 55(2): 251-276.
[7] Hallam, D. and Zanoli, R. (1993). Error Correction Models and Agricultural Supply Response. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 20(2):151-166.
[8] Hwang, J. (2002). The Demand for Money in Korea: Evidence from the co-integration Test. International Advances in Economic Research, 8(3):188-195.
[9] Issam, A.W. Mohamed (2010). Assessment of the Role of Agriculture in Sudan Economy. Department of Economics, Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.
[10] Kabalo, S. 1984. The supply response of traditional oilseeds producers in Kordofan. Economic and Social Research Centre, Bulletin No. 117, ESRC, National Research Centre, Khartoum.
[11] Krishna, R. 1963. Farm supply response in India-Pakistan: A case study of Punjab region. Economic Journal 73: 47-67.
[12] Lahiri, A. K. and Roy, P. (1985). Rainfall and Supply Response: A Study of Rice in India. Journal of Development Economics, 18(2-3): 315-334.
[13] McKay, A., Mossissey, O. and Vaillant, C. (1998). Aggregate Export and Food Crop Supply Response in Tanzania: DFID-TREP. Credit Discussion Paper-98/4, Department of Economics’, University of Nottingham, UK
[14] Medani, A. I. 1970. The supply response of African farmers in Sudan to price. Tropical Agriculture 47: 183-188.
[15] Moula, L. E. (2010). Response of Rice Yields in Cameroon: Implications for Agricultural Price Policy. Libyan Agriculture Research Center Journal International, 1(3): 182-194.
[16] Narayan P. K. and Smyth, R. (2009). What Determines Migration Flows from Low-income to High-income countries: an empirical investigation of Fiji-US migration 1972-2001. Available in https://www. researchgate.net/ publication /46539589
[17] Nerlove, M. (1958). The Dynamics of Supply: Estimation of Farmers’Response to Price. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press.
[18] Nerlove, M. 1958. Distributed lags and estimation of long-run supply and demand elasticities. Journal of Farm Economics 40: 301-311.South Darfur Ministry of Agriculture –Nyala, 2004
[19] Sadoulet, E. and de Janvry, A. (1995). Qualitative Development Policy Analysis, Baltimore, Md.: John Hopkins University Press.
[20] Townsend, R. and Thirtle, C. (1995). Dynamic Acreage Response: An Error Correction Model for Maize and Tobacco in Zimbabwe. University of Reading, Discussion Papers in Development Economics, Series G, 2(20).

Mahmoud Ali AMASSAIB, Mohammed Salih Adam ABDALLA, Tarig GIBREEL “Supply Response of Field Crops to Price and Environmental Factors in Traditional Rainfed Agriculture ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.180-189 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6907

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Mentoring Youth for Mission in the Twenty-first (21st) Century: A Case Study of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Nigeria

Istifanus ISHAYA – September 2022- Page No.: 190-199

The youth of the present generation are faced with issues that are beyond their control. These issues are as a result of the changing world. The present world of technology, the social media, and busy family life have created a gap between children and their parents, thereby making it difficult for the two parties to relate mutually. Incidentally, the church is not immune to the challenges bedeviling the contemporary world. One of the ways by which the church is negatively affected is in the aspect of mentoring. From the Apostles’ days, mentoring process has been an effective way of helping and developing young Christians. However, the gap created between the older members and the young people in the Church through the advance in technology and human communication is somewhat rendering mentoring of little or no effect for achievement of mission goals in the 21st century. To ensure the trend does not hinder this generation from transmitting the apostolic values, which the preceding generations earnestly fought to sustain and carefully handed down to the succeeding generations, to those coming behind them, particularly in the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Nigeria, something drastic must be done. It is against this backdrop this paper sets out to review the concept of mentoring in Christendom in the 21st Century from the perspective of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in Nigeria. It therefore evaluates the extent the prevalent relationship realities between the older individuals and the youth have hindered productive mentoring processes and discouraged sustainable youth development in the church.

Page(s): 190-199                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6908

 Istifanus ISHAYA
BA, MA and Doctor of Ministry Student, Adventist University of Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] https://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/decline-of-morality/# Eden Collinsworth (2017), in a Tv show on Technology and Declining Morality by Knowledge@Wharton, aired on SiriusXM channel 111, US.
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[8] Howard Culbertson’s compilation entitled, Fulfilling Christ’s Great Commission: Mission slogans and notable quotes from global missionaries; online @ hculbert@snu.eduhculbert@snu.edu World missions Bible passages [accessed on 23/02/2019].
[9] John Garah Nengel (2014), Education and Environmental Management – the Role of Christian Educators, in a lead paper delivered At the Convention of Adventist Educators held at Buken Academy, Bukuru, Jos, Plateau State, On 30th July 2014 [unpublished].
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[13] Mallison, John. Mentoring to develop disciples and leaders, South Australia: Muganda, Baraka. Unlocking the key chain, Lecture Notes, Adventist University of Africa, Muller, Walter, Youth Culture. Grand Rapids: MI, Zondervan 2007; Nairobi, Kenya, July 28, 2019.
[14] Newcombe, Jerry (2018), The Price of Kicking God Out of the Schools, in Christian Headlines, (Truth in Action), online @ https://www.christianheadlines.com/ [accessed on 21/11/2018].
[15] Openbook Howden, 1998.
[16] Ragins, B. R. & Kram, K. The Roots and Meaning of Mentoring. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242220278 (2007)
[17] Rivera, Orlando, Mentoring Stages in the Relationship between Barnabas and Paul. Regent University, May 2007.
[18] Tim Dean (2018), The Greatest Moral Challenge of Our Time, online in The Conversation @ https://theconversation.com/profiles/tim-dean-408 [Accessed on 28/08/2019].
[19] UNESCO What do we Mean by “Youth”? http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/youth/youth-definition/
[20] White, Ellen G. Messages to Young People. Hagerstown: ML, Review and Herald https://www.imb.org/2016/12/27/five-fundamentals-of-mentorship/. http://www.multiplicationnetwork.org/files/Ministry_Path/3_Mentor_Training/Masterful_Mentoring_Book_with_cover.

Istifanus ISHAYA “Mentoring Youth for Mission in the Twenty-first (21st) Century: A Case Study of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.190-199 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6908

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Comprehending the Role of Physicians and Counterfeit Medicine in Bangladesh

Farzana Nazera, Valliappan Raju – September 2022- Page No.: 200-206

Counterfeit medicine is a dangerous problem in Bangladesh, making the country’s healthcare system more challenging. For a developing nation like Bangladesh, finding a perfect solution to curb this problem is complex. According to the World Health Organization (2021), awareness is the key to preventing the innocent patient from taking counterfeit medicine. Due to the knowledge gap, it’s hard for patients to detect the authenticity of medicine because it requires knowledge of medicinal formulation. Physicians of Bangladesh could play a vital role in preventing this counterfeit medicine problem by establishing guidance and cooperation relationships with the patients. The study reviewed the concept of counterfeit medicine, conducted a bibliometric analysis of counterfeit medicine on the Scopus database, and provided a relationship flow diagram of prospective guidance relationship between physicians and patients. The study concluded that the physicians should offer this consultation service to the patients, and the study expected that the patient willingly accepts it for getting the safeguard against counterfeit medicine.

Page(s): 200-206                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2022

 Farzana Nazera
PhD Aspirant, Limkokwing University of Creative Technology, Malaysia

 Valliappan Raju
Professor, Limkokwing University of Creative Technology, Malaysia

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[10] Goodyear-Smith, F., & Buetow, S. (2001). Power issues in the doctor-patient relationship. In Health Care Analysis (Vol. 9, Issue 4, pp. 449–462). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013812802937
[11] Harris, J., Stevens, P., & Morris, J. (2009). Keeping it Real Combating the spread of fake drugs in poor countries.
[12] Isles, M. (2020). Patient safety issues associated with the use of compounded medicines as alternatives to approved pharmaceutical products in Europe and how best practice can improve outcomes. In International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine (Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 133–144). IOS Press B.V. https://doi.org/10.3233/JRS-200002
[13] Joshi, R., Gadikta, H., Kharat, S., Mandal, S., Kadam, K., Joshi, C., Gadikta, R. ;, Kharat, H. ;, Mandal, S. ;, Kadam, S. ;, Bongale, K. ;, Pandit, A. M., & Bibliometric, “. (2021). Bibliometric of Feature Selection Using Optimization Techniques in Healthcare using Scopus and Web of Science Databases.
[14] Kaba, R., & Sooriakumaran, P. (2007). The evolution of the doctor-patient relationship. International Journal of Surgery, 5(1), 57–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2006.01.005
[15] Lee, S. J., Back, A. L., Block, S. D., & Stewart, S. K. (2002). Enhancing physician-patient communication. In Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program (pp. 464–483). Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. https://doi.org/10.1182/asheducation-2002.1.464
[16] Mackey, T. K., & Nayyar, G. (2017). A review of existing and emerging digital technologies to combat the global trade in fake medicines. In Expert Opinion on Drug Safety (Vol. 16, Issue 5, pp. 587–602). Taylor and Francis Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2017.1313227
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[19] Mohiuddin, A. K. (2020). An extensive review of patient satisfaction with healthcare services in Bangladesh. Patient Experience Journal, 7(2), 59–71. https://doi.org/10.35680/2372-0247.1415
[20] Mukhopadhyay, R. (2007). The hunt for counterfeit medicine. In Analytical Chemistry (Vol. 79, Issue 7, pp. 2623–2627). American Chemical Society. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac071892p
[21] Newton, P. N., Fernández, F. M., Plançon, A., Mildenhal, D. C., Green, M. D., Ziyong, L., Christophel, E. M., Phanouvong, S., Howells, S., McIntosh, E., Laurin, P., Blum, N., Hampton, C. Y., Faure, K., Nyadong, L., Soong, C. W. R., Santoso, B., Zhiguang, W., Newton, J., & Palmer, K. (2008). A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia. PLoS Medicine, 5(2), 0209–0219. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050032
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Farzana Nazera, Valliappan Raju “Comprehending the Role of Physicians and Counterfeit Medicine in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.200-206 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/200-206.pdf

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Role of Domestic Savings and Investment in Economic Growth for Developing Economies of East Africa

Amery S Mureka – September 2022- Page No.: 207-211

The objective of this research was to find out the role of gross domestic savings and investments on the economic growth of EAC region. The study used the explanatory research design. Annual panel data obtained from World Bank development database for Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi from 2005 to 2021 were used. Levin, Lin and Chu (2002) methodology was used to test for stationarity and stabilize data. Pooled OLS regression model was used to estimate the parameters and conduct the inference. The results showed that Gross domestic investment was significant with a p-value of 0.012 at 0.05 significance level while domestic savings had insignificant effect on the GDP with a p-value of 0.069 at 0.05 level of significance. The resesearch concluded that Gross domestic investment has a significant role on economic growth while domestic savings is insignificant in determining growth for the EAC region.

Page(s): 207-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2022

 Amery S Mureka
Department of Economics, Finance and Accounting; Kibabii University, Kenya

[1] African development bank (2020). Annual report for 2019. https://www.afdb.org › documents ›
[2] Barro, R. J. (2003). Determinants of economic growth in a panel of countries. Annals of Economics and Finance, Vol. 4, pp. 231–274
[3] Budha, B. (2014). A multivariate analysis of savings, investment and growth in Nepal. EJON, 34(3).
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[12] Nwachkwu, T. and Odigie, P. (2009). What Drives Private Savings in Nigeria. A Paper Presented at the Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE) Conference, University of Oxford, March.
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[15] Saleem, M., Zaheer, R. (2018) A Study on Influence of Domestic Investment on the Economic Growth during 1980-2016. J Glob Econ 6: 302. doi: 10.4172/2375-4389.1000302
[16] Scandizzo, P. and Sanguinetti, S. (2009). The role of public investment in social and economic development. United Nations, New York. https://uncta.Org [17] World Bank (2019). World Development Indicators. World Bank, Washington DC, USA

Amery S Mureka “Role of Domestic Savings and Investment in Economic Growth for Developing Economies of East Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.207-211 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/207-211.pdf

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An Introduction to Modernity as it is evident in Sri Lankan Society (A Study Based on Modern Sinhala Fictions)

Dr. Kumudu Karunaratne Ranaweera – September 2022- Page No.: 212-215

As a consequence of the socio-economic changes that took place in Sri Lanka during the colonial era, traditional socio-economic institutions which had been executed in the past underwent a notable transformation. The emergence of new social institutions coupled with the development of a navel form of social order reached its climax under the British colonial regime. This movement contributed to introduce vast range of economic and social changes in the Lankan society during the early nineteenth century and came to be termed later as the modern period. The present study is an attempt to examine how this transition is reflected realistically in fictions pertaining to that period. For this study Marxist theory on socio-economics factors and subaltern theory is adopted in reviewing literary perspective of the contemporary society. Qualitative data analysis was the method followed in analyzing data. Proliferation of new towns was seen as an outcome of industrialization and urbanization, which eventually became the hub of business enterprises and administrative activities. These newly cropped up establishments gradually grew up exerting a great influence on the daily activities of the people of all walks of life. An in-depth study suggests that the tone of the pre-colonial Sinhala fiction, in content-wise and vision-wise was a far cry from its post-colonial counterpart. The objective of the present study is to demonstrate how far it was successful in portraying this transitionary process in a realistic perspective.

Page(s): 212-215                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6913

 Dr. Kumudu Karunaratne Ranaweera
Senior Lecturer, Department of Sinhala, University of Colombo, Srilanka

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[3] Ariyapala, M.B. (1962). 1996. Madyakaaleena lanka samajaya (in Sinhala), Colombo: S. Godage saha sahodarayo.
[4] Bandarage, Asoka (1982). Colonialism in Ceylon, Colombo. (2005). Sri Lankawe yatathvijithawadaya (in Sinhala), Colombo: Stamferdleak.
[5] De Silva, A. Simon (1907). Therisa, (in Sinhala), Colombo: Siri Lankodaya Yanthralaya.
[6] De Silva, Colvin 1941. (1995). Ceylon under the British occupation, Vol. II, 1795-1833, New Delhi, Publication.
[7] Doshi, L.S. (2016). Nuthanathwaya paschath nuthanathwaya saha nawa samaja nayaya (in Sinhala), (Tr.) Premakumara De Silva, Abehrathna Aththanayaka, Colombo: Past Publishing (Pvt.) Ltd. (2007). Nuthanathwaya yanu kumakda? (in Sinhala), Sanwada, 27 Volume, Colombo: Social Scientists Association.
[8] Ellawala, Hema (1964). Purathana lankawe samaja ithihasaya (in Sinhala), Colombo: Lankanduwe Mudrana Departhamenthuwa.
[9] Fernando, Tissa (1979). (ed.) Politics and modernizational modern Sri Lanka, Society in translation, USA, Syracuse University Press.
[10] Giddens, Anthony (1998). Capitalism & Modern social theory, London, Cambridge Press.
[11] Gunathilaka, Hema ( ). Kalyani Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences of the University of Kelaniya.
[12] Jayawardhana, Kumari (2000). From Nobodies to Somebodies, Colombo: Social Scientists Association.
[13] Jinadasa, A.T.C. (1923). Baddha Wairaya hewath nenda saha leli, (in Sinhala), (not mention printer).
[14] Kanakaratne, A de S. (1920). Piyakaru Lilian hewath diyunuwe rahasa, (in Sinhala), 2nd Vol. Colombo: Siri Lankodaya Yanthralaya.
[15] Kearney, R. (1979). Politics and modernization in modern Sri Lanka: Society in transiation.
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[17] Marasingha, J.M. (1923). Prathama aalaya ha anthima aalaya (in Sinhala), Gampaha: Gamini Printing Works.
[18] Oliver, Broos (1963). Lankawa kaarmika ratak kiriema, 1916 sita 1948 dakwa kaalaya thula pewathi matha ha prathipaththi, Nuthana yugaya (in Sinhala), Collection of articles, 1st Vol, Dehiwala: Thisara Printers.
[19] Perera, M.C.S. (1911). Lalitha hewath rathna manikyaya (in Sinhala), Colombo: Sinhala Mudranalaya.(1907). Lanka Abhirahas (in Sinhala), Colombo: Sinhala Samaya Mudranalaya.(1908). Mage Pembari (in Sinhala), Colombo: Sinhala Samaya Mudranalaya.
[20] Rustow, D.A. (1967). A word of national problems of political modernization, The Brooking institute, Washington.
[21] Silva, W.A. (1924). Pasel guruwari (in Sinhala), N.J. Cooray saha prakasakayo.
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[27] Wimalanatha, M.G.A. (1918). Tharuniyakage anthima kemeththa (in Sinhala), Colombo: Vidyadarsha Printers.
[28] Web-sites: https://www.tutorzu.net>sociology>topies>modernity 2021-03-29.

Dr. Kumudu Karunaratne Ranaweera “An Introduction to Modernity as it is evident in Sri Lankan Society (A Study Based on Modern Sinhala Fictions)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.212-215 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6913

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An Analysis of Daily Trust Newspaper in The Promotion of Girl Child Education in Northern Nigeria

Adidu Anita Similola – September 2022- Page No.: 216-220

Girl child education has been a problem in most developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. The problem of the Nigerian girl child is the cultural web in which she is caught which makes it impossible for her to compete with her peers in the developed world. Various studies have shown that there is a strong link between girls’ literacy rates and religious and traditional misconceptions. As Nigeria is a very religious country, many of its citizens tend to live according to the holy writings, be it the Bible or Quran. That is why many households think that girls should not receive education in the same way boys do, if they receive it at all. The same can be said for traditions. Many people still live with a very traditionally biased view on life. According to this view, a girl should grow up to be a mother and a housewife. Why would she need education for that? Out of these reasons stems another one: gender discrimination. Girls are discriminated based on their gender both in their communities and in schools. Their achievements are not considered as significant as the boys’ achievements are. Women’s history is not taught at schools. Less attention is paid to educating girls on the topics of their bodies and their health. In line with this background, this research work was conducted to determine the role of the print media (Daily Trust Newspaper) in promoting the girl child education through its publicities and to what extent. Internet based method was used to gather data which were analysed using descriptive method and simple percentage. The population of the study is 391 weekly editions (educational stories) within 12 months (September 2020-October 2021). The findings revealed that educational issues are paid the least attention to in news coverage in Daily Trust Newspaper when compared to other issues. It was recommended among others that the print media should make conscious effort to ensure a wider and consistent coverage of educational issues to sensitise policy makers, and other stakeholders on the importance of girl child education as this will ensure the provision of solutions to problems affecting girl child education, promoting national development.

Page(s): 216-220                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6909

 Adidu Anita Similola
Department Mass Communication, Elizade University, Nigeria

[1] Aikulola, S. (2019). Foundation moves to promote girl-child education in five northern states. Retrieved on 1st November 2021 from https://guardian.ng/features/education/foundation-moves-to-promote-girl-child-education-in-five-northern-states/
[2] Asemah, E., Edegoh, L.O., & Olumuji, E. (2013). An assessment of the mass media as tools for promoting girl – child education in Jos metropolis. International journal of language, literature and gender studies.
[3] Nmadu, G., Avidime, S., Oguntunde, O., Dashe V., Abdulkarim B., Mandara M. (2010) Girl Child Education: Rising to the Challenge. African Journal of Reproductive Health Sept. 2010 (Special Issue); 14(3): 107
[4] Parpart, J., Connely, M., and Bariteu, V. (2000). Theoretical Perspectives on Gender and Development.Canada: International Development Research Centre.
[5] Mohammed, F. (2017) Girl-Child Education in Northern Nigeria. Retrieved on 1st November 2021 from https://www.givegirlsachanceng.org/post/2017/05/08/girl-child-education-in-northern-nigeria
[6] Chukwu, O. (2021). New Dangers to Girls’ Education in Northern Nigeria. Retrieved on 1st November 2021 from https://inee.org/blog/new-dangers-girls-education-northern-nigeria
[7] Daily Trust (2021) About Us. Retrieved on 1st November 2021 from https://www.aboutus.org/dailytrust.com
[8] Littlejohn, S. W., & Foss, K. A. (Eds.). (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory (Vol. 1). Sage.
[9] Saliu, K. (2021) Girl child: Her future is our future. Retrieved on 1st November 2021 from https://punch.ng/letters/girl-child-her-future-our-future/
[10] Salkind, N. J. (2010) Internet-Based Research Method DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412961288.n193
[11] UNICEF (2014) Quality basic education-insecurity threatens gains in girls’ education. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/education_8480.html (2012) Normative Theories of the Press – 6 Theories. Retrieved on 1st November 2021 from http://bizzybrain2013.blogspot.com/2012/12/normative-theories-of-press.html

Adidu Anita Similola “An Analysis of Daily Trust Newspaper in The Promotion of Girl Child Education in Northern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.216-220 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6909

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Preservation Of Religious Culture Values At Ngerebong Tradition In Petilan Temple Kesiman

Dewi Rahayu Aryaningsih, Ni Made Ria Taurisia Armayani, Ida Ayu Nyoman Widya Laksmi, I Wayan Ardhi Wirawan – September 2022- Page No.: 221-231

This study aims to examine the values of religious culture in the ngerebong tradition carried out by the Hindu community at Petilan Temple, Desa Pakraman of Kesiman, Denpasar city, Province of Bali. This research is designed as an interpretive descriptive research to find answers to problem formulations related to the background, process, and meaning of the ngerebong tradition. The results of this study found three findings. First, the cultural historical background of the ngerebong tradition is related to the respect for King of Kesiman in order to build unity with other kings, namely the eight kingdoms in Bali to participate in attending the implementation the pengilen of Ida Bhatara’s. This phenomenon is related to efforts to increase harmonious relations, both with the vertical aspect in the form of parhyangan through ritual communication, pawongan building harmonious relationships with fellow humans, and palemahan creates harmony with the surrounding environment. Second, the ngerebong tradition has a standardized procession which is carried out on the redite wuku medangsia day (the Balinese Hindu calender) by performing pengilen, which is a form of ceremony aimed at building harmony in life in this world. Third, the dominant meaning contained in the ngerebong tradition, namely religious meaning, social meaning, cultural meaning, educational meaning, aesthetic meaning and economical meaning.

Page(s): 221-231                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2022

 Dewi Rahayu Aryaningsih
Department Brahma Widya, Institut Agama Hindu Negeri Gde Pudja Mataram, Indonesia

 Ni Made Ria Taurisia Armayani
Department Brahma Widya, Institut Agama Hindu Negeri Gde Pudja Mataram, Indonesia

 Ida Ayu Nyoman Widya Laksmi
Department Brahma Widya, Institut Agama Hindu Negeri Gde Pudja Mataram, Indonesia

 I Wayan Ardhi Wirawan
Department Brahma Widya, Institut Agama Hindu Negeri Gde Pudja Mataram, Indonesia

[1] Andang, Al. (1998). Agama yang Berpijak dan Berfihak. Yogyakarta: Kanisius
[2] Atmadja, N., et al. (2015). Tajen di Bali: Perspektif Homo Complexus. Denpasar: Pustaka Larasan bekerjasama dengan IBBiK Undiksha
[3] Geertz, Clifford. (1992). Tafsir Kebudayaan. Terjemahan Fransisco Budi Hardiman. Yogyakarta: Kanisius
[4] Jaya, I. M. & Kusuma, I.M. W. (2020). Keberadaan Simbol Dalam Pemujaan Umat Hindu Di Bali Perspektif Teologi Hindu. Sphatika: Jurnal Teologi, 11(2), 180-192.
[5] Jelantik Oka, I.P.G.N. (2009). Sanatana Hindu Dharma. Denpasar: Widya Dharma
[6] Koentjaraningrat. (2004). Bunga Rampai Kebudayaan, Mentalitas dan Pembangunan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama
[7] Pudja, G. (2003). Bhagavad Gītā: Pancamo Veda. Surabaya: Paramita.
[8] Saputra, I. G. E., Budiasih, N.M. & Wirta, I.W. (2018). Komunikasi Simbolik Dalam Upacara Ngerebong di Pura Agung Petilan Desa Pekraman Kesiman Kecamatan Denpasar Timur. Jurnal Penelitian Agama Hindu, 2(1).
[9] Suprayogo Iman dan Tobroni. 2001. Metodologi Penelitian Sosial-Agama. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya
[10] Tristaningrat, M. A. N. (2019). Analisis panca yadnya dalam konteks saguna Brahman dalam menciptakan aktivitas sosial budaya. Maha Widya Bhuwana: Jurnal Pendidikan, Agama dan Budaya, 2(1), 57-68.
[11] Wiana, I.K. (2007). Tri Hita Karana Menurut Konsep Hindu. Surabaya: Paramita
[12] Wartayasa, I. K. (2018). Pelaksanaan Upacara Yadnya Sebagai Implementasi Peningkatan dan Pengamalan Nilai Ajaran Agama Hindu. Kamaya: Jurnal Ilmu Agama, 1(3), 186-199.
[13] Wijaya, N. (2013). Puri Kesiman: Saksi Sejarah Kejayaan Kerajaan Badung. Jurnal Kajian Bali, 3(01), 33-64.
[14] Wirawan, I.W.A. (2021). Filsafat Kebudayaan: Proses Memanusiakan Manusia. Yogyakarta: Deepublish.
[15] Wirawan, Komang Indra. (2021) Keberadaan Barong & Rangda dalam Dinamika Religius Masyarakat Hindu Bali. Denpasar: PT Japa Widya Duta
[16] Yuniastuti, N. P. I., Atmadja, N. B., & Maryati, T. (2018). Tradisi Ngerebong Di Desa Pakraman Kesiman, Denpasar Timur, Bali (Latar Belakang Sejarah, Pelaksanaan Sistem Ritual Dan Aspek–Aspek Ritual Sebagai Sumber Belajar Sejarah. Widya Winayata: Jurnal Pendidikan Sejarah, 6(3).

Dewi Rahayu Aryaningsih, Ni Made Ria Taurisia Armayani, Ida Ayu Nyoman Widya Laksmi, I Wayan Ardhi Wirawan “Preservation Of Religious Culture Values At Ngerebong Tradition In Petilan Temple Kesiman” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.221-231 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/221-231.pdf

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Mental Health Comorbidities of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Sexually Abused Adolescents

Jonah, Austin Thankgod (Ph.D) – September 2022- Page No.: 232-237

The study investigated mental health comorbidities of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among sexually abused adolescents in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study used the correlational research design. Three research questions as well as three corresponding null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study comprised all 14,784 senior secondary school students (SSS 1, 2 and 3) in the 16 public secondary schools in Obio/Akpor LGA of Rivers State. A sample of 528 adolescents was drawn for the study using the purposive sampling technique. Four instruments were used to collect data for this study. They include; Post-traumatic stress disorder index (PTSDI), Anxiety Scale (AS), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) and Insomnia Inventory (II). The instruments were designed on a four point Likert scale of Strongly Agree (SA) =4, Agree (A) =3, Disagree (D) =2, and Strongly Disagree (SD) =1. The Cronbach Alpha reliability was used to establish the internal consistency reliability coefficients of 0.77, 0.97 and 0.69 respectively. Responses to the research questions were answered with Pearson Product Moment Correlation, while the hypotheses were tested with independent sample t-test statistics. The findings of the study showed that social anxiety disorder, depression and insomnia relate significantly to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among sexually abused adolescents in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that, a trauma-focused cognitive bahavioural therapy (TF-CBT) should be carried out on adolescents who are sexually abused victims to identify and correct any opposing thoughts or misrepresentations they have about the traumatic event.

Page(s): 232-237                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2022

 Jonah, Austin Thankgod (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counselling Faculty of Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt. Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] Adnan, Ç., Sümeyra, D. D., Sait, Ö., Cem, Z., Mustafa M. A. (2015). Factors associated with PTSD in cases of sexual assault. Journal of Psychiatry, 18 (1), 14-88
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[3] D’Andrea, W., Ford, J., Stolbach, B., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk B. A. (2012). Understanding interpersonal trauma in children: Why we need a developmentally appropriate trauma diagnosis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 82: 187-200.
[4] Eriega, E. G., Isukwem, G. C., & Kasakwe, V. C. (2014). Influence of demographic factors on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims. International Journal of Educational Psychology and Sport Ethics (IJEPSE), 16, 1148-1156
[5] Ernest, R. (2003). Social anxiety disorders in a school setting. Education and Treatment of Children 30; 219–242.
[6] Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2008). Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and adjustment in early adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect. 32(6):607–619.
[7] Filipas H. H., & Ullman S. E. (2006). Child sexual abuse, coping responses, self-blame, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adult sexual revictimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(5), 652–672.
[8] Geneviève, B., Mylène, D., & Andréanne, R. (2019). Sleep disturbances and nightmares in victims of sexual abuse with post-traumatic stress disorder: An analysis of abuse-related characteristics. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10 (1): 58-91.
[9] Kar, H., Arslan, M. M., Çekin, N., Akcan, R., & Hilal, A. (2010). Sexual assault in childhood and adolescence; a survey study. European Journal of Social Sciences 13: 549-55
[10] Leger, D., Partinen, M., Hirshkowitz, M., Chokroverty, S., Touchette, E., & Hedner, J. (2010). Daytime consequences of insomnia symptoms among outpatients in primary care practice: EQUINOX international survey. Sleep Medicine, 11(10), 999–1009.
[11] Maniglio, R. (2009). The impact of child sexual abuse on health: A systematic review of reviews. Clinical Psychology Review. 29 (7): 647–657.
[12] Maniglio, R. (2011). The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 124 (1): 30–41.
[13] Maniglio, R. (2012). The role of parent-child bonding, attachment, and interpersonal problems in the development of deviant sexual fantasies in sexual offenders. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 13, 83–96.
[14] Manyike, P. C., Chinwa, J. M., Aniwada, E., Odtola, O. I., & Chinawa, T. A. (2015). Child sexual abuse among adolescents in South-East Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioural issue. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 31 (4), 827-832
[15] Miller, C. (2007). Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) symptoms and treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(12): 9-24
[16] Regier, P. S., Monge, Z. A., Franklin, T. R., Wetherill, R. R; Teitelman, A. M., & Jagannathan, K. (2017). Emotional, physical and sexual abuse are associated with a heightened limbic response to cocaine cues. Addiction Biology. 22 (6): 1768–177.
[17] Roberto, M. (2012). Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: A systematic review of reviews. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 14(2) 96-112
[18] Steine I. M., Krystal J. H., Nordhus I. H., Bjorvatn B., Harvey A. G., Eid, J., & Pallesen S. (2012). Insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress in victims of sexual abuse: The role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(9), 1827–1843.
[19] Stoltenborgh, M., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Euser, E. M., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2011). A global perspective on child sexual abuse: Meta-analysis of prevalence around the world. Child Maltreatment. 16 (2): 79–101.
[20] Trasket, P., Noll, J., & Putnam, F. (2011). The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational longitudinal research study. Developmental Psychopathology 23: 453-476.
[21] Valente, S. M. (2005). Sexual abuse of boys. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 18, 10–16.
[22] Walsh, K., Fortier, M. A, & DiLillo, D. (2010). Adult coping with childhood sexual abuse: A theoretical and empirical review. Aggression and Violent Behaviour. 15(1):1–13
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[24] Zimmerman, F., & Mercy, J. A. (2010). A better start: Child maltreatment prevention as a public health priority. Zero to Three, 35(5), 4–10.
[25] Zink, T., Klesges, L., Stevens, S., & Decker, P. (2009). The development of a sexual abuse severity score: Characteristics of childhood sexual abuse associated with trauma symptomatology, somatization, and alcohol abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 24(3):537–546.

Jonah, Austin Thankgod (Ph.D) “Mental Health Comorbidities of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Sexually Abused Adolescents” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.232-237 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/232-237.pdf

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Psychosocial Effects of Covid-19 on Mental Health: A Case of Hillside Residents, Harare.

Ashley Nyakonda – September 2022- Page No.: 238-244

The main purpose of the study was to investigate the psychosocial effects of COVID-19 on mental health of residents in Hillside in Harare. The specific objectives were finding out about the psychosocial effects of COVID-19 on Hillside residents, determining the awareness level of the psychosocial effects of COVID-19 on mental health amongst Hillside residents, finding out mechanisms employed by Hillside residents to cope with the psychosocial effects on mental health arising from COVID-19 and soliciting solutions on how best the COVID-19 mental health challenges can be alleviated. The research adopted a survey research strategy focusing on Hillside residents and data was collected using self-administered questionnaires from 102 respondents in Hillside in Harare. The data was then analyzed using percentages and findings from the research indicated that job insecurity, financial loss, stigmatization, infobesity and alienation due to social distancing were the main psychosocial effects of COVID-19 on Hillside residents. The research thus recommended that government should extend social support to vulnerable groups and increase awareness about psychosocial effects of COVID-19 on mental health and appropriate coping mechanisms. Similarly, individuals were urged to seek information about COVID-19 from reputable sources and adopt positive coping mechanisms to fight against mental health effects of the pandemic.

Page(s): 238-244                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6912

 Ashley Nyakonda
Intern Psychologist, Counselling Services Unit, 1 Raleigh Street Kopje, Harare, Zimbabwe

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Ashley Nyakonda “Psychosocial Effects of Covid-19 on Mental Health: A Case of Hillside Residents, Harare.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.238-244 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6912

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Effectiveness of Collaborative Strategic Reading Instruction for Tertiary level English as a Second Language (ESL) learners

Kasun Vindika Galappaththy, Purnima Karunarathne – September 2022- Page No.: 245-248

In the process of language learning, Reading is considered a fundamental skill as it is the only means of access to written documents in a language (Alderson, 2000). With sound proficiency in reading, learners, especially at tertiary level, can achieve their academic and professional goals. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effectiveness of Collaborative Strategic Reading Instruction Approach (CSR) which is a learner centered reading approach closely related to cooperative learning theory (Klingner and Vaughn ,1996; 1998; 2000). The informants of the study were 67 lower intermediate level undergraduates from the University of Peradeniya. Data was collected through the mixed method approach. The qualitative data of the experiment demonstrated that collaborative work during the reading activities lead the learners to learn and think significantly more and better. However, the statistical analysis did not prove this method as a better method than the traditional teaching method. Thus, pedagogical implications for English instruction at university level in Sri Lanka and suggestions for future research based on the findings to further validate the impact and effectiveness of collaborative learning are proposed.

Page(s): 245-248                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6911

 Kasun Vindika Galappaththy
Department of English Language Teaching, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

 Purnima Karunarathne
Department of English Language Teaching, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

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Kasun Vindika Galappaththy, Purnima Karunarathne “Effectiveness of Collaborative Strategic Reading Instruction for Tertiary level English as a Second Language (ESL) learners” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.245-248 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6911

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Sources of Insecurity and Educational Continuity of Senior Secondary School Students in Public Schools in Oyo-South Senatorial District of Oyo-State.

Akinfalabi, Mustafa Adelani, Onyido, Josephine Azuka, & Kalu, Ngozi Ezinma, Ph.D – September 2022- Page No.: 249-261

This study investigated the sources of insecurity and possible educational continuity of Senior Secondary School Students in public schools in Oyo-South Senatorial District in Oyo State. Three (3) research questions and three (3) hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted expost- facto research design. The study consisted of 105,649 students drawn from one hundred and ninety five (195) Senior Secondary school students in public schools in Oyo–South Senatorial District in Oyo State. Stratified random sampling technique through Taro Yamane formula was used to select the sample size of 398 students from One Hundred and Ninety – Five (195) schools that participated for the study. Self –structured questionnaire designed by the researchers tilted “Sources of Insecurity and Educational Continuity of Public Senior Secondary School Students Questionnaire (SIECPSSSSQ)” was used for the study. “SIECPSSSSQ” was validated and Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability indices of 0.81, 0.83, 0.92, 0.78, 0.85, and 0.71 respectively. Mean and standard deviation as well as rank order were used to answer the research questions; while Z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study among others revealed that legislation for provision of grazing reserve for Fulani- Herdsmen settlement, marginalization of Yoruba ethnic group in project execution, giving preferential treatment to Northerners on sensitive political appointments that is against federal character principle and the available security agencies have fallen below standard to protect lives and properties. It was concluded that inability of the government to carry out its constitutional responsibility led to wanton destruction of lives and properties thereby hindering educational continuity in the area. It was recommended among others that Government and Non-Governmental Organizations should provide scholarship award, entrepreneurial education that will promote skills development among youths, and withdrawal of sensitive political appointments to a particular region that is based on federal character principle to reduce regional uprising.

Page(s): 249-261                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6910

 Akinfalabi, Mustafa Adelani
Department Of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education. University Of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt,

  Onyido, Josephine Azuka
Department Of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education. University Of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt,

 Kalu, Ngozi Ezinma, Ph.D
Department Of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education. University Of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt,

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Akinfalabi, Mustafa Adelani, Onyido, Josephine Azuka, & Kalu, Ngozi Ezinma, Ph.D “Sources of Insecurity and Educational Continuity of Senior Secondary School Students in Public Schools in Oyo-South Senatorial District of Oyo-State.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.249-261 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6910

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Social Factors Influencing First Year Students’ Attitude Towards Studying of Physical Education at The University of Nairobi

Antony Nbita Simiyu, Janet K. Wanjira, Michael D. Otieno – September 2022- Page No.: 262-266

This study purposed to explore the social factors influencing undergraduate students’ attitudes towards studying physical education at the University of Nairobi. The study used cross-sectional survey design. A total of 273 students were profiled. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Both qualitative and quantitative data were generated by the study. The data was coded and entered into computer for analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation. From the study, 32.7% of the students indicated that their parents’ career did influence their career choice. Majority, 51.7% of the respondents agreed to have been influenced by family members’ advice to pursue their careers. However, 37.5% of the students demonstrated that they were advised by their friends to choose the career they were pursuing while 44.1% were influenced by their teachers. About 64.5% agreed that they chose the career because it was prestigious while 14.7% agreed that they were influenced by their religious beliefs when it came to the choice of their career. The study recommended provision of quality equipment and resources in the university to improve the attitude of students towards studying PE, the ministry to organize seminars and workshops to create awareness on the importance of PE, further research to be done on the attitude of parents towards PE and the influence of socioeconomic background towards students’ attitude in studying physical education and sports.

Page(s): 262-266                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2022

 Antony Nbita Simiyu
University of Nairobi, Kenya

  Janet K. Wanjira
Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Nairobi, Kenya

  Michael D. Otieno
Department of Physical Education and Sport, University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Antony Nbita Simiyu, Janet K. Wanjira, Michael D. Otieno “Social Factors Influencing First Year Students’ Attitude Towards Studying of Physical Education at The University of Nairobi” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.262-266 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/262-266.pdf

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Porang as Strategic Commodity to Scale Up Community Empowerment in Sumberejo, Pasuruan

Jojok Dwiridotjahjono, Purwadi, Praja Firdaus Nuryananda – September 2022- Page No.: 267-273

Sumberejo Village in Pasuruan Regency, East Java, is a village that has potential assets in the agricultural and tourism sectors. The agricultural potential in Sumberejo is increasing when the super strategic commodity porang is introduced as a new commodity to be cultivated through the Sinar Agro Permata farmer group. Porang cultivation aims to advance and increase the income of the agricultural sector and empower farmers in Sumberejo. Since, porang production requires new knowledge, the Sinar Agro Permata group is still experiencing confusion and concerns about results that are not in line with existing expectations. This scientific article is the result of research on empowering agriculture communities in Sumberejo Village. The research was conducted using a mixed-method approach presented descriptively and using in-depth interview instruments, participatory observation, focus group discussions, and literature study. The research results showed that the porang commodity has not been able to provide maximum leverage for community empowerment. Porang has become a new product for Sinar Agro Permata in Sumberejo, so it requires time and ongoing assistance. With the application of the hexa-helix approach and the behavior drivers model, the research found that there are still three of the six hexa-helix components that have been integrated in this empowerment program. Meanwhile, in the behavior drivers model, this study also found that the Sumberejo community needed driving factors to the individual level to change their mindset, both in terms of farming and as farmers. It will still take time for the empowerment of the Sumberejo community with porang cultivation to reach its maximum potential. Even with the role of stakeholders who are required to be collaborative and sustainable.

Page(s): 267-273                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6914

 Jojok Dwiridotjahjono
Department Business Administration, UPN “Veteran” Jawa Timur, Indonesdia

 Purwadi
Department Business Administration, UPN “Veteran” Jawa Timur, Indonesdia

 Praja Firdaus Nuryananda
Department Business Administration, UPN “Veteran” Jawa Timur, Indonesdia

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Jojok Dwiridotjahjono, Purwadi, Praja Firdaus Nuryananda “Porang as Strategic Commodity to Scale Up Community Empowerment in Sumberejo, Pasuruan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.267-273 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6914

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Incorporating Online Educational Games in Teaching Lexical Categories to Improve the Writing Skills of the Students

Donna May Figuracion, Herlynne Grace Manaoat – September 2022- Page No.: 274-276

I. INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE

Grammar is one of the main tenets of language learning. According to Sioco and De Vera (2018), grammatical competence is vital in order for individuals to communicate effectively. Competence in grammar also ensures the comprehensibility of the message that is being communicated among the interlocutors of a conversation. Bradshaw also stresses that one’s grammar skills are directly proportional to one’s writing skills; thus, mastery of grammar contributes to masterful writing (2013, as cited in Sioco & De Vera, 2018, p. 83).
Other studies about teaching and learning of English grammar in the Philippines explore the areas in grammar which the learners face and struggle with the most. Results of several studies by (Sahagun, 2021; Sioco & De Vera, 2018; Barraquio, 2015), suggest that most student-participants got relatively high scores in parts of speech and nouns, while the area in grammar that they struggle with the most is subject-verb agreement These studies encourage future researchers to seek ways to improve students’ grammatical competence through these aforementioned areas, particularly subject-verb agreement.
There is no doubt that competence in grammar is most applied in writing because in order to produce quality written output, it has to exhibit clarity of thoughts and unambiguity of message, which is usually achieved when an individual is knowledgeable in the conventions of grammar. According to Baleghizadeh and Gordani (2012), accuracy in grammar is necessary in constructing good writing. Therefore, teachers should bear in mind that in order for students to write well, they must have a strong foundation in grammar as well.

Page(s): 274-276                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2022

 Donna May Figuracion
Graduate School Department, Bulacan State University
Guinhawa, City of Malolos Bulacan, Philippines

 Herlynne Grace Manaoat
Graduate School Department, Bulacan State University
Guinhawa, City of Malolos Bulacan, Philippines

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Donna May Figuracion, Herlynne Grace Manaoat “Incorporating Online Educational Games in Teaching Lexical Categories to Improve the Writing Skills of the Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.274-276 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/274-276.pdf

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The Charism of Prophecy and Poverty Eradication: A Reaction to Lugino Bruni’s Article on Economy and Communion

Peter Mutiso Maundu – September 2022- Page No.: 277-282

Being a prophet is to speak the truth, to convey God’s messages to people, regardless of the backlash the messenger may receive, just in case some people repent, and God does not punish those who do not repent. This article examines the Charism and Prophetic roles in the modern capitalist world where over 75 million people are languishing in abject poverty. The article is grounded on Lugino Bruni’s manuscript on Economy and Communion. It presents a reaction to his avers on true prophesies and the nature of love that not only unites people and communities but also fosters human relationship with God resulting in a religious world economy that constantly fights poverty. The article uses empirical examples to demonstrate how selfless love and economic prosperity are inseparable. It argues that ending poverty is a universal goal that can be achieved through unity among religious organizations and true prophetic actions. This points to the Economy of Communion (EOC), which is closely linked to agape in Christianity, Sorokin’s Altruistic Love, Ubuntu in Africa, the Harambee movement in Kenya, the Ujamaa spirit in Tanzania and many other forms of charism

Page(s): 277-282                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6916

 Peter Mutiso Maundu
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Kenya

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Peter Mutiso Maundu “The Charism of Prophecy and Poverty Eradication: A Reaction to Lugino Bruni’s Article on Economy and Communion” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.277-282 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6916

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Kindergarten Teachers’ Choice of Instructional Strategies for Developing Literacy Skills: A Critical Analysis of Kindergarten Teachers in Agona West Municipality

Samuel Oppong Frimpong (PhD), Dorigen, Osei, Anthony, Woode-Eshun – September 2022- Page No.: 283-292

The study employed the sequential explanatory missed method design to identify the conditions that determine teachers’ selection of literacy skills instructional strategies. One hundred and seventy-six (176) kindergarten teachers within the Agona West municipality constituted the sample size for the quantitative phase of the study of which 15 participants were used for the qualitative phase through the use of interview. The Slovin formula and homogeneous sampling strategies were used as sampling techniques for the quantitative and qualitative phases respectively. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data and semi-structured interview guide was used to collect the qualitative data. The instruments were validated and pilot tested and the reliability coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.943. The quantitative data were analysed using frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested with multiple linear regression and one way analysis of variance. The qualitative data were analysed thematically. The study identified teacher’s personal and professional experiences, number of years in active service as teachers and as kindergarten teachers, available instructional materials, class enrollment and assessment structure as some of the conditions that determined their selection of literacy skills instructional strategies. The study further revealed that KG teaching experience significantly influenced the conditions that determined the choice of instructional strategies used in teaching literacy skills among kindergarteners. Thus, study recommends ECE teachers should design/develop instructional materials to augment what the Municipal Directorate of Education will purchase to enhance effective literacy instruction. Workshops, for example on developing instructional material, could be organised by the headteachers to equip ECE teachers with that skill. Also, efforts should be made by the Ghana Education Service and the Agona West Education Directorate to make sure that only teachers with early childhood education professional qualification are assigned to teach at the kindergarten level.

Page(s): 283-292                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2022

 Samuel Oppong Frimpong (PhD)
Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 Dorigen, Osei
Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 Anthony, Woode-Eshun
Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

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Samuel Oppong Frimpong (PhD), Dorigen, Osei, Anthony, Woode-Eshun , “Kindergarten Teachers’ Choice of Instructional Strategies for Developing Literacy Skills: A Critical Analysis of Kindergarten Teachers in Agona West Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.283-292 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/283-292.pdf

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Dispute Resolutions in the Lowest Political Unit in the Philippines: Assessment of the Difficulties and Innovations in the Katarungang Pambarangay System in Northern Philippines

Samuel B. Damayon, Luigi Aaron G. Mendoza, Emmalene A. Afan, Jiezel Ann B. Fernando, Armielyn T. Gagate, Arlene B. Santua – September 2022- Page No.: 293-299

This study aimed to learn about dispute resolutions in the lowest political unit of the Philippines, particularly with the Lupon Members’ firsthand experiences with the Katarungang Pambarangay. It assessed the challenges encountered and innovations implemented by the members of the Katarungang Pambarangay in the settlement of the cases in the three areas of dispute settlement. When grouped according to profile variables, significant differences in the level of difficulty were considered. This study employed both quantitative and qualitative utilizing a descriptive method in the eight selected barangays of Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya. A three-part structured questionnaire was used to gather pertinent data using frequency, mean, and t-test for paired samples and ANOVA, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. It was found out that the specific difficulties are: not following suggestions and agreements, lies and disrespect; failure to attend to proceedings; lack of training and compensation, and lastly, violence during proceedings. The findings of the study also include that most of the Lupon Members have difficulty regarding mediation, conciliation, and arbitration proceedings. On the other hand, there is no significant difference in the difficulty level when respondents are grouped according to data except for sex. On the significant differences, it was only in the area of seminars or training attended where significant differences existed among the study participants.

Page(s): 293-299                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2022

 Samuel B. Damayon
School of Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 Luigi Aaron G. Mendoza
School of Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 Emmalene A. Afan
School of Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 Jiezel Ann B. Fernando
School of Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 Armielyn T. Gagate
School of Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

 Arlene B. Santua
School of Education and Humanities, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

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Samuel B. Damayon, Luigi Aaron G. Mendoza, Emmalene A. Afan, Jiezel Ann B. Fernando, Armielyn T. Gagate, Arlene B. Santua “Dispute Resolutions in the Lowest Political Unit in the Philippines: Assessment of the Difficulties and Innovations in the Katarungang Pambarangay System in Northern Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.293-299 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/293-299.pdf

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Knowledge and use of contraceptives among adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria

Ijeoma Julia Ogu, Ijeoma Igwe (PhD) – September 2022- Page No.: 300-306

Background: Adolescence is a period of life marked by physical and psychological changes, experiences, desires, behavior, and sexuality. Globally, adolescents have been reported to engage in early sexual activities and at early age while many indulge in unprotected sex (Durowade, Babatunde,et al, 2017). Unprotected sex exposes adolescents to adverse outcomes such as unplanned pregnancy, pregnancy related risks, sexually transmitted illnesses, unsafe abortion and human immunodeficiency virus infection (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). All these negative outcomes can be averted with the proper use of contraceptives. This study therefore intends to determine the knowledge and use of contraceptives among adolescents in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
Methodology: Six hundred male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years and in- school students of Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria completed an anonymous survey that assessed their knowledge, sources of knowledge and attitudes towards contraception. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21.0. The results were presented in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test of association was used to test knowledge of contraceptive use and other variables. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with contraceptive use with 95% confidence interval. Variables with ρ-value less than 0.05 were considered as significantly associated with contraceptive use.
Findings: The mean age of participants was 15.2 years. Knowledge of contraceptive was statistically significant with age (0.004), type of school (0.006) and year of study (0.006). The sources of knowledge about contraception for the adolescents were mostly friends (38.7%), parents (25.8%) and mass media (14.8%). The most known contraceptive is the condom (82.5%). 41.7% of the adolescents have been involved in sexual activities out of which 53.2% did not use contraceptives during the last time of intercourse.

Page(s): 300-306                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6915

 Ijeoma Julia Ogu
Department of Sociology/Anthropology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

 Ijeoma Igwe (PhD)
Department of Sociology/Anthropology, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

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Ijeoma Julia Ogu, Ijeoma Igwe (PhD), “Knowledge and use of contraceptives among adolescents in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.300-306 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6915

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Nepotistic Practices in the Private Sector

Sheryl A. Nicolas, Katerina S. Abaño, John Dave R. Abelado, Denzel Jhon E. Frany, Jheena Jamaica J. Villeges, Sheryl R. Morales – September 2022- Page No.: 307-313

There is a prevalence of nepotism in all organizations. Numerous studies have attempted to examine nepotism, but very few have focused on the Philippine context. Through the perspectives of private-sector employees, this qualitative study explored workplace nepotism. Literature and participants’ data indicate that nepotism has significant negative effects on an organization. Low morale promotes workplace discontent, stress, and demotivation. Inefficiency costs the company money. Employees and management may experience communication and leadership difficulties due to nepotism. Although not illegal, it can cost a business money if it leads to discrimination and an unpleasant workplace. It is unethical because it favors relatives or close acquaintances. It disregards merit, competency, and skill. In private companies, nepotism maintains the business in the family, but it must be used with prudence. As it has negative implications, it is not a smart strategy for the survival, development, or expansion of a business. The family should be approached with discretion.

Page(s): 307-313                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2022

 Sheryl A. Nicolas
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Quezon City Branch, Polytechnic University of the Philippines

 Katerina S. Abaño
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Quezon City Branch, Polytechnic University of the Philippines

 John Dave R. Abelado
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Quezon City Branch, Polytechnic University of the Philippines

 Denzel Jhon E. Frany
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Quezon City Branch, Polytechnic University of the Philippines

 Jheena Jamaica J. Villeges
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Quezon City Branch, Polytechnic University of the Philippines

 Sheryl R. Morales
Research Management Office, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch (Thesis Adviser)

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[8] Carnahan, D. (2013). A study of Employee Engagement, Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention of Michigan CRNAs
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[10] Demaj, E. (2012) Nepotism, Favoritism and Cronyism and their Impact on Organizational Trust and Commitment: The Service Sector Case in Albania
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[20] Jones, R. (2018). The Relationship of Employee Engagement and Employee Job Satisfaction to Organizational Commitment Journal of Organizational Psychology, 2019. Colleagues and Friends: A Theoretical Framework of Workplace Friendship. 19(5).
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[22] Kerse, G., & Babadag, M. (2018). I’m out if Nepotism is in: The Relationship between Nepotism, Job Standarzation and Turnover Intention. Ege Academic Review, 18(4), 631-644. http://doi.org/10.21121/eab.2018442992 Nepotism. (n.d.). The Encyclopedia of Political Science. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781608712434.n1054
[23] Ndjama, J. N. (2021, January 07). Sample size in qualitative studies. Retrieved from https://researchfoundation.co.za/sample-size-in-qualitative-studies/
[24] Ombanda, P. (2018). Nepotism and Job Performance in the Private and Public Organizations in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP), 8(5).
[25] Rajpaul-Baptiste, C. (2018) Antecedents and Consequences of Nepotism: A Social Psychological Exploration; Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Thesis, University of Kent, kar.kent.ac.uk/75699
[26] Safina, D., 2015. Favoritism and Nepotism in an Organization: Causes and Effects. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, pp.630-634.
[27] Van Scheers, L., & Botha, J. (2014). Analyzing Relationship between Employee Job Satisfaction and Motivation. The Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 9(1), 98-109. Retrieved from http://www.jbmr.com
[28] Yeung, N. (2019) The Pros and Cons of Nepotism; profolus.com/topics/thepros-and-cons-of-nepotism

Sheryl A. Nicolas, Katerina S. Abaño, John Dave R. Abelado, Denzel Jhon E. Frany, Jheena Jamaica J. Villeges, Sheryl R. Morales “Nepotistic Practices in the Private Sector” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.307-313 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/307-313.pdf

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A Tracer Study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (Stem) Strand Graduates of Divine Word College of Legazpi Senior High School Department

Ricky U. Domanais Jr. and Nikko M. Quiapon – September 2022- Page No.: 314-319

The purpose of this study was to trace the Senior High School graduates under the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) strand of Divine Word College of Legazpi and identify which of the four exits they pursued. The researchers chose to trace the entire population of the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics strand graduates of Divine Word College of Legazpi, from School Years 2017-2018, 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 as the respondents of the study. The total respondents were four hundred seventy-one (471). The retrieval rate of the response was 89.17%. This study made use of the descriptive design to gather the needed data. Descriptive research aimed to describe a population, situation, or phenomenon accurately and systematically. Using an electronic survey questionnaire, the researchers were able to identify the percentage of the students who have taken the four “exits” of the Senior High School Program, in this case, most of the STEM graduates continued in Higher Education. Additionally, the researchers were able to identify the college courses that they are currently taking. Most of the STEM graduates chose higher education as one of the four exits on Senior High School. In terms of their preferred academic institution, the STEM graduates are enrolled in Bicol University, Divine Word College of Legazpi, and University of Santo Tomas – Legazpi. Three hundred forty-three (82%) out of four hundred eighteen (418) of the STEM Graduates are taking up their degree courses aligned to the strand being Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing (23.1%), Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering (11.4%), Bachelor’s Degree in Architecture (9.4%), Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical Engineering (8.2%) and Bachelor’s Degree in Information Technology (5.8%) were the top five (5) choices. The remaining seventy-five (18%) of the STEM graduates enrolled on courses that were not aligned to STEM. The courses they are taking up are, Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Marketing Management (8.0%), Bachelor of Physical Education (8.0%), Bachelor of Science in Economics (6.7%), Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy (6.7%), and Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurship (5.3%) and Bachelor of Arts in Journalism (5.3%). These were some of the reasons why they did not take the course related to STEM: their current course is interesting, it is their dream course, their courses serve as a pre-requisite subject to their dream course and influences from parents and peer.

Page(s): 314-319                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2022

 Ricky U. Domanais Jr.
Department Senior High School, Divine Word College of Legazpi, Philippines

 Nikko M. Quiapon
Department Senior High School, Divine Word College of Legazpi, Philippines

[1] ACT, Inc. (2015). The Condition of College & Career Readiness 2015. Retrieved January 25,2020 from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED563779.pdf
[2] Bolds, T. (n.d.). A Structural and Intersectional Analysis of High School Students’ STEM Career Development Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework. SURFACE at Syracuse University. Retrieved January 25,2020, from https://surface.syr.edu/etd/721/.
[3] DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY. (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2020, from https://www.fao.org/3/x2465e/x2465e08.htm#:%7E:text+=by%20complete%20enumeration%2C%20+where%20all,the%20whole%20population+%20are%20measured%3B&text=by%20sampling%2C%20where%20only%20a,the%20whole%20population%20are%20measured.&text=Data%20usually%20collected%20by%20the,(e.g.%20size%20frequency%20data)
[4] Department of Education, Region V, Naga Division. Survey on the Actual Curriculum Exits of the Senior High School Graduates Batch 2017-2018. Retrieved November 3, 2020 from http://www.depednaga.ph/wp-content/uploads/Memos/Unnumbered%20July%205,%202018%20Survey%20on%20the%20Actual%20Curriculum%20Exits%20of%20the%20Senior%20High%20School%20Graduates%20(Batch%202017-2018).pdf.
[5] Dulay, A. D. (2019, August 5). Is a college degree really worth it? The Manila Times. Retrieved July 26, 2021, from https://www.manilatimes.net/2019/08/06/opinion/columnists/is-a-college-degree-really-worth-it/595666
[6] EQAVET – European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training. (n.d.). Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion – European Commission. Retrieved November 2, 2020, from https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=1536&langId=en
[7] McCombes, S. (2022, July 21). Descriptive Research | Definition, Types, Methods & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 3, 2020, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/descriptive-research/
[8] Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. The K to 12 Basic Education Program Retrieved November 2, 2020 ,from https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/k-12/#:~:text=Senior%20High%20School%20% E2%80%9Ccompletes%E2%80%9D%20basic,be%20ready%20for%20the%20world.
[9] Orbeta, A. C. Jr., Lagarto, M. B., Ortiz, M. K. P., Ortiz, D. A. P., & Potestad, M. V. (2018). Senior High School and the Labor Market: Perspective of Grade 12 Students and Human Resource Officers. Retrieved January 25, 2020, from https://pidswebs.pids.gov.ph/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidsdps1849rev.pdf
[10] Patton, M. (2013). ATE had role in the naming of STEM. Retrieved January 25, 2020, from https://atecentral.net/ate20/22917/ate-had-role-in-the-naming-of-stem.
[11] Philippine Star Just a moment. . . (2018, April 23). Retrieved July 26, 2021, from https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2018/04/23/1808498/survey-showing-24-firms-hiring-k-12-grads-welcomed
[12] Republic of the Philippines, Embassy of the Philippines Wellington New Zealand. Retrieved November 2, 2020, from https://wellingtonpe.dfa.gov.ph/about/the-philippines/the-president/96-home/about/the-philippines/the-president/the-president-s-sona/145-sona-25-july-2011?start=1.
[13] Understanding Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Skills | CAREERwise Education. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://careerwise.minnstate.edu/careers/stemskills.html

Ricky U. Domanais Jr. and Nikko M. Quiapon “A Tracer Study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (Stem) Strand Graduates of Divine Word College of Legazpi Senior High School Department” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.314-319 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/314-319.pdf

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Making Evaluation in Music Pedagogy a Co-operative Endeavour-A Proposal for Nigerian Basic Education

Iruoma Amaka Ugoo-Okonkwo, Ebele Veronica Ojukwu, Alexander Walsh Erhiegueke – September 2022- Page No.: 320-326

The major crux of this paper is making evaluation of music pedagogy a co-operative endeavour, which to a large extent is guided by the music curriculum in use. In the bid to address this issue, extensive literature review was carried out on evaluation in music pedagogy and it adopted the social interdependence theory as a suitable theory for making evaluation of music pedagogy a co-operative endeavour. The four key stakeholders that were identified to co-operate and synergize for the co-operative evaluation are the Teacher/Instructor, School Management, Pupil/Student/Learner, Community/Society and the Parents. This co-operative effort has to start from the inception of curriculum development in which every interest needs to be represented down to the implementation. In addition, this paper found out that Nigerian music education is mainly of Western orientation to the detriment of our indigenous musical culture. Similarly, there was a lack of proper synergy amongst the entities that play significant roles in evaluation of music in Nigerian basic school, and some of the teachers lack adequate musical knowledge for adequate musical instruction. Suggestions of areas of co-operation that will impact positively on music pedagogy were proffered and consequently proposed for Nigerian basic education.

Page(s): 320-326                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2022

 Iruoma Amaka Ugoo-Okonkwo
Department of Music, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

  Ebele Veronica Ojukwu
Department of Music, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

  Alexander Walsh Erhiegueke
Department of Music, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

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[20] Lamb, C. & Godlewska, A. (2020). On the peripheries of education: (Not)learning about indigenous peoples in the 1995-2010 British Columbia curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2020.1774806
[21] Lawrence, G. (1993). People types and tiger stripes (3rd ed.). Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Gainesville, FL,
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[27] Okafor, R. C. (2005). Music in Nigerian society. New Generation Books.
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Iruoma Amaka Ugoo-Okonkwo, Ebele Veronica Ojukwu, Alexander Walsh Erhiegueke “Making Evaluation in Music Pedagogy a Co-operative Endeavour-A Proposal for Nigerian Basic Education ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.320-326 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/320-326.pdf

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Financial Management and Finance Person in Nigeria: The Role of Communication

ADEKUNLE Ayobami Ademola – September 2022- Page No.: 327-331

“Financial management refers to the efficient and effective management of money (funds) in such a manner as to accomplish the objectives of the organization.” (Juneja, 2008). A good financial management is germane to the overall success of an entity. An entity can be a Sole Proprietor, a Partnership Business, a Firm, a Company, Government Establishment, Institution of Learning and even Religious Institutions. The importance of sound financial management cannot be over-emphasized in all these entities mentioned. The paper examines the meaning, objectives, importance and functions of financial managers in making an excellent communication skill to all the stakeholders of the entities enumerated above.

Page(s): 327-331                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2022

 ADEKUNLE Ayobami Ademola
Institution of Affiliation: Department of General Education Studies Adeleke University, Osun State.

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ADEKUNLE Ayobami Ademola “Financial Management and Finance Person in Nigeria: The Role of Communication” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.327-331 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/327-331.pdf

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Gendered Leadership in Zimbabwe’s institutions of higher learning: A call for decolonisation of equality and justice.

Monica Zembere – September 2022- Page No.: 332-335

This article utilizes the Decoloniality theory to discuss the underrepresentation of opportunities in the appointment of women to positions of leadership in universities in Zimbabwe. Equality and justice are referred to in the research from the works of Ranciere and Rawls as themes and frameworks informing decoloniality. The arguments advanced in the research are that there cannot be democratization of opportunities if equality and justice frameworks are not subjected to decoloniality. The research discovered that out of fifteen state run universities, none of the universities has attained the 50% female representation in leadership and decision-making anticipated when the National Gender Policy was formulated in 2004.

Page(s): 332-335                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2022

 Monica Zembere
Department of Peace and Governance, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

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[4] Dillon, M. (2005). A passion for the (im)possible. Jacques Rancie`re, equality, pedagogy and the messianic. European Journal of Political Theory, 4(4), 429–452.
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[14] Shava, N. G. & Ndebele, C. (2014). Challenges and Opportunities for Women in Distance Education Management Positions: Experiences from the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU). Journal of Social Sciences. 40(3) 359-372.
[15] Smit. L. (2012). Decolonising methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. Chicago.
[16] Zimbabwe National Gender Policy. (2004).
[17] Zvobgo, R.J. (1986). Transforming education. Harare: College Press.

Monica Zembere “Gendered Leadership in Zimbabwe’s institutions of higher learning: A call for decolonisation of equality and justice.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.332-335 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/332-335.pdf

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Worldwide Relation between Fast Food Availability and Obesity Rates

Maria Editha N. Lim – September 2022- Page No.: 336-341

With thirty nine percent (39%) adults worldwide as overweight or obese in 2016, obesity has alarmingly reached epidemic proportions. Obesity has been associated with decreased life expectancy, increased mortality rates and diminished quality of life. Data show that its economic costs like healthcare expenses, reduced productivity and work loss are staggering. Obese people suffer from discrimination, depression and low self-esteem. Indeed, an examination of the determinants of obesity has become imperative. This study examined how food environments, specifically the availability of fast foods are associated with obesity. Using a quantitative methodology, this study analyzed country level data from 93 countries. Correlation and regression analysis were done to determine whether relationships exist between obesity rates (dependent variable) and independent variables such as number of persons per fast food establishment, number of persons per McDonald establishment, population, globalization index, average disposal income. Correlation results show that only globalization index has a positive relationship with obesity rates. Income classification of countries, population, number of persons per McDonald’s outlet and number of persons per fast food outlet are negatively correlated with obesity. Results from the regression analysis show three predictors of obesity rates: number of persons per McDonald’s outlet and number of persons per fast food and population. These predictors can account only 25 percent of total variability in obesity levels. In conclusion, though the relationship between fastfood availability and obesity is established, fastfood availability is not a strong single cause of obesity

Page(s): 336-341                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2022

 Maria Editha N. Lim
Central Luzon State University, Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

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Maria Editha N. Lim “Worldwide Relation between Fast Food Availability and Obesity Rates” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.336-341 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/336-341.pdf

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Advocacy for Waste Management: Realization by Churches in Kenya for Improved Environmental Sustainability

Rev. Dr. Manya Stephen Wandefu – September 2022- Page No.: 342-348

Waste management encompasses management of all processes and resources for proper handling of waste materials, from maintenance of waste transport trucks and dumping facilities to compliance with health codes and environmental regulations. Public awareness is key to successful waste management. A critical component in any waste management program is public awareness and participation, in addition to appropriate legislation, strong technical support, and adequate funding. Waste is the result of human activities and everyone needs to have a proper understanding of waste management issues, without which the success of even the best conceived waste management plan(s) becomes questionable. (NCBI, 2015) The need to manage waste in such a way that it does not affect our health and our environment is quite a new concept in many countries, especially in the rapidly growing urban centres of the developing world. The lack of awareness can be immense in some cases, and this is reflected in the lack of resources allocated to set up robust waste management systems (WHO, 2015). Rapid population growth especially puts an enormous strain on the sanitation and solid waste management capacities of cities, more so in the developing world where such infrastructure is already weak or stretched (WHO, 2016). According to the WHO (2016) report, all stakeholders need to work together at global and local levels for advocacy and project implementation as well as for raising awareness on urbanization in order to maintain environmental sustainability. Environmental sustainability involves the capability to maintain the qualities that are valued in the physical environment such as human life, living conditions for people and other species (e.g. clean water and air, a suitable climate), the quality of life for all people as well as the live-ability and beauty of the environment. Threats to these aspects of the environment mean that there is a risk that these things will not be maintained (Sutton, 2004). The goal of the environmental sustainability is to promote sustainable engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems. These systems provide ecological services vital for human survival.

Page(s): 342-348                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2022

 Rev. Dr. Manya Stephen Wandefu
Alupe University, Kenya

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Rev. Dr. Manya Stephen Wandefu “Advocacy for Waste Management: Realization by Churches in Kenya for Improved Environmental Sustainability” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.342-348 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/342-348.pdf

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Impact of Audit Committee Characteristics on Earning Management of Listed Consumer Goods Companies in Nigeria (2011-2020)

Haruna Usman, Tosin Olushola, Amina S. Mohammed – September 2022- Page No.: 349-358

This study aims to examine the impact of audit committee characteristics on earning management of listed consumer goods companies in Nigeria. The characteristics of the audit committee consist of audit committee independence, audit committee member diversity, audit committee member size and audit committee member meetings. Earnings management is perceived to be spreading across companies and industries; it distorts and portrays an incorrect picture of a firm’s financial performance. Audit committees are a popular corporate governance tool to improve the credibility of financial statements. This study uses a secondary source of data from listed consumer goods companies in the Nigerian stock Exchange from 2011-2020. The dependent variable was generated using two steps regression in order to determine the discretionary accrual of the sample Firms (Earnings Management). Multiple regression was employed to run the data of the study using STATA 16. The findings of the study reveal that audit committee independence has no effect on earnings management; the diversity of the audit committee has no effect on earnings management. The number of meetings of the audit committee members has no effect on earnings management. The size of audit committee has a significant positive effect on earnings management. It recommends that number of audit committee members be increased to include large number drawn base on the expertise which may be in a better position to discover and question management on dubious accounting practices.

Page(s): 349-358                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2022

 Haruna Usman
Business Education Department, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Nigeria

 Tosin Olushola
Business Education Department, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Nigeria

 Amina S. Mohammed
Business Education Department, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Nigeria

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Haruna Usman, Tosin Olushola, Amina S. Mohammed , “Impact of Audit Committee Characteristics on Earning Management of Listed Consumer Goods Companies in Nigeria (2011-2020)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.349-358 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/349-358.pdf

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Rehabilitation Program for Typhoon Pablo Victims: A Case of the Province of Davao del Norte

John F. Paparon, R.A, Glenne B. Lagura, DPA – September 2022- Page No.: 359-369

This case study aimed to determine the rehabilitation program for typhoon Pablo victims in the province of Davao del Norte. Using the purposive sampling technique, twelve (12) informants were interviewed in three (3) municipalities, namely the municipality of Kapalong, San Isidro, and Talaingod, Davao del Norte covering three (3) commodities such as; banana, cacao, and coffee rehabilitation program. A qualitative research instrument was used to capture all data relevant to their experiences, challenges, and overcoming strategies. Thematic analysis by Creswell (2009) was employed to analyze the data. Under the experiences, the result revealed the following themes; living comfortably after the typhoon, damaged farmlands and crops, income loss in agriculture, generation of alternative income and employment, the existence of disaster resiliency and management, provision of inputs, and cash assistance and implementation of the rehabilitation program.
Furthermore, the challenges experienced by the victims are climate change, market instability, financial incapacity, lack of information and education, low-quality seedlings and high cost of production, lack of crop insurance, and delayed distribution of seedlings. The overcoming strategies they identified were as follows; develop a positive attitude toward family welfare, develop ways for sustainable farming, availing of the loan program, and intensify coordination for assistance. Finally, the success stories revealed the following cluster; development of self-reliance and perseverance, recovery as a result of hard work and assistance, development of a positive outlook for the future, and government response helped to expedite rehabilitation. The implementation of the typhoon Pablo rehabilitation program must couple with appropriate policy frameworks and political and financial support for the farmers to bridge the gap. Thus, creating a sustainable agricultural program and planning a disaster response will benefit the farmers in the long term. Farmers, scientists, and institutions continually aim to uncover techniques that boost crop yields, improve agricultural productivity, minimize loss due to disease, insects, and disasters, create more efficient equipment, and improve food quality overall. Lastly, the Department of Agriculture, Local Government Units, National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council, Non-government Organizations, and other concerned agencies can help the farmers live a decent life by providing appropriate intervention and assistance that promote the interests and needs of the agricultural sector.

Page(s): 359-369                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6917

 John F. Paparon, R.A
Masters in Public Administration, Student of the College of Science and Technology Education
University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

 Glenne B. Lagura, DPA
Assistant Professor IV, Davao del Norte State College, Philippinesa

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John F. Paparon, R.A, Glenne B. Lagura, DPA “Rehabilitation Program for Typhoon Pablo Victims: A Case of the Province of Davao del Norte ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.359-369 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6917

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Electoral Reform and Political Stability in Nigeria: A Reflective Discourse

Anthony Emmanuel Edet, Sebastian S. Atia, Ovey Gilla Achuku, Yemi Daniel Ogundare – September 2022- Page No.: 370-376

The study discusses the necessity of electoral reforms as a drive for political stability in Nigeria. The paper is aimed at bringing to the fore the adverse affiliation that endures between electoral malpractice and sustainable political stability in Nigeria. Information for the study was gathered using the secondary source of data collection which include; journals, textbooks and the internet. The work adopted the Systems theory as its theoretical framework. However, the study realized that the abuse of electoral process breeds weak leadership with the end product being military intrusion, corruption, industrial strike action, ethno-religious tensions, poverty and terrorism. Also, the paper explains that implementation of recommendations of electoral reforms committees produces strong leadership which projects political stability and in turn promotes development. Finally, the work proposes some feasible recommendations to counter the perils of electoral malpractice which include; Method of appointment for head of the electoral body; time frame for a political officer to vacate office prior to elections; INEC to establish electoral offences courts; INEC to review and regulate cost of nomination forms for aspirants; enforcement of the Electronic Voting System (EVS); among others

Page(s): 370-376                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 October 2022

 Anthony Emmanuel Edet
Department of Political Science, Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Sebastian S. Atia
Department of Political Science, Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Ovey Gilla Achuku
Department of Political Science, Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Yemi Daniel Ogundare
Department of Political Science, Federal University, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

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Anthony Emmanuel Edet, Sebastian S. Atia, Ovey Gilla Achuku, Yemi Daniel Ogundare, “Electoral Reform and Political Stability in Nigeria: A Reflective Discourse” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.370-376 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/370-376.pdf

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Influence of Alcohol and substance use on the psychosocial wellbeing among of the adolescents and the young people. A Cse of Eldoret Town and its environs: Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

Dr. Bundotich Sarah, Dr. Caroline Wakoli, Dr Lilian C. Kimaiyo-Kapkoi – September 2022- Page No.: 377-385

Background: Globally, drug and substance abuse is a socio-economic menace that is posing immeasurable threat to the lives of individuals and socio-economic development. World Health Organization (WHO) confirms that alcohol use and misuse accounts for 3.3 million deaths annually. Kenya tops the list of east African countries with Uganda following closely in alcohol consumption rates respectively. Further, it has been noted that the majority of the consumers are in urban settings. There is adequate literature on factors influencing drug use among the youth but not much is available on the influence of substance and drug on the psychosocial wellbeing among the adolescents and the youth yet they contribute immensely in socio-economic development of any given nation thus need for the current study.
Method: The study adopted an explanatory survey design and a mixed method approach since it combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. A sample size of 387 adolescents and 295 youth were stratified sampled from the three social status categories.
Results and recommendations: Study findings indicated that psychosocial wellbeing exhibited a significantly positive relationship with substance and drug abuse (r=0.654, ρ<0.05), Therefore, it can be concluded that substance and drug abuse plays a significant role in determining psychosocial wellbeing of the adolescents and the youth. That the higher percentage of male youngsters engagement in substance and drug use can be attributed to social tolerance from the society. The study recommends that the government enforce law with stringent penalties on illegal drugs business. That sale of alcohol and drugs to people below 18 years is illegal and attracts hefty fines and long jail terms. Further, the need for frequent awareness programmes on the detrimental short and long term effects of substance and alcohol use. Services like guidance and counseling and rehabilitation programmes are essential in curbing the menace.

Page(s): 377-385                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 October 2022

 Dr. Bundotich Sarah
Department of Educational Psychology, Management and Policy Studies, Alupe University
P.O.BOX 845-50400, Busia. Kenya.

 

 Dr. Caroline Wakoli
Department of Humanities and social sciences, Alupe University.
P.O.BOX 845-50400, Busia. Kenya.

 

 Dr Lilian C. Kimaiyo-Kapkoi
Department of Educational Psychology, Tom Mboya University. P.O.Box 199-40300, Homabay, Kenya.

 

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Dr. Bundotich Sarah, Dr. Caroline Wakoli, Dr Lilian C. Kimaiyo-Kapkoi “Influence of Alcohol and substance use on the psychosocial wellbeing among of the adolescents and the young people. A Cse of Eldoret Town and its environs: Uasin Gishu County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.377-385 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/377-385.pdf

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Exclusive Breastfeeding and Its Associated Factors Among Working Mothers Presenting at The Sisters of The Nativity Hospital Jikwoyi, Urban –City, Abuja, Nigeria

Tarbo Nguveren Irene (S.O.N), Felix Blair Odhiambo, Vincent Omwenga, Daniel Kwalimwa, Salima Ruth Kihamba, Malusha James and Ogutu Gideon – September 2022- Page No.: 386-393

Breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and exclusive breastfeeding is the most sufficient type of infant feeding in the first six months of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers in the Sisters of the Nativity Hospital Jikwoyi, Urban –City, Abuja, Nigeria. Aim of the study was to establish the exclusive breastfeeding practices among working mothers attending the Hospital. The study utilized the cross-sectional descriptive study that made use of both the qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The target population was 316 working women. Simple random sampling was used to sample 174 working women. Data was collected using questionnaires. The Spearman Brown Co-efficient was used to ascertain reliability. Findings established that; initiating breastfeeding within 2 hours after delivery, weaning at six months of age, exclusively breastfeeding up to 6 months and continuing breastfeeding until 2 years of age were the common exclusive breastfeeding practices among the working mothers. Factors hindering successful exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers and its promoters were determined from the findings and recommendations were duly made. The study concluded that working breastfeeding women who attend the target hospital adhere to breastfeeding practices as recommended by WHO, with the rate of 53(48.2%) which is higher than 8% out of 29% working class mothers in previous studies.

Page(s): 386-393                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 October 2022

 Tarbo Nguveren Irene (S.O.N)
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Department of Community Health and Development. P.O. Box 62157-00200. Nairobi, Kenya

 Felix Blair Odhiambo
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Department of Community Health and Development. P.O. Box 62157-00200. Nairobi, Kenya

 Vincent Omwenga
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Department of Community Health and Development. P.O. Box 62157-00200. Nairobi, Kenya

 Daniel Kwalimwa
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Department of Community Health and Development. P.O. Box 62157-00200. Nairobi, Kenya

 Salima Ruth Kihamba
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Department of Community Health and Development. P.O. Box 62157-00200. Nairobi, Kenya

 Malusha James
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Department of Community Health and Development. P.O. Box 62157-00200. Nairobi, Kenya

 Ogutu Gideon
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Department of Community Health and Development. P.O. Box 62157-00200. Nairobi, Kenya

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Tarbo Nguveren Irene (S.O.N), Felix Blair Odhiambo, Vincent Omwenga, Daniel Kwalimwa, Salima Ruth Kihamba, Malusha James and Ogutu Gideon “Exclusive Breastfeeding and Its Associated Factors Among Working Mothers Presenting at The Sisters of The Nativity Hospital Jikwoyi, Urban –City, Abuja, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.386-393 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/386-393.pdf

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Dyslexia and Foreign Language Learning

Zahra Sadry, Muska Momand, and Mohammad Haroon Hairan – September 2022- Page No.: 394-397

This study investigates the concept of dyslexia, the nature of problems and challenges that dyslexic student encounter during their studies, possible opportunities and the strategies how to support dyslexic language learners. Through conducting online research and review, it has been revealed that dyslexia is not a stigma nor a severe illness, though it was believed so, but it disclosed how one’s brain can work differently and creatively than others’. Educators and parents have important roles in helping and supporting dyslexic students. Teachers should keep in mind that their helpful encouragement of dyslexic students in their learning process can support them in managing their study and learning habits

Page(s): 394-397                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6931

 Zahra Sadry
Language and Literature Faculty, Balkh University, Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan.

 Muska Momand
Language and Literature Faculty, Balkh University, Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan

 Mohammad Haroon Hairan
Education Faculty, Smangan Higher Education Institute, Samangan, Afghanistan

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[21] Stellpflug, C. (2008). Solution for dyslexia: New York Newsday. Retrieved April 11, 2021, from http://www.healingpathwaysmedical.com/docs/Dyslexia
[22] Stamboltzi, A., & Tsiftsopoulou, M. (2017). Students’, parents’ and teachers’ perceptions of English as a foreign language (EFL): The case of pupils with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia). Hellenic Journal of Research in Education, 6(1), 179–197. doi: https://doi.org/10.12681/hjre.11955
[23] Sucena, A., Castro. S. L., & Seymour, P. (2009). Developmental dyslexia in an orthography of intermediate depth: The case of European Portuguese. Reading and Writing, 22(7), 791–810.

Zahra Sadry, Muska Momand, and Mohammad Haroon Hairan , “Dyslexia and Foreign Language Learning” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.394-397 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6931

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Designing an interactive online study skills course: A systemic design-based approach

Mohamed S Al-Aghbari, Mohamed E Osman & Rouhollah Khodabandelou – September 2022- Page No.: 398-405

Developing interactive eLearning courses is perhaps one of the most challenging tasks for instructional designers and developers. Nonetheless, the rich literature on instructional systems design provides a plethora of theoretically sound approaches and models for designing interactive online courses. Due to the complexity and diversity of eLearning environments, instructional designers need to document their design processes and share their experiences so that new theoretical knowledge and applications continue to be generated. This study used a design-based approach to document the cyclical and reiterative process of designing and developing the study skills course. The study applied the ADDIE instructional design model as a sub-system model to design, develop, deliver, and evaluate the online study skills course. The qualitative data were collected using document analyses, focus groups, and structured interviews with policymakers, SMEs, and instructors at SQU to define the gap in the practices of the design and development of SPOCs. In addition, a need assessment survey was used to collect quantitative data from the Instructional and Learning Technology (ILT) department at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU). The researchers used the instruments associated with each phase of the ADDIE model during the design and development of the intervention (the Study Skills course). The SMEs, instructional designers, developers, and e-learning specialists used a continuous feedback loop and formative evaluation to review each phase. The course evaluation sheet and the overall course grade indicated that the students had a positive online course experience. In addition, new contextual factors were identified and added to the design principles checklist that can be adapted and adopted in other learning environments

Page(s): 398-405                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6918

 Mohamed S Al-Aghbari
Department of Instructional & Learning Technologies, College of Education Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

 

 Mohamed E Osman
Department of Instructional & Learning Technologies, College of Education Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

 

 Rouhollah Khodabandelou
Department of Instructional & Learning Technologies, College of Education Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

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Mohamed S Al-Aghbari, Mohamed E Osman & Rouhollah Khodabandelou “Designing an interactive online study skills course: A systemic design-based approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.398-405 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6918

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Principals’ Allocation of Duties to Relevant Personnel as a Predictor to Implementation of Performance Contract in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya

Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D), Muli Geoffrey Munyao – September 2022- Page No.: 406-411

Management reforms in the education sector through Performance Contracting (PC) is aimed at making the education sector effective and efficient in provision quality education services to the public. One significant PC reform in learning institutions is managing staff so that performance of duty is enhanced which forms the basis of this research. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of Principals’ allocation of duties to the relevant personnel on the implementation of PC in public secondary schools in Machakos County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The sample size was 409 respondents comprising of nine sub-County directors of education, 100 Principals’ and 300 Teachers. The Sub County directors of education were sampled purposively while proportionate sampling was used to sample the teachers and random sampling to sample the principals to participate in the study. Data from principals and teachers was collected by use of questionnaires while interview schedules were used to collect data from Education officials. Results for quantitative data were presented in tables and charts and correlational analysis while verbatim reports and indirect reports presented qualitative data. The study revealed that there was a statistically significant relationship between allocation of duties to the relevant personnel and the implementation of PC in public secondary schools in Machakos County, Kenya. The study concluded allocation of duties to relevant personnel enhanced the implementation of Performance contracting in Public secondary schools in Machakos County Kenya.

Page(s): 406-411                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 October 2022

 Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D)
Lecturer South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

 Muli Geoffrey Munyao
Doctorate Student, School of Education, South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya

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[9] Kristiansen K. (2015)- Analysis of individual employee competencies on PC in the service industry- Turkey,Ural university press
[10] Kyule P. K, Kasivu G M (2020) Teacher Training: A Critical Factor in the Implementation of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Public Secondary Schools in Nzaui Sub County in Makueni County, Kenya International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume IV, Issue VI, June 2020|ISSN 2454-6186 www.rsisinternational.org Page 235.
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Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D), Muli Geoffrey Munyao “Principals’ Allocation of Duties to Relevant Personnel as a Predictor to Implementation of Performance Contract in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.406-411 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/406-411.pdf

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Reception of Micropolitics in American Studies: Contexts and Concerns

Mohammad Raihan Sharif – September 2022- Page No.: 412-415

The present paper critiques the recurring fetishization and glorification of micropolitics in social justice projects as they get theorized, received, and celebrated in academia, especially in American studies. Presenting the theoretical contexts of micropolitics, the paper critiques American studies scholars’ investment in those theoretical concepts that, in the name of evading manipulation, reinforces subservience for the weak and the oppressed.

Page(s): 412-415                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 October 2022

 Mohammad Raihan Sharif
Department of English, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

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Mohammad Raihan Sharif , “Reception of Micropolitics in American Studies: Contexts and Concerns ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.412-415 September 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-9/412-415.pdf

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Determinant of Environmental Behavioral in Supporting ITERA UI Greenmetrics Program

Vicka Tamaya & Suripto & Susana Indriyati Caturiani – September 2022- Page No.: 416-422

As agents of change, universities have an essential role in spreading the concept of sustainability. Indonesia has UI Greenmetrics as an assessment for Universities to manage the campus environment. There are several challenges in implementing the Green Campus program and Ranking on UI Greenmetric, such as participation by the entire campus community and education of the academic community. In this study, the Theory of Planned Behavior is used to determine the factors that influence the behavior of the academic community at the Institut Teknologi Sumatra. Hypothetically three factors influence the intention, and four factors influence pro-environmental behavior. Results This research is quantitative research with a survey design. The questionnaire was designed based on previous research on pro-environmental behavior and applying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The sample consisted of 450 people, with a total of 20432. The data were analyzed using PLS Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) software. The results show that PBC is a strong predictor of pro-environmental behavior intention (β: 0.394), and intention is the second most significant predictor of pro-environmental behavior (β= 0.347). Meanwhile, the analysis shows that attitude affects pro-environmental behavior but applies intention as mediation (β = 0.188). While Norm subjective insignificant on intention but positive effect on pro-environmental behavior with low influence

Page(s): 416-422                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6919

 Vicka Tamaya
Lampung University, Indonesia

 Suripto
Lampung University, Indonesia

 Susana Indriyati Caturiani
Lampung University, Indonesia

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Vicka Tamaya & Suripto & Susana Indriyati Caturiani “Determinant of Environmental Behavioral in Supporting ITERA UI Greenmetrics Program” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-9, pp.416-422 September 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6919

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