Moderating Effect of Information and Communication Technology on Internal Audit Practices and Public Expenditure Management of Government Organizations in Nigeria

Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD) – May 2022- Page No.: 01-08

The study examined the moderating effect of information and communication technology on internal audit practices and public expenditure management of government organizations in Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of 350 staff in the five surveyed government organizations in Nigeria. The study used a questionnaire to elicit information from the respondents. The study applied descriptive and inferential statistical tools to analyze the data and test the hypotheses with the help of SPSS 22.0. The study found that the effect-based information and communication technology in a team, positively relates to the degree of knowledge sharing and learning intensity in the team. The study revealed that information and communication technology are used in internal auditing and this affects public expenditure management. It is suggested that information and communication technology be used increasingly so that the quality of internal auditing can be improved and accordingly, systematic planning and performing internal auditing operations in order to achieve efficient public expenditure management in public organisations. Furthermore, applying information and communication technology by internal auditing units of companies helps to engender efficiency. The results of the study have given a clear indication that information and communication technology have significant effect on internal audit practices and public expenditure management of government organizations. The study recommended that: The public sector administrators should use risk assessment to their advantage by encouraging government organisations’ staff with proficiency in information and communication technology application. Government organizations’ staff should update their knowledge with respect to risk assessment and allocative efficiency through the opportunities provided by information and communication technology solutions so as to be able to benefit from the strategic values of effective and efficient public expenditure management.

Page(s): 01-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6501

 Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD)
Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD) “Moderating Effect of Information and Communication Technology on Internal Audit Practices and Public Expenditure Management of Government Organizations in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.01-08 May 2022 DOI:

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Practices of Personal Records Keeping among Employees in Tanzania: A Case of Selected Tertiary Colleges in Tanzania

Grace Traseas (MA IS), Julius T. Tweve (PhD) – May 2022- Page No.: 09-17

This study was carried out to assess the practice of employment personal records keeping among employees. The specific objectives of the study were to identify types of employment personal records kept by employees, to find out the place of keeping personal records by employees, to explore the impact of keeping employment personal records by employees, to determine the reasons influencing employees to keep their personal records and to determine the challenges facing employees in keeping their personal records. The study used descriptive survey design while simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 154 respondents. Primary data and secondary data were used while questionnaire and interview were used to gather primary data. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Findings indicate that there are types of employment personal records kept by employees such as appointment letter, confirmation letter, performance letter, promotion letter, annual leaves, employment letter, next of kin form, salary slip, birth certificate, educational certificates, awards, promotional letter, marriage certificate and title deed. The study also found that different places and means are used to keep records such as in the offices and home using special bags and computers. It was also indicated that employment personal records has potential benefits such as easy retrieval of information, easy tracking personal files, usefulness of information, getting their rights and for the future reference. Also to increase awareness, enhancing accuracy, increasing confidence and enhancing decision making. The study came up with challenges facing employees in keeping their personal records such as low level of awareness among employees to keep their personal records effectively and efficiently, misplacement of equipment used to store or keep records, quality of equipment or any mechanism used to keep records, inadequate space and lastly technical skills. Generally, the study concluded that there is the practice of personal records keeping among the employees at TPSC and DIT. The study recommended that there is a need to have training for better personal records keeping, space provision, budget allocation, and policy.

Page(s): 09-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 May 2022

 Grace Traseas (MA IS)
Tanzania Public Service College (TPSC)

 Julius T. Tweve (PhD)
Tumaini University Dar es Salaam College (TUDARCo)

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[2] Freda, A. (2014). Assessment of Records Management Practices Among the Administrative Staff of University of Education, Winneba Kumasi (UEW-K) and Mampong (UEW-M) Campuses. A Thesis Submitted to Kwame Nkrumah University.
[3] Gathoni, M.W. (2017).An Examination of Records Management Practices for Improved Service Delivery in Laikipia County Government, Kenya. Kisii University.
[4] Gerber, J. (2003). Corporate Memory: Records and Information Management in the Knowledge Age. 2nd Edition. Munich: K.G. Saur/Thomson.
[5] Mikidadi, M. (2017).Efficacy of Personnel Record Keeping in Managing Human Resources in Higher Learning institutions in Tanzania: A Case Study of The Open University of Tanzania. The Open University of Tanzania.
[6] Mnjama, N. (2017). Records and Information: the Neglected Resource. ESARBICA Journal 23:44–59.
[7] Mtui, A. (2016). Management of Records in Tanzania: Review and Appraisal of Applicable Theories and Examination of Selected Empirical Findings: Journal of Public Administration and Governance ISSN 2161-7104 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1.
[8] Ngope, M. (2015). The Need for Record Management in the Auditing Process in the Public Sector in South Africa. Lib.Arch. and Inf, Science Journal. 24(20, 135-150
[9] Shadrack, O. (2015).The Success of personal Records keeping by Mafiga Secondary School Employees in Morogoro Municipality. Mzumbe University.
[10] Tweve J (2017), Ethical practices of records managers in Tanzania’s government ministries. PhD Thesis Submitted at University of Dar es Salaam
[11] URT (2007) Standards and Guidelines for Managing Personnel Records [Draft]. Records and Archives Management Division, PO-PSM
[12] URT (2009). Standing Orders for the Public Service, 3Edition,Dar es salaam. Government Printer. Tanzania

Grace Traseas (MA IS), Julius T. Tweve (PhD), “Practices of Personal Records Keeping among Employees in Tanzania: A Case of Selected Tertiary Colleges in Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.09-17 May 2022 URL:

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Definitions of ‘Literature’ in Bangladesh EFL Context – an Empirical Study

Professor Dr. Salma Ainy – May 2022- Page No.: 18-28

This article attempts to explore various perceptions of the term ‘literature’ of English teachers in the Bangladesh EFL context. It also examines the relevance of using literary pieces in language classrooms in view of the negative beliefs of many teachers and learners in this regard. It is based on a study conducted with 20 teachers of English each from primary, secondary and tertiary levels in Bangladesh. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected from the participant teachers. The study reveals that in most cases teachers perceived ‘literature’ in a narrow and limited way. It is argued that a broader understanding of the term ‘literature’ may help in promoting learner autonomy and enhance learners’ sense of self-achievement, confidence, and self-reliance. It is also argued that proceeding from a broader sense of ‘literature’, reintroducing literary texts in the English classroom may create a positive impact on the learning and learners.

Page(s): 18-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6502

 Professor Dr. Salma Ainy
School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Languages, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur, Bangladesh

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Professor Dr. Salma Ainy “Definitions of ‘Literature’ in Bangladesh EFL Context – an Empirical Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.18-28 May 2022 DOI:

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Effectiveness of Emerging Post Covid Teaching Approaches in Partido State University

Mariel R. Estrella – May 2022- Page No.: 29-36

Today’s pandemic changed the educational landscape in the Philippines. In Partido State University, covid-19 paved the way for new teaching approaches. The traditional face-to-face teaching suddenly shifted to online teaching. This study determined the emerging post covid teaching approaches, instructional strategies used by teachers, the challenges encountered by teachers and students, and the level of effectiveness of the teaching approaches. The study employed a descriptive research design and it used a survey questionnaire in google form to gather data from 52 teachers and 263 students in the seven campuses. The emerging post covid teaching approaches in Partido State University were the use of online learning approach indicated by 46 respondents, Teacher- Student Consultation by 38 respondents, and the “flipped classroom’’ by 34 respondents. To support the teaching approaches, teachers used instructional strategies. These were sharing learning resources to the students (48 respondents), use of flexible assessment policy (39 respondents), and asking the students more questions during synchronous classes (30 respondents). Despite the efforts to perfect the new teaching approaches, respondents were found to be constrained by some challenges. For both respondents, the common challenge encountered was the slow internet or unstable connection. Effectiveness of these emerging post-covid teaching approaches were measured through the presence of online sources, student engagement, technology, and presence of supplemental interventions. Among these, the use of technology to facilitate the teaching approaches was high among teachers with an average weighted mean of 3.39. On the other hand, for students, the post-covid teaching approaches was high in student engagement with 3.27 average weighted mean. With these findings, the study recommends the following 1.) ensure a more stable and stronger internet connection in the campus, 2.) train the students thoroughly in the new learning management system, and 3.) make online resources available.

Page(s): 29-36                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6503

 Mariel R. Estrella
Partido State University, Philippines

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[11] Palaoag, T, Catanes, J, Austria, R. and Ingosan, J. 2020. Prepping the New Normal: The Readiness of Higher Education Institution in Cordillera on a Flexible Learning.
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[16] World Bank. 2020. Three Principles to Support Teacher Effectiveness During COVID-19. Principles-to- Support-Teacher-Effectiveness-During-COVID-19.pdf

Mariel R. Estrella “Effectiveness of Emerging Post Covid Teaching Approaches in Partido State University” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.29-36 May 2022 DOI:

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“Assessing the Academic Performance of Alternative Learning System (ALS) Students of Barotac Viejo, Iloilo: An Implication to Remedial Teaching”

Alma R. Defacto, Ed.D. – May 2022- Page No.: 37-41

The study aimed to ascertain the Alternative Learning System (ALS) students’ performance when grouped according to demographic profile as the basis for designing a remedial teaching program. Employing the descriptive research design, ninety-two (92) students of ALS-Barotac Viejo, Iloilo, Philippines, were the subjects of the study. The students were categorized according to demographic profiles such as age, gender, civil status, and grade entry point. Secondary data from the ALS Office were gathered, tabulated, computed, and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools such as mean, standard deviation, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results showed that ALS students had a “proficient” level of performance as a whole group. When grouped according to age, those below 22 years old had an “advanced” level while those above 22 years old had a “proficient” level. Both single and married were “proficient”. As to grade entry level, 3rd year High School had “advanced” level while the rest had “proficient”. The academic performance of ALS students was not significantly different when grouped according to gender, civil status, and grade entry-level. However, there was a significant difference when grouped according to age. Students who were 22 years old and below performed significantly better than those over 22 years old. Based on the findings, generally, ALS students have “proficient” academic performance. Regardless of gender, civil status, and grade entry-level, their academic performance is generally the same. However, age is a significant factor affecting ALS students’ performance. The researcher recommends that in designing remedial teaching among ALS learners, grouping the students by age group should be considered as each group may have different learning interests.

Page(s): 37-41                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Alma R. Defacto, Ed.D.
School of Education, Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State College, Estancia, Iloilo, Philippines

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Alma R. Defacto, Ed.D., ““Assessing the Academic Performance of Alternative Learning System (ALS) Students of Barotac Viejo, Iloilo: An Implication to Remedial Teaching”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.37-41 May 2022 URL:

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Tea Drinking Attitude and Tea Addiction Symptoms among Kenyans

Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD, Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D – May 2022- Page No.: 42-46

Kenyans are known to consume lots of tea. This study investigated Kenyans’ tea drinking attitude and the possible traces of tea addiction. A correlation design was employed by using an online questionnaire to obtain information from 335 respondents who participated through voluntary sampling. The data were analyzed using descriptive inferential statistics. It was found that majority of Kenyans (95.3%) are tea drinkers with about 76.4% moderately consuming 1 to 3 cups of tea daily in the morning hours. There was no gender disparity in tea consumption. Addiction symptoms were experienced by 41% of Kenyan tea drinkers who experienced withdrawal symptoms such headache, tiredness, and disorientation, 49.1% craving for tea, 16.5% unable to stop drinking tea, and 36.9% feel stimulated by drinking tea. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of teacups consumed per day and addiction symptoms at Pearson correlation coefficient r (335) = .355, p < .001. It is recommended that while tea drinking is legal, those who experience loss of control over tea drinking and withdrawal symptoms should seek professional help.

Page(s): 42-46                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD
Psycho-Spiritual Institute (an affiliate of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa)

 Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D
Department of Counseling Psychology, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

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[5] Euromonitor International. (2017, June) Hot Beverages in Kenya And East Africa: Opportunities for Fairtrade certified tea, coffee and powdered hot drinks brands.
[6] Faria, J. (2021, July 8). Domestic tea consumption in Kenya 2009-2021. In Statistia.
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[8] Gunnars, K. (2014). 4 Stimulants in tea – more than just caffeine. Retrieved from
[9] Griffiths M. D. (2013). Is “loss of control” always a consequence of addiction? Frontiers in psychiatry, 4, 36.
[10] Hill, A. (2019, November 26). 9 Side Effects of Drinking Too Much Tea. In Healthline.
[11] Kajilwa, G. (2021, June 22). Kenyans’ poor tea culture: Blame it on sugar and milk. The Standard.
[12] Meredith, S. E., Juliano, L. M., Hughes, J. R., & Griffiths, R. R. (2013). Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda. Journal of caffeine research, 3(3), 114–130. doi:10.1089/jcr.2013.0016
[13] Mclellan, A. T. (2017). Substance Misuse and Substance use Disorders: Why do they Matter in ealthcare?. Trans The American Clinical and Climatological Association;128: pp.112-130.
[14] Smith, W. (2008). Does Gender Influence Online Survey Participation?: A Record-linkage Analysis of University Faculty Online Survey Response Behavior.
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Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD, Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D “Tea Drinking Attitude and Tea Addiction Symptoms among Kenyans” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.42-46 May 2022 URL:

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Factors Affecting Military Expenditure in Asean

Iman Agung RAMADHAN, Agus Tri BASUKI – May 2022- Page No.: 47-52

This study aims to determine whether economic growth, unemployment and investment affect military spending in five ASEAN countries consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines in 2009-2019. This study uses secondary data with a period of ten years. Data obtained from the World Bank Indicators. This study uses panel data regression method with the selected model Fixed Effect Model. Based on the results of the analysis that has been carried out, it is obtained that there are two variables that affect military costs, namely economic growth and unemployment. Unemployment is the variable that has the most influence on military costs in the 5 Asean Countries. Meanwhile, investment has no effect on military spending. The ASEAN region is in a safe condition, so that military spending in ASEAN countries is quite stable from year to year. Political and economic stability in the ASEAN Region proves that increased investment does not encourage a significant increase in military spending.

Page(s): 47-52                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Iman Agung RAMADHAN
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Indonesia

 Agus Tri BASUKI
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Indonesia

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Iman Agung RAMADHAN, Agus Tri BASUKI, “Factors Affecting Military Expenditure in Asean” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.47-52 May 2022 URL:

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Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies in Jessica Soho’s Political Interviews: A Linguistic Analysis

Aimee Ann B. Sanglitan and Maria Luisa S. Saministrado, PhD – May 2022- Page No.: 53-60

Much attention is given to politicians and the strategies that they use to be both cooperative and polite in the study of discourse and politics. Little attention is given to the important role that interviewers play in maintaining the conversation, and the strategies that they use not only on cooperation but also in politeness. This paper analyzes the way that Jessica Soho formulates her questions for political interviews. It also identifies the different politeness strategies she uses in order to maintain the conversation and arrive at preferred responses. Data was obtained through the transcript of five political interviews under the television program SONA of Jessica Soho, a well-known award-winning TV host. The results provided insights on political discourse and the role of politeness in political interviews.

Page(s): 53-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Aimee Ann B. Sanglitan
Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

 Maria Luisa S. Saministrado, PhD
Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

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Aimee Ann B. Sanglitan and Maria Luisa S. Saministrado, PhD “Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies in Jessica Soho’s Political Interviews: A Linguistic Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.53-60 May 2022 URL:

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Body Shaming: Perspectivising Gender in Contemporary Discourses

Adjah Ekwang Adjah – May 2022- Page No.: 61-69

Body shaming is one gender construct that is aimed at ascribing negative comments on individuals’ body features. This has been considered from varying strands of study with apparent neglect to the typological and contextual indices of this act and its strategic construction in the media. Relying on the triangulation theoretical approach, the study adopted the pragmatic act theory complemented by polyphony, the theory of voice and intertextuality, and gender theories, to establish the nexus between body shaming and gender among Nigerian celebrities who are victims of body shaming. The study submits that typologically body shaming is enacted through same gender, other gender, and media construction within the contextual ambience of media trolling, conflict, relationship, family defence and reporting. From these findings it was submitted that body shaming act is instrumental to the proliferation of surgeries by women in order to fit into the “ideal” body structured engendered by the ideologies of (im)perfectionist ideology and is invariably salvaged through the advocatist ideology.

Page(s): 61-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Adjah Ekwang Adjah
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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Adjah Ekwang Adjah, “Body Shaming: Perspectivising Gender in Contemporary Discourses” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.61-69 May 2022 URL:

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Beliefs and Intentions to enact Positive Environmental Change: A Study of Undergraduates of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Ms. Rebecca N. Peters & Engin BAYSEN PhD. – May 2022- Page No.: 70-78

This study assessed beliefs and intentions of the undergraduates of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, to enact positive environmental change using a quantitative survey research design. Data was analyzed using simple percentage, and Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis.
Among other findings, results showed moderately high beliefs (3.97 mean) and intentions (3.56 mean), established a correlation between beliefs and intentions (r(399)=0.265, p=0.000), no significant difference between the beliefs according to gender (p=0.647), and no significant difference between the intentions according to gender (p=0.931). We concluded that the undergraduates believed in the occurrence of climate change, and its adverse implications on the environment.

Page(s): 70-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6504

 Ms. Rebecca N. Peters
Near East University, Turkey

 Engin BAYSEN PhD.
Near East University, Turkey

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Ms. Rebecca N. Peters & Engin BAYSEN PhD. “Beliefs and Intentions to enact Positive Environmental Change: A Study of Undergraduates of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.70-78 May 2022 DOI:

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Climate field school as a panacea for climate change adaptation and mitigation for ecological sustainable and food production in agriculture. An overview

UCHI Dominic Terhile – May 2022- Page No.: 79-83

The review is on the important of climate field school for climate change mitigation and adaptation on environmental sustainable and food production in agriculture. The review is qualitative and it used secondary data from various literatures. It emphasized that agriculture is sensitive sector been threaten by climate change variations affecting farmers’ livelihood and creating extreme events of flood, wildfires, rainstorm, drought and heat waves on the land which is the only natural resources farmers depend on. The review further intensified the use of three approaches of food production sustainability, adaptation and mitigation of climate field school which stressed the need for, reduced related activities greenhouse gases emission and management processes for crops and livestock growth. The review categorized the various agricultural activities which emits greenhouse gases and the mitigations managing process which include reforestations, direct agricultural emission reductions, use of renewable energy sources as specific by climate field school for sustainable environment, adaptations and mitigations. The review identified limited information, knowledge, lack of local and indigenous indicators and dynamic variations of climate in various agro-ecological zones as some of the challenges in communication of climate change mitigations and adaptations in climate field school. The recommendations and conclusion include using participation approach for climate field school, encouragement partnerships of private, civil society organizations and International agencies, the use of good reforms institutional policies to support climate field school and consideration of social and gender considerations.

Page(s): 79-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 UCHI Dominic Terhile
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal University Dutse, Nigeria

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UCHI Dominic Terhile, “Climate field school as a panacea for climate change adaptation and mitigation for ecological sustainable and food production in agriculture. An overview” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.79-83 May 2022 URL:

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Dimensions of Violence in Zimbabwe: Unpacking the Triggers and Effects of Machete Violence in Zimbabwe

Jonah Marawako – May 2022- Page No.: 84-93

This article illustrates that machete gangs in Zimbabwe are foot soldiers of the political elites with the Second Republic ventilating their dramatic proliferation. The paper interrogates the concept of state capture and the concept of natural resource curse in an endeavour to demystify the nature and scope of machete violence in Zimbabwe. The paper also noted that machete gangs are more active in mining communities like Kwekwe, Mazowe, Bubi, Mashava, Kadoma and Patchway. Machete gangs are largely connected to powerful politicians who are members of the gold cartels. Factors that trigger machete violence in Zimbabwe include but are not limited to the rapid increase in artisanal mining, climate change and escalating unemployment. The adverse effect of machete gangs is the pauperisation of the general population. The paper also examined the impact of the proliferation of machete gangs on women in the mining sector. Machete violence has aggravated an illicit economy, fuelled unjustified socio-economic deprivation and led to environmental degradation. The paper also unearthed that machete violence underpins and perpetuates the political culture of fear and repression in Zimbabwe. The study recommends a cocktail of reforms that need to be initiated to end machete violence, this includes the need to regularise and formalise the mining sector as well as comprehensive security sector reforms. The study is mainly ethnographic in scope as most of the data was collected through interaction with some members of the machete gangs and victims of machete violence. Documentary search was also used to augment ethnographies. The researcher interviewed machete gangs located in the aforementioned mining communities in Zimbabwe, in an endeavour to generalise how machete gangs are impacting the social, economic and political fabric.

Page(s): 84-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 Jonah Marawako
Lecturer, Department of Governance and Public Management, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

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Jonah Marawako “Dimensions of Violence in Zimbabwe: Unpacking the Triggers and Effects of Machete Violence in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.84-93 May 2022 URL:

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The Trajectory of Traditional Authority in Contemporary Governance; The Ghanaian Experience

Anderson, Paul Kwaku Larbi – May 2022- Page No.: 94-100

The role of traditional authorities in local governance has evolved steadily in different parts of Africa. It is assumed that, in most parts of the continent, traditional authorities’ legitimacy enables them to play a lead role in local governance and development. This study scrutinizes the trajectory of traditional authority in contemporary governance. The objective is to review how social construction rooted in tradition is made to fit into contemporary society. Accordingly, an interpretive approach was adopted within a qualitative methodological framework which informed a case study as the research design type. Respondents were purposefully selected from the traditional council and local government functionaries in Nsawam-Adoagyiri, Suhum, and Cape Coast Municipalities in Ghana’s eastern and central regions. Data were obtained through one-on-one interviews, non-participant observation, documents, and material culture analysis. The findings of this study revealed that even though the role of traditional authorities in the community has evolved, post-colonial governments have not fully incorporated it into the local governance structure thereby restricting them to mere advisors and consultants on customs and traditions. Notwithstanding, traditional authorities are highly revered within the Ghanaian society with strong social bonds providing support as partners in development at the local level. Given that, this study recommends an operative institutional framework that not only involves traditional authority in local governance but duly involves and aptly defines their mandate in the community.

Page(s): 94-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6505

 Anderson, Paul Kwaku Larbi
Center Planning for and Evaluation of Social Services (ZPE), University of Siegen, Germany

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Anderson, Paul Kwaku Larbi, “The Trajectory of Traditional Authority in Contemporary Governance; The Ghanaian Experience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.94-100 May 2022 DOI:

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Assessing Human Resource Management Practices on Health Care Services in Banadir Region, Somalia

Mohamed Roble, Dr Isaac Mokono Abuga – May 2022- Page No.: 101-112

The study is aimed at assessing human resource management practices on health care services in Banadir region Somalia. Human capital was used in theoretical literature. Descriptive research design was used in the methodology. The study targeted three categories of employees in Banadir Region in Somalia namely; 17 top level management who comprise the heads of the health departments, 53 middle level management are the technical staff in the public hospitals who include medical officers, nurses, laboratory technologists, dentists, social workers and public health officers and 32 lower level management/support who include clerical officers, subordinate staffs, and secretaries. These makes a total population of 102 employees. Simple random sampling was applied to select 81 respondents in the respective strata. Primary data was collected using questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods was used. Analysis of quantitative data was analysed through the use of mean, standard deviation, frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data was analysed through the use of content analysis. The findings indicated that training and development has a positive but insignificant effect on healthcare service delivery (β = .492, Sig = .134>.05). The results established there is an insignificant and negative effect of rewards and recognition on healthcare service delivery (β = -.224, Sig = .302>.05). The research noted a positive and significant effect of employee involvement on healthcare service delivery (β = .799, Sig = .048). This demonstrated that a change in employee involvement by a unit will lead to a 0.799 change in healthcare service delivery. Based on this, the research recommends that the county government should develop capacity building programmes that will help expand the competency and professionalism of health workers

Page(s): 101-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 Mohamed Roble
Post Graduate Student, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr Isaac Mokono Abuga
Post Graduate Student, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

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Mohamed Roble, Dr Isaac Mokono Abuga “Assessing Human Resource Management Practices on Health Care Services in Banadir Region, Somalia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.101-112 May 2022 URL:

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Impact of factors that influence the satisfaction of real estate mortgage registrants: A Case Study in Yen Khanh District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam

Pham Phuong Nam, Nguyen Van Hieu – May 2022- Page No.: 113-120

The purpose of the study is to determine the factors and their impact on the satisfaction of real estate mortgage registrants. The study investigated 95 real estate mortgage registrants and proposed a research model with 5 latent variables (5 groups of factors) and 19 observed variables. The model was tested using SPSS 20.0 software. 17 observed variables met the requirements and 2 variables that do not meet the requirements and are eliminated. The findings also indicated that credit factors have the strongest impact on satisfaction, followed by groups of factors of credit procedures; finance; personnel; equipment for mortgage registration with the corresponding impact level of 40.14%; 22.22%; 15.90%; 11.76%; 9.97%. The study prosed: raising loan levels, lowering interest rates, simplifying loan procedures, and reducing collateral appraisal fees. Applying the proposals will increase the satisfaction of mortgage registrants, reduce possible disputes, and at the same time ensure security and order and increase state budget revenue.

Page(s): 113-120                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 Pham Phuong Nam
Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Vietnam

 Nguyen Van Hieu
Branch of Land Registration Office Yen Khanh District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam

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Pham Phuong Nam, Nguyen Van Hieu, “Impact of factors that influence the satisfaction of real estate mortgage registrants: A Case Study in Yen Khanh District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.113-120 May 2022 URL:

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Covid 19: What Is the Lesson for the Future?

Francisco Soares Campelo Filho – May 2022- Page No.: 121-125

Humanity has faced the biggest problem in its post-World War II history. The pandemic caused by COVID 19 has taken the lives of millions of people around the world, exposing not only human fragility, but mainly that countries did not have the tools to provide an adequate response to such a serious problem. The measures adopted by the governments were unable to solve the problem and, to make things worse, even generated others, such as the collapse of economies around the world. The social isolation determined by the authorities recognized the inability and unpreparedness of governments to deal with the pandemic, having also generated an ideological debate that did nothing to solve the problem, but only to transform the serious crisis into a political discussion that can put the model of democracy, the rule of law and the allocation of powers at risk. But what is the main lesson to be learned from this crisis? Society is formed by the people who compose it, the same people who once elected democracy, the rule of law and the distribution of powers as being the closest model to the ideal of political and administrative organization in the civilized world. Governments should work for these people, always seeking the common good and thinking of them as human beings that they are, and not as mere “voters”. Making governments think, more comprehensively, about people, about the education of children and young people, and about the future, without any ideological bias, should be the main lesson left by COVID 19 to governments and humanity.

Page(s): 121-125                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 Francisco Soares Campelo Filho
Instituto Akdemus de Estudos Avançados em Ciências Sociais e Jurídicas

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Francisco Soares Campelo Filho “Covid 19: What Is the Lesson for the Future?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.121-125 May 2022 URL:

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Improving the Academic Services of As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia, through the Evaluation of Students’ Satisfaction

Iffah Budiningsih, Marliza Oktapiani, Elly Soraya – May 2022- Page No.: 126-132

The purpose of this evaluation research is to study and obtain empirical data about the level of satisfaction of students for academic services that have implications for efforts to improve academic services, which can improve the reputation of the university. The research method used survey methods with an affordable population of about 4000 students of As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia. The sampling was done randomly with 733 respondents. The results of the study showed: a) the average assessment of student satisfaction with the University’s academic services in the category of ‘satisfied’ with an average assessment score = 3.8697 and this score still needs to be increased to 5.0 to improve the academic services of the University which have implications for improving the reputation of the university; b) The quality of academic services has a strategic role in meeting student satisfaction which has an impact on the emergence of high loyalty to the University, and it is expected that these students can be a ‘mouth promotion’ for the University; c) academic services that need to be improved include the ability and care of education personnel in providing quality & fast service; the ability and concern of the manager/leader and education staff of the Study Program/Faculty in providing quality academic services, and adequacy, accessibility & quality of supporting facilities of academic activities of students; d) The characters empathy, sympathy, and sharing must be strived to grow and develop into an inherent and settled character among education personnel or lecturers.

Page(s): 126-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6506

 Iffah Budiningsih
Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences, As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Marliza Oktapiani
Faculty of Islam Region, As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Elly Soraya
Faculty of Business Economic, As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia

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[26] Uno, H., Budiningsih, I and Penjaitan, K. (2012). Learning Model (2nd print). Gorontalo: BMT Nurul Jannah.
[27] Utami, T., Alfiandra, Waluyati, S. H. 2019. Pengaruh Kecerdasan Emosional Terhadap Sikap Peduli Sosial Siswa Di SMP Negeri 1 Palembang (The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on The Social Care Attitude of Students in State Junior High School 1 Palembang). Jurnal Bhineka Tunggkal Ika, Unversitas Sriwijaya. 6 (1): 17-36.
[28] Yunanto M., Setiono W., and Medyawati H. (2012). Responsibilities and Excellent Service on Customer Satisfaction: Case Study of DKI Islamic Bank. International Conference on Management and Education Innovation IPEDR, 196 IACSIT Press, Singapore, Vol. 37:196. Setiono/e3c52797f1309f0246d9 ffb12353 ee2560f9e888

Iffah Budiningsih, Marliza Oktapiani, Elly Soraya, “Improving the Academic Services of As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia, through the Evaluation of Students’ Satisfaction” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.126-132 May 2022 DOI:

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Microfinance and its implications on Women empowerment: A case of Bulawayo Restaurants in Zimbabwe

Dr Barbara Mbuyisa – May 2022- Page No.: 133-139

Microfinance is a developmental tool which has proved to be effective in poverty alleviation, economic development and women empowerment although it has insufficiently penetrated the poor strata of the society at a global perspective. Literature on MFIs has been examined extensively over the past 15 years because there are controversial issues surrounding the benefits inherent to its implementation. The study seeks to examine the impact of MFIs on the empowerment of women who run restaurants in the city of Bulawayo in Zimbabwe. A qualitative research design was used to ascertain the perceptions, beliefs and behavior of women towards the adoption of MFI as a tool for women empowerment. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 participants who run Restaurants in Bulawayo. The study concluded that lack of access to finance by women is a result of series of challenges experienced by MFIs such as inadequate capital and poor market outreach that need to be addressed by the government and regulatory authorities.

Page(s): 133-139                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 Dr Barbara Mbuyisa
Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe

[1] Adams, J., & Raymond, F. (2008). “Did Yunus deserve the Nobel Peace Prize: micro-finance or macro-finance?” Journal of Economic Issues, 42(2), 435–443.
[2] Bakhtiari, S. (2011). “Microfinance and poverty reduction: Some international evidence”. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 5(12).
[3] Bateman, M. (2011). Microfinance as a development and poverty reduction policy: Is it everything it’s cracked up to be? London: Overseas Development Institute.
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[9] Helms, B. (2006). “Access for all: building inclusive financial systems”. Washington, DC, C-GAP. Retrieved from Accessed: 7/19/2016
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[18] Mago, S. (2013).” Micro-finance in Zimbabwe: A historical overview”. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(14), 599-608.
[19] Morduch, J. (1999). “The microfinance promise”. Journal of Economic Literature, 37(4), 1569–1614.
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[21] Ngwenya, T., & Ndlovu, N. (2003). “Linking SMMEs to sources of Credit: The performance of microfinance institutions in Gauteng. South Africa, [On-Line] Available:Http://www.Ilo. Rg/public/english/employment/finance/download/wp8. Pdf [Accessed: 20 March 2012].
[22] Otero, M. (1989). Handful of Rice: Savings Mobilisation by Micro-enterprise Programs and Perspectives for the Future. Malaysia: ACCION International.
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Dr Barbara Mbuyisa, “Microfinance and its implications on Women empowerment: A case of Bulawayo Restaurants in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.133-139 May 2022 URL:

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Bank ATM users’ perceptions towards ATM service quality: A structural equation modelling approach

Shamsuddeen Suleiman, Yasir Abdulkadir – May 2022- Page No.: 140-145

This measured ATM users’ service quality perceptions and subsequently examined the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in the context of conventional banking system in Nigeria using structural equation modelling approach. The study adopts survey research in which questionnaires are randomly administered on customers of five banks randomly selected for the study Access Bank Plc, Fidelity Bank Plc, First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Guarantee Trust Bank Plc and United Bank of Africa Plc. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to measure the relationships between the constructs and the indicator variables. The results of CFA retained all the indicator variables. The findings of the study also indicated that there is a strong positive relationship between ATM service quality and customer satisfaction in Nigerian banking sector.

Page(s): 140-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 Shamsuddeen Suleiman
Department of mathematical sciences, Federal University, Dutisin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

 Yasir Abdulkadir
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yar’adua, University, Katsina, Nigeria

[1] Akinmayowa J.T and Ogbeide D.O. (2014). Automated Teller Machine Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in the Nigeria Banking Sector, Covenant Journal of Business and Social Sciences (CJBSS), 65(1),52-72
[2] Amin M and Isa Z. (2008).An examination of the relationship between service quality perception and customer satisfaction A SEM approach towards Malaysian Islamic banking, International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 1(3); 191-209
[3] Bollen K (1989) Structural equations with latent variables, John Wiley & Sons, New York
[4] Burodo M.S., Suleiman S. and Shaba Y.(2019), Queuing Theory and ATM Service Optimization: Empirical Evidence from First Bank Plc, Kaura Namoda Branch, Zamfara State. American Journal of Operations Management and Information Systems. 4(3),80-86. doi: 10.11648/j.ajomis.20190403.12
[5] Burodo M.S., Suleiman S. and Yusuf G. (2021). An assessment of Queue management and Patient Satisfaction of Some Selected Hospitals in North-Western Nigeria, International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention (IJMSI), 9(8), 14-24
[6] Carme S. and Germà C. (2002). Predicting Overall Service Quality. A Structural Equation Modelling Approach, Developments in Social Science Methodology,217-238
[7] Giao H.N.K., (2019), Customer Satisfaction towards ATM Services: A Case of Vietcombank Vinh Long, Vietnam, Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business 6 (1) : 141-148 141
[8] Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2015), “A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43 (1), 1- 21.
[9] Ijeoma C., Akujor J.C. and Mbah J.C. (2020). Electronic Banking and Customer Satisfaction in Imo State (A Study of Selected Commercial Banks in Imo State), European Journal of Business and Management Research, 5(6), 1-9, DOI:
[10] John A.S. (2016) .The Influence of ATM Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in the Banking Sector of Nigeria, Global Journal of Human Resource Management, 4,(5), 65-79.
[11] Koko M.A., Burodo M.S., Suleiman S. (2018). Queuing Theory and Its Application Analysis on Bus Services Using Single Server and Multiple Servers Model. American Journal of Operations Management and Information Systems. 3(4), 81-85. doi: 10.11648/j.ajomis.20180304.12
[12] Krejcie, R.V. & Morgan, D. W. 1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
[13] Latif K.F., Nazeer A., Shahzad F., Ullah M., Imranullah M., and Sahibzada U.F (2020). Impact of entrepreneurial leadership on project success: Mediating role of knowledge management processes. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 41(2),237-256
[14] Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M., Mitchell, R. and Gudergan, S.P. (2018), “Partial least squares structural equation modeling in HRM research”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, pp. 1-27, doi: 10.1080/09585192.2017.1416655.
[15] Suleiman S., Lawal A., Usman U., Gulumbe S.U. and Muhammad A.B (2019), Student’s Academic Performance Prediction Using Factor Analysis Based Neural Network. International Journal of Data Science and Analysis. 5(4), 61-66. doi: 10.11648/j.ijdsa.20190504.12
[16] Suleiman S., Burodo M.S., and Ahmed Z. (2022). An Application of Single and Multi-server Exponential Queuing Model in Some Selected Hospitals of the North-Western Nigeria, Asian Journal of Probability and Statistics, 16(2): 1-9 DOI: 10.9734/AJPAS/2022/v16i230396
[17] Suleiman S. and Usman U. (2016). Prediction of Customer Accessibility of Electronic Banking Logistic Regression in Nigeria, Equity Journal of Science and Technology, 4(1): 93-97
[18] Vucovic M., Pivac S. and kundid D. (2019) Structural equation modeling in the acceptance of internet banking in the city of Split, Croatian Operational Research Review, 10, 141-152

Shamsuddeen Suleiman, Yasir Abdulkadir “Bank ATM users’ perceptions towards ATM service quality: A structural equation modelling approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.140-145 May 2022 URL:

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Making Youth a Leading Force for Promoting Agri-Food Systems, A Case of Rural Nakuru, Kenya

John Mathenge King’au – May 2022- Page No.: 146-150

Food insecurity remains a significant issue, with the developing world and more so a major challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa, which continues to pose a threat to the existence of millions of the inhabitants of the continent. The international community’s desire to create sustainable food systems in coming years will have long-lasting effects, not least for future generations. This paper review the implications of making youth a force in enhancing food systems. As the food systems discussions take off now and beyond, the enormous challenges of food security are intensifying. Thus, the youth’s future role in food systems is central in the transformation towards more sustainable and resilient food approaches. While it is recognized that youth have their own important roles to play in developing other systems, they also have a lot to give and gain through working with communities and applying their knowledge to local and global food challenges. Through youth empowerment and development of youth, as food systems change agents, they could become a leading force for positive change in their community and internationally. This paper present assessments of youth towards their engagement in food systems. The paper highlights a great number of initiatives shared by youth and institutions supporting them in agri-systems promotion. The paper argues that promotion of youth involvement in agri-enterprises has the catalytic effect of seeking solutions to food security issues. It concludes that improving agri-enterprises should be the main target of agrifood systems and remains an important source of employment and economic activity for Kenyan rural youth.

Page(s): 146-150                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 John Mathenge King’au
Directorate of Research, Laikipia University, Kenya

[1]. Dalla F. (2012). Exploring opportunities and constraints for young agro entrepreneurs in Africa: In International Conference on Young People, Farming and Food: The Future of the Agri-food Sector in Africa (pp. 19-21). Accra: Ghana
[2]. FAO (2019). Agripreneurship across Africa; Stories of inspiration. FAO and Eco-Ventures. Rome
[3]. FAO (2020). Market Matters – Making Market Matters Training 2020 for SMEs & Business Development Service providers.
[4]. FAO, 2014.The State of Food and Agriculture 2014 report; innovation in family farming
[5]. FAO, 2017. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World. Building Resilience for Peace and Food Security. Rome
[6]. FAO, (2015b). The State of Food and Agriculture 2015. Social protection and agriculture: breaking the cycle of rural poverty. Rome (available at publications/sofa/2015/en.)
[7]. Mburu, F. M. (2008). Youth Enterprise development Fund: A study of its Viability as an Empowerment Strategy for Youth Entrepreneurs in Ruiru Division, Thika district. MBA Thesis: Jomo Kenyatta University
[8]. Ministry of Youth Affairs, (2007) Kenya National Youth Policy: Sessional Paper N0.3; Nairobi: Government Press
[9]. St Martins CSA, (2021), Annual Report; Only through Community; Nyahururu; St Martins Catholic Social Apostolate.
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[11]. UN. (2015a). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A/RES/70/1. New York, USA (available at post 2015/ transforming our world / publication)

John Mathenge King’au, “Making Youth a Leading Force for Promoting Agri-Food Systems, A Case of Rural Nakuru, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.146-150 May 2022 URL:

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Influence of student councils’ involvement in Student welfare activities on management of public secondary schools in Kisii County

Chepkawai R. Limo, Dr. Joseph K.Lelan, PhD, Prof. Kosgei Zachariah K.,PhD – May 2022- Page No.: 151-161

In the recent past there has been a large number of secondary schools’ unrests and other forms of indiscipline in Kenyan secondary schools. This happens despite inclusion of student councils in secondary school management. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of student councils’ involvement in welfare activities and management of public secondary schools in Kisii County, Kenya. The study was anchored on social systems theory and adopted mixed methods design. The target population was 140,948 respondents comprising of 104 principals, 2080 teachers, 1040 student leaders, 137,713 students and 11 Sub County Directors of Education. The sample size was 1066 respondents comprising of 31 Principals, 336 teachers, 289 Student leaders, 399 students and 11 Sub-County Directors of Education. Stratified, simple random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data collection was done through the administration of questionnaires, interviews and document analysis. Validity was determined using expert judgement, while reliability was determined using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics ie correlation analysis and linear regression with the aid of SPSS V26. From the linear regression model, (R2 = .199) shows that student councils’ involvement in student welfare accounted for 19.9% variation in management of public schools. There was a positive significant effect of student councils’ involvement in student welfare and management of public schools (β2=0.539 and p value <0.05). Therefore, an increase in student councils’ involvement in student welfare led to an increase in management of public schools. It was concluded that involving student council in students’ welfare activities influences management public schools in Kisii. The study recommends that students be involved in welfare activities to avoid unnecessary conflicts between the school administration and students.

Page(s): 151-161                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 Chepkawai R. Limo
PhD Student, School of Education, Moi University, Kenya

 Dr. Joseph K.Lelan, PhD
Dept. of Educational Management and Policy Studies, Moi university, Kenya

 Prof. Kosgei Zachariah K.,PhD
Dept. of Educational Management and Policy Studies, Moi university, Kenya

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[11] Mati, A., Gatumu, J. C., & Chandi, J. R. (2016). Students’ Involvement in Decision Making and their Academic Performance in Embu West Sub-County of Kenya. Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(10), 2294-2298.
[12] Mukiti, M. T. (2014). Role of student council in secondary school’s management in Mwingi Central District, Kitui County, Kenya. M.Ed. Research Project, Kenyatta University, Nairobi.
[13] Mulwa, D. M., Kimosop, M. K., & Kasivu, G. M. (2015). Participatory Governance in Secondary Schools: The Students‟ Viewpoint in Eastern Region of Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(30).
[14] Ndaita, J. S. (2016). The Nature and Causes of Indiscipline Cases among Public Secondary School Students in Thika Sub-County, Kiambu County, Kenya. British Journal of Education, 4(7), 55-66.
[15] Ngwokabuenui, P. Y. (2015). Students’ Indiscipline: Types, Causes and Possible Solutions: The Case of Secondary Schools in Cameroon. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(22), 64-72.
[16] Njue, N. K. (2011). Influence of prefects on maintenance of students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Gatundu North District, Kenya. M. Ed Thesis, University of Nairobi.
[17] Nwankwo, I. N. (2014). Students‟ Participation in Decision Making and its Implications for Educational Leadership. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 5(3): 362-367
[18] Simatwa, E. M. W., Odhong, S. O., Juma, S. L. A., & Choka, G. M. (2014). Substance Abuse among Public Secondary School Students: Prevalence, Strategies and Challenges for Public Secondary School Managers in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu East Sub County International Research Journals 5(8), 315-330.
[19] Tikoko, B. J., & Kiprop, C. J. (2011). Extent of Student Participation in Decision-making in Secondary Schools in Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(21).

Chepkawai R. Limo, Dr. Joseph K.Lelan, PhD, Prof. Kosgei Zachariah K.,PhD “Influence of student councils’ involvement in Student welfare activities on management of public secondary schools in Kisii County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.151-161 May 2022 URL:

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An Investigation of Paragraph Writing Problems Encountered by Level 3 GFP Students: A Case of A’sharqiyah University, Sultanate of Oman

Bashir Abuelnour ELbashir – May 2022- Page No.: 162-168

This study aimed to identify the writing problems that are faced by level 3 General Foundation Programme (GFP) students and to find suitable strategies to deal with those problems. The study was conducted in A ’Sharqiyah University, Ibra, Sultanate of Oman, in September 2021. The rationale behind choosing level 3 was that teachers at the college level noticed that college students struggle with paragraph writing. The researcher used a descriptive research method (content analysis). Thirty-six level 3 students had been randomly selected and they had been informed to write a paragraph of 100-120 words on a given subject. The students’ paragraphs had been marked twice by six GFP teachers. The purpose was to pick out students’ mistakes and errors. The findings revealed that students encounter different writing problems: word choice, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, tenses, and sentence structure. In the light of those findings, some guidelines had been offered. For instance, students should read a lot; reading develops students’ vocabulary, grammatical structures, and knowledge of the world as well. In addition, the writing teacher should focus more on positive points of students’ writing and not the negative points. Moreover, teachers must praise students for their good attempts. Furthermore, teachers should, regularly, assign in-class writing activities. Finally, the writing teachers should share ideas and strategies on how to cope with paragraph writing problems.

Page(s): 162-168                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 Bashir Abuelnour ELbashir
A’Sharqiyah University, Ibra, Sultanate of Oman

[1] Abu Ras, R. (2001). Integrating reading and writing for effective language teaching. English Teaching Forum, 39 (1), 30-39.
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[9] Davis, S. (1998). “Creative Writing.” Forum V 36, No 4: p.44.
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[12] Ferries, D. (1995). ‘Student Reactions to Teacher Response Multiple Draft Composition Classrooms: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 29 No.1.
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Bashir Abuelnour ELbashir, “An Investigation of Paragraph Writing Problems Encountered by Level 3 GFP Students: A Case of A’sharqiyah University, Sultanate of Oman” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.162-168 May 2022 URL:

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Idealized Influence and Church Leaders Performance, the case of Transformational Church Leadership Graduates

Abigael Demesi, Dr. Cavens Kithinji, Dr. Janerose Bibaara – May 2022- Page No.: 169-175

This study sought to investigate the influence of Idealized Influence on church leader’s performance focusing on the Pan Africa Christian University (PAC) Transformational Church Leadership (TCL) diploma program graduates of 2016 and 2017 in selected churches in Kenya.
The Transformational Leadership Theory guided the study. The study used pragmatism research philosophy to conduct a descriptive research. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected using survey and interviews respectively. This study adopted both stratified and purposive sampling. A sample of 158 graduates and 59 congregants/members from 14 Counties in Kenya, and 6 key informant interviews of senior organizational leaders were used to measure the variables of the study. The quantitative data was prepared and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22.0). The recordings from the zoom interviews were transcribed using and transferred to Miner Lite for coding and organized into themes. The study found out that leader’s idealized influence had a positive and significant correlation with church leader’s performance among graduates, with a Pearson correlation of r=0.527. The study revealed that idealized influenced graduates/church leaders modeled the taught Christian values, Christian disciplines and character which significantly influenced church growth. The study concluded that TCL trained church leaders practiced idealized influence which positively and significantly increased the church leader’s performance in Kenya. The study recommended the use of the TCL program to churches as a means of training church leaders to modeling Christian values, disciplines, and character and inspire the members/congregation enhance their performance and enable the church achieve its goals and objectives.

Page(s): 169-175                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

 Abigael Demesi
Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership, Pan Africa Christian University

 Dr. Cavens Kithinji
Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership, Pan Africa Christian University

 Dr. Janerose Bibaara
Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership, Pan Africa Christian University

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Abigael Demesi, Dr. Cavens Kithinji, Dr. Janerose Bibaara “Idealized Influence and Church Leaders Performance, the case of Transformational Church Leadership Graduates” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.169-175 May 2022 URL:

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Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: A case study with reference to the Faculty of Engineering, University of Sri Jayewardenepura

Aruni Priya Aluthge – May 2022- Page No.: 177-192

The goal of this study is to identify the degree of entrepreneurial intention among engineering undergraduates in Sri Lanka considering students at the faculty of engineering at the University of Sri Jayewardenepura as a sample. It seeks to advance the theoretical discussion on the relationship between personality traits and perceived desirability and entrepreneurial intention. And it further reviews the relationship between entrepreneurship modules and students’ entrepreneurial intention, to identify the practical relevance of entrepreneurship education. This study used a quantitative method to gather primary data using a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was made available to the all students at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Due to COVID 19 pandemic challenges, only 83 students had responded with completed questionnaires that were eligible for the test. To test the hypothesis, the SPSS package was used. The findings of the study revealed a low level of students’ intention on entrepreneurship and their interest in the entrepreneurial effort. But students perceived desirability variable highlighted that there is a high chance for motivating students for entrepreneurship by sharpening those determinants. It is observed that effective entrepreneurship education can play a vital role in inculcating entrepreneurial intention. However, the recommendations for further study have been highlighted that a study should be conducted with a bigger sample from all universities in the country to understand the big picture of entrepreneurial intention among engineering students

Page(s): 177-192                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

 Aruni Priya Aluthge
A.P. Aluthge University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

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Aruni Priya Aluthge, “Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: A case study with reference to the Faculty of Engineering, University of Sri Jayewardenepura” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.177-192 May 2022 URL:

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Approaches for Bridging the Skill Gap of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Graduates towards Economic Recovery in a Recessed Economy in Nigeria

Owoso Joseph Oluropo (Ph.D), Chiso Njoku (Ph.D), CMRP. – May 2022- Page No.: 193-198

This study investigated the strategies for bridging the skill gap of technical vocational education and training (TVET) graduates towards economic recovery in a Recessed economy. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Three research questions guided the study and the population of the study comprised of sixty (60) vocational and technical education lecturers in TVET departments in Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Ijanikin and Michael Otedola Primary College of Education, Epe. Fourty (40) questionnaires were administered to the respondents and three (3) experts were engaged for face validation of the instrument. Cronbach Alpha method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument at 0.86. The paper identified problem solving skills and personnel management skills as some of the skill gaps in TVET, the paper also identified making of Students’ excursion compulsory in the curriculum of TVET as one of the strategies in bridging the skill gaps among others, the paper went further to state that inadequate funding of technical and vocational education is one of the setback of vocational and technical education. The study recommended among others that TVET institutions should work out modalities for training and re-training of TVET teachers in a way that will benefit both the Institutions and Industries in Nigeria and there should be adequate monitoring and supervision of student on the job training as well as adequate funding of technical vocational education and training by government

Page(s): 193-198                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6507

 Owoso Joseph Oluropo (Ph.D)
Lagos State University of Education, Otto-Ijanikin Lagos State Nigeria

 Chiso Njoku (Ph.D), CMRP
Lagos State University of Education, Otto-Ijanikin Lagos State Nigeria

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[19] Oviawe, J.I., Uwameiye, R. & Uddin, P.O. (2017). Bridging skill gap to meet technical, vocational education and training school-workplace collaboration in the 21st century. International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research. Vol. 3(1) 7-14.
[20] Tinuke, M.F. (2012). The global economic recession: impact and strategies for human resources management in Nigeria. International journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 1(6), 7-12.

Owoso Joseph Oluropo (Ph.D), Chiso Njoku (Ph.D), CMRP. “Approaches for Bridging the Skill Gap of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Graduates towards Economic Recovery in a Recessed Economy in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.193-198 May 2022 DOI:

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Influence of Principals’ Allocation of Financial Resources to School Programmes on the Implementation of Performance Contracting in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya

Muli Geoffrey Munyao, Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D), Dr. Selpher Cheloti – May 2022- Page No.: 199-205

Misallocation and misappropriation of financial resources in leaning institutions has been the cause of misuse fraud and inefficiency, in educational institutions around the world. This has affected the implementation of Performance contacting (P C) in the institutions which necessitated the need for this study that investigated the influence of principals’ allocation of financial resources to school programmes on implementation of performance contracting in public secondary schools in Machakos County. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design using mixed method approach. The sample size of the study was 471 respondents comprising of 9 Assistant directors of education, 109 Principals’ and 354 Teachers. Purposive sampling was used to select the directors, proportionate sampling to select the teachers and random sampling to select the principals to participate in the study. Validity of research instruments was ascertained using a pilot study while reliability of instruments was ascertained using Test- Retest technique. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and reported using graphs, charts and tables. Qualitative data drawn from open ended questions and interviews was transcribed into themes and reported in narratives. Coefficient of Correlation was used on hypotheses to determine the influence of principals’ allocation of financial resources to school programmes on implementation of performance contracting in public secondary schools in Machakos County. The study found there was a statistically significant relationship between allocation of financial resources and implementation of performance contracting at p level 0. 065.The study concluded that failure to allocate finance by principals and to PC activities influenced its implementation. The study recommended that School Boards of Management need to allocate finances to areas of priority in school to catalyze PC implementation.

Page(s): 199-205                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

 Muli Geoffrey Munyao
Doctorate student, Student, school of education, South Easter Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D)
Doctorate student, Student, school of education, South Easter Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Selpher Cheloti
Doctorate student, Student, school of education, South Easter Kenya University, Kenya

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Muli Geoffrey Munyao, Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D), Dr. Selpher Cheloti, “Influence of Principals’ Allocation of Financial Resources to School Programmes on the Implementation of Performance Contracting in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.199-205 May 2022 URL:

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Elucidating Empirical Research Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice in Nigeria

Nwokeoma Bonaventure N (PhD) – May 2022- Page No.: 206-217

The crime situation in Nigeria and indeed other parts of the world continue to be monstrous despite the efforts of the criminal justice system. The foundation of overcoming this challenge may be found in the adherence to well articulated empirical research/studies aimed at understanding and providing solutions to the ramifications of crime problems in Nigeria. Therefore, there is the urgent need to examine and highlight the methods of research in criminology and criminal justice. This is a theoretical paper which relied on secondary sources, observations and desk reviews to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using relevant thematic schemes. Relevant themes like types of research, research ethics data collection, qualitative and qualitative research and actual research process were examined. It was recommended that adherence to empirical research rather than media reports is the pathway to solving the crime problem in Nigeria.

Page(s): 206-217                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6508

 Nwokeoma Bonaventure N (PhD)
Department of Sociology/Anthropology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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Nwokeoma Bonaventure N (PhD) “Elucidating Empirical Research Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.206-217 May 2022 DOI:

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Seasonal agricultural drought effects on small scale farmers crop production in Kakamega South Sub-county

Chelangat W, Mulinya C. and J.Mabonga – May 2022- Page No.: 218-221

Kakamega South Sub-County located in Kakamega is a rich agricultural area though mainly reliant on rain fed agriculture. Small scale crop farmers in the area have over the years had frequent crop failure due seasonal drought. There is prediction of increasingly dry conditions in much of African countries with Kenya being no exception leading to seasonal drought mainly in agriculture due to climate change. There is need for small-scale farmers to adapt to this phenomenon. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of agricultural drought on small scale farmers and their adaptation strategies in Kakamega South Sub-County. Random Utility Model and Capability theories were used in this study. Triangulation research design was used in the study as this catered for both qualitative and quantitative data. The study made use of both primary data and secondary data which included questionnaires, interview schedules, Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and field observation to gather information on the effects of agricultural drought on agricultural produce. Secondary data on rainfall and temperature was collected from meteorological stations for a period of at least 35 years (1985-2020). Simple random sampling was used with a sample of 377 households using Krejcie and Morgan table (Krejcie & Morgan, 2004). Purposive sampling was used to sample information from agricultural offices and meteorological stations to obtain detailed information on the study problem. The results of this study established that Economic decline is positively correlated with decrease in crop production water availability. 96.1% of the respondents agreed that there are effects of agricultural drought on agricultural production while a paltry 3.9% were in disagreement. 74.2% of the respondents were affected by economic challenges, 15.5% faced social challenges, 8.7% by geographical challenges and lastly 1.6% by political challenges. The study recommends that rain-fed farming in Kakamega South sub-county needs to be complimented with drip irrigation, rain water harvesting and green house techniques to enhance sustainable crop production. There is also need to have accurate, reliable and customized weather information and weather advisories are timely developed and availed to the farmers.

Page(s): 218-221                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

 Chelangat W
Masinde Muliro university of Science and Technology

 Mulinya C.
Kaimosi Friends university of Science and Technology (A constituent of Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology)

Masinde Muliro university of Science and Technology

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Measures to Climate Change. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Chelangat W, Mulinya C. and J.Mabonga “Seasonal agricultural drought effects on small scale farmers crop production in Kakamega South Sub-county” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.218-221 May 2022 URL:

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Comparative Examination of Virtual Reality and Picture Making Artworks of students in University of Education, Winneba

Adu-Sakyi Augusta – May 2022- Page No.: 222-228

The study focused on a “comparative analysis of Virtual Reality and Picture making Artworks of students in University of Education, Winneba using the mixed research approach encompassing observation of students’ studio works and administration of questionnaires to twenty five (25) respondents from a population of one hundred (100) from the Department of Art Education in University of Education, Winneba. The sample size of 25 was arrived after theoretical saturation of students whose studio art works were not standard as well as leaving behind students who felt reluctant taking part in the study.
As regards the field observations, the researcher found out that the virtual reality of painting productions by picture making students were either abstract, conscious or emergent whilst concrete and unfolding were the field observations used to examine the ergonometric of media in the form of acrylic and 3D paint, colour, ink, and gouache. With respect to the findings from the questionnaires, 92% strongly agreed there was association between virtual reality and cultures of Ghana whilst 80% respondents strongly agreed virtual reality produced fast and hustle free pictorial artwork than the traditional artwork.
The researcher recommended that Virtual Reality should take the center stage in the teaching and training of students so as to cope with modernity instead of the traditional mode of pictorial drawing. It is also recommended that virtual reality in pictorial creations through studio works should be taught and taken seriously since only 8% of the respondents were familiar and could effectively engage in the exercise without much difficulty.

Page(s): 222-228                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

 Adu-Sakyi Augusta
(Tutor, Agogo College of Education, Ghana)

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Adu-Sakyi Augusta, “Comparative Examination of Virtual Reality and Picture Making Artworks of students in University of Education, Winneba” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.222-228 May 2022 URL:

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Enhance students’ performance in weekday mode: A case study at University of Vocational Technology

D.D.D. Suraweera, K. G. Alahapperuma – May 2022- Page No.: 229-232

University of Vocational Technology delivers Bachelor of Technology degrees to students with National Vocational Qualifications. National Vocational Qualification holders are different from traditional full-time university students, as they possess highly employable diploma level qualifications. The university offers courses as both, weekday programmes and weekend programmes. Average performance of students in weekday mode has shown to be weaker compared to students in weekend mode. This study attempted to identify factors that affect performance of students in weekday programmes. Tinto’s model of student retention and drop out was used to conceptualise this descriptive survey study. Hard copies of a structured questionnaire were distributed among 97 participants, who have completed the degree in weekday mode. However, response rate was only 47.4 percent. The questionnaire addressed both, students’ individual factors and institutional factors related to their academic performance. Positive responses were received for both, individual and institutional factors. However, findings show that there is a great scope for improvement of factors related to both academic integration and institutional-related social integration in order to increase the graduation rate. Recommendations are to reveal the marking scheme just after each semester end examination and early release of results together with revision of continuous assessments with appropriate frequent feedback etc. Social factors of students may be improved with establishment of extra-curricular activities, sports and social events in academic calendar and introduction of more group activities during subject module delivery. Facilitation with better health services and provision of special training for student advisors are also recommended

Page(s): 229-232                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

 D.D.D. Suraweera
University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

 K. G. Alahapperuma
University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

[1] Goddard, R. D. (2003). Relational networks, social trust, and norms: A social capital perspective on students’ chances of academic success. Educational Evaluations & Policy Analysis, 25, 59-74.
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[5] Tinto, V. (1975) ‘Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45, 89-125.

D.D.D. Suraweera, K. G. Alahapperuma “Enhance students’ performance in weekday mode: A case study at University of Vocational Technology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.229-232 May 2022 URL:

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Availability of Assistive Technological Tools towards Academic Performance of Students Living with Disability (Visually Impaired) in Ekiti State Nigeria

Okoh, Maureen O. & Ajayi, Opeyemi – May 2022- Page No.: 233-238

This study examined the Availability of Assistive Technological Tools for Academic Performance of Students living with Disability (visually impaired) in Oke-Osun, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State. Descriptive case study research design type was employed. The population of the study was 20 students from the senior secondary school using a purposive sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. It was divided into two sections. The section A consists of the biometrics of the students while the section B consisted of 20 item questions to know the availability of assistive technological devices among students living with disabilities. Both face and content validity were satisfied by expert after the construction of the instrument. Specifically, this study sought to investigate if there are available assistive technological tools, to investigate the use of these tools and the academic benefits of these tools among students living with disabilities (visually impaired) and determine the level of usage among male and female students living with disabilities. The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to students, teachers, policy makers, society and prospective researchers. The result showed that that there is significant difference between the student academic performance and usage of assistive technological tools. It also revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female level of usage of assistive technological tools. It was concluded that the use of the available assistive technological tools among the students living with disabilities improves academic performance. Therefore, it was recommended that assistive technological tools be used continuously in special schools especially among the visually impaired students. Parent and teachers for students with special needs should make frequent use of assistive technological tools for instruction in and outside the classroom not only to enhance academic performance but also to make students living with disabilities participate actively in their communities as responsible active citizens.

Page(s): 233-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

 Okoh, Maureen O.
Department of Educational Foundations Faculty of Education, Federal University of Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

 Ajayi, Opeyemi
Department of Vocational and Technical Education Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

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Okoh, Maureen O. & Ajayi, Opeyemi, “Availability of Assistive Technological Tools towards Academic Performance of Students Living with Disability (Visually Impaired) in Ekiti State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.233-238 May 2022 URL:

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Demographic Dynamics and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria

Dahiru Muhammed Kabiru, Ezekiel Ayiwulu, Choji V. Dung, Tasiu Muhammad, and Fatima, Sidi Sani – May 2022- Page No.: 239-242

Demographically, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with an average growth rate of 3.2% and an approximated population of 190 million people; the seventh world-wide, and the 8th largest exporter of oil and many other resources. However, Nigeria ranks low in human development index, with 39.1% of her population living below income poverty line of US$1.90 a day. These and many other factors combined to spur the various conflicts for which the country is now known, with its huge youth population as one of the most important factors in these perennial conflicts, especially the farmers-herders conflicts, which has become a near daily affair, especially since the return of the country to civil rule in 1999. This paper examines the roles of population dynamics on violent conflicts in Nigeria and its implications on national security and development through field surveys, focused group discussions, and literature review. The study has found out that the country’s huge youths population in addition to issues of governance, are potent tools in the perennial violent conflicts for which the country is known for (of late), and recommends that the state should ensure adequate governance; put in place effective national development policy that caters well for the youths and the nation as a whole.

Page(s): 239-242                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6509

 Dahiru Muhammed Kabiru
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia

 Ezekiel Ayiwulu
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia

 Choji V. Dung
Department of Geography, Plateau State University, Bokkos

 Tasiu Muhammad
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia

 Fatima, Sidi Sani
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia

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Dahiru Muhammed Kabiru, Ezekiel Ayiwulu, Choji V. Dung, Tasiu Muhammad, and Fatima, Sidi Sani “Demographic Dynamics and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.239-242 May 2022 DOI:

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Ethnic Hiring in Kenya as a Development Concern

Betty Muthoni, Njagi – May 2022- Page No.: 243-249

Ethnicity is a very sensitive and emotive subject that is not publicly discussed in Kenya when it comes to economic and social issues. But ethnicity has been known to influence our way of life in many ways especially politics and social interactions. However little regard has been paid to how ethnicity influences hiring in Kenya which has left many ethnic groups marginalized when it comes to employment. This study seeks to find the logic of employers’ ethnic hiring and how they deal with ethnicity when hiring to ensure competitive hiring when under pressure from different parties and in the interest of the organization’s growth and profitability. The study undertakes a desk review of theoretical and empirical studies and policy documents. This is done by looking at Kenya’s hiring and ethnicity environment. The study found there is lack of economic logic in ethnic hiring in Kenya and it is a social attitude that lacks substantive economic backing.

Page(s): 243-249                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

 Betty Muthoni, Njagi
Department of Economics, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, P.O Box 62157, Nairobi, Kenya.

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Betty Muthoni, Njagi “Ethnic Hiring in Kenya as a Development Concern” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.243-249 May 2022 URL:

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Grade Retention in the Eyes of Learners: A Subjective View from St Joseph Primary School in Mutare District

Senzeni Chiutsi – May 2022- Page No.: 250-257

The study explored the perceptions of grade retained learners at St Joseph’s Primary School in Mutare District. Fifteen repeated learners (aged 10 to 13 years thus from grade four to six) participated in the study. Altogether, there were fifteen (15) learners who repeated grades thus eight (8) 53% were boys and seven (7) 47% were girls. Because of the small number of grade retained learners, the researcher decided to use them all in the study. The fifteen automatically became the participants of the study. Qualitative approach was used. Semi- structured interviews were conducted and analyzed through phenomenological analysis. Based on the findings it is clear that twelve (12)80% of the learners who participated in the study viewed grade retention as a positive exercise. This was contrary to three (3) 20% who perceived grade retention negatively. They regarded the exercise as stressful and thus eventually failed to achieve its objective. The findings revealed that the policy had positive effects on academic performance. The following recommendations emerged based on the findings of this study. Schools should introduce weekend learning to help pupils who have been earmarked for grade retention. Teachers should also offer individualized attention to pupils earmarked for grade retention so that they can improve in their academic performance. Pupils should also be provided with extra time by school authorities at the end of the school term especially 1st and 2nd term with a focus on pupils whose academic performance shows weakness during the term. However, (Mainrades, 2002) carried out a content analysis study on grade retention on a global scale. The analysis indicated that the grade retention is usually used in poor countries. The situation of grade retention in Europea8n countries have decreased between 1980 and 2011 from 3, 1% to 2%. (Massachusetts, 2009). Global estimates published by World Health Organisation in 2016 indicate that about 1 in 20 of primary going children worldwide have undergone retention in their primary level.

Page(s): 250-257                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

 Senzeni Chiutsi
Intern Counselling Psychologist, Ministry of Education, Bulawayo, P O Box 206 Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

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Senzeni Chiutsi , “Grade Retention in the Eyes of Learners: A Subjective View from St Joseph Primary School in Mutare District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.250-257 May 2022 URL:

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The Influence of Custom Values on Implementation of Accrual-Based IPSAS in Tanzanian Public Corporations

Williard Yohana Kalulu – May 2022- Page No.: 258-265

Accounting and auditing matters are central and have a justifiable connection to organizational and national development. The purpose of this paper is to assess the influence of custom values on implementation of accrual-based IPSAS in public corporations in Tanzanian. To attain this objective qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used whereby cross-sectional survey research design techniques of data compilation method were used. Both primary data and secondary data were involved in the form of interviews, document reviews and survey. Systematic and unsystematic random sampling and purposively sampling was used as sampling procedures in the study, this study involved with the sample size of 99 respondents from the Public Corporation. The findings reveal that statutory control is positively related to the implementation of accrual-based IPSAS while transparency and conservatism were found to be negatively related to the implementation of accrual-based IPSAS. The findings also revealed that only conservatism was found to be insignificantly related to the implementation of accrual-based IPSAS. The study recommended that the accrual-based IPSAS should be embraced by all stakeholders and prescribed as a basis for the preparation of public sector financial statements. Thus, the parliament and other government bodies should influence the implementation of accrual-based IPSAS in public sector organizations.

Page(s): 258-265                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6510

 Williard Yohana Kalulu
Research Scholar, Department of Accounting and Finance, The University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania

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[38] Bentley, P. A., & Franklin, M. A. (2013). Which international cultures favor disclosure of risk. International Journal of Business, Accounting, & Finance, 7(2).
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Williard Yohana Kalulu “The Influence of Custom Values on Implementation of Accrual-Based IPSAS in Tanzanian Public Corporations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.258-265 May 2022 DOI:

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Science Learners’ Perspective towards the Use of Module and Social Media as a Tool for Remote Learning

Donna H. Gabor and Josel A. Galve – May 2022- Page No.: 266-275

This study aimed to present the perspective of senior high school students towards the use of modules and social media for remote learning and find out if there would be a significant difference in the student performance after the use of modules and social media. The modules were composed of a series of topics distributed to participants and were followed up with the users of social media, especially messenger and Facebook. The participants of the study were classified according to strand and grade levels: the HUMSS and STEM students who are grade 11 and 12 students. A total of 87 students participated in this study. Researchers created 15 items checklist form that is divided according to namely; Perceived Based on Usefulness of Module and Social Media, Perceived Student Self- Efficacy of Using Module and Social media, and Perceived Ease of Use of Module and Social Media was prepared and validated by the experts in subject matter for gathering data. The findings revealed that there was an increase in the performance of students in the pretest and post-test after the use of modules and follow-up through social media. T-test results revealed that there was a significant difference in the test scores of the students before and after using the module which can be used as a future reference for remote learning and as an additional teaching tool in physics.

Page(s): 266-275                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6511

 Donna H. Gabor
Division of Physical Sciences and Mathematics,
University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao Iloilo 5023, Philippines

 Josel A. Galve
New Lucena National High School, New Lucena Iloilo, 5005, Philippines

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Donna H. Gabor and Josel A. Galve, “Science Learners’ Perspective towards the Use of Module and Social Media as a Tool for Remote Learning” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.266-275 May 2022 DOI:

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Strategic Leadership and Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi City County

Agnes Wanja Nyawira, David Kiiru – May 2022- Page No.: 276-283

Enterprises derive competitive advantage from the implementation of strategic plans creatively and innovatively. A way of achieving a competitive advantage in an organization is to apply strategic leadership in the implementation process. This study evaluates the influence of strategic leadership on the achievement of competitive advantage among SMEs in Nairobi county. The study derived its guide mainly from the Porter five theory on achievement of competitive advantage among firms. The study was a cross-sectional survey that included 186 top and middle-level managers, who participated in the study by responding to online questionnaires as well as hand-delivered. Data for the study was analyzed through descriptive and inferential analysis. With a response of 164 respondents, the results of the study revealed that strategic leadership had a positive and significant influence on the competitive advantage of small and medium firms in Nairobi County. The study recommended frequent training of the employees on leadership, ethics, and integrity issues. The study further recommended that the employees should be aware of the goals, vision, and objectives of the organization at all times to enhance competitive advantage among SMEs in Nairobi City County.

Page(s): 276-283                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

 Agnes Wanja Nyawira
Kenyatta University, Department of Business Administration

 David Kiiru
Kenyatta University, Department of Business Administration

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[3] Alshehhi, A., Nobanee, H., & Khare, N. (2018). The impact of sustainability practices on corporate financial performance: Literature trends and future research potential. Sustainability, 10(2), 494-501.
[4] Asif, M., Qing, M., Hwang, J., & Shi, H. (2019). Ethical leadership, affective commitment, work engagement, and creativity: Testing a multiple mediation approach. Journal of Sustainability, 11(16), 4489.
[5] Bagheri, A. (2017). The impact of entrepreneurial leadership on innovation work behavior and opportunity recognition in high-technology SMEs. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 28(2), 159-166.
[6] Berkovich, I., & Eyal, O. (2021). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and moral reasoning. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 20(2), 131-148.
[7] Chege, F. (2016). An Investigation of Competitive Strategies Adopted by Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. [Doctoral dissertation, United States International University Africa].
[8] Chizema, A., & Pogrebna, G. (2019). The impact of government integrity and culture on corporate leadership practices: Evidence from the field and the laboratory. The Leadership Quarterly, 30(5), 10-23.
[9] Faraj, A. H. M. (2020). Transformational leadership impact employees’ performance. Eurasian Journal of Management & Social Sciences, 1(1), 49-59.
[10] Garde Sanchez, R., Flórez-Parra, J. M., López-Pérez, M. V., & López-Hernández, A. M. (2020). Corporate governance and disclosure of information on corporate social responsibility: An analysis of the top 200 universities in the Shanghai ranking. Sustainability, 12(4), 1549.
[11] Greenwood, M., & Mir, R. (2018). Critical management studies and stakeholder theory: Possibilities for a critical stakeholder theory. Available at SSRN 3234947.
[12] Huberts, L. W. (2018). Integrity: What it is and Why it is Important. Public Integrity, 20(sup1), S18-S32.
[13] Huynh, Q. L. (2020). A triple of corporate governance, social responsibility, and earnings management. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(3), 29-40.
[14] Ikupolati, A. O., Adeyeye, M. M., Oni, E. O., Olatunle, M. A., & Obafunmi, M. O. (2017). Entrepreneurs’ managerial skills as determinants for growth of small and medium enterprises in Nigeria, Journal of Business and Economics, 2 (2), 1778-1793.
[15] Kihara, M. P. (2016). Influence of strategy implementation on the performance of manufacturing small and medium firms in Kenya. [Mastes Thesis, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology].
[16] Kihia, G. (2017). Strategic Management Practices Effect on Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi. [Masters Thesis, United States International University].
[17] Matsiliza, N. S. (2018). The application of results-based monitoring and evaluation to improve performance in small businesses. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(3), 1-9.
[18] Mosoti, Z., & Murabu, E. K. (2014). Assessing the implication of strategic planning on performance of small-sized organizations: A case study of small enterprises in Thika town. [MBA Project, United States International University].
[19] Muhammad, H. K., El Talla, A. S., Mazen, J. S., & Abu-Naser, S. S. (2020). Strategic Sensitivity and Its Impact on Boosting the Creative Behavior of Palestinian NGOs. International Journal of Academic Accounting, Finance and Management Research, 4(5), 18-56.
[20] Mwanthi, T. N. (2018). Linking Strategy Implementation with Organizational Performance in Kenyan Universities. Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation, 5(2), 27-49.
[21] Nakpodia, F., Adegbite, E., Amaeshi, K., & Owolabi, A. (2018). Neither principles nor rules: Making corporate governance work in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Business Ethics, 151(2), 391-408.
[22] Patel, H. (2016). An Evaluation of How Strategic Financial Management Enhances Performances of Small & Medium Enterprises in the Nairobi County. [MBA Project, United States International University].
[23] Porter, M.E. (2014). Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy. Economic development quarterly, 14 (1), 15-34.
[24] Salum, V. S. (2018). Factors influencing implementation of strategic plans in Tanzania’s executive agencies. [Doctoral dissertation, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology].
[25] Schiff, D., Biddle, J., Borenstein, J., & Laas, K. (2020, February). What’s next for ai ethics, policy, and governance? a global overview. In Proceedings of the AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society (pp. 153-158).
[26] Turner, S., & Endres, A. (2017). Strategies for enhancing small business owners’ success rates. International Journal of Applied Management and Technology, 16(1), 3-18.
[27] Ungerman, O., Dedkova, J., & Gurinova, K. (2018). The impact of marketing innovation on the competitiveness of enterprises in the context of the industry. Journal of Competitiveness, 10(2), 132-157.
[28] Waithaka, E. (2017). A Study of Critical Success Factors Affecting Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi County: A Case Study of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Nairobi City Central Business District. [Masters Thesis, United States International University].
[29] Widiatmika, P. H., & Darma, G. S. (2018). Good Corporate Governance, Job Motivation, Organization Culture Which Impact Company Financial Performance. Jurnal Manajemen Bisnis, 15(3), 82-99.

Agnes Wanja Nyawira, David Kiiru “Strategic Leadership and Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi City County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.276-283 May 2022 URL:

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Desai’s Cry the Peacock- A journey to the voiced world

Mrs Jaya Jaiswal, Prof (Dr) Anita Kumari – May 2022- Page No.: 284-286

Women are the marginalised section of the society. But they cannot remain voiceless for long, they have to speak and find an outlet for their tears and fears, anguish and anger, thus register their existence. The voices resisting exploitation are fully aware of their own strength and dignity. The age-old existence of oppression, despair and suffering is common in the lives of marginalized classes across countries and continents. It’s an archaic system that has produced the men who run the country negotiate domestic and foreign policy and penned sexiest laws that made it easier for women to slide through the cracks. Woman is marginalised defined only by her difference from male norms and values in every country and culture. Anita Desai, one of the Indian novelists focussed on women’s situation in Indian society, whose leading voices has given the inner description of women’s inner world, her sensibility, her sulking frustration and the storm raging inside her mind. Her Cry The Peacock, presents the story of a young sensitive girl obsessed by a childhood prophecy of disaster. The novel points the role and contribution of patriarchy and patriarchal values towards misery, suffering, loneliness and unhappiness of women. Desai’s heroine in the novel chooses to remonstrate and fight against the general accepted norms and currents. The thoughts of the women protagonists in the novel are sure to crop up in her struggle to live their desired life. The main focus of the paper is to discuss a journey of a woman who confronts the gender-oriented tradition in search of her true self.

Page(s): 284-286                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6512

 Mrs Jaya Jaiswal
Research Scholar, Department of English, RKDF University, Ranchi, Jharkhand

 Prof (Dr) Anita Kumari
Assistant Professor, Department of English, RKDF University, Ranchi, Jharkhand

[1] Desai Anita 1980 Cry, The Peacock New Delhi: Orient Paperbacks
[2] Maini Irma 1984. Anita Desai and Feminine sensibility. Commonwealth Quarterly 9.1
[3] Showalter Elaine 1985. Towards a Feminist Poetics. New Feminist Criticism. New York: Pantheon Books

Mrs Jaya Jaiswal, Prof (Dr) Anita Kumari “Desai’s Cry the Peacock- A journey to the voiced world” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.284-286 May 2022 DOI:

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Determinants of International Reserves in Nigeria

Scholastica A. Abuh-Amasi, Nsikak J. Joshua, Margaret O. Onoyom – May 2022- Page No.: 287-297

Over the past decades, nations have accumulated international reserves to leverage foreign counterparts or protect themselves against external shocks resulting from integration. The factors identified by researchers as contributing to international reserve accumulation, however, have primarily been market factors. This study sets out to identify some distinct factors of the Nigerian economy. This is accomplished using annual data from 1970 to 2016. Several econometric methods, including the unit root test and Granger causality, were applied to test two hypotheses. The results showed substantial long-run correlations between the variables examined. Thus, the Error Correction Methodology (ECM) was used to investigate short-term and long-term relationships. Findings reveal that the accumulation of foreign reserves was significantly influenced in the long run only by aggregate exports EXPT and trade openness OPN since both variables were statistically significant at 5 percent. At the specified beak-point, there was an important structural change. Finally, Nigeria’s level of international reserves was significantly impacted by the quality of its institutions. Thus, the study recommends that policymakers maintain the current exchange rate regime in order to ensure world competitiveness. The research also suggested that the government take steps to improve and build strong institutions in order to promote transparency and accountability.

Page(s): 287-297                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6513

 Scholastica A. Abuh-Amasi
University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria

 Nsikak J. Joshua
Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Calabar, Nigeria

 Margaret O. Onoyom
University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria

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Scholastica A. Abuh-Amasi, Nsikak J. Joshua, Margaret O. Onoyom , “Determinants of International Reserves in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.287-297 May 2022 DOI:

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Effects of modernization strategy on performance of department of immigration and citizen services in Kenya

Daniel M. Thirikwa – May 2022- Page No.: 298-303

Modernization as strategy has been widely discussed in the strategy field, where the majority of studies have examined the performance consequences of diversification. The study was anchored under Life Cycle Theory. The study populace was 124 representatives of the Department of Immigration and Citizen Services. The researcher utilized a straightforward separated arbitrary examining technique to choose a sample size of 74 respondents. Questionnaires were utilized which had open finished and shut finished inquiries to gather information which were then analyzed and information presented in tables showing Mean, frequencies and standard deviation for interpretation. The study recorded a response rate of 78%, with a gender ration of 60.3% of the respondent were male while 39.7% were female. modernization strategy yields a β value of 0.435 (effect) on the performance of the state department of immigration and citizen services in Kenya, and a p- value of 0.05 which is considered huge yet to weak levels. The study revealed that the organizations had adopted appropriate technologies suitable to context, that technology improvement had been streamlined to be in line with the competency desired and that it helped improve on the operations efficiency. The study recommended to the various scholars and academicians as it has made an important contribution to the scholarly world and in the general advancement of academic knowledge on turnaround strategies especially in the state owned organizations which mostly experience the decline in performance and end up closing doors.

Page(s): 298-303                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

 Daniel M. Thirikwa
Masters of Business Administration, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

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Daniel M. Thirikwa “Effects of modernization strategy on performance of department of immigration and citizen services in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.298-303 May 2022 URL:

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Development of Indigenous Physics as Solution to Socio-economic Problems: Insights from Physics Teachers and Elders

Edson Mudzamiri, Conlious.J. Chagwiza, Ensleem. T .Madudzo – May 2022- Page No.: 304-313

The limited application of Indigenous Physics in the development programs of many nations has resulted in the emergence and reoccurrence of many socio-economic problems. This study argues that, if Indigenous physics including its teaching, learning and practice are demystified and developed people’s socio-economic problems can be solved. Indigenous physics is a reservoir of critical scientific knowledge, skills, technology and practices that are compatible with the people’s socio-economic contexts hence can offer solutions to problems such as energy crisis and those associated with climatic change as well as environmental degradation. Electricity shortages may be minimized by increasing its generation using Indigenous Physics Knowledge of electrostatics applied in creating of lightning that requires neither large dams, foreign currency nor large workforce. This qualitative study adopted Post-colonial theory ideas grounded in indigenous research paradigm. The participants were selected purposively, and interviewed. Teachers formed focus groups while Elders engaged in cultural talks at cultural meetings. Thematic data analysis revealed findings indicating that development of IP is possible and necessary as it can provide solutions to people’s problems. The study stimulates new thoughts and generates discussion on the wealth of Indigenous Physics Knowledge that can be used to solve socio-economic problems .

Page(s): 304-313                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6514

 Edson Mudzamiri
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 Conlious.J. Chagwiza
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 Ensleem. T .Madudzo
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

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Edson Mudzamiri, Conlious.J. Chagwiza, Ensleem. T .Madudzo, “Development of Indigenous Physics as Solution to Socio-economic Problems: Insights from Physics Teachers and Elders” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.304-313 May 2022 DOI:

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Diponegoro War (1825-1830) In the Perspective of Total War Strategy

Dhiah Ayu Duwi Wahyuni, Sukma Wijaya, Jeffri Dominggus Ritiau, I Wayan Midhio – May 2022- Page No.: 314-318

Indonesia is one of the countries that implements a universal defense system, which in the universal defense system involves all people and all national resources, national facilities and infrastructure, and all regions of the country as a defense unit. The concept of the Universe War was born long before independence, at which time Indonesia was faced with a difficult and critical situation due to the arrival of the Dutch who wanted to spread their influence in the archipelago. With all the limitations it has, the Indonesian nation must fight to face the colonization carried out by the Dutch, both through diplomatic struggles and armed struggles. Both forms of struggle in the war are carried out guerrillaally, integrated, and supporting each other, and by mobilizing all their resources. Based on this phenomenon, the author was encouraged to analyze the birth of the concept of the Universe War which stemmed from the historical experience of the struggle of the Indonesian nation during the Diponegoro War. The discussion in this article uses qualitative research methods using a historical approach, where in the procedure of preparation through four stages, namely: heuristic, criticism, interpretation, and historiography. The data analysis used is historical analysis, with an emphasis on sharpness in interpreting historical facts. From the analysis and research conducted, it can be proven that during the Diponegoro War, armed struggle and diplomatic struggle can run parallel and strengthen each other. The essence of equality has been embedded in both forms of struggle with the support and mobilization of the people, the deployment of all resources owned and the entire area of struggle.

Page(s): 314-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

 Dhiah Ayu Duwi Wahyuni
Study Program Total War Strategy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 Sukma Wijaya
Study Program Total War Strategy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 Jeffri Dominggus Ritiau
Study Program Total War Strategy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 I Wayan Midhio
Study Program Total War Strategy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

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Dhiah Ayu Duwi Wahyuni, Sukma Wijaya, Jeffri Dominggus Ritiau, I Wayan Midhio “Diponegoro War (1825-1830) In the Perspective of Total War Strategy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.314-318 May 2022 URL:

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Trajectories of Curriculum Change in Initial Primary Teacher Education in Zambia

Kalisto Kalimaposo, PhD – May 2022- Page No.: 319-331

This chapter reviews trends in primary teacher education for the last five decades in Zambia. Since independence, Zambia has undertaken the following curriculum reforms in primary teacher education; the Zambia Primary Course(ZPC), The Zambia Basic Education Course(ZBEC), The Field Based Teacher Training Approach(FIBATTA) which was discontinued hardly three months of trial, The Zambia Teacher Education Reform Programme(ZATERP) piloted in three colleges of education, The Zambia Teacher Education Course(ZATEC-one year college based and one year school-based);the Zambia Teacher Education Course(ZATEC-two year residential course) and the current three year Diploma Primary Teacher Education Programme. The Ministry of Education upgraded all primary colleges of education to Diploma status and affiliated them to the University of Zambia. For a couple of years, the Ministry of Education back peddled and attached all Colleges of Education to the Examinations Council of Zambia (ECZ), a decision that was roundly condemned as a departure from the SADC protocol on education. Meanwhile, Colleges of Education which were under ECZ have now reverted to the University of Zambia with respect to quality assurance and programme supervision.

Page(s): 319-331                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6515

 Kalisto Kalimaposo, PhD
Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education, School of Education, University of Zambia, Zambia

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Kalisto Kalimaposo, PhD “Trajectories of Curriculum Change in Initial Primary Teacher Education in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.319-331 May 2022 DOI:

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Distress, Gratitude, and Online Coping Strategies in the Academe during the Pandemic (COVID-19) Epoch

Amelie L. Chico, DM FRIM – May 2022- Page No.: 332-336

COVID-19 is a global problem affecting Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). This pandemic led to a strong reason among students who experience distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine students’ distress, gratitude and coping strategies in the academic during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings showed that adequate information and high-risk perceptions were accessible to students. Non-medical prevention measures were perceived as highly effective. There were students satisfied with the government’s actions to mitigate problems. Unwillingness to the online-blended learning approach, however, has been observed. Students used different approaches to deal with the problems of mental health challenges. During this COVID-19 pandemic among HEIs, it is important to address the mental health of learners.

Page(s): 332-336                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6516

 Amelie L. Chico, DM FRIM
University Professor/Research Coordinator
College of Business Administration Education
University of Mindanao –Panabo College
Panabo, Davao del Norte, Philippines

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Amelie L. Chico, DM FRIM , “Distress, Gratitude, and Online Coping Strategies in the Academe during the Pandemic (COVID-19) Epoch” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.332-336 May 2022 DOI:

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Formal Education a Multi – sided key in mitigating teenage pregnancy among secondary school children. A case of Munali area, in Lusaka Province, Zambia

Lungowe Wamunyima P, Margaret Mwale Mkandawire and Harrison Daka – May 2022- Page No.: 337-343

The purpose of this study was to explore the role of education in mitigating teenage pregnancy among secondary school children in Munali area, Lusaka. The study design was a case study in which interviews were conducted and questionnaires were distributed. This study took a total of 40 participants including 20 school teenage girls who happen to be the main characteristic feature for which this study was undertaken, 10 teachers, and 10 heads of department. In response to the educative measures in order to mitigate teenage pregnancy, among the findings the study found that there is need to promote community service activities, and providing education about birth control among the main measures to consider in order mitigate teenage pregnancies. Also, the study found that misinterpretation of children’s rights, lack of awareness and insight regarding the consequences of teenage pregnancy were among the major factors leading to teenage pregnancy. More so, it found that poor collaboration among school departments, lack of public awareness and programs, lack of sensitization workshops and having unqualified educators in terms of counselling both in the communities and schools were some of the challenges and barriers faced thereby leading to high levels of teenage pregnancies. The study recommended that parents should be actively engaged in partnership with the school, educators and social workers. In addition, that there should be collaboration among different school departments should be emphasized in order for better coordination of programmes about sex education and psychosocial; collaboration with healthcare services, schools and communities to engage trained educators who will be able to counsel learners in relation to psychosocial issues, as they are supposed to focus on the education of learners.

Page(s): 337-343                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6517

 Lungowe Wamunyima P
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka Zambia

 Margaret Mwale Mkandawire
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka Zambia

 Harrison Daka
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka Zambia

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Lungowe Wamunyima P, Margaret Mwale Mkandawire and Harrison Daka “Formal Education a Multi – sided key in mitigating teenage pregnancy among secondary school children. A case of Munali area, in Lusaka Province, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.337-343 May 2022 DOI:

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The Effect of Identified Social ICT Platforms on Prevalence of Conflicts in Kenya

Dr. Jacob Asige Chavulimu, Ph.D., Prof. Godrick Bulitia Mathews, Ph.D. – May 2022- Page No.: 344-350

Information Communication Technology contributes immensely to the world economy. In Developed countries, ICT innovations are utilized for safety, economic improvement and health while much is yet to be realized in developing countries. Africa has advanced in ICT though not clear on how it enhances the people’s wellbeing apart from positive and negative causes on moral value erosion and wars. This paper sought to establish the influence of identified ICT platforms on conflict prevalence in Kenya. Specifically, the study objectives were to establish the effect of Facebook communication and information flow on conflict prevalence, establish the information flow through WhatsApp on conflict prevalence, determine the influence of Twitter on conflict prevalence and establish the influence of Instagram on conflict prevalence in Kenya. Social exchange and innovation theories were adopted. The population of the study will entail the general public with a sample of 384 respondents sourced through media. Simple random sampling was employed to get the sample respondents. Questionnaires were formulated and sent online through the media and feedback analyzed with the aid of SPSS. Reliability of the instruments was ensured using Cronbach’s reliability technique while validity was checked using content validity methods. The findings revealed a reliability coefficient of 0.83 for the overall instruments implying that it was reliable. Pearson product moment correlation and multiple linear regression models were mingled with descriptive statistics to obtain meaningful associations and ratings. The findings were presented in tables. First, it emerged from the demographic characteristics that most of the respondents, 200(52.6%) were aged 51-60, 171(45.0%) were male and majority of professionals worked in NGOs. The findings revealed that ICT platforms (social media) accounted for an overall significant variance of 72.1% in conflict prevalence. Facebook (β=.333, p<.05), WhatsApp (β=.329, p<.05), Instagram (β=.278, p<.05) and Twitter (β=.225, p<.05) has a significant effect on Conflict prevalence in Kenya. It was concluded that the selected social media ICT platforms contributed significantly to conflict prevalence in Kenya. The findings may be helpful to stakeholders in the ICT, scholars and conflict sector in controlling disruptive innovations and managing conflicts.

Page(s): 344-350                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

 Dr. Jacob Asige Chavulimu, Ph.D.
Division of Academics and Students Affairs, Murang’a University of Technology

 Prof. Godrick Bulitia Mathews, Ph.D.
Division of Academics and Students Affairs, Masai Mara University

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Dr. Jacob Asige Chavulimu, Ph.D., Prof. Godrick Bulitia Mathews, Ph.D., “The Effect of Identified Social ICT Platforms on Prevalence of Conflicts in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.344-350 May 2022 URL:

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Methodology in Teaching and Learning: a Paradigm Shift in Tertiary Education with Web 2.0

Ogunlade, Bamidele Olusola Ph.D, J. O. Akhigbe. Ph.D, O. V. Adeoluwa. Ph. D. – May 2022- Page No.: 351-355

This conceptual study looks at how Web 2.0 can be used to improve teaching and learning in tertiary institutions’ research processes. The study investigates the dynamic technical and philosophical developments in education, as well as how to put new technology into practice. It explores various aspect of Web 2.0 as well as the evolving perspectives on teaching and learning in higher education. The integration of appropriate pedagogies and Web 2.0 tools can help create and support collaborative student learning and teaching.

Page(s): 351-355                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

 Ogunlade, Bamidele Olusola Ph.D
Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology. Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

 J. O. Akhigbe. Ph.D
Auchi Polytechic, Auchi, Nigeria

 O. V. Adeoluwa. Ph. D.
Ekiti State University Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

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Ogunlade, Bamidele Olusola Ph.D, J. O. Akhigbe. Ph.D, O. V. Adeoluwa. Ph. D. “Methodology in Teaching and Learning: a Paradigm Shift in Tertiary Education with Web 2.0” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.351-355 May 2022 URL:

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Students Pedagogical Competencies in Teaching Assistant Programs and Its Impact on Reinforcement of Learning in Partner Schools

Suwarsito, Hindayati Mustafidah, Mustolikh – May 2022- Page No.: 356-359

Merdeka Belajar Kampus Merdeka (MBKM) Program as launched by the Ministry of Education and Culture, Research and Technology, has had a tremendous impact on the qualitative development of education in Indonesia. As a form of support for the MBKM program, the Geography Education Study Program, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto (UMP) held a Teaching Assistance program with partners from 3 public and private schools in Banyumas Regency. This program was attended by 19 students. The results of this Teaching Assistance program, students have pedagogical competence with an average value of 88.22. The competencies achieved include lesson planning, learning implementation, attitudes, and non-teaching activities. This activity not only has an impact on increasing the strengthening of learning in partner schools, but also has an impact on changes in the physical environment, culture, and school administration. The Teaching Assistance program needs to be continued because there are benefits that are felt by partner schools, although there are improvements that need to be made, namely this activity should be carried out in its entirety and it is necessary to provide students with basic knowledge about learning and administration.

Page(s): 356-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6518

Geography Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia

 Hindayati Mustafidah
Informatics Engineering, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia

Geography Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia

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[4] D. Sopiansyah, S. Masruroh, Q. Y. Zaqiah, and M. Erihadiana, 2022, “MBKM Curriculum Concept and Implementation,” Reslaj Relig. Educ. Soc. Laa Roiba J., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 34–41.
[5] T. M. Fuadi and D. Aswita, 2021, “Merdeka Belajar Kampus Merdeka (MBKM): How to Apply and Constraints Faced by Private Universities in Aceh,” J. Dedik. Pendidik., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 603–614.
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[9] R. Rosmiati, I. Putra, and A. Nasori, 2021, “Measuring the Quality of Learning at FKIP UNJA in an Effort to Build an Economic Citizen Generation that Elaborates the Ministry of Education and Culture’s MBKBM Program,” EDUKATIF J. Ilmu Pendidik., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 5256–5264.

Suwarsito, Hindayati Mustafidah, Mustolikh “Students Pedagogical Competencies in Teaching Assistant Programs and Its Impact on Reinforcement of Learning in Partner Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.356-359 May 2022 DOI:

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Competencies That the Pre-Service Performing Arts Teachers’ Lack in Their Preparation at Colleges of Education, Ghana

Ebenezer Osei-Senyah, Maxwell Adu, Samuel Kumih – May 2022- Page No.: 360-373

The study aimed at examining the special competencies that pre-service Performing Arts teachers’ lack in their preparation at Colleges of Education: Ghana. The descriptive survey technique of sequential exploratory mixed- method inquiry was adopted for the study. Purposive sampling techniques were used to sample (514) respondents made up of (509) pre-service teachers’ and (5) tutors in the selected Colleges of Education in Ghana. The main instruments used for data collection was questionnaire and classroom observation. The study revealed that the pre-service Performing Arts teachers lack the following: singing skills, skills in creating pop song, conducting skills, skills in playing traditional drums, skills in playing Atεntεbɛn and Gyile, dancing skills, skills in playing western melodic instruments like trumpet, skills in creating drama or dance drama and melodic and harmony writing skills. It was recommended that the pre-service Performing Arts teachers should be deeply involved in all the activities that will lead to the total development of their cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.

Page(s): 360-373                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

 Ebenezer Osei-Senyah
Offinso College of Education

 Maxwell Adu
McCoy College of Education

 Samuel Kumih
Al-Faruq College of Education

[1] Adegoke, (2003)., The Education in Ghana: A contemporary Sypnosis and Matters arising.
[2] Aduonum, K., (1981). A compilation, analysis, and adaptation of selected Ghanaian folktale songs for use in the elementary general music class. Doctoral dissertation in music education, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, 1980 (UMI No. AAI 8017212).
[3] Asare, B., & Kofi Nti, S. (2016). Teacher Education in Ghana: A Contemporary Sypnosis and Matters arising.
[4] Benneh, B., (2006). The Education in Ghana: A contemporary Sypnosis and Matters arising.
[5] Boamajeh, C. Y., & Ohene-Okantah, M., (2000). An introduction to music education for music teachers in schools and colleges. Kumasi: Payless Publication Ltd.
[6] Cochran- Smith, M., (2002, 3 -7 February). The outcomes question in teacher education.Paper presented at the Challenging futures: Changing agendas in teacher education, Armidale.
[7] Creswell J.W. (2005), Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. The University of Michigan.
[8] Gordon, E.E., (1971). The Psychology of Music Teaching. Eaglewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.
[9] Frederick J. Gravetter, Lori-Ann B., Forzano (2009), Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences.Thomson/Wadsworth, 2009.
[10] Kodaly, Z., (1973). Teaching music at beginning levels through the Kodaly concept. 3 vols. Wellesley, Mass: Kodaly Musical Training Institute.
[11] Manford, R., (1986). A Handbook for Primary School Music Teachers, Accra: Samwoode Limited. “The status of music teacher education in Ghana with Recommendation for improvement”. Ph D. Diss. Ohio: University, USA.
[12] Mereku, C.W.K., (2001). “Cultural Education in Ghana through Effective Teaching of Music and Dance in Schools”, Paper delivered at the Inaugural ceremony of UCEW Association of Music Students (AMUS). UCEW, Winneba.
[13] Mereku, K. D., (2019). Sixty Years of teacher education in Ghana: Successes, challenges and way forward. African journal of Education Studies in Mathematics and Science.
[14] Mereku, C. W. K., & Addo, G. W., & Ohene-Okantah, M., (2005). Teaching music and dance in Junior Secondary Schools: A Handbook for J.S.S. 1 Teachers. Accra: Adwinsa Publications (Gh) Ltd.
[15] Mereku, C. W. K., & Ohene-Okantah, M. (2010). Music and dance for the basic school teacher. Institute for education development and extension (UEW).
[16] National Teachers’ Standards and Teacher Education Curriculum Framewor`k for Ghana (MoE-NCTE-2017).
[17] Smith, B.O., & Stanley, M.O., Shores, J.H., (1957). Fundamentals of Curriculum Development. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc.

Ebenezer Osei-Senyah, Maxwell Adu, Samuel Kumih , “Competencies That the Pre-Service Performing Arts Teachers’ Lack in Their Preparation at Colleges of Education, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.360-373 May 2022 URL:

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Return on Capital Employed of Listed Manufacturing Companies and Government Spending on Infrastructures in Nigeria (1990 -2015)

Olajire Aremu Odunlade, Folajimi Festus Adegbie – May 2022- Page No.: 374-378

Government spending on infrastructures in various subsectors of the economy such as power, roads, education for human capital development and security is often directed towards increase in the production of goods and services and creating environment that will enhance the welfare of the citizens. However poor state of infrastructure in Nigeria, have been noted to be affecting the financial performance of manufacturing companies in the country. Our focus in this study was to link government spending on Power, Roads, Security and Human Capital Development with the micro variables of firm performance in the area of Return On Capital Employed (ROCE).The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The population of the study was 83 listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria as at December 31, 2016, from which a sample size of 20 was purposively selected based on availability of data covering the period from 1990 to 2015. Secondary data were obtained from published financial statements of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria, publications of government and the World Bank. Validity and Reliability of the data were based on the reports of external auditors and other regulatory agencies. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods.
The study found that government spending on Power, Roads, security and human capital development have no joint significant effect on ROCE (F(4, 21 ) = 0.523, the P-value associated with the F-value as is 0.720, this is greater than 0.05 indicating that there was no significant relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. adj R2 = -0.083. Coefficients of the independent variables show that Government spending on Power had positive but insignificant effect on ROCE (t=0.524, p>0.05). Roads had negative, insignificant effect on ROCE(t=-0.498, p>0.05) Security had negative but insignificant effect on ROCE (t(26) = -1.221, p>0.05), HCD had positive but insignificant effect on ROCE (t(26) = 0.823, p>0.05). The study concluded that government spending on infrastructural development in the areas of power, road, security and education did not impact on the Return On Capital Employed of manufacturing companies in Nigeria within the period of study. Sustainable industrial development requires adequate funding of infrastructures in Nigeria to reduce cost of operations and increase profitability level of manufacturing companies.

Page(s): 374-378                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6519

 Olajire Aremu Odunlade
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo Ogun State, Nigeria

 Folajimi Festus Adegbie
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo Ogun State, Nigeria

[1] Andrew, S., Emily, D., Alberto, L. & Juan-Pablo, R. (2014). How does electricity insecurity affect businesses in low and middle income countries? London: Overseas Development Institute
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[4] Chinedum, E. M. & Nnadi, K. U. (2016). Electricity Supply and Output in Nigerian Manufacturing. Retrieved 23/2/2018, 7(6) 154
[5] Crook, T. R., Todd, S. Y., Combs, J. G., Woehr, D. J.,& Ketchen, D. J. (2011), Does human capital matter? A meta-analysis of the relationship between human capital and firm performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(3), 443–456. Sector. Journal of Economics and sustainable development (7)6, 2222-2855
[6] Dunne, P. & Perlo-Freeman, S. (2003). The demand for military spending in developing Countries International Review of Applied Economics 17(1):23-48  
[7] Dhanawade, M.S. & Geadeka, A. B.(2017). An analysis of Return On Capital Employed and Enhanced Return On Capital Employed as a tool for appraisal of financial performance of phamarceutical companies in India. Journal of Advances in Business 3(3), 155-158
[8] Deger, S. & Sen, S. (2013) Defence, innovation and development: the case of Israel. Journal of Innovation Economics & Management 2(12),37-57
[9] Eurostat data (2015)
[10] Eurostat data (2017)
[11] Federal Government of Nigeria Publications
[12] Gorton, D. (2017). Key financial ratios for manufacturing companies. International Energy Outlook, (2016)
[13] Holodny, E ( 2015 ). The eleven countries with the best infrastructure around the world. Business Insider,
[14] Institute for Energy Research. Electricity Generation (2014)
[15] Institute for Energy Research. Electricity Generation (2015)
[16] Karim, A. Al-Huda, N & Shabbir, A. (2012). Human capital and the development of manufacturing sector in malaysia. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development 4(4):105-114
[17] Meyers, R. T. (1996). Is there a key to the normative budgeting lock? Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[18] National Planning Commission Report (2015)
[19] Otto, G & Ukpere, W. (2015). The impact of national security on foreign direct investment in Nigeria. IOSR journal of Business and Management 17(5), 69-74
[20] Ogwo, E. O, & Agu, G. A,(2016). Transport infrastructure, manufacturing sector performance and the growth of gross domestic product in Nigeria, (1999-2011). Journal of Business and African Economy 2(1), 1-21
[21] O’Sullivan, A. & Sheffrin, S. M. (2003). Economics: principles in action. Upper saddle River. New Jersey, Pearsonv prentice hall.
[22] Poepsel, M. (2017) Major human capital trends that will shape the coming year. The Predictive Index
[23] Rahmah, I (2009). The impact of human capital attainment on output and labor Productivity of Malaysia firms. Journal of international management studies 4(1),221-222.
[24] Rothbard, M. (2013). Man, Economy, and State, with Power and Market. www.
[25] Schick, A (1998). An inquiry into the possibility of a budget theory.” Washington, DC: The urban institute.
[26] Wee, R. Y. (2017). Countries most prone to power outages financial loss. World Facts, 2017
[27] World Bank (2011). World development indicators: electricity production, sources, and access
[28] World Bank Report (2014)
[29] World Bank Report (2017)
[30] World Fact Book (2017)
[31] World Facts (2017)
[32] World Bank Enterprise Survey of Business (2017)
[33] World Development Indicator (2015)
[34] Z alk, N . (2014). South Africa Infrastructure

Olajire Aremu Odunlade, Folajimi Festus Adegbie “Return on Capital Employed of Listed Manufacturing Companies and Government Spending on Infrastructures in Nigeria (1990 -2015)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.374-378 May 2022 DOI:

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An Examination of the Nexus between Law and Medical Ethics in the Procurement and Transplantation of Human Organs in Nigeria

Prof. Justus A. Sokefun, Prof Ak Anya, Dr Du Odigie – May 2022- Page No.: 379-390

The interaction subsisting between law and medical ethics, more particularly, legal control of procurement and transplantation of human organ in Nigeria is attractive premised on grounds of its history and the resultant effect of the conundrum in a heterogeneous society, largely made up of different religious beliefs. Against this backdrop, the authors examined the relational basis for the overall interaction between law and medical ethics, regard been had to the fact that medical practitioners are in the main saddled with the responsibility of procuring and transplanting of human organs aimed at restoring and where applicable reviving the health conditions of patients, notwithstanding the socio-cultural religious belief system of the individuals comprised in the Nigerian society. The authors argued that law should be a supportive instrument in providing a stabilising effect on all aspects of practice of medicine, inclusive of the process of obtaining consent of the patient, procurement and transplantation of human organs. Consequently, the paper therefore maintained the imperatives of having various social and legal systems evolve a similitude of standardised proceedings and ethos relating to the protection of the health of its population, even at the detriment of socio- cultural and religious systems as applicable in Nigeria. The institutionalisation of the medical regime sector will invariably lead to the control of medical practice in the process of obtaining consent, procurement and transplantation of human organs in a developing multicultural society.

Page(s): 379-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

 Prof. Justus A. Sokefun
Ph.D, B.L, Professor of Law, National Open University, Abuja, Nigeria

 Prof Ak Anya
Ph.D, B.L, Professor of Law, Igbinedion University College of Law, Okada, Nigeria

 Dr Du Odigie
Ph.D, B.L, Associate Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Benin, Nigeria

[1]. Mark J. Bliton and Virginia L. Bartlett, Exploring Clinical Ethics‟ Past to Imagine Its Possible Future(s), June, Volume 18, Number 6, 2018, American Journal of Bioethics, 55
[2]. If for instance, an automobile accident patient is brought to a medical practitioner with serious loss of blood, it would be unethical for the practitioner to refuse to administer blood drips on him. If the patient dies of loss of blood, the medical practitioner may face the Ethics Panel which, after examining the matter and giving him a fair trial, may suspend or expel him from the practice of the profession or exculpate him entirely from the allegation depending on the circumstances
[3]. The exception to this assertion is where a patient refuses blood transfusion, on personal basis. See the case of Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal v Okonkwo [2001] FWLR (pt. 44) 542 and Dr Obioma Azubuike Okezie v Chairman, Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal (2010)LPELR-4717 (CA)
[4]. Blackstone‟s Commentaries 1 129: Blackstone must have relied on Saint Thomas Aquinas‟ view that the time of animation of the foetus began with quickening; Suma Theological Part 1 Question 75 Article 1 available at accessed 29 May, 2019
[5]. 2014.
[6]. Cap. 221 [Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[7]. Cap 332 [Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[8]. Cap. 357 [Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[9]. Cap. 386 [Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[10]. Cap. 463 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[11]. Cap.131 of 1998 (SA)
[12]. Cap. 61 of 2003 (SA)
[13]. 2002 (SA)
[14]. Cap.29 of 2007 (SA)
[15]. Cap.1 of 2008 (SA)
[16]. Plato Phaedrus 270 c-d available at accessed 28 May, 2019
[17]. The admission qualifications are at least, 5 credit level passes at not more than two sittings in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and one other subject in the West African School Certificate Examination or National Examination Commission. This is exclusive of the Joint Admissions and Matriculations Examination in which a candidate must score not less than 180 points to qualify. The final point for admission is the Post-Universities Matriculations Examination which is administered by individual universities. The minimum score for admission is usually locally determined. The duration of study is 6 years with one year mandatory „houseman ship‟ after which the candidate is awarded the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS or MB ChB). After this, a person may be referred to as a Physician or Medical Doctor. The situation in South Africa is not different in that there are sacrosanct entry requirements for admission to study medicine. For a candidate to convert a Grade 12 score for admission into medicine, an admission point of 28 is required with an achievement level of 5 (60%) in Physical Sciences and Mathematics respectively and 4 (50%) in English Language.
[18]. In referring to previous epochal works on Ethics, Mark J, and Virginia L. Bartlett, I „.Exploring Clinical Ethics Past to Imagine its Possible Future(s)‟, volume 18, 2018 – Issue 6 page 55 noted as follows,„…contributing to moving beyond initial boundaries of the field, to providing investigations and to sustaining rigorous practice are crucial elements of clinical ethics origin stories and so deserve considerably more attention…‟
[19]. Adopted by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association, September 1948. It reads; I solemnly pledge to concentrate my life to the service of humanity, I will give to my teachers the respect and gratitude which is their due. I will practice my profession with conscience and dignity. The health of my patient will be my first consideration; I will respect the secrets which are confided in me, even after the patient has died, I will maintain by all means in my power, the honour and the noble tradition of the medical profession. My colleagues will be my brothers; I will not permit considerations of religion, nationality, race, party politics or social standing to intervene in my duty and my patient, I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception. Even under threat, I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity. I make these promises solemnly, freely and upon my honour.
[20]. Citizen Compendium, „Medical Ethics‟ available at
[21]. William Ruddick, „Medical Ethics‟ accessed 30 May 2019.
[22]. Ernest J Soulsby, „Resistance to antimicrobials in humans and animals‟ British Medical Journal (BMJ) (2005): 1219–1220.
[23]. John L. Couleha, The Medical Interview: Mastering Skills for Clinical Practice (Medical Interview) 5th edition (2005): 55
[24]. Mackie, J.L., and Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, (New York: Penguin Books, 1977): 109.
[25]. The consequentialist‟s view on this is that the family‟s burden of the pain on their kin is lighter, knowing, at least, that he had died peacefully. The deontological approach is entirely different. The deontologist believes that lying is fundamentally wrong and that the family members are entitled to the truth about the circumstances of the death of their kin.
[26]. Ajayi S O, Raji Y, Salako B L, Ethical And Legal Issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016 : 27: 125
[27]. Ibid, at P. 125. See also Abubakar A Bakari, Umar S Abbo Jimeta, Mohammed A Abubakar, Sani U Alhassan and Emeka A Nwankwo, “Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspectives in Nigeria,” Nig. J. Surg. 18 (2) (2012): 53-60
[28]. The question may be asked, „whether law must possess a coercive element by way of sanction.‟ Is law devoid of its character as law on grounds of lacking an incidental element of sanction. Is „obedience‟ a necessary ingredient of law. It should be noted however, that compliance to effective laws is not in any an infraction to the existence of the given law.
[29]. Law Dictionary accessed 7 January, 2019.
[30]. The state as a matter of fact, and through its legislative arm is charged with law-making. Baring all odds, some jurisdictions are usually inclined in accommodating bills of private individuals, in the course of enriching its legal system.
[31]. There is need to emphasis the fact that laws aimed at achieving control of medical profession and incidental ethics are constitutive and manifesting forms of positive laws.
[32]. In this instance, he cited the case of a robber who inflicts an evil upon his victim who loses his money. This is primary evil. The secondary evil aspect of it is that a successful robbery will give the impression that robbery is easy. The effect of this is to weaken the sanctity of life and property in the community. The secondary evil aspect is more important than the primary evil in that the actual loss to the victim may well be considerably less than the harm against security, property and life, which are against the society at large.
[33]. Antal Szerletics, Paternalism: Moral Theory and Legal Practice, (2015) Warsaw Studies in Philosophy and Social Sciences, New York available at accessed 20 may, 2019.
[34]. Dworkin, Paternalism: Some Second Thoughts (University of Minnesota Press, 1983): 107
[35]. Ibid.
[36]. In the practical sense, paternalism is a limitation of the right of the individual up to the point at which he ought to be protected by the State. Some of the ways of protecting the individual are contained in Chapter Four of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Chapter two of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. The same type of provisions exist in jurisdictions where there are written constitutions like Ghana, America, Finland among others. These provisions protect the rights of individual from interference by the State and other persons. As was noted by the European Court of Human Rights in Neimeitz v. Germany 16 December 1992 paragraph 29, the rights ensure „the development without outside interference, of the personality of each individual in his relations with other human beings.‟
[37]. Notwithstanding the teleological paternalism of law, there are however, limits as observed by Dworkin. (1) The state must show that the behaviour governed by the proposed restriction involves the sort of harm that a rational person would avoid. (2) The calculations of a fully rational person, the potential harm restriction outweighs the benefits of the relevant behaviour. (3) The proposed restriction is the least restricted alternative for protecting against the harm. See generally Dworkin R, Ibid, at Pp. 109, 111.
[38]. Code of Medical Ethics in Nigeria, 2004 edition [Hereafter, Code of Medical Ethics]
[39]. Oxford Advanced learner‟s dictionary 82.
[40]. Berube M, The American Heritage Steadman‟s Medical Dictionary (Boston: 2002) 583.
[41]. Ibid.
[42]. Centre for Bioethics, “Ethics of Organ Transplant,” University of Minnesota, Centre for Bioethics, (2004) 5.
[43]. Ibid, at Pp. 7, 11.
[44]. [Hereafter, The Health Act]
[45]. Section 64, National Health Act 2014
[46]. WHO, “Human Transplants” accessed 15 January, 2018.
[47]. History of Organ and Tissue Donation, accessed 15 January, 2018
[48]. Ibid.
[49]. Ibid. Cf. with Nigeria, it is a known fact that the pioneer kidney transplant in Nigeria was carried out in 1999 at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. After this, Teaching Hospitals with facilities for kidney transplant in Nigeria have increased. They include the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Bayero University Teaching Hospital, Kano and lately St. Nicholas Hospital, Lagos.
[50]. Fadare J. and Salako B., “Ethical Issues in Kidney Transplantation-Reflections from Nigeria,” Dove Press Journal (2010): 87.
[51]. Ibid.
[52]. In the communiqué issued at the first Scientific and Biennial meeting of the Transplant Association of Nigeria on 24 October, 2012, the Association noted that 160 kidney transplantations had been successfully performed in Nigeria. See also Ifeoma Ulasi and Chinwuba K. Ijoma, Transplantation, April 2016. Volume 100. Number 4 where it was asserted that only living donation is offered in Nigeria and that a total of 201 kidney transplants have been performed between 2000 and 2014. This may be compared with a 2009 report that at least 1000 kidney transplants are done in Egypt in a year. See Delmonico L. Francis, The Implications of Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism, Current Opinion on Organ Transplantation: April 2009-Volume 14-Issue 2- page 116-119.
[53]. Kanniyakonil, Http:// organ donation.
[54]. Life, organ donationaccessed 30 January, 2018.
[55]. See for instance, the Organ Donation Foundation of South Africa, Transplant Links Charity of the United Kingdom, United Network For Organ Sharing of the United States and other organisations with such interest
[56]. Space constraint will not permit us do an in-depth investigation on consent. However, the following are the important factors to be considered in respect of consent. A. Mental and legal capacity to make the decision B. Consent without duress, undue influence and any form of coercion or misrepresentation It should also be noted the need for the availability of sufficient information on the proposed surgery to ground a decision. See generally Stauch M, et al Sourcebook on Medical Law, 2nd edition (London: 2000):119. See again, Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal v Okonkwo (2001) FWLR (Pt. 44) 542, on consent, breach of Medical ethics, procedure of adjudication by the Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal. Furthermore, the justices in the case of Dr. Amos Adebayo v Chairman, Medical and Dental Practitioners Investigative Panel & Ors (2018) LPELR 45537 (CA) relied on some of the rationes in the case of Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal v Okonkwo. It was decided inter alia that it was an act of professional negligence if a medical practitioner failed to obtain the consent of the patient (informed or otherwise) before proceeding on any surgical procedure, or course of treatment when such consent was necessary.
[57]. National Health Act, 2014, Act No 8
[58]. Section 54 provides that „Human organs obtained from deceased persons for the purpose of transplantation or treatment or Medical or dental training, shall only be used in the prescribed manner.
[59]. Section 56 provides for the purposes recognised under the Act for donation of the body as follows;(a) training of students in health sciences (b) health research (c) advancement of health sciences (d) therapy, including use of tissue in any living person; or (e) production of therapeutic, diagnostic and prophylactic substance.
[60]. Cap C24 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 2004.
[61]. Cap A16 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 2004. Nigeria being a federation of states, each state has its Anatomy Law. For instance, there is the Anatomy Law of Ogun State Cap 12 Laws of Ogun State of Nigeria of 2006, Anatomy Law, Cap 11 Revised Laws of Enugu State of Nigeria, 2004.
[62]. See section 3.
[63]. Cap C24 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 2004.
[64]. Cap C16 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 2004.
[65]. Act No. 61, 2003.
[66]. Regulation 2 of the Regulations Regarding the General Control of Human Bodies, Tissue, Blood, Blood Products and Gametes in Government Notice R180 of Government Gazette No 35099 of 2 March 2012.
[67]. Blackbeard M., “Consent to Organ Transplantation, TydskrifvirHeedendagseHollandsRomeinseReg, 66 (2003): 55.
[68]. Ibid.
[69]. Ibid at p. 56
[70]. Prabhu, Pradeep Kumar, Is Presumed Consent an ethically acceptable way of obtaining organs for transplant, Journal of Intensive Care Society, 0(0) 4
[71]. Shaw, David, Presumed Consent to organ donation and the family overrule, J Intensive Care Soc. 2017 May; 18(2) 96
[72]. Paul Flaman, “Organ and Tissue Transplants: Some Ethical Issues”, Accessed 10 July, 2018.
[73]. It is doubtful if Animal Rights Organisations will agree to the removal of organs from animals as they may perceive that as cruelty against animals notwithstanding the positive effects on humanity.
[74]. Ibid at f/n 88
[75]. Ibid.
[76]. Ibid.
[77]. Cap C38 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004. Section 450 provides that: Any person who wilfully and unlawfully kills, maims, or wounds, any animal capable of being stolen, is guilty of an offence and is liable for imprisonment for seven years if found guilty. 459 (i)(a) „any person who cruelly beats, kicks, ill-treats, over-rides, over-drives, over-loads, tortures, infuriates, or terrifies any animal, or causes or procures, or being the owner, permits any animal to be so used‟ Or (e) „subjects, or causes or procured, or, being the owner, permits to be subjected, any animal to any operation which is performed without due care and humanity is guilty of and offence of cruelty and is liable to imprisonment for six years or to a fine N50 or to both such imprisonment and fine.‟
[78]. Cap C38 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004
[79]. Labuschagne D and Carstens P A, The Constitutional Influence on Organ Transplants With Specific Reference to Organ Procurement, 17 Potchefstroom Elec. L.J. 207 (2014) 218
[80]. Abouna G, Medical Principles and Practice (Basel: Karger AG, 2003): 61.
[81]. Davis D. and Wolitz R., “The Ethics of Organ Allocation”, Staff Working Paper 5, accessed 7th November, 2018
[82]. Ibid at p. 4
[83]. See generally note 58 at P. 34
[84]. [Hereafter, HLA]
[85]. Note 58 at P.36
[86]. Ibid.
[87]. 87Ifeoma I, Ulasi and Chinwuba K. Ijeoma, Transplantation, April 2016, Volume 100. Number 4 page 695
[88]. 88.This literarily translated means „the transcended soul reincarnates fourteen times to atone for perceived sins before going into sublimation or eternity.‟ By this, relations are consoled with the fact that their dead relation will still return to them.
[89]. 89 See generally, the legislations on Health in Nigeria. See specifically, National Health Act, Medical and Dental Practitioners Act, Nursing and Midwifery Act, Pharmacy Act, Radiographers Registration Act and University Teaching Hospitals Act.
[90]. It should be noted that the age of the donor has always been a major problem in the procurement and transplantation of human organs. Some of the major reasons for this problem remains the issue of poverty, inaccessible and remote settlements and illiteracy.

Prof. Justus A. Sokefun, Prof Ak Anya, Dr Du Odigie, “An Examination of the Nexus between Law and Medical Ethics in the Procurement and Transplantation of Human Organs in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.379-390 May 2022 URL:

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Meconium – Stained Amniotic Fluid in Labour – its Significance and Correlation to Early Maternal and Neonatal Outcome – A Prospective Case Control Study in A Tertiary Care Center

Samarawickrama NGCL, Pathiraja R, Gunasekara D, Withanathantrige MR – May 2022- Page No.: 391-397

Background: Meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a well-known factor which associated with significant adverse pregnancy outcomes. Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) occurs in about 5% of deliveries with MSAF and death occurs in about 12% of infants with MAS. The significance of meconium claimed to be varied from being entirely physiological, which exhibits sign of fetal maturity, to a sign of fetal distress as a response to hypoxic insult to the foetus. This study was carried out in a tertiary care centre; with the aim of detecting the significance of MSAF. Additionally, this study compares the fetal and maternal outcome in deliveries complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid and critically evaluates the associated predisposing maternal and fetal factors for MSAF.
Method: This prospective case-control study was carried out in Colombo South Teaching Hospital (University Professorial Obstetrics Unit), Sri Lanka. Women who presented to the unit with pre-defined selection protocol were recruited to the study until the sample size (n = 216 in each arm) is achieved. The Sample was categorized in to two groups depend on the presence or absence of Meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Mean, standard deviation, median and 95% confidence interval are computed for quantitative variables. Chi-square test is applied for calculating the statistical significance of variables such as grades of meconium and Apgar score at 95% confidence interval. The p-value <0.05 and 95% confident interval was utilised to assess the statistical significance. Results: Presence of diabetes in current pregnancy was a significant risk factor for meconium-stained amniotic fluid at delivery with odd ratio of 2.397 (95% Confident Interval 1.203 - 3.568) and p value of <0.00.1. There is a statistically significant association between the mode of delivery and the nature of meconium with odd ratio of 3.029 (95% Confident Interval 1.887 – 3.136) and p value < 0.001, when its moderate to thick meconium staining. Presence of moderate to thick meconium increase the risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity with increased NICU admissions, which is both statistically and clinically significant with odd ratio of 2.412 (95% Confident Interval 1.674 - 3.199) and p value 0.005 when compared with thin meconium staining. Overall, there is a 2-fold rise in operative vaginal deliveries and EM-LSCS (Emergency Lower Segment Caesarean Section) in the presence of MSAF which accountable for 67.3% of the deliveries compared to 37.2% in the clear liquor group. The follow up of neonates at one month and three months of life, revealed no statistically significant concerns on the development of these babies in either arm of the study population. Conclusion: Presence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid is one of the common indications for caesarean delivery. Therefore, the results of this study may help to reduce the number caesarean sections carried out when the meconium is detected during labour. Presence of thin MSAF can be physiological following gut maturation of term foetuses, thus utilization of continuous electronic fetal monitoring can reliably cut down the caesarean section rates without adding numbers to the adverse perinatal outcomes. On the other hand, timely interventions upon detection of abnormal Cardiotocography (CTG), such as operative vaginal delivery or EM-LSCS, can significantly minimise these adverse neonatal outcomes. Abnormal CTG in a clinical background of moderate to thick meconium is more alarming, which warrant urgent interventions compared to the presence of thin / lightly stained meconium.

Page(s): 391-397                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6520

 Samarawickrama NGCL
Consultant Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka

 Pathiraja R
Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

 Gunasekara D
Professor, Department of Paediatric, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 Withanathantrige MR
Consultant Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, Teaching Hospital Mahamodara, Sri Lanka

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Samarawickrama NGCL, Pathiraja R, Gunasekara D, Withanathantrige MR “Meconium – Stained Amniotic Fluid in Labour – its Significance and Correlation to Early Maternal and Neonatal Outcome – A Prospective Case Control Study in A Tertiary Care Center” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.391-397 May 2022 DOI:

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Perception of marriage and divorce by married couples: Exploring the dimension and trends of divorce rate in South-East, Nigeria

Emmanuel Chimezie Eyisi, Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo Ekpechu, Innocent Nwosu, Jonathan Ukah, Emmanuel Orakwe – May 2022- Page No.: 398-410

The study investigated the rate of divorce in the South-Eastern region of Nigeria as a reflection of the perception of married couples on what is the essence of marriage and the bases for divorce. The study was conducted in two local governments areas and six communities in Anambra State South-East of Nigeria. Data were elicited through questionnaires administered on 195 respondents purposively and randomly selected among married couples in the study area. In-depth Interview (IDI) was also conducted on 45 couples. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The rate of divorce in the South-East; variability of divorce among groups and sections; the influence of modernisation and globalisation on the perception of couples and the impact of state intervention in marital stability constitute some of the major objectives of the study. Findings showed increasing rate of divorce; variability in divorce rates on the bases of education, social class, length of marriage and urban residence; increasing dissonance between traditional marital setting and influence of modernization values on the young couples; increasing level of empty shell marriage as reflected in the dilemma of couples towards divorce suits because of poverty, cost and complicated nature of divorce procedure to many couples. The study recommends a buoyant, stable society built on social justice that will rub off on the families as an important group in the society; a revitalisation of marriage counselling structures at the state, religious and NGO levels; and the strengthening of institutions that will be more committed to the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) than a purely legalistic orientation in the handling of marital suits.

Page(s): 398-410                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 June 2022

 Emmanuel Chimezie Eyisi
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo Ekpechu
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Innocent Nwosu
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Jonathan Ukah
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Emmanuel Orakwe
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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Emmanuel Chimezie Eyisi, Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo Ekpechu, Innocent Nwosu, Jonathan Ukah, Emmanuel Orakwe “Perception of marriage and divorce by married couples: Exploring the dimension and trends of divorce rate in South-East, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.398-410 May 2022 URL:

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Rethinking Police Reform in Liberia: With Focus on Police Brutality

Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo Sr – May 2022- Page No.: 411-424

From a qualitative approach coupled with firsthand experience view as a form of ethnographic research, this paper rethinks police reform in Liberia with a focus on police brutality. Empirically, it established the veracity of rising police brutality in Liberia.
As its theoretical framework that explained the causes of police brutality, this article through assumption attributes the causes of police brutality in Liberia to the individual-level factors, organizational-level factors, and the public unawareness or lack of knowledge of the rules and procedures that guide police operations.
Under the organizational-level factors, it assumes that the failure of the reform to have infused behavior health training and emotional intelligence into the Basic Recruit curricula and advanced in-service training module that would have helped tackle the individual-level factors and educate the public about rules and procedures that guide police operations give rise to police brutality in Liberia.
It recommends an assessment survey that will inform the Liberia National Police decision to infuse BHT and EI in both BRT and advance in-service training at the Liberia National Police Training Academy and Training School.

Page(s): 411-424                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 June 2022

 Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo Sr.
Department of Political Science, University of Liberia, Department of Sociology & Criminal Justice, African Methodist Episcopal University

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