Moderating Effect of Information and Communication Technology on Internal Audit Practices and Public Expenditure Management of Government Organizations in Nigeria

Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD) – May 2022- Page No.: 01-08

The study examined the moderating effect of information and communication technology on internal audit practices and public expenditure management of government organizations in Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of 350 staff in the five surveyed government organizations in Nigeria. The study used a questionnaire to elicit information from the respondents. The study applied descriptive and inferential statistical tools to analyze the data and test the hypotheses with the help of SPSS 22.0. The study found that the effect-based information and communication technology in a team, positively relates to the degree of knowledge sharing and learning intensity in the team. The study revealed that information and communication technology are used in internal auditing and this affects public expenditure management. It is suggested that information and communication technology be used increasingly so that the quality of internal auditing can be improved and accordingly, systematic planning and performing internal auditing operations in order to achieve efficient public expenditure management in public organisations. Furthermore, applying information and communication technology by internal auditing units of companies helps to engender efficiency. The results of the study have given a clear indication that information and communication technology have significant effect on internal audit practices and public expenditure management of government organizations. The study recommended that: The public sector administrators should use risk assessment to their advantage by encouraging government organisations’ staff with proficiency in information and communication technology application. Government organizations’ staff should update their knowledge with respect to risk assessment and allocative efficiency through the opportunities provided by information and communication technology solutions so as to be able to benefit from the strategic values of effective and efficient public expenditure management.

Page(s): 01-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6501

 Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD)
Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] Abba, M., & Kakanda, M. M. (2017). Moderating effect of internal control system on the relationship between government revenue and expenditure. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 7(4), 381-392. Retrieved online from:https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.aefr/2017.7.4/102.4.381.392
[2] Adedokun, S. A. (2014). Internal audit function and public expenditure management in Oyo State (Unpublished M.Sc. Accounting Dissertation). Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
[3] Ademola, I. S., Adedoyin, A. O., & Alade, O. R. (2015). Effect of internal control system in Nigeria public sector: a case study of Nigeria national petroleum corporation. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(6), 1093-1105.
[4] Adeniji, A.A. (2011). Auditing and investigations. Wyse Associates Limited, Ikeja Nigeria.
[5] Ahmad, N., Othman, R.& Jusoff, K. (2009). The effectiveness of internal audit in Malaysian Public Sector. Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing,5(9)84 – 790.
[6] Akujuru, C. A. & Enyioko, N. C. (2018). Social science research: Methodology and conceptual perspectives. Beau Bassin: Lambert Academic Publishing.
[7] Alau, S. & Abdulkadir (2009). An assessment of influence of budget process on budget performance. A Case study of Kwara State, Nigeria.
[8] Arena, M.& Azzone, G. (2009). Identifying organizational drivers of internal audit effectiveness. International Journal of Auditing, 13, 43– 60.
[9] Bedford, D. S. (2015). Management control systems across different modes of innovation: Implications for firm performance. Management Accounting Research, 28, 12-30.
[10] Bedford, D. S., & Malmi, T. (2015). Configurations of control: An exploratory analysis. Management Accounting Research, 27, 2-26.
[11] Behrend, J.& Eulerich (2019). The evolution of internal audit research: a bibliometric analysis of published documents (1926–2016). Journal of Accounting History Review 29, 1. 103-139, DOI: 10.1080/21552851.2019.1606721
[12] De Baerdemaeker, J., & Bruggeman, W. (2015). The impact of participation in strategic planning on managers’ creation of budgetary slack: The mediating role of autonomous motivation and affective organizational commitment. Management Accounting Research, 29, 1-12.
[13] Deepak, J. (2010). PFMblog: Internal audit in the public sector: underdeveloped and under used. http://blog-PFM.IMF.org/PFMblog Accessed on 6/6/2019
[14] Erlina, C. & Muda, I, (2018). Determinants of the implementation of risk-based internal auditing. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(5).1360 – 13
[15] Güneş, N., & Atılgan, M. S. (2016). Comparison of the effectiveness of audit committees in the UK and Turkish Banks. International Journal of Financial Research 7(2),18-29.
[16] IIA (2010). Measuring Internal audit effectiveness and efficiency. IPPF–Practice guide. The Institute of Internal Auditors
[17] Karadag, H. (2015). Financial management challenges in small and medium-sized enterprises: A strategic management approach. Emerging Markets Journal, 5(1), 26-40.
[18] Modar, A., & Shatha, K. (2015). The role of internal auditing in risk management: evidence from banks in Jordan. Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 31(1), 30-50.
[19] Monday, J. U., & Aladeraji, O. K. (2015). Strategic Management and Corporate Performance: A Resource-Based Approach. Ife Journal of Humanities and Social sciences, 2(2), 15-32.
[20] Muda, I, Erlina, I. Yahya and A. A. Nasution, (2018). Performance audit and balanced scorecard perspective, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology. 9(5). 1321–1333.
[21] Muhibat, A. O. (2016). The impact of budgetary control system on revenue generation in public establishment. International Journal of Contemporary Applied Sciences, 3 (8), (ISSN: 2308-1365) www.ijcas.net. Accessed on 5/7/2019.
[22] Robinson, M., & Last, D. (2009). Budgetary Control Model: The Process of Translation. Accounting, Organization and Society, 16(5/6), 547-570
[23] Rotich K.C (2015). Factors affecting Budget utilization Kericho County. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom, III, 6.
[24] Sanusi, F. A., & Mustapha, M. B. (2015). The effectiveness of budgetary control system and financial accountability at local government level in Nigeria impact. International Journal of Research in Business Management (IMPACT: IJRBM), 3 (8).
[25] Scott, G. K. (2016). Influence of public financial management practices on service delivery: a case of District Assemblies of Ghana. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Cape Coast, Ghana.
[26] Sharma, P. (2012). Performance measurement in NGO’s. The management accountant Shields, J.F., & Shields, M.D. (1998). Antecedents of Participative Budgeting. In: Accounting, Organization & Society, 23(1), 49-76.
[27] Shields, M. & Young, S.M. (1993). Antecedents and consequences of participating budgeting: evidence on the effects of asymmetrical information. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 5,265-280
[28] Shields, M. D. (2015). Established management accounting knowledge. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 27, 123-132. doi:10.2308/jmar-51057
[29] Silva, L. M. D. & Jayamaha, A. (2012). Budgetary process and organizational performance of apparel industry in Sri Lanka, Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and ManagementSciences,3(4):354-360.
[30] Vijayakumar, A.N. & Nagaraja, N. (2012). Internal control systems: Effectiveness of internal audit in risk management at public sector enterprises. BVIMR Management Edge, 5(1), 1 – 8.
[31] World Bank (2003). Case study 2-Porto Alegre, Brazil: Participatory approaches in budgeting and public expenditure management. Social Development Notes; 71.
[32] Washington: World Bank. Available at https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle. Accessed on 5/7/2019.
[33] World Bank. (2017). World Development Report: Governance and the Law. Washington, DC. Retrieved fromhttps://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/ 10986/…/9781464809507. Accessed on 5/7/2019.

Isoboye Jacob Damieibi (PhD) “Moderating Effect of Information and Communication Technology on Internal Audit Practices and Public Expenditure Management of Government Organizations in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.01-08 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6501

Download PDF

pdf

Practices of Personal Records Keeping among Employees in Tanzania: A Case of Selected Tertiary Colleges in Tanzania

Grace Traseas (MA IS), Julius T. Tweve (PhD) – May 2022- Page No.: 09-17

This study was carried out to assess the practice of employment personal records keeping among employees. The specific objectives of the study were to identify types of employment personal records kept by employees, to find out the place of keeping personal records by employees, to explore the impact of keeping employment personal records by employees, to determine the reasons influencing employees to keep their personal records and to determine the challenges facing employees in keeping their personal records. The study used descriptive survey design while simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 154 respondents. Primary data and secondary data were used while questionnaire and interview were used to gather primary data. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Findings indicate that there are types of employment personal records kept by employees such as appointment letter, confirmation letter, performance letter, promotion letter, annual leaves, employment letter, next of kin form, salary slip, birth certificate, educational certificates, awards, promotional letter, marriage certificate and title deed. The study also found that different places and means are used to keep records such as in the offices and home using special bags and computers. It was also indicated that employment personal records has potential benefits such as easy retrieval of information, easy tracking personal files, usefulness of information, getting their rights and for the future reference. Also to increase awareness, enhancing accuracy, increasing confidence and enhancing decision making. The study came up with challenges facing employees in keeping their personal records such as low level of awareness among employees to keep their personal records effectively and efficiently, misplacement of equipment used to store or keep records, quality of equipment or any mechanism used to keep records, inadequate space and lastly technical skills. Generally, the study concluded that there is the practice of personal records keeping among the employees at TPSC and DIT. The study recommended that there is a need to have training for better personal records keeping, space provision, budget allocation, and policy.

Page(s): 09-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 May 2022

 Grace Traseas (MA IS)
Tanzania Public Service College (TPSC)

 Julius T. Tweve (PhD)
Tumaini University Dar es Salaam College (TUDARCo)

[1] Buckland, M. (1990). Nature of Records Management Theory. American Archivist, 57, 346-351
[2] Freda, A. (2014). Assessment of Records Management Practices Among the Administrative Staff of University of Education, Winneba Kumasi (UEW-K) and Mampong (UEW-M) Campuses. A Thesis Submitted to Kwame Nkrumah University.
[3] Gathoni, M.W. (2017).An Examination of Records Management Practices for Improved Service Delivery in Laikipia County Government, Kenya. Kisii University.
[4] Gerber, J. (2003). Corporate Memory: Records and Information Management in the Knowledge Age. 2nd Edition. Munich: K.G. Saur/Thomson.
[5] Mikidadi, M. (2017).Efficacy of Personnel Record Keeping in Managing Human Resources in Higher Learning institutions in Tanzania: A Case Study of The Open University of Tanzania. The Open University of Tanzania.
[6] Mnjama, N. (2017). Records and Information: the Neglected Resource. ESARBICA Journal 23:44–59.
[7] Mtui, A. (2016). Management of Records in Tanzania: Review and Appraisal of Applicable Theories and Examination of Selected Empirical Findings: Journal of Public Administration and Governance ISSN 2161-7104 2017, Vol. 8, No. 1.
[8] Ngope, M. (2015). The Need for Record Management in the Auditing Process in the Public Sector in South Africa. Lib.Arch. and Inf, Science Journal. 24(20, 135-150
[9] Shadrack, O. (2015).The Success of personal Records keeping by Mafiga Secondary School Employees in Morogoro Municipality. Mzumbe University.
[10] Tweve J (2017), Ethical practices of records managers in Tanzania’s government ministries. PhD Thesis Submitted at University of Dar es Salaam
[11] URT (2007) Standards and Guidelines for Managing Personnel Records [Draft]. Records and Archives Management Division, PO-PSM
[12] URT (2009). Standing Orders for the Public Service, 3Edition,Dar es salaam. Government Printer. Tanzania

Grace Traseas (MA IS), Julius T. Tweve (PhD), “Practices of Personal Records Keeping among Employees in Tanzania: A Case of Selected Tertiary Colleges in Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.09-17 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/09-17.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Definitions of ‘Literature’ in Bangladesh EFL Context – an Empirical Study

Professor Dr. Salma Ainy – May 2022- Page No.: 18-28

This article attempts to explore various perceptions of the term ‘literature’ of English teachers in the Bangladesh EFL context. It also examines the relevance of using literary pieces in language classrooms in view of the negative beliefs of many teachers and learners in this regard. It is based on a study conducted with 20 teachers of English each from primary, secondary and tertiary levels in Bangladesh. Both quantitative and qualitative data was collected from the participant teachers. The study reveals that in most cases teachers perceived ‘literature’ in a narrow and limited way. It is argued that a broader understanding of the term ‘literature’ may help in promoting learner autonomy and enhance learners’ sense of self-achievement, confidence, and self-reliance. It is also argued that proceeding from a broader sense of ‘literature’, reintroducing literary texts in the English classroom may create a positive impact on the learning and learners.

Page(s): 18-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6502

 Professor Dr. Salma Ainy
School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Languages, Bangladesh Open University, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Bell, J. (1993) Doing Your Research Project. Open University Press.
[2] Best, J. and Kahn. J. (1989) Research in Education (6th edition). Englewood Cliffs (NJ), Prentice Hall.
[3] Blaxter, L., C. Huges and M. Tight (1996) How to Research. Open University Press. pp. 36.
[4] Eagleton, T. (1983) Literary Theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
[5] Hohulin, E. Lou. (1987) Concepts and categories: when is a tree not a tree? Notes on Translation 122: 1-25
[6] Maley, A. (2001) ‘Literature in the Language Classroom’. In Carter, R. and Nunan, D. (eds.). The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: Chapter 26:180-193.
[7] McFadden, G. (1978) ‘Literature’: a many-sided process. In Hernadi 1978, 49-61.
[8] McRae, J. (1991) Literature with a Small ‘l’. London: McMillan Publishers Limited.
[9] Meyer, J. (1997). “What is Literature? A Definition Based on Prototypes”. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of North Dakota Session. 41 (1). Retrieved 11 February 2014.
[10] Oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com (2022). Literature, Retrieved 28 April 2022 from https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/literature
[11] Scholes, R. E. (1985) Textual Power: Literary Theory and the Teaching of English. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press: 15-16.
[12] Widdowson, P. (1999) Literature. London: Routledge.
[13] Wellek, R. (1978) What Is Literature? In Hernadi 1978, 16-23.
[14] Williams, R. (1976) Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Fontana Press: Harper Collins Publishers.

Professor Dr. Salma Ainy “Definitions of ‘Literature’ in Bangladesh EFL Context – an Empirical Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.18-28 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6502

Download PDF

pdf

Effectiveness of Emerging Post Covid Teaching Approaches in Partido State University

Mariel R. Estrella – May 2022- Page No.: 29-36

Today’s pandemic changed the educational landscape in the Philippines. In Partido State University, covid-19 paved the way for new teaching approaches. The traditional face-to-face teaching suddenly shifted to online teaching. This study determined the emerging post covid teaching approaches, instructional strategies used by teachers, the challenges encountered by teachers and students, and the level of effectiveness of the teaching approaches. The study employed a descriptive research design and it used a survey questionnaire in google form to gather data from 52 teachers and 263 students in the seven campuses. The emerging post covid teaching approaches in Partido State University were the use of online learning approach indicated by 46 respondents, Teacher- Student Consultation by 38 respondents, and the “flipped classroom’’ by 34 respondents. To support the teaching approaches, teachers used instructional strategies. These were sharing learning resources to the students (48 respondents), use of flexible assessment policy (39 respondents), and asking the students more questions during synchronous classes (30 respondents). Despite the efforts to perfect the new teaching approaches, respondents were found to be constrained by some challenges. For both respondents, the common challenge encountered was the slow internet or unstable connection. Effectiveness of these emerging post-covid teaching approaches were measured through the presence of online sources, student engagement, technology, and presence of supplemental interventions. Among these, the use of technology to facilitate the teaching approaches was high among teachers with an average weighted mean of 3.39. On the other hand, for students, the post-covid teaching approaches was high in student engagement with 3.27 average weighted mean. With these findings, the study recommends the following 1.) ensure a more stable and stronger internet connection in the campus, 2.) train the students thoroughly in the new learning management system, and 3.) make online resources available.

Page(s): 29-36                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6503

 Mariel R. Estrella
Partido State University, Philippines

[1] Amir, L. et.al. 2020. Student perspective of classroom and distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic in the undergraduate dental study program Universitas Indonesia. Research Article. BMC Medical Education. 20:392.
[2] Arnold-Garza, S. (2014), “The flipped classroom teaching model and its use for information literacy instruction”, Comminfolit, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 7-22, doi: 10.15760/comminfolit.2014.8.1.161.
[3] Ayo, E., Montero,D., Dote,D., Villanueva,L., Verano, C. 2020. Development of Online
[4] Teachers-Student Consultation Application. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM) – eISSN: 1865-7923. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v14i08.11284 Bhandari, P. 2020. What Is Quantitative Research? | Definition, Uses and Methods. https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/quantitative-research/
[5] Barrot, J., Llenares, I., and del Rosario, L. 2021.Students’ online learning challenges during the pandemic and how they cope with them: The case of the Philippines. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10639-021-10589-x
[6] Kim J. April 1, 2020. Teaching and Learning After COVID-19 Three post-pandemic predictions. https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/blogs/learning- innovation/teaching-and-learning-after-covid-19 Latorre-Cosculluela, C., Suárez, C., Quiroga, S., Sobradiel-Sierra, N., Lozano-Blasco,
[7] R. and Rodríguez-Martínez, A. (2021), “Flipped Classroom model before and during COVID-19: using technology to develop 21st century skills”, Interactive Technology and Smart Education, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 189- 204. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITSE-08- 2020-0137
[8] Mahmood, S. 2020. Instructional Strategies for Online Teaching in COVID‐19 Pandemic. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbe2.218
[9] Ngampornchai, A. and Adams, J. 2016. Students’ acceptance and readiness for E-learning in Northeastern Thailand. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308962767_Students’_acceptance_and_readiness_forE- learning_in_NortheasternThailand
[10] OECD. 2020. The Impact of Covid-19 on equity and inclusion: Supporting vulnerable students during school closures and school re-openings. OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19). https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/the-impact-of-covid-19-on-student-equity-and-inclusion-supporting-vulnerable-students-during-school-closures-and- school-re-openings-d593b5c8/
[11] Palaoag, T, Catanes, J, Austria, R. and Ingosan, J. 2020. Prepping the New Normal: The Readiness of Higher Education Institution in Cordillera on a Flexible Learning. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3416797.3416829.
[12] Persaud, C. 2021. Instructional Strategies: The Ultimate Guide for Professors. https://tophat.com/blog/instructional -strategies/
[13] TeachOnline.Ca. 2020. A New Pedagogy Is Emerging… and Online Learning Is a Key Contributing Factor. https://teachonline.ca/tools-trends/how-teach-online-student-success/new- pedagogy-emerging-and-online-learning-key-contributing-factor
[14] UNESCO. 2020. Education in a post covid world: Nine ideas for public action. International Commission of the Futures of Education. Printed in France.
[15] United Nations. 2020. Policy Brief: Education during COVID-19 and beyond.
[16] World Bank. 2020. Three Principles to Support Teacher Effectiveness During COVID-19. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/331951589903056125/pdf/Three- Principles-to- Support-Teacher-Effectiveness-During-COVID-19.pdf

Mariel R. Estrella “Effectiveness of Emerging Post Covid Teaching Approaches in Partido State University” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.29-36 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6503

Download PDF

pdf

“Assessing the Academic Performance of Alternative Learning System (ALS) Students of Barotac Viejo, Iloilo: An Implication to Remedial Teaching”

Alma R. Defacto, Ed.D. – May 2022- Page No.: 37-41

The study aimed to ascertain the Alternative Learning System (ALS) students’ performance when grouped according to demographic profile as the basis for designing a remedial teaching program. Employing the descriptive research design, ninety-two (92) students of ALS-Barotac Viejo, Iloilo, Philippines, were the subjects of the study. The students were categorized according to demographic profiles such as age, gender, civil status, and grade entry point. Secondary data from the ALS Office were gathered, tabulated, computed, and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools such as mean, standard deviation, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results showed that ALS students had a “proficient” level of performance as a whole group. When grouped according to age, those below 22 years old had an “advanced” level while those above 22 years old had a “proficient” level. Both single and married were “proficient”. As to grade entry level, 3rd year High School had “advanced” level while the rest had “proficient”. The academic performance of ALS students was not significantly different when grouped according to gender, civil status, and grade entry-level. However, there was a significant difference when grouped according to age. Students who were 22 years old and below performed significantly better than those over 22 years old. Based on the findings, generally, ALS students have “proficient” academic performance. Regardless of gender, civil status, and grade entry-level, their academic performance is generally the same. However, age is a significant factor affecting ALS students’ performance. The researcher recommends that in designing remedial teaching among ALS learners, grouping the students by age group should be considered as each group may have different learning interests.

Page(s): 37-41                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Alma R. Defacto, Ed.D.
School of Education, Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State College, Estancia, Iloilo, Philippines

[1] Tiongco, Marites ( https://www.timeshighereducation.com/hub/p/how-can-we-improve-learning-philippines
[2] United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2011), Education for sustainable development
[3] United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Life long Learning (2013), Global report on adult learning and education: Rethinking literacy, Hamburg, Germany.
[4] https://www.deped.gov.ph/k-to-12/inclusive-education/about-alternative-learning-system/
[5] https:// pedia.org/wiki/Alternative_Learning_System_(Philippines
[6] https://www.courses.com.ph/alternative-learning-system/
[7] https://www.deped.gov.ph/ae-test/
[8] https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560505.pdf
[9] https://www.deped.gov.ph/als-est/PDF/ALS-EST_Handbook_Chapter08.pdf
[10] www.unesco.org/new/en/…/efareport/reports/2010-marginalization/
[11] https://www.deped.gov.ph/alternative-learning-system/
[12] https://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/academic-performance/42383

Alma R. Defacto, Ed.D., ““Assessing the Academic Performance of Alternative Learning System (ALS) Students of Barotac Viejo, Iloilo: An Implication to Remedial Teaching”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.37-41 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/37-41.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Tea Drinking Attitude and Tea Addiction Symptoms among Kenyans

Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD, Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D – May 2022- Page No.: 42-46

Kenyans are known to consume lots of tea. This study investigated Kenyans’ tea drinking attitude and the possible traces of tea addiction. A correlation design was employed by using an online questionnaire to obtain information from 335 respondents who participated through voluntary sampling. The data were analyzed using descriptive inferential statistics. It was found that majority of Kenyans (95.3%) are tea drinkers with about 76.4% moderately consuming 1 to 3 cups of tea daily in the morning hours. There was no gender disparity in tea consumption. Addiction symptoms were experienced by 41% of Kenyan tea drinkers who experienced withdrawal symptoms such headache, tiredness, and disorientation, 49.1% craving for tea, 16.5% unable to stop drinking tea, and 36.9% feel stimulated by drinking tea. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of teacups consumed per day and addiction symptoms at Pearson correlation coefficient r (335) = .355, p < .001. It is recommended that while tea drinking is legal, those who experience loss of control over tea drinking and withdrawal symptoms should seek professional help.

Page(s): 42-46                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD
Psycho-Spiritual Institute (an affiliate of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa)

 Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D
Department of Counseling Psychology, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

[1] All Things Kenyan. (n.d.). Chai Recipe. https://allthingskenyan.com/countries/kenya/chai-recipe
[2] American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
[3] Buddy, T. (2021, November 05). What Is Withdrawal? https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-withdrawal-how-long-does-it-last-63036
[4] Egunjobi, J. P. (2010). Substance abuse and the youths: Christian perspectives. N.C: Lulu Press Inc.
[5] Euromonitor International. (2017, June) Hot Beverages in Kenya And East Africa: Opportunities for Fairtrade certified tea, coffee and powdered hot drinks brands. https://usercontent.one/wp/www.tdc-enabel.be/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Euromonitor-Executive-Summary-Hot-Beverages-in-East-Africa-2017-12-21.pdf
[6] Faria, J. (2021, July 8). Domestic tea consumption in Kenya 2009-2021. In Statistia. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1174360/domestic-tea-consumption-in-kenya/
[7] Givens, D. (2019, March 8). How Kenya Is Becoming a Nation of Coffee Drinkers. https://www.saveur.com/kenya-coffee-trend/
[8] Gunnars, K. (2014). 4 Stimulants in tea – more than just caffeine. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/stimulants-in-tea
[9] Griffiths M. D. (2013). Is “loss of control” always a consequence of addiction? Frontiers in psychiatry, 4, 36. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00036
[10] Hill, A. (2019, November 26). 9 Side Effects of Drinking Too Much Tea. In Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/side-effects-of-tea
[11] Kajilwa, G. (2021, June 22). Kenyans’ poor tea culture: Blame it on sugar and milk. The Standard. https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/business/financial-standard/article/2001416308/kenyans-poor-tea-culture-blame-it-on-sugar-and-milk
[12] Meredith, S. E., Juliano, L. M., Hughes, J. R., & Griffiths, R. R. (2013). Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda. Journal of caffeine research, 3(3), 114–130. doi:10.1089/jcr.2013.0016
[13] Mclellan, A. T. (2017). Substance Misuse and Substance use Disorders: Why do they Matter in ealthcare?. Trans The American Clinical and Climatological Association;128: pp.112-130.
[14] Smith, W. (2008). Does Gender Influence Online Survey Participation?: A Record-linkage Analysis of University Faculty Online Survey Response Behavior. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED501717.pdf
[15] Tea Association of the USA Inc. (2020). Tea Fact Sheet – 2019-2020. https://www.teausa.com/teausa/images/Tea_Fact_Sheet_2019_-_2020._PCI_update_3.12.2020.pdf
[16] Sanganeria, S. (2013, February 7). 8-10 cups of tea a day ideal for good health. Business Standard. https://www.business-standard.com/article/markets/-8-10-cups-of-tea-a-day-ideal-for-good-health-101072301030_1.html
[17] Vakil, B. A. M. (2019, January 22). Food Cravings-What Do They Really Mean? https://www.medindia.net/patients/lifestyleandwellness/food-cravings-what-do-they-really-mean.htm#:~:text=If%20you%20are%20among%20those,deficiency%20or%20loss%20of%20phosphorous.
[18] Wainainah, D. (2017, June 1). Why tea is the new coffee for young, urban Kenyans. In Business Daily. https://www.businessdailyafrica.com/bd/lifestyle/society/why-tea-is-the-new-coffee-for-young-urban-kenyans–2154734
[19] What is in Tea? (n.d.) The active ingredients of tea. Retrieved from https://www.healthstatus.com/health_blog/wellness/what-is-in-tea/#ixzz6CY2yjKoq
[20] World Health Organization (WHO). (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. World Health Organization.

Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD, Stephen Asatsa, Ph.D “Tea Drinking Attitude and Tea Addiction Symptoms among Kenyans” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.42-46 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/42-46.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Factors Affecting Military Expenditure in Asean

Iman Agung RAMADHAN, Agus Tri BASUKI – May 2022- Page No.: 47-52

This study aims to determine whether economic growth, unemployment and investment affect military spending in five ASEAN countries consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines in 2009-2019. This study uses secondary data with a period of ten years. Data obtained from the World Bank Indicators. This study uses panel data regression method with the selected model Fixed Effect Model. Based on the results of the analysis that has been carried out, it is obtained that there are two variables that affect military costs, namely economic growth and unemployment. Unemployment is the variable that has the most influence on military costs in the 5 Asean Countries. Meanwhile, investment has no effect on military spending. The ASEAN region is in a safe condition, so that military spending in ASEAN countries is quite stable from year to year. Political and economic stability in the ASEAN Region proves that increased investment does not encourage a significant increase in military spending.

Page(s): 47-52                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Iman Agung RAMADHAN
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Indonesia

 Agus Tri BASUKI
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Indonesia

[1] Abdel-Khalek, G., Mazloum, M. G., & El Zeiny, M. R. M. (2019). Military expenditure and economic growth: the case of India. Review of Economics and Political Science.
[2] Aiyedogbon, J. O. C. (2011). Military expenditure and gross capital formation in Nigeria, 1980–2010. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 7 (1), 290, 310.
[3] Bellamy, A. J. (2008). The Responsibility to Protect and the problem of military intervention. International Affairs, 84(4), 615-639.
[4] Benoit, E. (1973). Defense and economic growth in developing countries (pp. 17-19). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
[5] Dunne, J. P., & Uye, M. (2010). “Military spending and development. The global armstrade”: a handbook. London: Routledge, 293-305. 18
[6] Egwaikhide, C. I., & Ohwofasa, B. O. (2009). “An Analysis of Military Expenditure (Milex) and Economic Growth in Nigeria (1977-2007)”. Defence Studies: Journal of the Nigerian Defence Academy, 16, 178.
[7] Benoit, E. (1978). Growth and defense in developing countries. Economic development and cultural change, 26(2), 271-280.
[8] Ginting, S., Kuriata, C., Lubis, I., & Mahalli, K. (2008). Pembangunan manusia di Indonesia dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya.
[9] Gujarati, D. (2003). Basic Econometrics. Forth Edition. Singapura: McGraw-Hill.
[10] Haugen, R. A., & Haugen, R. A. (2001). Modern investment theory (Vol. 5). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 17
[11] Hsiao, C. (1986). 986. Analysis of panel data. Econometric Society monographs, (1), l.
[12] Lobont, O. R., Glont, O. R., Badea, L., & Vatavu, S. (2019). Correlation of military expenditures and economic growth: lessons for Romania. Quality & Quantity, 53(6), 2957-2968
[13] Mankiw. (2013). Mankiw Principles of Economics. In Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling.
[14] Narayan, P. K., & Singh, B. (2007). “The electricity consumption and GDP nexus for the Fiji Islands”. Energy Economics, 29(6), 1141-1150. 7
[15] Pieroni, L. (2009). Military expenditure and economic growth. Defence and peace economics, 20(4), 327-339.
[16] Salih, M. A. R. (2012). The relationship between economic growth and Government expenditure: Evidence from Sudan. International Business Research, 5(8), 40.
[17] Simatupang, G. E. G. (2013). Modernisasi Militer Asia Tenggara: Destabilisasi Keamanan Regional?
[18] Sukirno, S. (2000). Ekonomi Pembangunan Proses, Masalah dan Dasar Kebijakan Pembangunan. UI Press.
[19] Todaro, Michael P. and Smith, Stephen C. 2011. Economic Development. Eleventh Edition. United.

Iman Agung RAMADHAN, Agus Tri BASUKI, “Factors Affecting Military Expenditure in Asean” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.47-52 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/47-52.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies in Jessica Soho’s Political Interviews: A Linguistic Analysis

Aimee Ann B. Sanglitan and Maria Luisa S. Saministrado, PhD – May 2022- Page No.: 53-60

Much attention is given to politicians and the strategies that they use to be both cooperative and polite in the study of discourse and politics. Little attention is given to the important role that interviewers play in maintaining the conversation, and the strategies that they use not only on cooperation but also in politeness. This paper analyzes the way that Jessica Soho formulates her questions for political interviews. It also identifies the different politeness strategies she uses in order to maintain the conversation and arrive at preferred responses. Data was obtained through the transcript of five political interviews under the television program SONA of Jessica Soho, a well-known award-winning TV host. The results provided insights on political discourse and the role of politeness in political interviews.

Page(s): 53-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Aimee Ann B. Sanglitan
Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

 Maria Luisa S. Saministrado, PhD
Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines

[1] “Positive and negative politeness, the concept of “face” and FTAs”. (n.d.) University of Hildesheim. [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved form http://www.uni-hildesheim.de/~beneke/WS04-05/Referate_Hoeflichkeit/politeness.ppt.
[2] Bavelas, J. B., Black, A., Bryson, L., & Mullett, J. (1988). Political equivocation: A situational explanation. Retrieved from http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/bavelas/1988politic.pdf
[3] Bavelas, J.B. (2009). Equivocation. In H.T. Reis & S. Sprecher (eds.), Encyclopedia of Human Relationships, Vol. 1 (pp.537-539). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sae. Retrieved from http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/bavelas/2009Equivocation.pdf
[4] Brown, P. & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universal in language use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from https://pure.mpg.de/rest/items/item_64421/component/file2225570/content
[5] Bull, P. (1998). Equivocation theory and news interviews. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 17(1), 36-51. Retrieved from https://pure.york.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/equivocation-theory-and-news- interviews(f992018b-47a6-4b50-bf84-10b1411068d2)/export.html
[6] Clayman, S., & Heritage, J. (2002). The news interview. New York: Cambridge University Press.
[7] Chilton, P. & Schaffner, C. (1997) “Discourse and Politics”. Discourse as Social in Interaction. London: Sage, 1997, pp. 206-230.
[8] Eelen, Gino (2001). “A Critique of Politeness Theories.” Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.
[9] Gunawan, Indra. (n.d). Politeness. [PowerPoint Slides] Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/indralovemaisha/pragmatic-politeness
[10] Karsberg, H. (2012) “Politeness Stategies: A Theoretical Framework”. Sweden: University of Gavle School of Education and Finance. http://hig.diva-ortal.org/smash/get/diva2:565250/FULLTEXT01.pdf
[11] Li, Songqing. (2008). “A Performative Perspective of Flouting and Politeness in Political Interview”. Singapore: National University of Singapore. Retrieved fromhttp://www.skase.sk/Volumes/JTL12/pdf_doc/3.pdf.
[12] Ng, J. (1999). The Four Faces of Face. Mediate. Retrieved from https://www.mediate.com/articles/the_four_faces_ of_face.cfm
[13] Vilkki, L. (n.d.). “Politeness, Face and Facework: Current Issues”. University of Helsinki. Retrieved from http://www.linguistics.fi/julkaisut/SKY2006_1/1.4.7.%20VILKKI.pdf
[14] S. Ting-Toomey, “Intercultural Conflict Styles: A Face Negotiation Theory: in Theories in Intercultural Communication (Y.Y. Kim and W.B. Gudykunst, Eds.) (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1988) p 213-235
[15] Watzlawick, P., Beavin Bavales, J. & Jackson, D.D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communiation: A study of interactional patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes. New York: W.W. Norton retrieved form http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/bavelas/1988politic.pdf
[16] Watts, Richard J. (2003) Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[17] Wagner, Lisa. “Positive- and Negative-Politeness Strategies: Apologizing in the Speech Community of Cuernavaca, Mexico”. United States: University of Louisville, (n.d.). retrieved from http://web.uri.edu/iaics/files/02-Lisa-C.- Wagner.pdf.

Aimee Ann B. Sanglitan and Maria Luisa S. Saministrado, PhD “Positive and Negative Politeness Strategies in Jessica Soho’s Political Interviews: A Linguistic Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.53-60 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/53-60.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Body Shaming: Perspectivising Gender in Contemporary Discourses

Adjah Ekwang Adjah – May 2022- Page No.: 61-69

Body shaming is one gender construct that is aimed at ascribing negative comments on individuals’ body features. This has been considered from varying strands of study with apparent neglect to the typological and contextual indices of this act and its strategic construction in the media. Relying on the triangulation theoretical approach, the study adopted the pragmatic act theory complemented by polyphony, the theory of voice and intertextuality, and gender theories, to establish the nexus between body shaming and gender among Nigerian celebrities who are victims of body shaming. The study submits that typologically body shaming is enacted through same gender, other gender, and media construction within the contextual ambience of media trolling, conflict, relationship, family defence and reporting. From these findings it was submitted that body shaming act is instrumental to the proliferation of surgeries by women in order to fit into the “ideal” body structured engendered by the ideologies of (im)perfectionist ideology and is invariably salvaged through the advocatist ideology.

Page(s): 61-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

 Adjah Ekwang Adjah
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

[1] Arostegui, J. 2013. Gender, conflict, and peace-building: How conflict can catalyse positive change for women. Gender & Development, 21(3), 533–549. Retrieved 31 March 2017, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13552074.2013.846624
[2] Austin, J.L. 1962. How to do things with words. Oxford: Oxford University Press
[3] Brady, J.L. 2016. Body Image Experiences among Asian American women: a qualitative intersectionality framework. M.A Thesis. Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park.
[4] Butler, Judith. 1990, 1999. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge.
[5] Buvinic, M., Dasgupta M., Casabonne, U., & Verwimp, P. (2012). Violent conflict and gender inequality: An overview. The World Bank Research Observer, 28(1), 110–138. Retrieved 31 March 2017, from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/ en/270811468327340654/Violent-conflict-and- gender-inequality-an-overview
[6] Caldas-Coulthard, C.R. and van Leeuwen, T. 2002. Stunning, shimmering, iridescent: Toys as the representation of gendered social actors. Litosseliti, L. and Sunderland, J (Eds.) in Gender, Identity and Discourse Analysis: discourse approaches to politics, society and culture. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
[7] Duate, C and Pinto-Gouveia, J. 2011. Self-defining Memories of Body Image Shame and Binge Eating in Men and Women: Body Image Shame and Self-criticism in Adulthood as Mediating Mechanisms
[8] Ducrot, O. 1984 Esquisse d’une théorie polyphonique de l’énonciation . In O. Ducrot Le dire et le dit. Seuil.
[9] Elíasdóttir, E.L.F. 2016. Is body shaming predicting poor physical health and is there a gender difference? A BSc, Department of Psychology School of Business, Haskolinn Reykjavic University.
[10] GLOPP / ILO, 2008. Gender roles. In ILO International Training Centre, Module on Gender, Poverty and Employment.
[11] Grabska, K. (2013). The return of displaced nuer in southern sudan: Women becoming men? Development and Change, 44(5), 1135–1157. Retrieved 2 March 2017, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dech.12051/full
[12] Hall, Stuart (ed) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: Sage, in association with The Open University.
[13] Luna, K.C, van Der Haar, G and Hilhorst, D. 2017. Changing Gender Role: Women’s Livelihoods, Conflict and Post-conflict Security in Nepal in Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs. 4(2) 175–195
[14] Mey, J. 2004. Pragmatics: an introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing
[15] Obasi, V.A (2004) : Curriculum for Gender – Neutral Education WOREC Journal of Gender Studies (2).
[16] Pila, E., Brunet, J., Crocker, P., Kowalski, K., & Sabiston, C. (2016). Intrapersonal characteristics of body- related guilt, shame, pride and envy in Canadian adults. Body image, 16, 100-106. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.01.001
[17] Ramirez, F.B.M. (n.d) Body shaming ideologies in Women’s Health magazine covers in the Philippines. Paper presented to the Faculty of Arts and Letters University of Santo Tomas.
[18] Roulet. E. 1996. Polyphony. In Handbook of Pragmatics (Volume 2) https://doi.org/10.1075/hop.2.pol2, John Benjamins Publishing Company. 1877-9611
[19] Striegel-Moore, R. H., Rosselli, F., Perrin, N., DeBar, L., Wilson, G. T., May, A., & Kraemer, H. C. (2009). Gender difference in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42, 471-474.
[20] Wodak, R (Ed.). 1997b. Gender and discourse. London: SAGE Publications

Adjah Ekwang Adjah, “Body Shaming: Perspectivising Gender in Contemporary Discourses” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.61-69 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/61-69.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Beliefs and Intentions to enact Positive Environmental Change: A Study of Undergraduates of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Ms. Rebecca N. Peters & Engin BAYSEN PhD. – May 2022- Page No.: 70-78

This study assessed beliefs and intentions of the undergraduates of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, to enact positive environmental change using a quantitative survey research design. Data was analyzed using simple percentage, and Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis.
Among other findings, results showed moderately high beliefs (3.97 mean) and intentions (3.56 mean), established a correlation between beliefs and intentions (r(399)=0.265, p=0.000), no significant difference between the beliefs according to gender (p=0.647), and no significant difference between the intentions according to gender (p=0.931). We concluded that the undergraduates believed in the occurrence of climate change, and its adverse implications on the environment.

Page(s): 70-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6504

 Ms. Rebecca N. Peters
Near East University, Turkey

 Engin BAYSEN PhD.
Near East University, Turkey

[1] Abbas MY, Singh R. A survey of environmental awareness attitude and participation amongst university students: A case study. Int J Sci Res. 2014;3:1755–60.
[2] Adams, W.M., Brockington, D., Dyson, J., Vira, B., 2003. Managing tragedies: understanding conflict over common pool resources. Science 302 (12), 1915–1916.
[3] Aminrad, Z., Zarina, S., & Hadi, A. S. (2010). Survey on Environmental Awareness among Environmental Specialists and Secondary School Science Teachers in Malaysia
[4] Berkowitz, A. R., Ford, M. E., & Brewer, C. A. (2004). A framework for integrating ecological literacy , civics literacy , and environmental citizenship in environmental education.
[5] Biswas A. A nexus between environmental literacy, environmental attitude and healthy living. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020;27:5922–31.
[6] Budnukaeku AC, Hyginus O. Environmental laws and management agencies in Nigeria– what hope for desecrated landscape. Biodiversity Int J.2021;5(1):1?6. DOI: 10.15406/bij.2021.05.00190
[7] Coyle, K., 2005. Environmental Literacy in America: What Ten Years of NEETF/ Roper Research and Related Studies Say About Environmental Literacy in the US. Washington, DC: National Environmental Education and Training Foundation
[8] Craig, C. A. and Allen, M. W. (2015). The impact of curriculum-based learning on environmental literacy and energy consumption with implications for policy, Utilities Policy, 35, 41-49, ISSN 0957-1787, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2015.06.011.
[9] Daniel, E. S., Nadeson, T., & Shafiee, M. (2007). “ Organising for Action in Environmental Education through Smart Partnerships : A Malaysian Experience ”, 1–22
[10] Daudi, S. S. (2008). Environmental Literacy: A System of Best-Fit for Promoting Environmental Awareness in Low Literate Communities. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 7(3), 76–82. doi:10.1080/1533015080250215
[11] Dove, M.R., 2000. The life-cycle of indigenous knowledge, and the case of natural rubber production. In: Ellen, R., Parkes, P., Bicker, A. (Eds.), Indigenous Environmental Knowledge and Its Transformations, Studies in Environmental Anthropology, vol. 5. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 213–251.
[12] George, C.,(2007). Assessing Environmental Education. A Survey Determining the Attenuation of Youth towards their Local Natural Environment. Final Report for Senior Honours Project (April)
[13] Goldman, D., Ayalon, O., Baum, D. and Weiss, B. (2018). Influence of ‘green school certification’ on students’ environmental literacy and adoption of sustainable practice by schools, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 183, 1300-1313, ISSN 0959-6526, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.02.176.(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652618304955)
[14] Gosken, F., Adaman, F., Zenginobuz, E.U. (2002). On Environmental Concern , Willingness To Pay , And Postmaterialist Values. Environment and Behaviour 34(5), 616–633
[15] Hamalinen, E (2012). Young Adults ’ Enviromental Knowledge , Attitudes And Travelling Behaviour. Degree Project Paper
[16] Hamilton, C, and Macintosh, A. (2008). Environmental Protection and Ecology, Editor(s): Sven Erik Jørgensen, Brian D. Fath, Encyclopedia of Ecology, Academic Press, Pages 1342-1350, ISBN 9780080454054, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-008045405-4.00624-8.
[17] Hares, M., Eskonheimo, A., Myllyntaus, T., & Luukkanen, O. (2006). Environmental literacy in interpreting endangered sustainability. Geoforum, 37(1), 128–144. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2005.01.006
[18] Harun, R., Hock, L. K., & Othman, F. (2011). Environmental Knowledge and Attitude among Students in Sabah, 14, 83–87
[19] Hollweg, K. S. Taylor, J. R., Bybee, R. W., Marcinkowski, T. J., McBeth, W. C., & Zoido, P. (2011). Developing a framevork for assessing environmental literacy. Washington, DC: North American Association for Environmental Education.
[20] Hollweg, K. S., Taylor, J. R., Bybee, R. W., Marcinkowski, T. J., McBeth, W. C., & Zoido, P. (2011). Developing a framework for assessing environmental literacy. Washington D.C. North American Association for Environmental Education. Available at http://www.naaee.net
[21] Hsu, S.-J., Roth, R.E., 1998. An assessment of environmental literacy and analysis of predictors of responsible environmental behavior held by secondary teachers in the Hualien area of Taiwan. Environmental Education Research 4 (3), 229–249.
[22] Ireland, L (2013). Environmental Education: Pathways to Environmental Literacy in Alberta School, Report for the Alberta Council of Environmental Education
[23] Kaiser, F.G., Brügger, A., Hartig, T. , Bogner, F.X. , and Gutscher, H. (2014). Appreciation of nature and appreciation of environmental protection: How stable are these attitudes and which comes first? European Review of Applied Psychology, 64(6), 269-277, ISSN 1162-9088, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2014.09.001.
[24] Karatekin, K. (2012). Environmental literacy in turkey primary schools social studies textbooks. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3519–3523. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.096
[25] Kılınç, A. (2010). Can project-based learning close the gap? Turkish student teachers and proenvironmental behaviors. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 5(4), 495-509.
[26] Latinopoulos, D., Mentis, C., and Bithas, K. (2018). The impact of a public information campaign on preferences for marine environmental protection. The case of plastic waste, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 131 (Part A), 151-162, ISSN 0025-326X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.04.002.
[27] Lee, T. H., Jan, F., & Yang, C. (2013). Environmentally responsible behaviour of nature-based tourists : A review, 2(1), 1–16
[28] Liebe, U., Preisendorfer, P., & Meyerhoff, J. (2010). To Pay or Not to Pay: Competing Theories to Explain Individuals’ Willingness to Pay for Public Environmental Goods. Environment and Behaviour, 43(1), 106–130. doi:10.1177/0013916509346229
[29] Loubser, C. P., & Swanepoel, C. H. (2001). Concept formulation for environmental literacy, 21(4)
[30] Maurer, M. and Bogner, F. X. (2020). Modelling environmental literacy with environmental knowledge, values and (reported) behaviour, Studies in Educational Evaluation, 65, 100863, ISSN 0191-491X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2020.100863.
[31] Muda, A., Ismail, N. S., Suandi, T. and Rashid, N. A. (2011) Analysis of Cognitive and Affective Component of Environmental Literacy of Pre-service Teachers from Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia, World Applied Sciences Journal 14 (Exploring Pathways to Sustainable Living in Malaysia: Solving the Current Environmental Issues): 114-118, 2011 ISSN 1818-4952; © IDOSI Publications, 2011
[32] National Environmental Standards and regulation enforcement agency (NESREA) (2022), Mandate of the Agency. https://www.nesrea.gov.ng/about-us/
[33] Nurwaqidah, S., Suciati, S., & Ramli, M. (2020). Environmental literacy-based on adiwiyata predicate at junior high school in Ponorogo. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 6(3), 405-412. doi: https://doi.org/10.22219/jpbi. v6i3.12468
[34] O’Neil, J.M. , Newton, R.J. , Bone, E.K., Birney, L.B., Green, A.E. , Merrick, B. , Goodwin-Segal, T. , Moore, G. , and Fraioli, A. (2020). Using urban harbors for experiential, environmental literacy: Case studies of New York and Chesapeake Bay, Regional Studies in Marine Science, 33 (100886), ISSN 2352-4855, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2019.100886.
[35] Oladipo, A., Awofala, A. O.A. & Osokoya, M. M. (2020). Investigating Pre-service Science, Technology, and Mathematics Teachers’ Attitudes toward Climate Change in Nigeria , Journal of Educational Sciences Vol. 4 No. 2 (April, 2020) 220-238
[36] Orr, D.W., 1992. Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World. SUNY Series in Constructive Postmodern Thought. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.
[37] Oruonye, E. D and Ahmed Y. M. (2020). The role of enforcement in environmental protection in Nigeria, World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 2020, 07(01), 048-056 https://doi.org/10.30574/wjarr.2020.7.1.0237
[38] Portman, M. E., and Camporesi, A. Z. (2020). Attitudes and behaviours of marine recreationists towards conservation and environmental protection: A case study of Tel Aviv, Israel, Marine Policy, 22, 104133, ISSN 0308-597X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104133.
[39] Ramdas, M. and Mohamed, B. (2014). Impacts of Tourism on Environmental Attributes, Environmental Literacy and Willingness to Pay: A Conceptual and Theoretical Review, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144, 378-391, ISSN 1877-0428, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.307. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042814042359)
[40] Roth, C. E. (1992). Environmental literacy: Its roots, evolution, and directions in the 1990s. Columbus: ERIC Clearingouse for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Education.
[41] Sachitra, K. M. V. and Kaluarachchi, G. (2018). Environmental Literacy, Interest and Engagement in Environmental Activities: A Shared Understanding for Undergraduates. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science 27(1): 1-11, 2018; Article no.JESBS.41700 ISSN: 2456-981X (Past name: British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, Past ISSN: 2278-0998)
[42] Sandford, R. and Worsfold, P.J. (2005). Environmental Analysis, Editor(s): Paul Worsfold, Alan Townshend, Colin Poole, Encyclopedia of Analytical Science (Second Edition), Elsevier, Pages 502-508, ISBN 9780123693976, https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-369397-7/00139-4.1
[43] Saribas, D. Teksoz, G., Ertepinar, H. (2014). The relationship between environmental literacy and self-efficacy beliefs toward environmental education, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 ( 2014 ) 3664 – 3668. 5 th World Conference on Educational Sciences – WCES 2013
[44] Saribas, D., Teksoz, G., Ertepinar, H. (2014). The Relationship between Environmental Literacy and Self-efficacy Beliefs toward Environmental Education, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 116, 3664-3668, ISSN 1877-0428, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.820.
[45] Shri, G. U., & Tiwari, R. R. (2021). Environmental Literacy among College Students. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 25(3), 128–132. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijoem.IJOEM_141_20
[46] Simmons, D. (1995). Working paper # 2: Developing a framework for national environmental education standards. In papers on the Development of Environmental Education Standards (pp. 53-58). Troy, OH: NAAEE.
[47] Singleton R. A., Straits B. C. Approaches to social research . New York: Oxford University Press; 2009.
[48] Srbinovski, M., Erdogan, M, and Ismaili, M. (2010). Environmental literacy in the science education curriculum in Macedonia and Turkey, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 4528-4532, ISSN 1877-0428, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.725.
[49] The United Nations (2013). UNEP : United Nations Environment Programme https://www.un.org/youthenvoy/2013/08/unep-united-nations-environment-programme/#:~:text=UNEP’s%20mission%20is%20to%20provide,compromising%20that%20of%20future%20generations.
[50] Tuncer, G., Tekkaya, C., Sungur, S., Cakiroglu, J., Ertepinar, H., Kaplowitz, M. (2009). Assessing pre-service teachers’ environmental literacy in Turkey as a mean to develop teacher education programs, International Journal of Educational Development, 29 (4), 426-436, ISSN 0738-0593, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2008.10.003.
[51] Varisli,T (2009). Evaluating Eight Grade Students’ Environmental Literacy : The Role of Socio-Demographic Variables. Msc Thesis
[52] Varisli,T (2009). Evaluating Eight Grade Students’ Environmental Literacy : The Role of Socio-Demographic Variables. Msc Thesis
[53] Volk, T. & McBeth, W. (1997). Environmental literacy in the Unites States: What should be…What is…Getting from here to there. A report funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and submitted to the Environmental Education and Training Partnership, NAAEE. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA
[54] Williams, Riley Denae. 2017. An Assessment of Environmental Literacy Among Oklahoma Public High School Students and the Factors Affecting Students’ Environmental Literacy. Master’s thesis, Harvard Extension School.
[55] Wu, E., Cheng, J.-Q., & Zhang, J.-B. (2019). Study on the Environmental Education Demand and Environmental Literacy Assessment of Citizens in Sustainable Urban Construction in Beijing. Sustainability, 12(1), 241. doi:10.3390/su12010241
[56] Zhang, J., Zhang, H. and Gong, X. (2022). Government’s environmental protection expenditure in China: The role of Internet penetration, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 93 (106706), ISSN 0195-9255, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2021.106706.

Ms. Rebecca N. Peters & Engin BAYSEN PhD. “Beliefs and Intentions to enact Positive Environmental Change: A Study of Undergraduates of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.70-78 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6504

Download PDF

pdf

Climate field school as a panacea for climate change adaptation and mitigation for ecological sustainable and food production in agriculture. An overview

UCHI Dominic Terhile – May 2022- Page No.: 79-83

The review is on the important of climate field school for climate change mitigation and adaptation on environmental sustainable and food production in agriculture. The review is qualitative and it used secondary data from various literatures. It emphasized that agriculture is sensitive sector been threaten by climate change variations affecting farmers’ livelihood and creating extreme events of flood, wildfires, rainstorm, drought and heat waves on the land which is the only natural resources farmers depend on. The review further intensified the use of three approaches of food production sustainability, adaptation and mitigation of climate field school which stressed the need for, reduced related activities greenhouse gases emission and management processes for crops and livestock growth. The review categorized the various agricultural activities which emits greenhouse gases and the mitigations managing process which include reforestations, direct agricultural emission reductions, use of renewable energy sources as specific by climate field school for sustainable environment, adaptations and mitigations. The review identified limited information, knowledge, lack of local and indigenous indicators and dynamic variations of climate in various agro-ecological zones as some of the challenges in communication of climate change mitigations and adaptations in climate field school. The recommendations and conclusion include using participation approach for climate field school, encouragement partnerships of private, civil society organizations and International agencies, the use of good reforms institutional policies to support climate field school and consideration of social and gender considerations.

Page(s): 79-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 UCHI Dominic Terhile
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Federal University Dutse, Nigeria

[1] Ahmed, F., Al-Amin, A. Q., Mohamad, Z. F., & Chenayah, S. (2016). Agriculture and food security challenge of climate change: a dynamic analysis for policy selection. Scientia Agricola, 73(4), 311–321. http://doi.org/10.1590/0103-9016-2015-0141
[2] Boko, M., Niang, I., Nyong, A., Vogel, C., Githeko, A., Medany, M., Osman-Elasha, B., Tabo, R., and Yanda, P. 2007. Africa. In: Parry, M. L, Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden. P. J., & Hanson, C. E. (Eds.) Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
[3] Brandon, Gwendolyn. 1999. ‘Reducing Household Energy Consumption: A Qualitative and Quantitative Field Study’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19 (1): 75–85.
[4] Brody, S. and H. Ryu. 2006. ‘Measuring the Educational Impacts of a Graduate Course on Sustainable Development’, Environmental Education Research, 12 (2): 179–99.
[5] CTA Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (2009). Implication of Climate Change for sustainable agricultural production systems in ACP countries: Getting information and communication strategies right. A Compilation Document.
[6] Daniels, E., Bharwani, S., Swartling, Å. G. and Vulturius, G. (2020). Refocusing the climate services lens: introducing a framework for co-designing “transdisciplinary knowledge integration processes” to build climate resilience. Climate Services, 19. DOI: 10.1016/j. cliser.2020.100181
[7] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2010). “Climate-Smart” Agriculture Policies, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations .
[8] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2013). FAOSTAT. Retrieved 2013-2014, from http://faostat.fao.org
[9] FAO. 2021. Bringing climate change adaptation into farmer field schools – A global guidance note for facilitators. Rome. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb6410en
[10] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2010). “Climate-Smart” Agriculture Policies, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations .
[11] Goyol, S & C. Pathiage (2018) Farmers Perceptions of Climate Change Related Events in Shendam and Riyom, Nigeria Economies 2018, 6(4), 70; doi:10.3390/economies6040070
[12] Guido, Z., Knudson, C., Campbell, D. and Tomlinson, J. (2020). Climate information services for adaptation: what does it mean to know the context? Climate and Development, 12(5). 395–407. DOI: 10.1080/17565529.2019.1630352
[13] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Geneva:
[14] Kurukulasuriya, P. and R. Mendelson (2007). Endogenous Irrigation: The Impact of Climate Change on Farmers in Africa. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 427.
[15] Mano, R. and C. Nhemachena (2007) Assessment of the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zimbabwe: a Ricardian approach. Policy Research W orking Paper No.4292. World Bank, Washington DC
[16] P. R. Siregar and T. A. Crane, “Climate Information and Agricultural Practice in Adaptation to Climate Variability: The Case of Climate Field Schools in Indramayu, Indonesia,” Culture, Agriculture, Food and Environment, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 55–69, 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.2153-9561.2011.01050.x.
[17] Pulwarty, R., K., Broad, T., Finan 2003: ENSO, forecasts and decision making in Peru and Brazil In Bankoff, G., Frerkes, G., and Hilhorst, T., (Eds.) Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. Earthscan pp. 83-98.
[18] Rathore, M.S., & Srinivasulu, Y. (2018 ). Soil Carbon Sequestration in Temperate Conditions for Sustaining Sericulture. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 5 (9), 96-101.
[19] Rijks, D., and Baradas, M. W., 2000: The clients for agrometeorological information. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 103, 27-42
[20] Schild, 2010. Climate change is threatening agricultural system and it poses a serious danger of environmental disaster with high intense weather extreme events which is currently affecting livelihood of many low income countries in the world.
[21] Segovia, V.M. and A.P. Galang. 2002. ‘Sustainable Development in Higher Education in the Philippines: The Case of Miriam College’, Higher Education Policy, 15 (2): 187–95.
[22] Snapp SS, DeDecker J, Davis AS. Farmer participatory research advances sustainable agriculture: lessons from Michigan and Malawi. Agron J. 2019;3(6):2681–91.
[23] Simelton, E. and Le, T. T. (2020). Checklist: Gender-Inclusive Actionable Agro-Advisories. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). https://cgspace. cgiar.org/handle/10568/106790
[24] Sthapit, B.and Padulosi, S.(2011) On-farm conservation of neglected and underutilized crops in the face of climate change. Proceedings of the International Conference Friedrichsdorf, FrankfurtPp 31-48. 14–16 June, 2011.
[25] Siwar, C., Idris, N. D. M., Yasar, M., & Morshed, G. (2014). Issues and challenges facing rice production and food security in the granary areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 7(4), 711–722. http://doi.org/ISSN:2020-7459;e-ISSN:2040- 7467 https://doi.org/10.19026/rjaset.7.307
[26] Tawang, A., Ahmad, T. M. A., & Abdullahi, M. Y. (2001). Stabilization of Upland Agriculture under El Nino Induced Climatic Risk: Impact Assessment and Mitigation Measures in Malaysia (No. 61). Agriculture.
[27] Vaghefi, N., Shamsudin, M. N., Radam, A., & Rahim, K. A. (2016). Impact of climate change on food security in Malaysia : economic and policy adjustments for rice industry. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 19–35. http://doi.org/10.1080/1943815X.2015.1112292
[28] WMO, “Climate Field Schools in Indonesia,” World Meteorological Organization, Nov. 17, 2015. https://public.wmo.int/en/resources/meteoworld/climate-field-schools-indonesia (accessed Jan. 24, 2021)

UCHI Dominic Terhile, “Climate field school as a panacea for climate change adaptation and mitigation for ecological sustainable and food production in agriculture. An overview” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.79-83 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/79-83.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Dimensions of Violence in Zimbabwe: Unpacking the Triggers and Effects of Machete Violence in Zimbabwe

Jonah Marawako – May 2022- Page No.: 84-93

This article illustrates that machete gangs in Zimbabwe are foot soldiers of the political elites with the Second Republic ventilating their dramatic proliferation. The paper interrogates the concept of state capture and the concept of natural resource curse in an endeavour to demystify the nature and scope of machete violence in Zimbabwe. The paper also noted that machete gangs are more active in mining communities like Kwekwe, Mazowe, Bubi, Mashava, Kadoma and Patchway. Machete gangs are largely connected to powerful politicians who are members of the gold cartels. Factors that trigger machete violence in Zimbabwe include but are not limited to the rapid increase in artisanal mining, climate change and escalating unemployment. The adverse effect of machete gangs is the pauperisation of the general population. The paper also examined the impact of the proliferation of machete gangs on women in the mining sector. Machete violence has aggravated an illicit economy, fuelled unjustified socio-economic deprivation and led to environmental degradation. The paper also unearthed that machete violence underpins and perpetuates the political culture of fear and repression in Zimbabwe. The study recommends a cocktail of reforms that need to be initiated to end machete violence, this includes the need to regularise and formalise the mining sector as well as comprehensive security sector reforms. The study is mainly ethnographic in scope as most of the data was collected through interaction with some members of the machete gangs and victims of machete violence. Documentary search was also used to augment ethnographies. The researcher interviewed machete gangs located in the aforementioned mining communities in Zimbabwe, in an endeavour to generalise how machete gangs are impacting the social, economic and political fabric.

Page(s): 84-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 Jonah Marawako
Lecturer, Department of Governance and Public Management, Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

[1] Africa Risk Consulting. 2020. Zimbabwe in a crisis. Available at. https://www.africariskconsulting.com/2020/07/18/zimbabwe-in-crisis/. Accessed on 15 January 2022.
[2] Auty, R. 1993. Natural Resources and Civil Strife: A Two Stage Process. Geopolitics Volume no 9, 1-29.
[3] Charema, H. 2019. Machete Gang Kills Cop, Injures another. The Herald, 30 December.
[4] Charema, H. 2019. Machete Gang Leader Shot Dead. The Herald, 16 November.
[5] Chingwere, M. 2021. Govt Clears Air on Riverbed Mining. The Herald, 2 February.
[6] Chiwanika, A. 2022. Machete Wielding Mashurugwi Disrupt ZANU PF Meeting. Nehanda Radio, 4 February.
[7] Christiansen, L. B. 2010. Versions of Violence: Zimbabwe’s Domestic Violence Law and Symbolic Politics of Protection. Taylor and Francis, 37(126): 421-435.
[8] Collier, P. and Hoeffler, A. 2005. Resource Rents, Governance, and Conflict‘, Journal of Conflict Resolution 49.4: 625–33
[9] Doro, E and Kufakurinani, U. 2018. Resource Curse or Governance Deficit? The Role of Parliament in Uganda’s Oil and Zimbabwe’s Diamonds. Journal of Southern Africa Studies, 44(1): 43-57.
[10] Daily Maverick 2021. Cartel Power Dynamics in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Briefing, 7(1)
[11] EISA, 2018. State Capture in Africa- Old Threats, New Packaging? Meiroitti, M. & Masterson, G. (Eds). Johannesburg
[12] Hellman, J.S., Jones, G. & Kaufmann, D. 2000a. Seize the state, seize the day: State capture, corruption and influence in transition, Policy Research Working Paper No. 2444, pp. 1–11. The World Bank, World Bank Institute: Governance, Regulation and Finance Division, Europe and Central Asia Region Public Sector Group and European Bank of Reconstruction and Development, Office of the Chief Economist.
[13] Harare Bureau.2020. MP Nduna in Court for Illegal Gold Mining. The Chronicle, 8 January 2020.
[14] Herald Reporter. 2020. Breaking: Rushwaya Arrested at RG Airport for Gold Smuggling. The Herald, 26 October
[15] International Crisis Group 2020. All that Glitters is not Gold: Turmoil in Zimbabwe’s Mining Sector. Africa Report Number 294
[16] Kaldor, M. 1999. New Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press.
[17] Kaplan, R. 1994. The Coming Anarchy‘, Atlantic Monthly. February.
[18] Karl, T.L. 1997. The Paradox of Plenty: Oil Booms and Petro-States. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: California University Press
[19] Maguwu, F., Mlevu, S. , Nhachi, T. O. Nyakopoto, H. 2020. From Blood Diamonds to Blood Gold: A Report on Machete Violence in Zimbabwe’s ASM Gold Sector. Centre for Natural Resource Governance.
[20] Mafongoya, O., Maroveke, M., Muzenda, S. 2021. Gender Based Violence and Women in Artisanal Mining. Briefing Note. Advancing Learning and Innovation on Gender Norms.
[21] Makumbe, John MW and Compagon, Daniel. 2000. Behind the SmokeScreen: The Politics of Zimbabwe’s 1995 General Elections. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications.
[22] Makumbe, John. 2006. Electoral Politics in Zimbabwe: Authoritarianism versus the People. Africa Development 31(3): 45–61.
[23] Mandaza, Ibbo. 2014. “Zanu PF Congress — The Rise and Triumph of the Securocratic State.” Zimbabwe Independent, 15 December. Available at: https://www. The independent.co.zw/2014/12/15/zanu-pf-congress-rise-triumphsecurocratic- state/ (Accessed 10 December 2018)
[24] Mandigora, M. 2022. Machete Wielding Thugs Disrupt ZANU PF PCC Meeting. The Masvingo Mirror, 18 January.
[25] Mangwaya, M and Mhlanga, B. 2022. ED Fires State Security Minister Ncube. Newsday, 11 January.
[26] Masunungure, Eldred V. 2009. “A Militarized Election: The 27 June Presidential Run-off.” In: Eldred Masunungure (ed.) Defying the Winds of Change. Harare: Weaver Press, pp. 79–97.
[27] Mawowa, S. 2013. The Political Economy of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Central Zimbabwe. Journal of Southern African Studies, 39:4, 921-936.
[28] McNeish, J. A. 2010. Rethinking Resource Conflict. Available at: http://www.cmi.no/publications/file/3852-rethinking-resource-conflict.pdf. (Accessed on 14-12-2015).
[29] Mkodzongi, G. 2020. The Rise of “Mashurugwi” Machete Gangs and Violent Conflict in Zimbabwe’s Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining Sector. The Extractive Industries and Society, 7(4): 1480-1489.
[30] Moyo, C. 2020. Party Foot-Soldiers, Quasi-Militias, Vigilantes and the Spectre of Violence in Zimbabwe’s Opposition Politics. Modern Africa: Politics, History and Society, 8 (1), 65-103.
[31] Mungwari, T. 2019. The Politics of State Capture in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 3 (2): 55-67.
[32] Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J. 2004. “Putting People First: From Regime Security to Human Security: A Quest for Social Peace in Zimbabwe, 1980-2002.” In: Alfred G. Nhema (ed.) The Quest for Peace in Africa: Transformations, Democracy and Public Policy. Addis Ababa: OSSREA, pp. 297–327.
[33] Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J. 2009. “Making Sense of Mugabeism in Local and Global Politics: “So, Blair keep your England and let me keep my Zimbabwe.” Third World Quarterly 30(6):1139–1158.
[34] Sachikonye, Lloyd. 2011. When a State Turns on its Citizens: Institutionalised Violence and Political Culture. Harare: Weaver Press.
[35] Spiegel, S. J. 2014. Legacies of a Nationwide Crackdown in Zimbabwe: Operation Chikorokoza Chapera in Gold Mining Communities. Journal of Modern African Studies: 52(4).
[36] Staff Reporter. 2020. ZANU PF MPs Unite in Protecting Big Shots Behind Machete Gangs. New Zimbabwe, 25 February.
[37] Staff Reporter. 2019. Chief Justice Malaba Orders the Arrest of ZANU PF Stalwart for Gaika Mine Invasion. Nehanda Radio, 6 April.
[38] Swillin, M. & Chipkin, I. 2018. Shadow State: The Politics of State Capture – how it all came together. Wits University Press https://www.news24.com/Books/shadow-state-the-politics-ofstate- capture-how-it-all-came-together- Accessed on 24/01/2022
[39] Tendi, M., McGregor, J., Alexander, J. 2021. Violence and Internal Party Politics in Zimbabwe (2008-2018). Available at: https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198805472.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780198805472-e-20 Accesed on 22/01/22
[40] Tshili, N. 2020. The Environmental Price of Illegal Mining. The Chronicle, 23 January.
[41] Voice of America. 2020. Rushwaya Gold Smuggling Case Uncovers CIO Buyers Syndicate. Voice of America, 28 October.
[42] Watts, M 1999. Curse of the Black Gold: 50 years of Oil in the Niger Delta. Powerhouse Books.
[43] Zimbabwe. 1927. Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act Chapter 9:07 of 1927.
[44] Zimbabwe. 1940. Gold Trade Act Chapter 21:03 of 1940.
[45] Zimbabwe. 1961. Mines and Mineral Act Chapter 21.05 of 1961.
[46] Zimbabwe. 2018. DGL Investments vs Vongainashe Mupereri 2018 HC1237/18.
[47] Zimbabwe Democracy Institute Report, 2017. Zimbabwe Transition in a muddy terrain: Political Economy under Military Capture. Open Society for Southern Africa
[48] Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association 2020. Perspectives on Power over and Power to: How Women Experience Power in a Mining Community. Available at. http://www.zela.org/download/perspectives-on-power-over-and-power-to-how-women-experience-power-in-a-mining-community-in-zimbabwe/. Accessed on 20 January 2022.
[49] Zimbabwe Peace Project. 2019. Who will Protect the Citizens from their “Supposed” Protecters?.

Jonah Marawako “Dimensions of Violence in Zimbabwe: Unpacking the Triggers and Effects of Machete Violence in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.84-93 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/84-93.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

The Trajectory of Traditional Authority in Contemporary Governance; The Ghanaian Experience

Anderson, Paul Kwaku Larbi – May 2022- Page No.: 94-100

The role of traditional authorities in local governance has evolved steadily in different parts of Africa. It is assumed that, in most parts of the continent, traditional authorities’ legitimacy enables them to play a lead role in local governance and development. This study scrutinizes the trajectory of traditional authority in contemporary governance. The objective is to review how social construction rooted in tradition is made to fit into contemporary society. Accordingly, an interpretive approach was adopted within a qualitative methodological framework which informed a case study as the research design type. Respondents were purposefully selected from the traditional council and local government functionaries in Nsawam-Adoagyiri, Suhum, and Cape Coast Municipalities in Ghana’s eastern and central regions. Data were obtained through one-on-one interviews, non-participant observation, documents, and material culture analysis. The findings of this study revealed that even though the role of traditional authorities in the community has evolved, post-colonial governments have not fully incorporated it into the local governance structure thereby restricting them to mere advisors and consultants on customs and traditions. Notwithstanding, traditional authorities are highly revered within the Ghanaian society with strong social bonds providing support as partners in development at the local level. Given that, this study recommends an operative institutional framework that not only involves traditional authority in local governance but duly involves and aptly defines their mandate in the community.

Page(s): 94-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6505

 Anderson, Paul Kwaku Larbi
Center Planning for and Evaluation of Social Services (ZPE), University of Siegen, Germany

[1] R. of Ghana, Constitution of the Republic of Ghana. [Accra]: [Tema Press of Ghana Publishing Corporation], 1992. Accessed: Dec. 18, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Ghana_1996.pdf?lang=en
[2] Y. K. Djamba and W. L. Neuman, Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, vol. 30, no. 3. 2002. doi: 10.2307/3211488.
[3] D. Weinberg, Qualitative research methods, 1. publish. Blackwell Publishers, 2002.
[4] J. W. Creswell, “The Selection of a Research Approach,” Res. Des., pp. 3–23, 2014, doi: 45593:01.
[5] N. Denzin and Y. Lincoln, “Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research.,” 2008, Accessed: Dec. 20, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-06339-001
[6] C. Cappelen and J. Sorens, “Pre-colonial centralisation, traditional indirect rule, and state capacity in Africa,” Commonw. Comp. Polit., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 195–215, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.1080/14662043.2017.1404666.
[7] R. C. Crook, “Legitimacy, Authority and the Transfer of Power in Ghana,” Polit. Stud., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 552–572, 1987, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.1987.tb00205.x.
[8] G. Welch, Africa before they came : the continent, north, south, east, and west, preceding the colonial powers. New York: Morrow, 1965.
[9] K. Gyekye et al., African cultural values : an introduction, Repr. Accra: Sankofa Publ., 1998.
[10] M. Mamdani, Citizen and subject : contemporary Africa and the legacy of late colonialism, no. 1. Princeton: University Press, 2003.
[11] G. Nukunya, Tradition and change in Ghana an introduction to sociology. Accra: Ghana Univ. Press, 2007.
[12] K. Gyekye, “Beyond cultures : perceiving a common humanity : Ghanian philosophical studies, III,” p. 186, 2004.
[13] J. Knierzinger, Chieftaincy and Development in Ghana: From Political Intermediaries to Neotraditional Development Brokers, no. 124. Mainz, 2011. Accessed: Dec. 24, 2019. [Online]. Available: http://www.ifeas.uni-mainz.de
[14] K. Arhin, The Cape Coast and Elmina handbook : past, present, and future. Legon: Institute of African Studies University of Ghana, 1995.
[15] K. Asamoah, “A qualitative study of Chieftaincy and Local Government in Ghana,” J. African Stud. Dev., 2012, doi: 10.5897/jasd11.089.
[16] R. S. Gocking, “Indirect Rule in the Gold Coast: Competition for Office and the Invention of Tradition,” Can. J. African Stud. / Rev. Can. des études africaines, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 421–446, Jan. 1994, doi: 10.1080/00083968.1994.10804361.
[17] R. Rathbone, Nkrumah & the chiefs: the politics of chieftaincy in Ghana, 1951-60. 2000.
[18] A. K. Busia, Position of The Chief in The Modern Political System of Ashanti: A Study of the Influence Of … Contemporary Social Changes on Ashanti Political Institutions. [Place of publication not identified]: Routledge, 2018.
[19] R. Gocking, The history of Ghana. Westport (Conn.): Greenwood Press, 2005.
[20] K. Arhin, Traditional rule in Ghana : past and present. Accra: Sedco, 1985.
[21] J. M. Ubink, “Traditional authorities in Africa : resurgence in an Era of democratisation,” p. 39, 2008.
[22] J. R. A. Ayee, “Paper presented at the Fourth National Annual Local Government Conference on the theme ‘Traditional Leadership and Local Governance in a Democratic South Africa: Quo Vadis’ held from 30-31 July 2007 at the Southern Sun – Elangeni, Durban.,” 2007.
[23] R. Rathbone, “Richard Rathbone. Nkrumah and the Chiefs: The Politics of Chieftaincy in Ghana, 1951–1960. Athens: Ohio University Press; Oxford: James Currey, 2000. xvi+ 176 pp,” cambridge.org, 2001.
[24] N. Awortwi, “An unbreakable path? A comparative study of decentralization and local government development trajectories in Ghana and Uganda,” Int. Rev. Adm. Sci., vol. 77, pp. 347–377, Jun. 2016, doi: 10.1177/0020852311399844.
[25] N. Kleist, “Modern chiefs: Tradition, development and return among traditional authorities in Ghana,” academic.oup.com, 2011, doi: 10.1093/afraf/adr041.
[26] P. O. W. Adjei, A. Kwaku Busia, and G. M. Bob-Milliar, “Democratic decentralization and disempowerment of traditional authorities under Ghana’s local governance and development system: a Spatio-temporal review,” J. Polit. Power, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 303–325, Sep. 2017, doi: 10.1080/2158379X.2017.1382170.
[27] D. I. Ray, “Chieftaincy, Sovereignty and Legitimacy and Development: A Pilot Newspaper Survey of the Role of Chiefs in Three Aspects of Development,” 209.183.10.27, 2004, Accessed: Dec. 16, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://scholar.google.de/ftp://209.183.10.27/cpsa-acsp(previoussite)/papers-2004/Ray.pdf
[28] M. Cobb, “Chieftaincy and the Civil State: Relations Between Traditional and Modern Leadership and a look at Chieftaincy Conflicts in Ghana.” Accessed: Dec. 25, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.franz-hitze-haus.de/fileadmin/backenduser/download/pdf/Tagungsrueckblick/Manuskript_Cobb.pdf

Anderson, Paul Kwaku Larbi, “The Trajectory of Traditional Authority in Contemporary Governance; The Ghanaian Experience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.94-100 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6505

Download PDF

pdf

Assessing Human Resource Management Practices on Health Care Services in Banadir Region, Somalia

Mohamed Roble, Dr Isaac Mokono Abuga – May 2022- Page No.: 101-112

The study is aimed at assessing human resource management practices on health care services in Banadir region Somalia. Human capital was used in theoretical literature. Descriptive research design was used in the methodology. The study targeted three categories of employees in Banadir Region in Somalia namely; 17 top level management who comprise the heads of the health departments, 53 middle level management are the technical staff in the public hospitals who include medical officers, nurses, laboratory technologists, dentists, social workers and public health officers and 32 lower level management/support who include clerical officers, subordinate staffs, and secretaries. These makes a total population of 102 employees. Simple random sampling was applied to select 81 respondents in the respective strata. Primary data was collected using questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods was used. Analysis of quantitative data was analysed through the use of mean, standard deviation, frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data was analysed through the use of content analysis. The findings indicated that training and development has a positive but insignificant effect on healthcare service delivery (β = .492, Sig = .134>.05). The results established there is an insignificant and negative effect of rewards and recognition on healthcare service delivery (β = -.224, Sig = .302>.05). The research noted a positive and significant effect of employee involvement on healthcare service delivery (β = .799, Sig = .048). This demonstrated that a change in employee involvement by a unit will lead to a 0.799 change in healthcare service delivery. Based on this, the research recommends that the county government should develop capacity building programmes that will help expand the competency and professionalism of health workers

Page(s): 101-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 Mohamed Roble
Post Graduate Student, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr Isaac Mokono Abuga
Post Graduate Student, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

[1] Adeniji A. A. & Osibanjo, A. O. (2012). Human resource management: Theory and practice. Lagos, NI: Pumark.
[2] Afshan, S., Sobia, I., Kamran, A. & Nasir, M. (2012). Impact of training on employee performance: a study of the telecommunication sector in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(6), 33-47.
[3] Amaoka, T. (2013). Staff Training Programs as Key ingredients to improving Skill base at workplace. Research Journal of Applied Sciences and Innovation, 5(17), 26-80.
[4] Armstrong, M. (2010). Human Resource Management Practice. London, UK: Kogan Page Limited.
[5] Armstrong, M. (2014). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. (13th Ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page Limited.
[6] Babagana, A. & Dungus, B. (2015). Staff Remuneration and the Performance of Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri Students from 1995 to 2011. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Management Sciences, 3(5), 1-10.
[7] Bagul, D. B. (2014). A Research Paper on Study of Employee’s Performance Management System. Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Science, 1(3), 487-498.
[8] Bardot, S. (2014). What is the difference between a bonus and an incentive? Retrieved from http://compensationinsider.com/what-is-the-difference-between-a-bonusand-anincentive/ (Accessed 4/09/2017).
[9] Belcourt, M. (2013). HR’s field of dreams: Lessons from the ball diamond can help HR transform from transactional to strategic. Canadian HR Reporter, 22(15), 23-29.
[10] Bernadian, H. (2008). Human Resource management. An experimental Approach. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
[11] Bohlander, G. & Snell, S. (2014). Managing Human Resource. (Eds.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: South Western Thompson Corporation.
[12] Branine, M. (2008). Graduate recruitment and selection in the UK. Career Development International, 13(6), 497-513.
[13] Budhwar, P. (2007). Strategic integration and devolvement of human resource management in the UK manufacturing sector. British Journal of Management, 11, 285-302.
[14] Busienei, J. R. & Mutahi, N. (2015). Effect of Human Resource Management Practices on Performance of Public Universities in Kenya. International Journal of Economics, 3(10), 696-736.
[15] Campion, M. A., Cheraskin, L, & Stevens, M. J. (2014). Career-related antecedents and outcomes of job rotation. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1518-1542.
[16] Canibano, L. & Sanchez, P. (2014). Measurement, management and reporting on intangibles: state of the art. Accounting Business Review, 56-68.
[17] Chand, M. & Katou, A. (2007). The impact of SHRM practices on organizational Performance. Sage publishers, 27(16), 889-93.
[18] Chen, C. J. & Huang, J. W. (2009). Strategic human resource practices and innovation performance, the mediating role of knowledge management capacity. Journal of Business Reviews, 62, 104-114.
[19] Cho, S., Woods, R., Jang, S. & Erdem, M. (2006). Measuring the impact of human resource management practices on hospitality firms’ performances. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(2), 262-277.
[20] Clarke, M. (2011). The New Covenant of Employability. Employee Relations, 121-144.
[21] Cober, R. & Brown, D. (2012). Direct employers association recruiting trends survey booz. Washington, DC: Allen Hamilton.
[22] Collins, C. J. & Clark, K. D. (2013). Strategic human resource practices, top management team social networks, and firm performance; the role of human resource in creating organizational competitive advantage. Academic Management Journal, 46(6), 740751.
[23] Cooper, D., & Schindler, P. (2008). Business Research Methods. (12th Ed.). New York, NY: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
[24] Cooper D.K., & Emory C.W. (2005). Business Research Methods. (4th Ed.). Illinois, FY: Burbidge.
[25] Debrah, Y. A. & Ofori, G. (2012). Human Resource Development of Professionals in an Emerging Economy: the Case of the Tanzanian Construction Industry. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(3), 440-463.
[26] Delery, J. E. & Doty, D. H. (2012). Modes of theorizing in strategic human Resource management: tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurationally performance predictions. Academic Management Journal, 39(4), 802-835.
[27] Denby, S. (2010). The importance of training needs analysis. Industrial and commercial enterprise publishers. Great Britain, UK: The Cromwell Press.
[28] Dessler, G. (2013). Human resource management. (13th Ed.). Essex, UK: Pearson Education Limited.
[29] Duberg, C. & Mollen, M. (2010). Reward Systems within the Health and Geriatric Care Sector. Unpublished Bachelor’s Thesis, University of Gothenburg.
[30] Elwood, S. & James, A. P. (2012). Productivity gains from the implementation of employee training Programs. Industrial relations, 33(4), 411-425.
[31] Fox, W., & Bayat, M.S. (2010). A Guide to Managing Research. (2nd Ed.). Cape Town, Juta and Co. Ltd.
[32] Gamage, A. S. (2014). Recruitment and selection practices in manufacturing SMEs in Japan: An analysis of the link with business performance. Ruhuna Journal of Management and Finance, 1(1), 37-52.
[33] Guthrie, J. (2011). High involvement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence from New Zealand. Academic Management Journal, 44, 180-192.
[34] Hair, J.J., Money, A.H., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2007). Research Methods for Business. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
[35] Hall. M. & Purcell, J. (2013). Promoting effective consultation? Assessing the impact of the ICE Regulations. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 51(2), 355-381.
[36] Heathfield, S. M. (2016). Bonus Pay. Retrieved from https://www.thebalance.com/what-isbonus-pay-1918069 (Accessed 4/09/2017).
[37] Henderson, I. (2011). Human Resource Management for MBA Students. (2nd Ed.). London, UK: CIPD.
[38] Hsieh, A. T. & Chao, H. Y. (2014). A reassessment of the relationship between job specializations, job rotation, and job burnout: Example of Taiwan’s high-technology industry. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15, 1108-1123.
[39] Huselid, A. M. (2013). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635-672.
[40] Huselid, M. & Becker, A. (2011). Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Performance. Journal of Business Management, 36(3), 345-445.
[41] Huselid, M. A., Jackson, S. E. & Schuler, R. S. (2007). Technical and strategic human resource management effectiveness as determinants of firm performance. Academic Management Journal, 39, 949-969.
[42] Ivancevich, J. M. (2014). Human Resource Management. (10th Ed.). New Delhi, IN: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd.
[43] Ivancevich, J. M., Lorenzi, P. & Skinner, S. J. (2007). Management Quality and Competitiveness. (2nd Ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
[44] Katua, A. A., Haenisch, J. P., Ravindran, J. C. & Whinston, A. (2014). Measuring impact of HRM on Organizational Performance. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 1(2), 119-142.
[45] Keshav, P. (2013). Internal Sources and Methods of Recruitment. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 635-672.
[46] Kessler, I. (1993). Performance Related Pay: Contrasting Approaches. Industrial Relations Journal, 25(2), 122-135.
[47] Kirimi, M. (2007). Public and Private Universities in Kenya. Nairobi, KE: East African Publishers.
[48] Kumar, R. (2008). Research Methodology-A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. (2nd Ed.). Singapore: Pearson Education.
[49] Langseth, S. (2010). On Basic Logical Knowledge: How Are Objective Epistemic Reasons Possible? Philosophical Studies, 10(6), 41-85.
[50] MacDuffie, J. P. (1995). Human Resource Bundles and Manufacturing Performance: Organizational Logic and Flexible Production Systems in the World of Auto Industry. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48, 197-221.
[51] Magiri, K. J. (2009). Strategic training programs and quality performance in public service. Academy of management studies, 2(3), 41-72.
[52] Marler, J. H. (2013). Making human resources strategic by going to the Net: Reality or myth? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(3), 515-527.
[53] Mayhew, R. (2015). Demand Media, Important Things to Know About Human Resource Labor Relations. Retrieved from www.azcentral.com (Accessed 10/10/2017).
[54] Mbugua, M. G. (2015). Relationship between Strategic Human Resource Management practices and Employee Retention in Commercial Banks in Kenya. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Juja: JKUAT.
[55] McMahan, G. C., Virick, M. & Wright, P. M. (2009). Alternative Theoretical Perspectives for Strategic Human Resource Management Revisited: Progress, Problems and Prospects. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 4, 99-122.
[56] Milman, A. (2013). Hourly employee retention in small and medium attractions: the central Florida example. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22(2), 17-35.
[57] Moncarz, E., Zhao, J. & Kay, C. (2009). An exploratory study of US lodging properties’ organizational practices on employee turnover and retention. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(4), 437-458.
[58] Mugenda, O. M. & Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies
[59] Munjuri, M. (2011). The Effects of Human Resources Management Practices in Enhancing Employee Performance in Catholic Institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya. Unpublished MBA Project (School of Business – University of Nairobi, Kenya).
[60] Mutembei, G. & Tirimba, O. I. (2014). The role of HRM strategy in Organizational Performance in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 4(10), 67-94.
[61] Ngeno, T. (2014). Challenges of Implementing Devolution and Planning Objectives by the Ministry of Devolution and Planning in Kenya. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(1), 45-64.
[62] Ngui, T. K., Mukulu, E. & Gachunga, H. (2014). Effect of Reward and Compensation Strategies on the Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(1), 1-20.
[63] Nielsen, N. H. (2012). Job content evaluation techniques based on Marxian economics. Worldat work Journal, 11(2), 52-62.
[64] Nyandiko, J. A. & Ongeri, L. (2015). Effectiveness of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance at Kenya Seed Company – Kitale. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 6(1), 332-344.
[65] Nzukuma, K. C. C. & Bussin, M. (2011). Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(1), 87101.
[66] Odhiambo, G. (2011). Higher Education Quality in Kenya. A Critical Reflection of Key Challenges. Quality in Higher Education, 3(1), 16-19.
[67] Paul, L. & Anantharaman, D. (2003). Compensation, Organizational Strategy, and Firm Performance. Academy of Management Review Journal, 19, 110-129.
[68] Pfeffer, J. (2007). Competitive Advantage through People. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
[69] Rajarao, R. L. (2010). Employee Performance Appraisal and its implication for Individual and Organizational Growth. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(9), 92-97.
[70] Raphael, M. (2010). Impact of Recent Economy Changes on Human Resource Management Recruitment and Selection Practices. Proceedings of the North Eastern Business and Economics Association, pp.556- 558.
[71] Rauf, M. A. (2014). HRM sophistication and SME performance: A case of readymade garment manufacturers and exporters in Lahore. London, UK: Pakistan Report.
[72] Robbins, S. P. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall International Edition.
[73] Sabwami, P. B., Gachunga, H. & Kihoro, J. M. (2014). Role of High Performance Work Practices on Organizations Performance. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 2307-2347.
[74] Sangeetha, K. (2010). Effective Recruitment: A Framework. IUP Journal of Business Strategy, 7(1/2), 93-107.
[75] Saunders, M., Lweis, P., & Thronhill, A. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students. (3rd Ed.). England: Pearson Education Limited.
[76] Scarbrough, H. (2013). Knowledge management, HRM and the innovation process. International Journal of Manpower, 24(5), 501-516.
[77] Sherman, A. W., Bohlander G. W., & Snell S. A. (2008). Managing Human Resources. (11th Ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Educational Publishing.
[78] Snelgar, R. J., Michell, R. & Danie, V. (2013). An empirical Study of Preferences of South African Employees. A South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(1), 14-29.
[79] Terpstra, E. D. & Rozell, J. E. (2013). The relationship of staffing practices to organizational level measures of performance. Personnel Psychology, 46(1), 27-48.
[80] Torrington, D., Hall, L. & Taylor, S. (2005). Human Resource Management. (6th Ed.). London, UK: Prentice Hall.
[81] Truss, C. (2014). Continuity and change: The role of the HR function in the modern public sector. Public Administration, 86(4), 1071-1088.
[82] Uzman, J. & Daish, J. (2010). Empirical study on Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation. Karachi Based Service Organization. International Journal of Management Science, 2(1), 33-47.
[83] Waiganjo, E. W., Mukulu, E. & Kahiri, J. (2013). Relationship between Strategic Human Resource Management and Firm Performance. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(10), 234-251.
[84] Waithaka, E. (2012). Strategies Adopted by University of Nairobi to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage. Unpublished MBA Project (School of Business – University of Nairobi, Kenya).
[85] Wallen, G. R., Mitchell, S. A., Melnyk, B., Fineout-Overholt, E., Miller-Davis, C., Yates, J. & Hastings, C. (2013). Implementing evidence-based practice: Effectiveness of a structured multifaceted mentorship programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(12), 2761-2771.
[86] Walsh, K. & Taylor, M. (2007). Developing in-house careers and retaining management talent. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 48(2), 163-182.
[87] Wang, X. (2007). Learning, job satisfaction and commitment: an empirical study of organizations in China. Chinese Management Studies, 1(3), 167-179.
[88] Wright, P. & Geroy, D. G. (2011). Changing the mindset: the training myth and the need for word-class performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(4), 586-600.
[89] Wright, P. C. (2009). Human Resource Management. Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall.
[90] Wright, P. M., Dunford, B. B. & Snell, S. A. (2011). Human resources and the resource based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 27, 701-721.
[91] Zakaria, Z., Noordin, N., Hussein, Z. & Sawal, M. M. (2011). An Empirical Study on Relationship between reward practices and employee performance. An international Conference on Management and Artificial intelligence. IPEDR. 6, IACSIT Press, Bali, Indonesia.
[92] Mugenda, O. and Mugenda, A. (2013). Research Methods. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Acts Press, Nairobi.
[93] Muogbo , U. S. (2013). The Impact of Strategic Management on OrganizationalGrowth and Development (A Study of Selected Manufacturing Firms in AnambraState). IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 7 (1), 24-32.
[94] Murimbika, M. (2011). Influence of strategic management practices on the entrepreneurial orientation of South African firms in the financial and business services sector. Unpublished Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
[95] Mustafa S, Estim A (2019) Blue growth and blue economy in the context of development policies and priorities in Malaysia. Penerbit UMS, Kota Kinabalu
[96] Mustafa FH, Senoo S, Bagul AHBP et al (2015) Knowledge management in modern aquaculture. In: Mustafa S, Shapawi R (eds) Aquaculture ecosystems: adaptability and sustainability. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, pp 281–318
[97] Njagi, L. & Kombo, H. (2014). Effect of Strategy Implementation on Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(13) 62-67
[98] Ofunya, F.A. (2013) Strategic management practices on Performance of Post banks in Kenya, International Journal of Business Management and Administration, 2(6), 122-141
[99] Ondera, K. (2013). Strategic Management Practices in Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya: Unpublished MBA thesis: University Of Nairobi
[100] Odinga, R. A. (2010a), “Foreword” to Report on Evaluation of the Performance of Public Agencies for the Financial Year 2008/2009. Nairobi: OPM/PCD (Office of the Prime Minister, Performance Contracting Department), pp. v-vii.
[101] Odinga, R. A. (2010b), “Foreword” to Public Sector Transformation Strategy: From Reform to Transformation 2010-14. Nairobi: OPM/PSTD (Office of the Prime Minister, Public Sector Transformation Department), p. 4.
[102] Orodho J.A. (2010). Element s of Education and Social Science Research Methods, Kanezja Publishers
[103] Oyedele,O,A,(2012) The challenges of infrastructure Development in Democratic Governance in Nigeria. TS01C – Construction Economics and Management I, 6119.
[104] Pearce. J. A. & Robinson, J. B. (2007). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation Control, 10th edition
[105] Republic of Kenya (2019), Kenya Vision 2030: First Medium Term Plan Update. Nairobi: Republic of Kenya.
[106] Resnick, D., (2010) on his paper “Failing to Capitalize? Studied Urban Service Delivery in Opposition-Controlled African Cities” Public Administration and Development 23:41-52.
[107] Saravanan,M & Shreedhar, K., (2011) studied the Impact of Innovation in Public Service Delivery in India. ASCI Journal of Management 41(1): 156–165
[108] Stren, S., (2014)Urban Service Delivery in Africa and the Role of International Assistance. Development Policy Review, 2014, 32 (S1): s19–s37

Mohamed Roble, Dr Isaac Mokono Abuga “Assessing Human Resource Management Practices on Health Care Services in Banadir Region, Somalia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.101-112 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/101-112.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Impact of factors that influence the satisfaction of real estate mortgage registrants: A Case Study in Yen Khanh District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam

Pham Phuong Nam, Nguyen Van Hieu – May 2022- Page No.: 113-120

The purpose of the study is to determine the factors and their impact on the satisfaction of real estate mortgage registrants. The study investigated 95 real estate mortgage registrants and proposed a research model with 5 latent variables (5 groups of factors) and 19 observed variables. The model was tested using SPSS 20.0 software. 17 observed variables met the requirements and 2 variables that do not meet the requirements and are eliminated. The findings also indicated that credit factors have the strongest impact on satisfaction, followed by groups of factors of credit procedures; finance; personnel; equipment for mortgage registration with the corresponding impact level of 40.14%; 22.22%; 15.90%; 11.76%; 9.97%. The study prosed: raising loan levels, lowering interest rates, simplifying loan procedures, and reducing collateral appraisal fees. Applying the proposals will increase the satisfaction of mortgage registrants, reduce possible disputes, and at the same time ensure security and order and increase state budget revenue.

Page(s): 113-120                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 Pham Phuong Nam
Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Vietnam

 Nguyen Van Hieu
Branch of Land Registration Office Yen Khanh District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam

[1] Anderson, K. M., & Kurzer, P. (2020). The politics of mortgage credit expansion in the small coordinated market economies. West European Politics, 43(2), 366–389. doi:10.1080/01402382.2019.1596421.
[2] Anna, P. (2020). Legal aspects of synchronizing data on real property located in polish cadastre and land and mortgage register. Land Use Policy, 95, 104606. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104606.
[3] Aziri, B. (2011). Job Satisfaction: A literature review. Management research and practice, 3(4), pp. 77-86.
[4] Branch of Yen Khanh District Land Registration Office (2022). Report on registration results of security interests in Yen Khanh district for the period 2017-2021.
[5] Fornell, C. (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience. Journal of Marketing, 56(1), 6-21.
[6] Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(3), 41-50.
[7] Government (2017). Decree No. 102/2017/ND-CP dated September 1, 2017, of the Government, provides for the registration of security interests.
[8] Hair, J., F., Anderson, R., E., Tatham, R., L., & Black, W., C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
[9] Hansemark, O., Albinsson, M. (2004). Customer satisfaction and retention: The experiences of individual employees. Manag. Serv. Qual. 14, 40–57. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520410513668.
[10] Hoang, T., C., & Nguyen, M., N. (2008). Analyze research data with SPSS. Hong Duc Publishing House. Ho Chi Minh City.
[11] Hoppock, R., 1935. Job Satisfaction, New York: Haper and Bros.
[12] Kotler, P. & Armstrong G. (2005). Principles of Marketing. 4th European edition, Prentice-Hall.
[13] Khuong, M., H. & Nong M., T., (2019). Transactions secured by land use rights and ownership of assets attached to the land of individual households in Cao Bang city, Cao Bang province in the period 2013-2017. Journal of Soil Science, (55), 150-154.
[14] Igbaria, M.., Livari, J. & Maragahh, H. (1995). Why do individuals use computer technology? A finished case study. Information and Management. 29: 227-238.
[15] Le, D., H. (2017). Implementation of the law on administrative complaints in the field of land in the Central Highlands provinces. Doctoral Thesis, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics.
[16] Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 22 140, 55.
[17] Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment (2017). Report on summarizing 3 years (2015 – 2017) of the implementation of the Land Law 2013.
[18] Nghiem, T., H., Khuong M., H. & Xuan T., T., T. (2021). Transactions secured by land use rights and ownership of land-attached assets of individual households in Viet Yen district, Bac Giang province in the period 2015-2019. Journal of Forestry Science and Technology No. 3.
[19] Olajide, P., O. (2011). Casual Direction between Satisfaction and Service Quality: A Review of Literature. European Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(1), 88-96.
[20] Pham, P., N. (2022). Factors Influencing the Residential Land Use Right Mortgage in Yen My District, Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology. 1/13: https://www.igi-global.com/article/factors-influencing-the-residential-land-use-right-mortgage–in-yen-my-district-hung-yen-province-vietnam/290337.
[21] Pham, T., T. & Nguyen T., H. (2018). Evaluation of transaction status, secured by land use rights and assets attached to land in Cam Le district, Da Nang city in the period 2011-2016. Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology, vol. 2/751 -758.
[22] Phan, T., T., H., Quynh T., N., Huong N., T., T. & Phuong T., T. (2022). Status of registration of security interest in land use rights and land-attached assets for economic organizations in Khanh Hoa province. Practice. 3 Numbers. January 1-11: Science and Technology Journal of Thanh Dong University.
[23] Tabachnick, B., G. & Fidell L., S. (1996). Using Multivariate Statistics (3rd ed.). New York: Harper Collins.
[24] Tran T., D., Nguyen M., T., Nguyen T., H. & Truong T., D., H. (2021). Evaluation of the registration of security interests with land use rights of households and individuals in Lac Duong district, Lam Dong province. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 5, 2671–2681.
[25] Wardhana, D., S., Firmansyah, T. & Witasari, A. (2018). The Role of The Land Deed Officials in Mortgage Right Credit Agreement in PT. Bank Jateng Branch Slawi, Tegal Regency. Jurnal Akta, 5(3), 597–602. doi:10.30659/akta.v5i3.3159.
[26] Yen Khanh District People’s Committee (2022a). Report on land management in Yen Khanh District for the period 2017-2021.

Pham Phuong Nam, Nguyen Van Hieu, “Impact of factors that influence the satisfaction of real estate mortgage registrants: A Case Study in Yen Khanh District, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.113-120 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/113-120.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Covid 19: What Is the Lesson for the Future?

Francisco Soares Campelo Filho – May 2022- Page No.: 121-125

Humanity has faced the biggest problem in its post-World War II history. The pandemic caused by COVID 19 has taken the lives of millions of people around the world, exposing not only human fragility, but mainly that countries did not have the tools to provide an adequate response to such a serious problem. The measures adopted by the governments were unable to solve the problem and, to make things worse, even generated others, such as the collapse of economies around the world. The social isolation determined by the authorities recognized the inability and unpreparedness of governments to deal with the pandemic, having also generated an ideological debate that did nothing to solve the problem, but only to transform the serious crisis into a political discussion that can put the model of democracy, the rule of law and the allocation of powers at risk. But what is the main lesson to be learned from this crisis? Society is formed by the people who compose it, the same people who once elected democracy, the rule of law and the distribution of powers as being the closest model to the ideal of political and administrative organization in the civilized world. Governments should work for these people, always seeking the common good and thinking of them as human beings that they are, and not as mere “voters”. Making governments think, more comprehensively, about people, about the education of children and young people, and about the future, without any ideological bias, should be the main lesson left by COVID 19 to governments and humanity.

Page(s): 121-125                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

 Francisco Soares Campelo Filho
Instituto Akdemus de Estudos Avançados em Ciências Sociais e Jurídicas

[1] BOBBIO, Norberto. MATEUCCI, Nicola. PASQUINO, Gianfranco. (2010). Dicionário de Política. 13. Ed. Brasília: UNB, 585-597.
[2] BRENNAN, Elliott. (2020). Coronavirus anti-lockdown movement surges in the US after Donald Trump’s ‘Liberate’ tweet. ABC News, 26 May 2020. Available on: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-05-27/coronavirus-us-protests-on-the-rise/12288686 Access February 15, 2022.
[3] FOSSATI, Fabio. (2017). Interests and Stability or Ideologies and Order in Contemporary World Politics. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK.
[4] GÉNÉREUX, Jacques. (2000). Une raison d’espérer. L’horreur n’est pas économique, elle est politique. 1997, épuisé. Nouvelle éd. en poche, Pocket, 2000, épuisé.
[5] HOLT-LUNSTAD, Julianne. (2020). Social Isolation And Health, Health Affairs Health Policy Brief, June 22, 2020. DOI: 10.1377/hpb20200520.391692. Access January 23, 2022.
[6] MUDDE, Cas. (2020). The ‘anti-lockdown’ protests are about more than just quarantines. The Guardian, Tue 21 Apr. 2020. Available on: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/commentisfree/2020/apr/21/anti-lockdown-protests-trump-right-wing Access February 15, 2022.
[7] O’BRIEN, Robert. (2003). Los organismos económicos internacionales y la sociedad civil global. In: BENEYTO, José Vidal (ed.). Hacia una sociedad civil global. Madrid: Taurus.
[8] ROTH, Roland. (2003). Las ONG y las políticas internacionales. In: BENEYTO, José Vidal (ed.). Hacia una sociedad civil global. Madrid: Taurus.
[9] SHELBY, Tommie. (2003). Ideology, Racism, And Critical Social Theory, published on The Philosophical Forum, Volume XXXIV, No. 2, Summer 2003, from Harvard University, Cambridge, 153-188.
[10] STIGLITZ, Joseph. (2010). Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy. W. W. Norton & Company.
[11] WILLIAMS, Simon N. et al. (2020). Public perceptions and experiences of social distancing and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic: A UK-based focus group study. medRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.10.20061267. April 15, 2020.
[12] YELLOWLEES, Douglas. (2020). The Costs of Social Isolation: Loneliness and COVID-19. April 29, 2020. Available on: https://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/home/topics/general-psychiatry/costs-of-social-isolation-loneliness-covid19/

Francisco Soares Campelo Filho “Covid 19: What Is the Lesson for the Future?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.121-125 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/121-125.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Improving the Academic Services of As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia, through the Evaluation of Students’ Satisfaction

Iffah Budiningsih, Marliza Oktapiani, Elly Soraya – May 2022- Page No.: 126-132

The purpose of this evaluation research is to study and obtain empirical data about the level of satisfaction of students for academic services that have implications for efforts to improve academic services, which can improve the reputation of the university. The research method used survey methods with an affordable population of about 4000 students of As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia. The sampling was done randomly with 733 respondents. The results of the study showed: a) the average assessment of student satisfaction with the University’s academic services in the category of ‘satisfied’ with an average assessment score = 3.8697 and this score still needs to be increased to 5.0 to improve the academic services of the University which have implications for improving the reputation of the university; b) The quality of academic services has a strategic role in meeting student satisfaction which has an impact on the emergence of high loyalty to the University, and it is expected that these students can be a ‘mouth promotion’ for the University; c) academic services that need to be improved include the ability and care of education personnel in providing quality & fast service; the ability and concern of the manager/leader and education staff of the Study Program/Faculty in providing quality academic services, and adequacy, accessibility & quality of supporting facilities of academic activities of students; d) The characters empathy, sympathy, and sharing must be strived to grow and develop into an inherent and settled character among education personnel or lecturers.

Page(s): 126-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6506

 Iffah Budiningsih
Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences, As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Marliza Oktapiani
Faculty of Islam Region, As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Elly Soraya
Faculty of Business Economic, As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia

[1] Alma B. (2010). Learning Social Studies. Alfabeta.
[2] Al-Sheeb, B, Hamouda, AM, and Abdella, GM. (2018). Investigating Determinants of Student Satisfaction in the First Year of College in a Public University in the State of Qatar. Hindawi Education Research International: 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7194106
[3] Bakrie M, Sujanto B, and Rugaiyah. (2019). The Influence of Service Quality, Institutional Reputation, Students’ Satisfaction on Students’ Loyalty in Higher Education Institution. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 1 (5), 379-391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29103/ijevs.v1i5.1615. http://ojs.unimal.ac.id/index.php/ijevs
[4] Budiningsih, I. 2016. Quality evaluation of the Library Service of Syafi’iyah Islamic University (UIA). Academic journal Tekonoligi Education, MTP UIA, 5 (1): 1-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34005/ Akademika. v5i 01.490.
[5] Budiningsih I, Lubis E, and Armiati R. (2020). Improvement of University Educational Staff’s Strategic Roles in Digital Era Through Quality Service. International Journal of Asian Social Science, Vol. 10, No. 8, 426-433. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1.2020.108.426.433.
[6] Butt BZ and Rehman K. (2010). A study examining student satisfaction in higher education. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 5446–5450. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010. 03.888.
[7] Daniel D, Liben G and Adugna A. (2017). Assessment of Students’ Satisfaction: A Case Study of Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia. Journal of Education and Practice, 8 (4), 111-120.
[8] Kurniati E and Kadarsih. (2017). Mengukur Kepuasan Mahasiswa Terhadap Pelayanan BAAK AMK AKMI Baturaja (Measuring Student Satisfaction with BAAK AMK AKMI Baturaja Service). Jurnal Ilmiah MATRIK, (3), 237-246.
[9] Gray, J.A. and DiLoreto, M. (2016). The Effects of Student Engagement, Student Satisfaction, and Perceived Learning in Online Learning Environments. NCPEA International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 11 (1), 1-20. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ EJ1103654.pdf.
[10] IELTS. (2019). Student Satisfaction. A 2019 Global Overview. Study Portals, IELTS. https://www.studyportals.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Global-Student-Satisfaction-Report-A-2019-global-overview.pdf
[11] Ilyas. (2014). Tingkat Kepuasan Mahasiswa Terhadap Layanan akademikDosen Pendidikan Agama Islam (Level of Student Satisfaction with Academic Services of Lecturers in Islamic Religious Education). Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan, 31 (2), 155-159.
[12] Ismail, A.I. & Iffah Budiningsih, I. (2021). Strengthening Ihsan Behavior (Always do the Good Deeds). Global Journal of Human-Social Science: G Linguistics & Education, Vol. 21, Issue 5, Version 1.0: 16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34257/GJHSSGVOL21IS5PG13.
[13] Kuo Y-C, Walker AE, Belland BR, and Schroder KEE. (2013). Predictive Study of Student Satisfaction in Online Education Programs. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning (IRRODL), 14 (1), 16-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.19173/ irrodl.v14i1.1338.
[14] Marfuah U and Puteri RAM. (2016). Pengukuran Tingkat Kepuasaan Mahasiswa Terhadap Pelayanan Faklultas X Universitas XYA (Measurement of Student Satisfaction Level of Faklultas X University XYA). Prosiding SEMNASTEK Fakultas Teknik
Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta. https://jurnal.umj.ac.id/index.php/semnastek.
[15] Qadri, MN. (2017). Pengaruh Kualitas Sistem Informasi Akademik (Berbasis Web) dan Kinerja Unnit layanan Terhadap Kepuasaan Mahasiswa di Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (The Effect of Academic Information System Quality/Web-Based and Performance of Unnit Services to Student Satisfaction in Private Universities). Yogyakarta: CV. Adi Karya Mandiri.
[16] Redhana IW, Sudria, IBN, Suardana IN, Suja, IW and Haryani S. (2019). Students’Satisfaction Index on Chemistry Learning Process. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia (JPII), 8 (1), 101-109. http://journal.unnes.ac.id/index.php/jpi.
[17] Choe, R C. et al. (2019). Student Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in Asynchronous Online Lecture Videos. Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, Office of Instructional Development, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles.
[18] Sembiring P, Sembiring S, Tarigan G and Sembiring OD. (2017). Analysis of Student Satisfaction in The Process of Teaching and Learning Using Importance Performance Analysis. International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (IconICT). IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 930. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/930/1/012039.
[19] Subandi. (2021). Student Satisfaction, loyalty, and motivation as observed from The Service Quality. Journal of Management and Islamic Finance, 1 (1), 136 – 153. http://ejournal.iain surakarta. ac.id/index.php/jmif/index.Suhendar E & Suroto (2014). Penerapan Metode Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Dalam Upaya peningkatan Kualitas pelayanan akademikPada UB. Faktor Exacta, 7(4): 372-386.
[20] Sofroniou A, Premnath B and Poutos K. (2020). Capturing Student Satisfaction: A Case Study on the National Student Survey Results to Identify the Needs of Students in STEM Related Courses for a Better Learning Experience. Education Science, 10 (37), 1-22. DOI:10.3390/educsci10120378.
[21] Sodik, M.A, Suprapto I, Pangesti, D. (2013). Factors related to the implementation of PRIMA services officers in the Rsui Orpeha Tulungagung. Strada Journal of Scientific Health, 2 (1): 7. https://www.sjik.org/index.php/sjik/article/view/40/44.
[22] Spector J.M, Merrill M.D, Merrienboer JV, and Driscoll MP. (2008). Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, Third Edition. New York – London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Subandi. (2021). Student Satisfaction, loyalty, and motivation as observed from The Service Quality. Journal of Management and Islamic Finance, 1 (1), 136 – 153. http://ejournal.iainsurakarta. ac.id/index.php/jmif/index.
[23] Tabi’in, A. (2017). Foster Child Care Attitude through Social Activity Interaction. Ijtimaiya Journal of Social Science Teaching, 1(1), 40-59.
[24] Stuffebeam, Daniel L. and Shinkfield AJ. (2007). Evaluation Theory, Models, and Application. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[25] Susilaningsih, E. 2012. Model of Chemical Practicum Evaluation in Education Institution. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation, UNY, 16 (1): 234-248 DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.21831/pep.v16i1.1115.
[26] Uno, H., Budiningsih, I and Penjaitan, K. (2012). Learning Model (2nd print). Gorontalo: BMT Nurul Jannah.
[27] Utami, T., Alfiandra, Waluyati, S. H. 2019. Pengaruh Kecerdasan Emosional Terhadap Sikap Peduli Sosial Siswa Di SMP Negeri 1 Palembang (The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on The Social Care Attitude of Students in State Junior High School 1 Palembang). Jurnal Bhineka Tunggkal Ika, Unversitas Sriwijaya. 6 (1): 17-36.
[28] Yunanto M., Setiono W., and Medyawati H. (2012). Responsibilities and Excellent Service on Customer Satisfaction: Case Study of DKI Islamic Bank. International Conference on Management and Education Innovation IPEDR, 196 IACSIT Press, Singapore, Vol. 37:196. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Responsibilites-and-Excellent-Service-on-Customer-Yunanto Setiono/e3c52797f1309f0246d9 ffb12353 ee2560f9e888

Iffah Budiningsih, Marliza Oktapiani, Elly Soraya, “Improving the Academic Services of As-Syafi’iyah Islamic University, Jakarta, Indonesia, through the Evaluation of Students’ Satisfaction” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.126-132 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6506

Download PDF

pdf

Microfinance and its implications on Women empowerment: A case of Bulawayo Restaurants in Zimbabwe

Dr Barbara Mbuyisa – May 2022- Page No.: 133-139

Microfinance is a developmental tool which has proved to be effective in poverty alleviation, economic development and women empowerment although it has insufficiently penetrated the poor strata of the society at a global perspective. Literature on MFIs has been examined extensively over the past 15 years because there are controversial issues surrounding the benefits inherent to its implementation. The study seeks to examine the impact of MFIs on the empowerment of women who run restaurants in the city of Bulawayo in Zimbabwe. A qualitative research design was used to ascertain the perceptions, beliefs and behavior of women towards the adoption of MFI as a tool for women empowerment. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 participants who run Restaurants in Bulawayo. The study concluded that lack of access to finance by women is a result of series of challenges experienced by MFIs such as inadequate capital and poor market outreach that need to be addressed by the government and regulatory authorities.

Page(s): 133-139                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 Dr Barbara Mbuyisa
Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe

[1] Adams, J., & Raymond, F. (2008). “Did Yunus deserve the Nobel Peace Prize: micro-finance or macro-finance?” Journal of Economic Issues, 42(2), 435–443.
[2] Bakhtiari, S. (2011). “Microfinance and poverty reduction: Some international evidence”. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 5(12).
[3] Bateman, M. (2011). Microfinance as a development and poverty reduction policy: Is it everything it’s cracked up to be? London: Overseas Development Institute.
[4] Beijing Platform for Action. Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women,
[5] Beijing, China, 1995.
[6] Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative,Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications
[7] Dichter, T. (2006). Hype and hope: The worrisome state of the micro-credit movement. The Microfinance Gateway. New York: USAID.
[8] Elahi.K. Q., & Rahman, L. (2006). Micro-credit and micro-finance: Functional and conceptual differences. Development In Practice, 16(5), 476-483.
[9] Helms, B. (2006). “Access for all: building inclusive financial systems”. Washington, DC, C-GAP. Retrieved from http://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/pdf/10.3362/0957-1329.2006.032 Accessed: 7/19/2016
[10] Hermes, N., & Lensink, R. (2007). “Impact of microfinance: a critical survey”. Economic and Political Weekly, 462–465.
[11] http://www.dochas.ie/Shared/Files/2/MicroFinance_literature_review.pdf (Accessed 12/07/2016)
[12] Khandakar Q. Elahi Constantine P. Danopoulos, (2004),”Microcredit and the Third World”, International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 31 Iss 7 pp. 643 – 654
[13] Khandker, S. R. (1998). Fighting poverty with microcredit: experience in Bangladesh. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19991800156.html. Accessed: 7/19/2016
[14] Klinkhamer, M. (2009). Microfinance sector recovery study: Zimbabwe Association of Micro Finance Institutes and SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Zimbabwe. Harare: AYANI
[15] Ledgerwood, J. (1999). Sustainable banking with the poor microfinance handbook. Retrieved from http://dspace.khazar.org/jspui/handle/123456789/2831 Accessed: 7/19/2016
[16] Longwe, S. (1995). “Gender Awareness: The Missing Element in the Third World Development Program in Candida March and Tina Wallace (Eds). Changing Perception: New Writings on Gender and Development. Oxford
[17] Maes JP., & Reed LR. (2012). State of the Microcredit Summit Campaign Report 2012. Washington: the Microcredit Summit Campaign (MCS). Available at: http://www.microcreditsummit.org [accessed on 7th December 2016]
[18] Mago, S. (2013).” Micro-finance in Zimbabwe: A historical overview”. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(14), 599-608.
[19] Morduch, J. (1999). “The microfinance promise”. Journal of Economic Literature, 37(4), 1569–1614.
[20] Moyo, T. (1999). Impact of Financial Sector Liberalisation. In Harare: Poverty Reduction Forum/SAPRIN.
[21] Ngwenya, T., & Ndlovu, N. (2003). “Linking SMMEs to sources of Credit: The performance of microfinance institutions in Gauteng. South Africa, [On-Line] Available:Http://www.Ilo. Rg/public/english/employment/finance/download/wp8. Pdf [Accessed: 20 March 2012].
[22] Otero, M. (1989). Handful of Rice: Savings Mobilisation by Micro-enterprise Programs and Perspectives for the Future. Malaysia: ACCION International.
[23] Raftopoulos, B., & Lacoste, J.-P. (2001). “Savings mobilisation to micro-finance: a historical perspective on the Zimbabwe savings development movement”. In International Conference on “Livelihood, Savings and Debts in a Changing World: Developing Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives”. Wageningen, Netherlands.Retrieved from:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03068290410540855
[24] RBZ (2018) Bank Supervision Quarterly Report- Microfinance Industry report, 31 March 2018.
[25] Robinson, M. S. (2001). The microfinance revolution: Sustainable finance for the poor. World Bank Publications.
[26] Ronsenburg, R., & Littlefield, E. (2004). “Microfinance and the poor”. Finance Dev., Washington, 41, 38–40.
[27] Sinha, F. (2005). Access, use and contribution of microfinance in india: Findings from national study. Economic and political weekly, 40(17), 1714-1719.
[28] Wrenn, E. (2005). Micro-finance: Literature Review
[29] Yunus, M. (2004). Grameen Bank, microcredit and millennium development goals. Economic and Political Weekly, 4077–4080.

Dr Barbara Mbuyisa, “Microfinance and its implications on Women empowerment: A case of Bulawayo Restaurants in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.133-139 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/133-139.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Bank ATM users’ perceptions towards ATM service quality: A structural equation modelling approach

Shamsuddeen Suleiman, Yasir Abdulkadir – May 2022- Page No.: 140-145

This measured ATM users’ service quality perceptions and subsequently examined the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in the context of conventional banking system in Nigeria using structural equation modelling approach. The study adopts survey research in which questionnaires are randomly administered on customers of five banks randomly selected for the study Access Bank Plc, Fidelity Bank Plc, First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Guarantee Trust Bank Plc and United Bank of Africa Plc. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to measure the relationships between the constructs and the indicator variables. The results of CFA retained all the indicator variables. The findings of the study also indicated that there is a strong positive relationship between ATM service quality and customer satisfaction in Nigerian banking sector.

Page(s): 140-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 Shamsuddeen Suleiman
Department of mathematical sciences, Federal University, Dutisin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

 Yasir Abdulkadir
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yar’adua, University, Katsina, Nigeria

[1] Akinmayowa J.T and Ogbeide D.O. (2014). Automated Teller Machine Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in the Nigeria Banking Sector, Covenant Journal of Business and Social Sciences (CJBSS), 65(1),52-72
[2] Amin M and Isa Z. (2008).An examination of the relationship between service quality perception and customer satisfaction A SEM approach towards Malaysian Islamic banking, International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 1(3); 191-209
[3] Bollen K (1989) Structural equations with latent variables, John Wiley & Sons, New York
[4] Burodo M.S., Suleiman S. and Shaba Y.(2019), Queuing Theory and ATM Service Optimization: Empirical Evidence from First Bank Plc, Kaura Namoda Branch, Zamfara State. American Journal of Operations Management and Information Systems. 4(3),80-86. doi: 10.11648/j.ajomis.20190403.12
[5] Burodo M.S., Suleiman S. and Yusuf G. (2021). An assessment of Queue management and Patient Satisfaction of Some Selected Hospitals in North-Western Nigeria, International Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Invention (IJMSI), 9(8), 14-24
[6] Carme S. and Germà C. (2002). Predicting Overall Service Quality. A Structural Equation Modelling Approach, Developments in Social Science Methodology,217-238
[7] Giao H.N.K., (2019), Customer Satisfaction towards ATM Services: A Case of Vietcombank Vinh Long, Vietnam, Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business 6 (1) : 141-148 141
[8] Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2015), “A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43 (1), 1- 21.
[9] Ijeoma C., Akujor J.C. and Mbah J.C. (2020). Electronic Banking and Customer Satisfaction in Imo State (A Study of Selected Commercial Banks in Imo State), European Journal of Business and Management Research, 5(6), 1-9, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.6.607
[10] John A.S. (2016) .The Influence of ATM Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in the Banking Sector of Nigeria, Global Journal of Human Resource Management, 4,(5), 65-79.
[11] Koko M.A., Burodo M.S., Suleiman S. (2018). Queuing Theory and Its Application Analysis on Bus Services Using Single Server and Multiple Servers Model. American Journal of Operations Management and Information Systems. 3(4), 81-85. doi: 10.11648/j.ajomis.20180304.12
[12] Krejcie, R.V. & Morgan, D. W. 1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.
[13] Latif K.F., Nazeer A., Shahzad F., Ullah M., Imranullah M., and Sahibzada U.F (2020). Impact of entrepreneurial leadership on project success: Mediating role of knowledge management processes. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 41(2),237-256
[14] Ringle, C.M., Sarstedt, M., Mitchell, R. and Gudergan, S.P. (2018), “Partial least squares structural equation modeling in HRM research”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, pp. 1-27, doi: 10.1080/09585192.2017.1416655.
[15] Suleiman S., Lawal A., Usman U., Gulumbe S.U. and Muhammad A.B (2019), Student’s Academic Performance Prediction Using Factor Analysis Based Neural Network. International Journal of Data Science and Analysis. 5(4), 61-66. doi: 10.11648/j.ijdsa.20190504.12
[16] Suleiman S., Burodo M.S., and Ahmed Z. (2022). An Application of Single and Multi-server Exponential Queuing Model in Some Selected Hospitals of the North-Western Nigeria, Asian Journal of Probability and Statistics, 16(2): 1-9 DOI: 10.9734/AJPAS/2022/v16i230396
[17] Suleiman S. and Usman U. (2016). Prediction of Customer Accessibility of Electronic Banking Logistic Regression in Nigeria, Equity Journal of Science and Technology, 4(1): 93-97
[18] Vucovic M., Pivac S. and kundid D. (2019) Structural equation modeling in the acceptance of internet banking in the city of Split, Croatian Operational Research Review, 10, 141-152

Shamsuddeen Suleiman, Yasir Abdulkadir “Bank ATM users’ perceptions towards ATM service quality: A structural equation modelling approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.140-145 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/140-145.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Making Youth a Leading Force for Promoting Agri-Food Systems, A Case of Rural Nakuru, Kenya

John Mathenge King’au – May 2022- Page No.: 146-150

Food insecurity remains a significant issue, with the developing world and more so a major challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa, which continues to pose a threat to the existence of millions of the inhabitants of the continent. The international community’s desire to create sustainable food systems in coming years will have long-lasting effects, not least for future generations. This paper review the implications of making youth a force in enhancing food systems. As the food systems discussions take off now and beyond, the enormous challenges of food security are intensifying. Thus, the youth’s future role in food systems is central in the transformation towards more sustainable and resilient food approaches. While it is recognized that youth have their own important roles to play in developing other systems, they also have a lot to give and gain through working with communities and applying their knowledge to local and global food challenges. Through youth empowerment and development of youth, as food systems change agents, they could become a leading force for positive change in their community and internationally. This paper present assessments of youth towards their engagement in food systems. The paper highlights a great number of initiatives shared by youth and institutions supporting them in agri-systems promotion. The paper argues that promotion of youth involvement in agri-enterprises has the catalytic effect of seeking solutions to food security issues. It concludes that improving agri-enterprises should be the main target of agrifood systems and remains an important source of employment and economic activity for Kenyan rural youth.

Page(s): 146-150                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 John Mathenge King’au
Directorate of Research, Laikipia University, Kenya

[1]. Dalla F. (2012). Exploring opportunities and constraints for young agro entrepreneurs in Africa: In International Conference on Young People, Farming and Food: The Future of the Agri-food Sector in Africa (pp. 19-21). Accra: Ghana
[2]. FAO (2019). Agripreneurship across Africa; Stories of inspiration. FAO and Eco-Ventures. Rome
[3]. FAO (2020). Market Matters – Making Market Matters Training 2020 for SMEs & Business Development Service providers.
[4]. FAO, 2014.The State of Food and Agriculture 2014 report; innovation in family farming
[5]. FAO, 2017. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World. Building Resilience for Peace and Food Security. Rome
[6]. FAO, (2015b). The State of Food and Agriculture 2015. Social protection and agriculture: breaking the cycle of rural poverty. Rome (available at http://www.fao.org/ publications/sofa/2015/en.)
[7]. Mburu, F. M. (2008). Youth Enterprise development Fund: A study of its Viability as an Empowerment Strategy for Youth Entrepreneurs in Ruiru Division, Thika district. MBA Thesis: Jomo Kenyatta University
[8]. Ministry of Youth Affairs, (2007) Kenya National Youth Policy: Sessional Paper N0.3; Nairobi: Government Press
[9]. St Martins CSA, (2021), Annual Report; Only through Community; Nyahururu; St Martins Catholic Social Apostolate.
[10]. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA ), in collaboration with the African Youth Foundation (AYF ) in October 2014
[11]. UN. (2015a). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. A/RES/70/1. New York, USA (available at https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/ post 2015/ transforming our world / publication)

John Mathenge King’au, “Making Youth a Leading Force for Promoting Agri-Food Systems, A Case of Rural Nakuru, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.146-150 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/146-150.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Influence of student councils’ involvement in Student welfare activities on management of public secondary schools in Kisii County

Chepkawai R. Limo, Dr. Joseph K.Lelan, PhD, Prof. Kosgei Zachariah K.,PhD – May 2022- Page No.: 151-161

In the recent past there has been a large number of secondary schools’ unrests and other forms of indiscipline in Kenyan secondary schools. This happens despite inclusion of student councils in secondary school management. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of student councils’ involvement in welfare activities and management of public secondary schools in Kisii County, Kenya. The study was anchored on social systems theory and adopted mixed methods design. The target population was 140,948 respondents comprising of 104 principals, 2080 teachers, 1040 student leaders, 137,713 students and 11 Sub County Directors of Education. The sample size was 1066 respondents comprising of 31 Principals, 336 teachers, 289 Student leaders, 399 students and 11 Sub-County Directors of Education. Stratified, simple random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data collection was done through the administration of questionnaires, interviews and document analysis. Validity was determined using expert judgement, while reliability was determined using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics ie correlation analysis and linear regression with the aid of SPSS V26. From the linear regression model, (R2 = .199) shows that student councils’ involvement in student welfare accounted for 19.9% variation in management of public schools. There was a positive significant effect of student councils’ involvement in student welfare and management of public schools (β2=0.539 and p value <0.05). Therefore, an increase in student councils’ involvement in student welfare led to an increase in management of public schools. It was concluded that involving student council in students’ welfare activities influences management public schools in Kisii. The study recommends that students be involved in welfare activities to avoid unnecessary conflicts between the school administration and students.

Page(s): 151-161                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 Chepkawai R. Limo
PhD Student, School of Education, Moi University, Kenya

 Dr. Joseph K.Lelan, PhD
Dept. of Educational Management and Policy Studies, Moi university, Kenya

 Prof. Kosgei Zachariah K.,PhD
Dept. of Educational Management and Policy Studies, Moi university, Kenya

[1] Ali, A. A., Dada, I. T., Isiaka, G. A., & Salmon, S. A. (2014). Types, Causes and Management of Indiscipline Acts Among Secondary School Students in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences, 8, 254-287.
[2] Baginsky, M., & Hannam, D. (1999). School Councils: The views of parents and teachers. NSPCC Policy and Research Series. London: NSPCC.
[3] Bakhda, S. (2004). Management and Evaluation of Schools. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, East Africa Ltd. Borden, R. (2004). Taking School design to students. Washington D. C: National institute of building science.
[4] Chemutai , L. & Chumba, S.K.(2014). Student council’s participation in decision making in public secondary schools in Kericho West Sub- County, Kenya. International journal of advanced research. Vol. 2(6):850-858.
[5] Cohen, E. H., & Romi, S. (2010). Classroom management and discipline: a multi- method analysis of the way teachers, students, and pre-service teachers view disruptive behaviour, Educational Practice and Theory, 32 (1), 47- 69.
[6] Davidsff, S. and lazarus, S. (2007). The Learning School; Organization Development Approach, Kenwyn: Juta
[7] Gikungu, J. M., & Karanja, B. W. (2014). An epistemic understanding of Strikes in selected secondary schools, Kenya. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(5).
[8] Karanja, S. (2012, July 9th). School girls boycott classes, demand shorter skirts, Daily Nation.
[9] Katz, L. G., & Chard, S. (2000). Engaging the Children Minds; The Project Approach (2nd ed.). Stamford, CT: Ablex. National School Health Policy, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation and Ministry of Education,
[10] Mabovula, N. (2009). Giving voice to the voiceless through deliberative democratic school governance. South African Journal of Education, 29, 219-233.
[11] Mati, A., Gatumu, J. C., & Chandi, J. R. (2016). Students’ Involvement in Decision Making and their Academic Performance in Embu West Sub-County of Kenya. Universal Journal of Educational Research 4(10), 2294-2298.
[12] Mukiti, M. T. (2014). Role of student council in secondary school’s management in Mwingi Central District, Kitui County, Kenya. M.Ed. Research Project, Kenyatta University, Nairobi.
[13] Mulwa, D. M., Kimosop, M. K., & Kasivu, G. M. (2015). Participatory Governance in Secondary Schools: The Students‟ Viewpoint in Eastern Region of Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(30).
[14] Ndaita, J. S. (2016). The Nature and Causes of Indiscipline Cases among Public Secondary School Students in Thika Sub-County, Kiambu County, Kenya. British Journal of Education, 4(7), 55-66.
[15] Ngwokabuenui, P. Y. (2015). Students’ Indiscipline: Types, Causes and Possible Solutions: The Case of Secondary Schools in Cameroon. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(22), 64-72.
[16] Njue, N. K. (2011). Influence of prefects on maintenance of students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Gatundu North District, Kenya. M. Ed Thesis, University of Nairobi.
[17] Nwankwo, I. N. (2014). Students‟ Participation in Decision Making and its Implications for Educational Leadership. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 5(3): 362-367
[18] Simatwa, E. M. W., Odhong, S. O., Juma, S. L. A., & Choka, G. M. (2014). Substance Abuse among Public Secondary School Students: Prevalence, Strategies and Challenges for Public Secondary School Managers in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu East Sub County International Research Journals 5(8), 315-330.
[19] Tikoko, B. J., & Kiprop, C. J. (2011). Extent of Student Participation in Decision-making in Secondary Schools in Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(21).

Chepkawai R. Limo, Dr. Joseph K.Lelan, PhD, Prof. Kosgei Zachariah K.,PhD “Influence of student councils’ involvement in Student welfare activities on management of public secondary schools in Kisii County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.151-161 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/151-161.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

An Investigation of Paragraph Writing Problems Encountered by Level 3 GFP Students: A Case of A’sharqiyah University, Sultanate of Oman

Bashir Abuelnour ELbashir – May 2022- Page No.: 162-168

This study aimed to identify the writing problems that are faced by level 3 General Foundation Programme (GFP) students and to find suitable strategies to deal with those problems. The study was conducted in A ’Sharqiyah University, Ibra, Sultanate of Oman, in September 2021. The rationale behind choosing level 3 was that teachers at the college level noticed that college students struggle with paragraph writing. The researcher used a descriptive research method (content analysis). Thirty-six level 3 students had been randomly selected and they had been informed to write a paragraph of 100-120 words on a given subject. The students’ paragraphs had been marked twice by six GFP teachers. The purpose was to pick out students’ mistakes and errors. The findings revealed that students encounter different writing problems: word choice, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, tenses, and sentence structure. In the light of those findings, some guidelines had been offered. For instance, students should read a lot; reading develops students’ vocabulary, grammatical structures, and knowledge of the world as well. In addition, the writing teacher should focus more on positive points of students’ writing and not the negative points. Moreover, teachers must praise students for their good attempts. Furthermore, teachers should, regularly, assign in-class writing activities. Finally, the writing teachers should share ideas and strategies on how to cope with paragraph writing problems.

Page(s): 162-168                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 May 2022

 Bashir Abuelnour ELbashir
A’Sharqiyah University, Ibra, Sultanate of Oman

[1] Abu Ras, R. (2001). Integrating reading and writing for effective language teaching. English Teaching Forum, 39 (1), 30-39.
[2] Al-Faki, I. (2015). University students’ English writing problems: Diagnosis and remedy. International Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(3), 40-52.
[3] Bell & Burnaby (1984). Handbook for ESL Literacy. Toronto: OISE.
[4] Byrne, D. (1988). Teaching Writing Skills. London: Longman Press.
[5] Carroll, J., & Wilson, E. (1995). Acts of teaching: How to teach writing. London: Englewood: Teacher Ideas Express
[6] Cohen, A. D., & Cavalcanti, M. C. (1990. 155-77). “Feedback on compositions: Teacher and student verbal reports.” In Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom. Ed. B.Kroll. Cambridge: CUP
[7] Clifford, R. T. (1987). Language Teaching in the Federal Government: A Personal Perspective. Annals, AAPSS, 490.
[8] Collins, A. & Gentner. D. (1980). A framework for a cognitive theorv of writing. In L.W. Gregg & E.R. Steinberg (Eds.). Steinberg (Eds.) cognitive process in writing (pp. 51-72). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum
[9] Davis, S. (1998). “Creative Writing.” Forum V 36, No 4: p.44.
[10] Edge, J.1989. Mistakes and Correction. Longman.
[11] Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press
[12] Ferries, D. (1995). ‘Student Reactions to Teacher Response Multiple Draft Composition Classrooms: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 29 No.1.
[13] Getnet Tizazu. 1994. The Responding Behaviour of Sophomore English Instructors of AAU to Student Writing., (Unpublished) MA Thesis. AAU.
[14] Gower, R., Phillips, D., & Walters, S. (1995). Teaching practice handbook. Oxford, UK: Heinemann
[15] Grab, W. & Kalan, R. (1996). Theory and Practice of Writing. London: Addison Wesley Longman.
[16] Hedge, T. (1988). Writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[17] Hudelson, S. (1989). Write on: Children writing in ESL. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
[18] Kharma, N. (1987). Composition problems: Diagnosis and remedy. English Teaching Forum, 24(3), 21-24
[19] Kroll, B. (1990). Second Language Writing: Research Insights for Classroom. Cambridge: CUP.
[20] Leki, I. (1996). Exploring Processes and Stretegies. Academic Writing. New York: St.Martin’s Press.
[21] Norrish, J. (1983). Language Learners and their Errors. London. Mac Millan Publishers.
[22] Nunan, D. (1989). Designing Communicative Tasks and Activities. Oxford: Oxford University.
[23] Pincas, A. (1982). Teaching English Writing. London: MacMillan.
[24] Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques in Teaching Writing. Oxford: OUP.
[25] Reid, M. (1983). Teaching ESL Writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[26] Reid, J. 2000. The Process of Composition.
[27] Raimes, A. (1985). What unskilled ESL students do as they write: A classroom study of composing. TESOL Quarterly, 19(2), 22, 9-258.
[28] Silva, T. (1990). ‘Second Language Composition Instruction. Development, Issues and Dissections in ESL’. In B, Kroll (ed). Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.
[29] Silva, T. 1997. On the Ethical Treatment of ESL Writing. TESOL Quarterly, 31(2), 359363. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3588052
[30] Tyner, E. (1987). College Writing Basics: A Progressive Approach. Belmont. Wands worth Publishing Company.
[31] Tsegaye, M. (2006). The Writing Problems of Preparatory II Students with Reference to Injibara Preparatory School. Unpublished MA Thesis. AAU.
[32] Ur, P. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
[33] White, R. & V. Arndt. (1991). Process Writing. London. Longman.
[34] Zamel, V. (1982). Writing: The process of discovering meaning. TESOL Quarterly, 16 (2),195-209.

Bashir Abuelnour ELbashir, “An Investigation of Paragraph Writing Problems Encountered by Level 3 GFP Students: A Case of A’sharqiyah University, Sultanate of Oman” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.162-168 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/162-168.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Idealized Influence and Church Leaders Performance, the case of Transformational Church Leadership Graduates

Abigael Demesi, Dr. Cavens Kithinji, Dr. Janerose Bibaara – May 2022- Page No.: 169-175

This study sought to investigate the influence of Idealized Influence on church leader’s performance focusing on the Pan Africa Christian University (PAC) Transformational Church Leadership (TCL) diploma program graduates of 2016 and 2017 in selected churches in Kenya.
The Transformational Leadership Theory guided the study. The study used pragmatism research philosophy to conduct a descriptive research. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected using survey and interviews respectively. This study adopted both stratified and purposive sampling. A sample of 158 graduates and 59 congregants/members from 14 Counties in Kenya, and 6 key informant interviews of senior organizational leaders were used to measure the variables of the study. The quantitative data was prepared and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22.0). The recordings from the zoom interviews were transcribed using Otter.ai and transferred to Miner Lite for coding and organized into themes. The study found out that leader’s idealized influence had a positive and significant correlation with church leader’s performance among graduates, with a Pearson correlation of r=0.527. The study revealed that idealized influenced graduates/church leaders modeled the taught Christian values, Christian disciplines and character which significantly influenced church growth. The study concluded that TCL trained church leaders practiced idealized influence which positively and significantly increased the church leader’s performance in Kenya. The study recommended the use of the TCL program to churches as a means of training church leaders to modeling Christian values, disciplines, and character and inspire the members/congregation enhance their performance and enable the church achieve its goals and objectives.

Page(s): 169-175                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

 Abigael Demesi
Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership, Pan Africa Christian University

 Dr. Cavens Kithinji
Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership, Pan Africa Christian University

 Dr. Janerose Bibaara
Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership, Pan Africa Christian University

[1] Aruasa, W. K., Chirchir, L. K, & Chebon, S. K. (2019). Strategies for improving physicians and nurses’ professional satisfaction at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 6(3), 216-226
[2] Averbeck, R. E. (2010). The Bible in spiritual formation. In A. Andrews (Ed.), The Kingdom life: A practical theology of discipleship and spiritual formation.
[3] Avolio, B. (2011). Full range leadership development (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
[4] Awori, B. (2017). Effect of transformational leadership style on employee performance in regulatory state corporations in Kenya. PhD Dissertation USIU-Africa.
[5] Barentsen, J. (2011). Emerging leadership in the Pauline mission: a social identity perspective on local leadership development in Corinth and Ephesus. Pickwick. Eugene, Oregon
[6] Barine, K., & Minja, D. (2014). Transformational corporate leadership. ISBN-10:982863012. New York, Integrity.
[7] Barna Group. (2017). Barna trends: The truth about a post-truth society. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.
[8] Bass, B. M., & Riggio, E. (2016). Leading organizations: Perspectives for a new era. Gill Robinson Hickman (eds), Los Angeles Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[9] Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2015). The transformational model of leadership. In Leading organizations: Perspectives for a new era (3rd ed., 76–86). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
[10] Baxter, G. B. (2011). A Thesis project submitted to Liberty Theological Seminary. Doctor of Ministry. Lynchburg, Virginia.
[11] Bayram, H., & Dinc, S. (2015). Role of transformational leadership on employee’s job satisfaction: The case of private universities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Researcher Series A, 93, 270–281. doi:13187/er.2015.93.270
[12] Blackaby, H. & Blackaby, R. (2011). Spiritual leadership: Moving people on to God’s agenda.. Tennessee. B&H Nashville.
[13] Burkus, D. (2010, March 18). Transformational leadership theogy, the portable guide to leading organizations (Ebook). Retrieved from: https://davidburkus.com/2010/03/transformational.leadership.theory/
[14] Burns, J. M. (2010). Leadership. In G. R. Hickman (Eds.), Leading organizations: Perspectives for a new era (2nd ed.). (p. 66 – 75). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[15] Caza, A. & Posner, B.Z. (2014). Growing together: Evidence of convergence in American and Singaporean sources of satisfaction with leaders. Western Academy of Management annual meeting. Napa Valley, CA.
[16] Dalton, J. (2015). Making Moral Mistakes: What ethical failure can teach students about life and leadership. New directions for student leadership.(146), 71–79. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.20136
[17] Danbaba, D. (2016). Church leadership tussle: its implication for the growth of evangelical church winning all (ECWA) in Kaduna state. Zaria, Unpublished dissertation Submitted, Ahmadu Bello University.
[18] Fernet, C., Trepanier, S. G., Gegne, M., & Forest, J. (2015). Transformational leadership and optimal functioning at work: On the mediating role of employee’s perceived job characteristics and motivation. Work & Stress, 29, 11-31. Doi:10.1080/0268373.2014.1003998.
[19] Fogarty, S. G. (2013). The impact of senior pastor leadership behaviors on volunteer motivation (Dissertation Master of Arts Theology). Australian College of Theology Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (Order No. 3570901)
[20] Foster, J. R. (2018). Celebration of discipline: The path to spiritual growth. San Francisco, CA: Harper.
[21] Goodrich, J. K. (2013). Overseers as stewards and the qualifications for leadership in the Pastoral Epistles.Zeitschriftfür die neutestamentlicheWissenschaft und die Kunde der älterenKirche, 104(1), 77-97. doi:10.1515/znw-2013-0003
[22] Gregory, T. (2019). Transformational pastoral leadership. Journal of Biblical Perspectives in Leadership 9,(1), 56-75. ISSN 1941-4692
[23] Hamdani, M., (2018). Learning how to be a transformational leader through a skill-building, role-play exercise. The International Journal of Management Education 16(1):26-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijme.2017.11.003
[24] Hargis, M. B., Watt, J. D., & Piotrowski, C. (2011). Developing leaders: Examining the role of transactional and transformational leadership across business contexts. Organization Development Journal, 29(3), 51-66. Retrieved from http://www.isodc.org/
[25] Hoxha, A. (2015). Empowerment and trust as mediators of the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. European Journal of Economic & Political Studies, 8(1), 43-60. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119528388.
[26] http://search.proquest.com/docview/851889192?accountid=14472
[27] Ishikawa, J. (2012). Transformational leadership and gatekeeping leadership: The roles of norm for maintaining consensus and shared leadership in team performance. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29, 265-283. doi:10.1007/s10490-012-9282-z
[28] Jerobon, T., Kimutai, G., & Kibet, Y. (2016). Evaluation of effects of transformational leadership and employee performance a survey of Nandi County Government. Journal of Business and
[29] Joynt, S. & Dreyer, Y. (2013). Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 69(1):01-13. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v69i1.1940
[30] Joynt, S. & Dreyer, Y. (2013). Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 69(1):01-13. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v69i1.1940
[31] Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. (2014). The leadership challenge (6th ed.). San Francisco, SBN-13: 978-1119278962:Jossey-Bass.
[32] Langat, G. K., Linge, T. K., & Sikalieh, D. (2019). Influence of idealized influence on employee job performance in the insurance industry in Kenya. 8(5), 266-273,
[33] MacDonald, G. (2011). Building below the waterline: Shoring up the foundations of leadership. Doctor of Ministry Program, Oral Roberts University Graduate School of Theology and Ministry Tulsa, Oklahoma.
[34] Malphurs, A. (2013). Advanced strategic planning: A 21st-century model for church and ministry leaders: Baker Books.
[35] Mbithi, A. M., K’Obonyo, P. O., & Awino, Z. B. (2016). Transformational Leadership, Employee Outcomes, and Performance of Universities in Kenya. DBA Africa Management Review, 6(2), 654 – 663.
[36] Middleton, J., Harvey, S., & Esaki, N. (2015). Transformational leadership and organizational change: how do leaders approach trauma-informed organizational change…twice? Family in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 3(1), 155-163.
[37] Morrison, P. E. (2011). Implications of Paul’s Model for Leadership Training in Light of Church Growth in Africa: Africa Journal of Evangelical Theology, (24)1:84.
[38] Moss, B.K. (2014, November 11). Leadership in the local church: An intentional strategy for developing leaders at every level (PhD Dissertation) Lynchburg, Virginia. Liberty University Baptist theology seminary
[39] Mwambazambi, M., & Banza, A.K. (2014). Developing transformational leadership for sub-Saharan Africa: Essential missiological considerations for church workers. Verbum et Ecclesia 35(1):01-09. DOI: 10.4102/ve.v35i1.849.
[40] Nkonge, D. (2012). Developing church leaders in Africa for reliable leadership: A Kenyan perspective. Dutch Reformed Theological Journal, 5(3_4), 229-240.
[41] Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership Theory and Practice. (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage
[42] Northouse, P. G. (2018). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[43] Rumley, D. D. (2011). Perceptions of the senior pastors’ transformational leadership style and its relationship to the eight markers of natural church development. Applied Christian Leadership, 6(2), 119-120.
[44] Rutledge, R. D. (2010). The effects of transformational leadership on academic optimism within elementary schools. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. USA, Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama.
[45] Sanderse, W. (2013). The meaning of role modelling in moral and character education. Journal of Moral Education, 42(1), 28-42, DOI: 10.1080/03057240.2012.690727
[46] Seloane, M. P. (2010). The relationship between transformational leadership and organizational culture. Master of Administration. South Africa; University of South Africa.
[47] Shadraconis, S. (2013). Organizational leadership in times of uncertainty: Is transformational leadership the answer? LUX: A Journal of Transdisciplinary Writing and Research from Claremont Graduate University, 2(1), 28-29.
[48] Shanlian, M. J. (2013). Transformational leadership in church revitalization: A study of Heights church in Beech Island, South Carolina. (Doctoral dissertation) USA, Tennessee, Tennessee Temple University.
[49] Strohbehn, U. (Ed) (2020). A Manual for starting and developing Bible schools: Appeals cases for paradigm shifts in spiritual formation. Edited by. Fida International, Tulppatie 20,00880 Helsinki, Finland. Strohbehn,
[50] The Full Life Study Bible, New International Version. (1992). Life Publishers International.
[51] Trmal, S.A., Bustamam, U.S., & Mohamed, Z.A. (2015). The effect of transformational leadership in achieving high performance workforce that exceeds organizational expectation: A study from global and Islamic perspective. Global business management (2research: An International Journal, 7(2), 88-94.
[52] Watson, E. E. (2012). Toward transformational leadership development in the local church: A synthesis of insights from instructional design, adult learning theory, the New Testament, and Organizational research. (Doctoral dissertation) South Africa, South African Theological Seminary.
[53] White, J. E. (2011). What they didn’t teach you in seminary: 25 lessons for successful ministry in your church. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

Abigael Demesi, Dr. Cavens Kithinji, Dr. Janerose Bibaara “Idealized Influence and Church Leaders Performance, the case of Transformational Church Leadership Graduates” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.169-175 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/169-175.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: A case study with reference to the Faculty of Engineering, University of Sri Jayewardenepura

Aruni Priya Aluthge – May 2022- Page No.: 177-192

The goal of this study is to identify the degree of entrepreneurial intention among engineering undergraduates in Sri Lanka considering students at the faculty of engineering at the University of Sri Jayewardenepura as a sample. It seeks to advance the theoretical discussion on the relationship between personality traits and perceived desirability and entrepreneurial intention. And it further reviews the relationship between entrepreneurship modules and students’ entrepreneurial intention, to identify the practical relevance of entrepreneurship education. This study used a quantitative method to gather primary data using a survey questionnaire. The questionnaire was made available to the all students at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Due to COVID 19 pandemic challenges, only 83 students had responded with completed questionnaires that were eligible for the test. To test the hypothesis, the SPSS package was used. The findings of the study revealed a low level of students’ intention on entrepreneurship and their interest in the entrepreneurial effort. But students perceived desirability variable highlighted that there is a high chance for motivating students for entrepreneurship by sharpening those determinants. It is observed that effective entrepreneurship education can play a vital role in inculcating entrepreneurial intention. However, the recommendations for further study have been highlighted that a study should be conducted with a bigger sample from all universities in the country to understand the big picture of entrepreneurial intention among engineering students

Page(s): 177-192                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

 Aruni Priya Aluthge
A.P. Aluthge University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

[1] A. Iran Sutha and P.Sankar ‘Entrepreneurial intention and Social Entrepreneurship among University Student in Chennai City’ Volume 8, Number 1(2016, pp.93-105
[2] Acs. J. & Varga, A., 2004. The Entrepreneurship, technology Agglomeration and the change. Papers on entrepreneurship, growth and the public policy. 4(6), pp. 195-199
[3] Ajzen I 1991 – Theory of Planned Behaviour- Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Process 50(2):179-211
[4] Braunerhijlm, 2010, Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth : Past Experience, Current Knowledge and Policy Implications
[5] Béchard, J.-P., & Grégoire, D. (2007). Archetypes of pedagogical innovation for entrepreneurship in higher education: model and illustrations. In A. Fayolle (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Entrepreneurship Education Volume 1: A General Perspective (pp. 261-284).Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
[6] Bell, R. and Bell,H.(2016). Replicating the networking, mentoring and venture creation benefits of entrepreneurship centres on a shoestring: Student-centered approach to entrepreneurship education and venture creation, Industry and Higher Education, 30(5), pp.334-343.
[7] Bird, B. (1988) “Implementing entrepreneurship ideas: the case for intention” Academy of Management Review 13,442-443
[8] Carter, N.M. et.al. (2007). Female Entrepreneurship, Implications for education, training and policy. Abingdon: Routledge.
[9] Clark, B.R. (1998). The entrepreneurial university: Demand and response. Tertiary Education & Management, 4(1), 5-16 Center for American Entrepreneurship- https://startupsusa.org/what-is -entrepreneurship
[10] Cunningham, J.B. and Lischeron, J. (1991). Defining entrepreneurship. Journal of small business Management, 29(1), pp. 45-61.
[11] Eckhardt, J. and Shane, S. (2003), The importance of opportunities to entrepreneurship, Journal of Management, vol.29 No.3, pp. 333-490
[12] Ertuna, Z., & Gurel, E. (2011). The moderating role of higher education on entrepreneurship. Education & Training, 53(5), 387-402
[13] Fayolle, A. and Gailly, B. (2015). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention: hysteresis and persistence. Journal of Small Business Management, 53:1, pp 75-93.
[14] Feyolle, A. (2013). Personal views on the future of entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship & Regional development, 25(7-8), pp. 692-701.
[15] Gartner. W.B (1988). “Who is an entrepreneur? Is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12(4): 11-32
[16] Goncharova, M., Kartashov, B. & Gavrilov, A., 2009. Potential for Russian innovation system. Fundamental Research, 6, pp. 124-126
[17] Hisrich, R.D. (2006). Entrepreneurship research and education ion the world: Past, present and future, In Jahrbuch Entrepreneurship 2005/06 (pp. 3-14). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
[18] Holland, Phil (2010), My own Business, Los Angeles, CA, USA: My Own Business, Inc.
[19] Igbo, C (2005). “Modern Institutional techniques and their application in technical Vocational Education Programs of Polytechnic and Monotechnic”. ETF capacity Building Workshop, Auchi, No 2005.
[20] Jansen, S.,van de Zande, T., Brinkkemper, S., Stam, E., & Varma, V. (2015). How education, stimulation, and incubation encourage Student entrepreneurship: Observation from MIT, IIIT, and Utrecht University. The International Journal of Management Education,13(2). 170-181
[21] Jeeshan Mirza (2017), Why Sri Lanka needs more entrepreneurs, Daily FT, 20/9/2017.
[22] Kakouris, A. and Georgiadis, p. (2016), Analysis entrepreneurship education; A bibliometric survey pattern, Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 6(6), pp.1-18
[23] Kao H.C. (1994). Factors associated with entrepreneurial inclination: An empirical study of business undergraduate in Hong Kong. Journal of Small Business Enterprises, 12(2), 29-41.
[24] Kirzner, I., 1979, Perception, Opportunity, and Profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[25] Koch, L.T. (2002). Theory and practice of entrepreneurship education; a German view.
[26] Kimmons R. (2019), What are the basic concepts & characteristics of entrepreneurship?
[27] Kostoglou, V., & Siakas E. (2012). Investing higher education graduate’s entrepreneurship in Greece. Retrieved from http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
[28] Kuratko, D.F. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: development, trends, and challenge. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 577-597.
[29] Kennedy, J., Drennan.J, Renfrow, P and Watson b (2003): Situational Factors and Entrepreneurial Intention, Paper presented at the 16th Annual Conference of the SME Association of Australia and New Zealand
[30] Keogh, P, Polanski, M (1998). “Environment commitment: A Basis for environmental entrepreneurship? Organ, Change Manage .11(1): 38-49
[31] Kolvereid, L (1996) “ Prediction of employment status choice intention” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 21(1), 47-47.
[32] Krueger & Brazeal 1994 – Entrepreneurial Potential and Potential Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 18(3) DOI:10.14211/regepe. v7i2.1071
[33] Krueger N.F & Carsrud A. (1993). Entrepreneurial intention: Applying the theory of planned behavior. Entrepreneurship and regional development, vol. 4, pp. 314-330.
[34] Krueger N.F, Reilly M, Carsrud AL (2002), Competing models of entrepreneurial intention – Journal of Business Venturing 14;411-432
[35] Lanero, A., Vazquez, J., Gutierrez, P. & Purification G.M. (2011). The impact of entrepreneurship education in European universities: and intention-based approach analyzed in the Spanish area International review on public and non-profit making, 8(2), 111-130
[36] Martin, B.C., McNally, J.J., and Kay, M.J. (2013). Examining the formation of human capital in entrepreneurship: A meta-analysis of entrepreneurship education outcomes. Journal of Business ventures,28,211-224.
[37] Malhotra, N. K. (2007). Marketing research: an applied approach (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
[38] Matthews, R.B., Stowe, C.R, & jemkins, G.K. (2011). Entrepreneurs-born or made? In allied Academies International conference, Academy of Entrepreneurship. Proceedings (Vol. 17, N. 1, p.49), Jordan Whitney Enterprise, Inc.
[39] Mayuran. L ‘Entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate students in university of Jaffna’ Volume7, 2017. P.1
[40] Muhammad; Saleem, Mazhar (2018): Entrepreneurial intentions among university students in Italy, Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, ISSN 2251-7316, Springer, Heidelberg, Vol. 8, Iss. 20, pp. 1-1
[41] Nabi, G., Holden, R and Walmsley, A (2006) Graduate career-making and business start-up: a literature reviews, Education and Training, 48,4,373-384.
[42] Nader S.A. and Mohammad R.M. Concept of entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurs Trait and Characteristics. National Policy Framework for Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Development, Ministry of Industry and commerce, Government of Sri Lanka
[43] Nicolaides, (2011). Entrepreneurship-the role of higher education in South Africa, International Educational research, 2(4), 1043-1050.
[44] Norris F. Krueger, JR. Deborah v. Brazeal (1994), Entrepreneurial Potential and Potential Entrepreneurs
[45] Peterman, N E & Kennedy (2003) Enterprise education: Influencing students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 28(2), 129-144
[46] Postages and F. Tamborini (2002). ‘Entrepreneurship education in Argentina. The Case of Andres University International Entrepreneurship Education and Training Conference. IntEnt02, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
[47] Raposo, M. and Do Paco, A. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: Relationship between education and entrepreneurial activity. Psicothema, 23(3), pp. 453-457.
[48] Schumpeter, I., 1934. Theory of Economic development. 2008.Directmedia Publishing, p. 401.
[49] Schumpeter, JA (1995). The Theory of Economic Development, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
[50] Sekeran U (2003), Research Methods for Busienss: A Skill Building Approach,4th ed., US: John Wiley & Sons.
[51] Shacini C.N 2013, ‘SIntention towards Entrepreneurship among Engineering students (With special reference to the University of Ruhuna-Faculty of engineering.
[52] Shan, S. and Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 13-17
[53] Shapero, A & Sokol L. (1982), Social Dimensions of Entrepreneurship., in C.A. Kent et al., (Eds.). The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship, Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[54] Shane, S., Eckhardt, J. (2003). The Individual-opportunity nexus. In Handbook of 58 entrepreneurship reaches (pp. 161.191). Springer, Boston, MA.
[55] T. Holmes & J. Schmitz (1990), A Theory of Entrepreneurship and its application to the Study of Business Transfer. Vol 98, issue 2, 265-95
[56] Tarascio, V.J. (1985). Cantillon’s Essai: a current perspective. Journal of Libertarian Studies, 7(2), 249-257.
[57] Tkachev.A., and Kolvereid, L (1999) “Self-employment intentions among Russian students” Academy of Management Review, 14,351-384
[58] Van Popta, G. (2002). Entrepreneurial learning. EIM Business & Policy research, Scientific. Analysis of Entrepreneurship and SMEs paper N, 200616.
[59] Vesper, K.H, and Granter, W. B. (1997). Measuring progress in entrepreneurship education. Journal of business venturing, 12(5), pp. 403-421.
[60] Wood, R. E& Bandura A. (1989). Impact of Conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision making. Journal of Personality and social psychology 46,407-414
[61] Wu and Wu (2008). The Impact of Higher Education on Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students In China, October 2008 Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 15(4):752-774
[62] Williams, E. (2011). The global entrepreneur: how to create maximum personal wealth in the new global economic era. Bloomington: University

Aruni Priya Aluthge, “Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: A case study with reference to the Faculty of Engineering, University of Sri Jayewardenepura” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.177-192 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/177-192.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Approaches for Bridging the Skill Gap of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Graduates towards Economic Recovery in a Recessed Economy in Nigeria

Owoso Joseph Oluropo (Ph.D), Chiso Njoku (Ph.D), CMRP. – May 2022- Page No.: 193-198

This study investigated the strategies for bridging the skill gap of technical vocational education and training (TVET) graduates towards economic recovery in a Recessed economy. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Three research questions guided the study and the population of the study comprised of sixty (60) vocational and technical education lecturers in TVET departments in Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Ijanikin and Michael Otedola Primary College of Education, Epe. Fourty (40) questionnaires were administered to the respondents and three (3) experts were engaged for face validation of the instrument. Cronbach Alpha method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument at 0.86. The paper identified problem solving skills and personnel management skills as some of the skill gaps in TVET, the paper also identified making of Students’ excursion compulsory in the curriculum of TVET as one of the strategies in bridging the skill gaps among others, the paper went further to state that inadequate funding of technical and vocational education is one of the setback of vocational and technical education. The study recommended among others that TVET institutions should work out modalities for training and re-training of TVET teachers in a way that will benefit both the Institutions and Industries in Nigeria and there should be adequate monitoring and supervision of student on the job training as well as adequate funding of technical vocational education and training by government

Page(s): 193-198                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6507

 Owoso Joseph Oluropo (Ph.D)
Lagos State University of Education, Otto-Ijanikin Lagos State Nigeria

 Chiso Njoku (Ph.D), CMRP
Lagos State University of Education, Otto-Ijanikin Lagos State Nigeria

[1] Adenle, S. O. and Olukayode, S. I. (2007): Technical and Vocational Education for Productivity and Sustainable Development in Nigeria. A paper presented at the 20th annual National conference of National Association of Teachers of Technology (NATT) at Kaduna Polytechnic, 5th – 9th November, 2007.
[2] Aina, O. (2008). Relevance of secondary education business and technical qualifications as admission requirements into tertiary institution. Journal of Vocational Technical Education, 2(2), 14-21.
[3] Alao, K. & Adelabu, M. (2006). Planning, programming and strategizing for changes and innovations in the educational system of developing countries. At the 3rdvittachi International Conference on Rethinking Educational changes at Ifrane, Morocco.
[4] Cleary, M., Flynn, R., Thomasson, S., Alexander, R., & McDonald, B. (2007). Graduate employability skills: Prepared for the business, industry and higher education collaboration council. Retrieved May, 2, 2011.
[5] Egboh, S.H.O. (2009). Strategies for Improving the Teaching of Science, Technical and Vocational Education in Schools and Colleges in Nigeria. Paper Presented at the one day Intensive Nationwide Training/Workshop Organized by the Centre for Science, Technical and Vocational Education Research Development, Jos and Proprietors of Private Schools in Delta State held at College of Education, Warri.
[6] Federal Government of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education, Lagos: NERDC.
[7] Financial Times (2017). Retrieved on March 31st @ www.lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=recession
[8] Idris, A. & Rajuddin, M. R. (2012). The influence of teaching approaches among technical and vocational education teachers towards acquisition of technical skills in Kano State – Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 3 (16): 160-165.
[9] Lawal, A. W. (2010): Re-branding vocational and technical in Nigeria for sustainable national development, problems and prospect. A paper presented at the 1st National conference of School of Business Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Bichi, 1st – 4th November, 2010.
[10] Obarisiagbon, E. I. & Akintoye, E. O. (2019). Insecurity crisis in Nigeria: The law enforcement agents a panacea? Journal of Sociology and Social Work 7(1), 44-51. DOI: 10.15640/jssw.v7n1a6URL.
[11] Njoku, C.A. (2017). Automation in Industries and Curriculum Review Needs of Mechanical Engineering Craft Practice in Technical Colleges in Lagos State. Unpublished Med Thesis. University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[12] Obarisiagbon, E. I. & Omagie, M. I. (2018). Public perception on the role of the Nigeria police in curbing the menace of kidnapping in Benin Metropolis, Sothern Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 7(1), 65-72.
[13] Odukoya D. (2009). Formulation and implementation of educational policies in Nigeria. Position paper presented at ERNWACA, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
[14] Ogwo, B.A. and Oranu R.N. (2006). Methodology in formal and non-formal technical and vocational education, Nsukka: University of Nigeria Press Ltd.
[15] Oladejo, M. T. (2019). Challenges of technical and vocational education and training in Nigerian history. Makerere Journal of Higher Education 11(1), 67-81.
[16] Okoye O.J (2002). Youth restiveness and the Role of business education towards poverty alleviation. Business Education Journal, 3(5).
[17] Obidile, J. I. (2018). Strategies for improving Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) programme to reduce unemployment in Nigeria. NAU Journal of Technology and Vocational Education 3(1), 1-10.
[18] Ovbiagele, A.O. (2015). Vocational education for socio-economic and technological development of Nigeria. Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Science. 4(4) 15-18.
[19] Oviawe, J.I., Uwameiye, R. & Uddin, P.O. (2017). Bridging skill gap to meet technical, vocational education and training school-workplace collaboration in the 21st century. International Journal of Vocational Education and Training Research. Vol. 3(1) 7-14.
[20] Tinuke, M.F. (2012). The global economic recession: impact and strategies for human resources management in Nigeria. International journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 1(6), 7-12.

Owoso Joseph Oluropo (Ph.D), Chiso Njoku (Ph.D), CMRP. “Approaches for Bridging the Skill Gap of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Graduates towards Economic Recovery in a Recessed Economy in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.193-198 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6507

Download PDF

pdf

Influence of Principals’ Allocation of Financial Resources to School Programmes on the Implementation of Performance Contracting in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya

Muli Geoffrey Munyao, Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D), Dr. Selpher Cheloti – May 2022- Page No.: 199-205

Misallocation and misappropriation of financial resources in leaning institutions has been the cause of misuse fraud and inefficiency, in educational institutions around the world. This has affected the implementation of Performance contacting (P C) in the institutions which necessitated the need for this study that investigated the influence of principals’ allocation of financial resources to school programmes on implementation of performance contracting in public secondary schools in Machakos County. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design using mixed method approach. The sample size of the study was 471 respondents comprising of 9 Assistant directors of education, 109 Principals’ and 354 Teachers. Purposive sampling was used to select the directors, proportionate sampling to select the teachers and random sampling to select the principals to participate in the study. Validity of research instruments was ascertained using a pilot study while reliability of instruments was ascertained using Test- Retest technique. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and reported using graphs, charts and tables. Qualitative data drawn from open ended questions and interviews was transcribed into themes and reported in narratives. Coefficient of Correlation was used on hypotheses to determine the influence of principals’ allocation of financial resources to school programmes on implementation of performance contracting in public secondary schools in Machakos County. The study found there was a statistically significant relationship between allocation of financial resources and implementation of performance contracting at p level 0. 065.The study concluded that failure to allocate finance by principals and to PC activities influenced its implementation. The study recommended that School Boards of Management need to allocate finances to areas of priority in school to catalyze PC implementation.

Page(s): 199-205                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

 Muli Geoffrey Munyao
Doctorate student, Student, school of education, South Easter Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D)
Doctorate student, Student, school of education, South Easter Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Selpher Cheloti
Doctorate student, Student, school of education, South Easter Kenya University, Kenya

[1] Balogun, M. J. (2003) Performance Management and Agency Governance for Africa Development: The search for common cause on Excellence in the Public Service.UNCEA, Addis Ababa.Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, (2009). What is performance management? Retrieved from http://www.cipd.co.uk/
[2] Blanca, Natow and Dougherty (2011) Norton.D. (2015) Higher education governance and performance-based funding as an ecology of games; Boston MA Havard Business school press
[3] CIPD (2005). Performance Management. London: CIPD.
[4] Coleman & Anderson (2000) Impact of decentralization of financial management in public schools on PC implementation in Shewa region Ethiopia.
[5] Gospel, H. and Pendelton, A. (2005). Corporate Governance and Labour Management, New York: Oxford University Press.
[6] Kariuki F. (2011). Factors affecting implementation of performance contracting initiative at Municipal council of Maua, Kenya. Research journal of financial accounting Vol 2, No. 2
[7] King’oo F K , Kasivu G, M & Mwanza R K (2019) Influence of Principals’ Performance Contracting on Compliance with Procurement Procedures in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya International Journal of Education and Research ISSN:2411 5681Volume7,Number 5 May 2019
[8] Kobia, M. & Mohammed, N. (2006). The Kenyan Experience with Performance Contracting Government Printer: Nairobi Role of Performance Contracting in Enhancing Performance Effectiveness in the Civil Service in www.iosrjournals.org
[9] Kristiansen K. (2015)- Analysis of individual employee competencies on PC in the service industry- Turkey,Ural university press
[10] Kyule P. K, Kasivu G M (2020) Teacher Training: A Critical Factor in the Implementation of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Public Secondary Schools in Nzaui Sub County in Makueni County, Kenya International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume IV, Issue VI, June 2020|ISSN 2454-6186 www.rsisinternational.org Page 235.
[11] Lin J. & Lee P. (2011). Performance management in public organizations; A complexity perspective. International public management review; Vol. 12 ISS.2
[12] Matete (2016), ‘implementation of open performance and appraisal system for teachers in Tanzania’ case study, Mbeya district unpublished thesis Mt Meru University
[13] Mulei (2016) “Performance contacting; BOM efficacy in management of schools in Makueni County”unpublished MEd paper UON ,Nairobi
[14] National Performance Review (NPR) (2007). Create Customer-driven Programmes in all departments and Agencies that provide services directly to the Public. NPRICSOI: Recommendations and actions. Retrieved from www.npr.gor.uk (accessed on 8th june 2016).
[15] Prajapatti N. (2010). Principal leadership styles in high – academic performance of selected secondary schools in Kelantan Darulnaim. International Journal of Independent Research and Studies. ISSN: 2226 – 4817 Vol. 1, No. 2, Asian Institute of Advance Research and Studies, Karachi – 75190, Pakistan
[16] RBM Guide, Kenya (2005). Results Based Management: Training Manual. Kenya 9Republic of Kenya, (2005). Economic Survey, NRB, Government Printers
[17] Republic of Kenya (2016). TSC Guidelines on performance contracting for head teachers and principals for the year 2016, Nairobi Government Printer
[18] Shavers J. (2006) A Study on the Impact of on-the-job training Courses on the Staff Performance (A Case Study) International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr
[19] Transparency International, (2009). Recruitment and Training Guide Nairobi: Government Printer
[20] TSC Machakos (2021). Effective Implementation of Performance Contract by Principals and TSC Managers at the County level. Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printer.
[21] Wills, G (2015b) ‘A profile of the labour market for school principals in South Africa: Evidence to inform policy’, Stellenbosch Economics Working Paper Series No 12/15. University of Stellenbosch, Department of Economics pp 4.

Muli Geoffrey Munyao, Dr. Gideon Kasivu (Ed.D), Dr. Selpher Cheloti, “Influence of Principals’ Allocation of Financial Resources to School Programmes on the Implementation of Performance Contracting in Public Secondary Schools in Machakos County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.199-205 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/199-205.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Elucidating Empirical Research Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice in Nigeria

Nwokeoma Bonaventure N (PhD) – May 2022- Page No.: 206-217

The crime situation in Nigeria and indeed other parts of the world continue to be monstrous despite the efforts of the criminal justice system. The foundation of overcoming this challenge may be found in the adherence to well articulated empirical research/studies aimed at understanding and providing solutions to the ramifications of crime problems in Nigeria. Therefore, there is the urgent need to examine and highlight the methods of research in criminology and criminal justice. This is a theoretical paper which relied on secondary sources, observations and desk reviews to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using relevant thematic schemes. Relevant themes like types of research, research ethics data collection, qualitative and qualitative research and actual research process were examined. It was recommended that adherence to empirical research rather than media reports is the pathway to solving the crime problem in Nigeria.

Page(s): 206-217                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6508

 Nwokeoma Bonaventure N (PhD)
Department of Sociology/Anthropology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

[1] Babbie, E. (2010).The practice of social research 12thedn. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Cengage Learning
[2] Center for Democracy and Governance (1999, February). A handbook on fighting corruption. Washington, D.C:U.S. Agency for International Development. Century company Limited corruption. www.sussex.ac.uk/Ips/internal/departments/politics/2014 describe corruption and the role of UNODC in supporting Countries in performing Criminology and criminal justice research, Law.jrank.org/pages/925 retrieved Aug, 2018
[3] Criminal justice (2018) Criminal- justice.iresearchnet.com/criminology/research-methodology
[4] Eshemitan, J. (2015, May 22). How the media can effectively help fight corruption. Independent Newspaper.Retrieved from http://independent.ng/media-can-efectively-help-fight-coruption
[5] Guthrie, G. (2010). Basic research methods: an entry to social science research. Delhi: Sage
[6] Hellman, O (2014).University of Sussex centre for the study of corruption. Research
[7] Hopkinson, N., Pelizzo, R. (2006). The role of government and parliament in curbing corruption in central and eastern Europe. In R. Stapenhurst, N. Johnson, and R. Pelizzo (eds). The role of nparliament in curbing corruption.Washington, D.C: The World Bank, p. 251-263. https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/files.phphuman services 4thedn. Philadelphia: Harcourt Brace College publishers. June, 2017.
[8] Kaplan, A. M., &Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world unite! the challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizon, 53(1), 59-68.
[9] Kazeem, Y. (2017, Febraury 13). Nigeria’s whistle-blower plan to pay citizens to report corruption is off to a great start. Quartz Africa.Retrieved from htpp://qz.com/909014
[10] Kerlinger, F.N. (1973).Foundations of behavioural research New York: Holt Rinehhart and
[11] Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, A., & McCarthy, N. (2011).Social media?get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media.Business Horizon, 54 (3), 241-251.
[12] Kpundeh, S. J. (1999). The fight against corruption in Sierra Leone. In R. Stapenhurst and S. J. Kpundeh (eds). Curbing corruption: toward a model for building national integrity. Washington, D. C: The world Bank, p.207-234.
[13] Mashal, M. A. (2011).Corruption and resource allocation distortion for “escwa”countries.International Journal of EconomicsandManagement Sciences, 1(4), 71 -83 methods in corruption analysis, 2014-2015.
[14] Monette D. R; Sullivan T.J. &Dejong C.R. (1998).Applied social science: tool for the
[15] Obikeze, D.S (1990). Data analysis in the social and behavioural science. Enugu: Auto-
[16] Omotola,J.S. (2008). Combating poverty for sustainable human development in Nigeria: the continuing struggle.Journal of poverty,12(4), 496-517.
[17] Oyetiba, T. (2016, March 9). Combating corruption and impunity in Nigeria.The Vanguard Newspaper. Retrieved from http://vanguardngr.com
[18] Publications Ltd, Amazon.com
[19] Siegel,L. J. (2013).Criminology theories, patterns and typologies. USA: Wadsworth such assessments”. 2nd November. http://wwwunodc.org/documents/data
[20] Transparency International (2016a, March 10). How to stop corruption: 5 key ingredients. Retrieved from http://transparency.org/news/feature/how_to_stop_corruption_5_key
[21] Transparency International (2016b, November, 18). Three ways to fight corruption in the media.Retrieved from http://transparency.org/news/feature/three_ways_to_fight_corruption
[22] Transparency International (2017, January 26).Corruption perception index 2016.Retrieved from http://transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perception_index_2016
[23] Tukur, S. (2016, December 1). Ribadu opens up, names Nigerians who ‘frustrated’ fight against corruption. Premuim Times.Retrieved from http://premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/216894-ribadu-opens-names-nigerians-frustrated-fight-corruption.html
[24] Ugoani, N. N. J. (2016). Political will and anticorruption crusade management in Nigeria. Independent Journal of Management & Production, 7(1), 72-97.
[25] United Nations Office for Drug and Crime (2009). Qualitative approaches to assess and University of Sussex (2016).School of law, politics and Sociology, research methods in
[26] Walklate, S. (2000).Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice.Devon, Willan Publishing. Winston Inc.

Nwokeoma Bonaventure N (PhD) “Elucidating Empirical Research Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.206-217 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6508

Download PDF

pdf

Seasonal agricultural drought effects on small scale farmers crop production in Kakamega South Sub-county

Chelangat W, Mulinya C. and J.Mabonga – May 2022- Page No.: 218-221

Kakamega South Sub-County located in Kakamega is a rich agricultural area though mainly reliant on rain fed agriculture. Small scale crop farmers in the area have over the years had frequent crop failure due seasonal drought. There is prediction of increasingly dry conditions in much of African countries with Kenya being no exception leading to seasonal drought mainly in agriculture due to climate change. There is need for small-scale farmers to adapt to this phenomenon. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of agricultural drought on small scale farmers and their adaptation strategies in Kakamega South Sub-County. Random Utility Model and Capability theories were used in this study. Triangulation research design was used in the study as this catered for both qualitative and quantitative data. The study made use of both primary data and secondary data which included questionnaires, interview schedules, Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and field observation to gather information on the effects of agricultural drought on agricultural produce. Secondary data on rainfall and temperature was collected from meteorological stations for a period of at least 35 years (1985-2020). Simple random sampling was used with a sample of 377 households using Krejcie and Morgan table (Krejcie & Morgan, 2004). Purposive sampling was used to sample information from agricultural offices and meteorological stations to obtain detailed information on the study problem. The results of this study established that Economic decline is positively correlated with decrease in crop production water availability. 96.1% of the respondents agreed that there are effects of agricultural drought on agricultural production while a paltry 3.9% were in disagreement. 74.2% of the respondents were affected by economic challenges, 15.5% faced social challenges, 8.7% by geographical challenges and lastly 1.6% by political challenges. The study recommends that rain-fed farming in Kakamega South sub-county needs to be complimented with drip irrigation, rain water harvesting and green house techniques to enhance sustainable crop production. There is also need to have accurate, reliable and customized weather information and weather advisories are timely developed and availed to the farmers.

Page(s): 218-221                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

 Chelangat W
Masinde Muliro university of Science and Technology

 Mulinya C.
Kaimosi Friends university of Science and Technology (A constituent of Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology)

 J.Mabonga
Masinde Muliro university of Science and Technology

[1] Anthony M.Wanjohi, (2010). Effects of Drought in Kenya. KENPRO Publications Online Papers Portal.Available online at http://www.kenpro.org/papers/effects-of-drought-in-Kenya.htm
[2] Arnell, N.W., van Vuuren, D.P. and Isaac, M. (2011) .The implications of climate policy for the impacts of climate change on global water resources. Global Environmental Change, 21 (2): 592–603.
[3] Creswell, J.W. (2003) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif., USA: Sage Publications.
[4] Creswell, J.W. (2009) Research Design; Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications.
[5] Dariush, H., Masoud, Y. and Fereshteh, K. (2010) Coping with drought: the case of poor farmers of south Iran. Psychology and Developing Societies, 22(2): 361–383.
[6] Denscombe, M. (2007) The Good Research Guide for Small Scale Social Research Projects. 3rd ed. Glasgow: Bell and Bain Ltd.
[7] KNBS (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics).2019, Statistical abstracts. Government Printers.
[8] Koutroulis, A.G., Tsanis, I.K., Daliakopoulos, I.N. and Daniela, J. (2013) Impact of climate change on water resources status: A case study for Crete Island, Greece. Journal of Hydrology, 479: 146–158.
[9] Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W, (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement
[10] Lean, G. (1995). Down to Earth: A simplified Guide to the Convention to Combat Desertification, Why it is Necessary and what is Important and Different about it. Geneva: Interim Secretariat for the Convention to Combat Desertification, 32 pp.
[11] Mertler A. Craig (2019). Introduction to Educational Research. Second Edition. Los Angeles SAGE Publications.Inc.
[12] Mugenda, O. & Mugenda, A. G. (2003).Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Africa Centre for technology studies. Nairobi.
[13] Olmstead, S.M. (2014) Climate change adaptation and water resource management: A review of the literature. Energy Economics, 46: 500–509.
[14] Solh, M. and Maarten, G. (2014). Drought preparedness and drought mitigation in the developing world’s drylands. Weather and Climate Extremes, 3: 62–66.
[15] UN/ISDR. (2011) Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Revealing Risk.
[16] United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): (1992) UN Feature Desertification, The Problem that Won’t Go. Nairobi: UNEP.
[17] Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Beguería, S., Gimeno, L., Eklundh, L., Giuliani, G., Weston, D., El Wheaton, E., Kulshreshtha, S., Wittrock, V. and Koshida, G. (2008). Dry times: hard lessons from the Canadian drought of 2001 and 2002.Canadian Association of Geographers, 52(2): 241–262.
[18] World Bank. (2012). Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture and Natural Resources Management Projects Guidance Notes (6): Identifying Appropriate Adaptation
Measures to Climate Change. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Chelangat W, Mulinya C. and J.Mabonga “Seasonal agricultural drought effects on small scale farmers crop production in Kakamega South Sub-county” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.218-221 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/218-221.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Comparative Examination of Virtual Reality and Picture Making Artworks of students in University of Education, Winneba

Adu-Sakyi Augusta – May 2022- Page No.: 222-228

The study focused on a “comparative analysis of Virtual Reality and Picture making Artworks of students in University of Education, Winneba using the mixed research approach encompassing observation of students’ studio works and administration of questionnaires to twenty five (25) respondents from a population of one hundred (100) from the Department of Art Education in University of Education, Winneba. The sample size of 25 was arrived after theoretical saturation of students whose studio art works were not standard as well as leaving behind students who felt reluctant taking part in the study.
As regards the field observations, the researcher found out that the virtual reality of painting productions by picture making students were either abstract, conscious or emergent whilst concrete and unfolding were the field observations used to examine the ergonometric of media in the form of acrylic and 3D paint, colour, ink, and gouache. With respect to the findings from the questionnaires, 92% strongly agreed there was association between virtual reality and cultures of Ghana whilst 80% respondents strongly agreed virtual reality produced fast and hustle free pictorial artwork than the traditional artwork.
The researcher recommended that Virtual Reality should take the center stage in the teaching and training of students so as to cope with modernity instead of the traditional mode of pictorial drawing. It is also recommended that virtual reality in pictorial creations through studio works should be taught and taken seriously since only 8% of the respondents were familiar and could effectively engage in the exercise without much difficulty.

Page(s): 222-228                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

 Adu-Sakyi Augusta
(Tutor, Agogo College of Education, Ghana)

[1] Abich, J., Parker J., Murphy J.S., & Eudy M.,(2021). A review of the evidence for training effectiveness with virtual reality technology. Journal of sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00498-8
[2] Borrego, A., Latorre, J., Alcañiz, M.,& Llorens, R., (2019). Embodiment and presence in virtual reality after stroke. a comparative study with healthy subjects. Front. Neurol. 10, 1061.
[3] Bryman,A.& Bell, E.,(2015). Business research method, Oxford University Press, USA
[4] Cameirão, M.S., Faria, A.L., Paulino, T., Alves, J., I Badia, S.B., (2016). The impact of positive, negative and neutral stimuli in a virtual reality cognitive-motor re­ habilitation task: a pilot study with stroke patients. J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 13 (1), 70.
[5] Coates, E., & Coates, A. (2016). The essential role of scribbling in the imaginative and cognitive development of young children. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 16(1), 60–83
[6] Cornejo, R., Brewer, R., Edasis, C., Piper, A.M., (2016). Vulnerability, sharing, and privacy: Analyzing art therapy for older adults with dementia. Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing. ACM, pp. 1572–1583.
[7] Creswell, J. W., & C reswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
[8] Cuthbertson L.M., Robb Y.A., S. Blair S., (2019). Theory and application of research principles and philosophical underpinning for a study utilising interpretative phenomenological analysis, Radiography, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2019.11.092
[9] Devendorf, L., (2014). Making art and making artists. Proceedings of the 2014 Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 151–156. https://doi.org/10.1145/2598784.2598787.
[10] Faria, A.L., Andrade, A., Soares, L., & Badia, S.B., (2016). Benefits of virtual reality based cognitive rehabilitation through simulated activities of daily living: a randomized controlled trial with stroke patients. J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 13 (1), 96.
[11] Garner, R. L. (ed.) (2017). Digital art Therapy: Material, Methods, and Applications. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers
[12] Halverson, E.R., (2013). Digital art making as a representational process. Journal of the Learning Sciences 22 (1), 121–162.
[13] Höök, K., Caramiaux, B., Erkut, C., Forlizzi, J., Hajinejad, N., Haller, M., Hummels, C., Isbister, K., Jonsson, M., & Khut, G., (2018). Embracing first-person perspectives in soma-based design. Informatics. 5. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, pp. 8.
[14] Johansson, S., Gulliksen, J., & Lantz, A., (2015). User participation when users have mental and cognitive disabilities. Proceedings of the 17th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers & Accessibility. ACM, pp. 69–76.
[15] Kongkasuwan, R., Voraakhom, K., Pisolayabutra, P., Maneechai, P., Boonin, J.,& Kuptniratsaikul, V., (2016). Creative art therapy to enhance rehabilitation for stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial. Clin. Rehabil. 30 (10), 1016–1023.
[16] Kotsidi M., Gorgolis G., Pastore M.G.C.,Anagnostopoulos G., Paterakis G., Poggi G.,Manikas A., Trakakis G., Baglioni P., & Galiotis C.,(2021). Preventing colour fading in artworks with graphene veils. Nature nanotechnology journal. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-021-00934-z
[17] Kristine S., & Kathleen C., (2020) .Drawing at the Center of an Emergent Preschool Curriculum, Art Education. Taylor& Francis online.73:6, 18-23, DOI: 10.1080/00043125.2020.1785794
[18] LaViola Jr, J.J., Kruijff, E., McMahan, R.P., Bowman, D., & Poupyrev, I.P., (2017). 3D User interfaces: Theory and practice. Addison-Wesley Professional.
[19] Lazar, A., Cornejo, R., Edasis, C., Piper, A.M., (2016). Designing for the third hand: Empowering older adults with cognitive impairment through creating and sharing. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems. ACM, pp. 1047–1058.
[20] Liat Shamri Zeevi, (2021). Making Art Therapy Virtual: Integrating Virtual Reality into Art Therapy with Adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology journal.
[21] Mello, J.E., Manuj, I. and Flint, D.J. (2021), “Leveraging grounded theory in supply chain research: A researcher and reviewer guide”, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 51 No. 10, pp. 1108-1129. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPDLM-12-2020-0439
[22] Nam, S.H., (2015). Meditative process in new media art: An affective possibility of digital media in the art making process. SIGGRAPH ASIA 2015 Art Papers. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 7:1–7:4. https://doi.org/10.1145/2835641.2835648.
[23] Seo, J.H., Copeland, B.M., Sungkajun, A., Chang Gonzalez, K.I.,& Mathews, N., (2018). Re-powering senior citizens with interactive art making: Case study with independent older adults. Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. LBW544:1–LBW544:6. https:// doi.org/10.1145/3170427.3188476.
[24] Szubielska M., Imbir K., & Szymanska A.,(2019). The influence of the physical context and knowledge of artworks on the aesthetic experience of interactive installations. Journal of current psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s2144-019-00322-w
[25] Tefilo, M., Nascimento, J., Santos, J., Albuquerque, Y., Souza, A.L.,& Nogueira, D., (2016). Bringing basic accessibility features to virtual reality context. IEEE Virtual Reality (VR). pp. 293–294. https://doi.org/10.1109/VR.2016.7504769.

Adu-Sakyi Augusta, “Comparative Examination of Virtual Reality and Picture Making Artworks of students in University of Education, Winneba” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.222-228 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/222-228.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Enhance students’ performance in weekday mode: A case study at University of Vocational Technology

D.D.D. Suraweera, K. G. Alahapperuma – May 2022- Page No.: 229-232

University of Vocational Technology delivers Bachelor of Technology degrees to students with National Vocational Qualifications. National Vocational Qualification holders are different from traditional full-time university students, as they possess highly employable diploma level qualifications. The university offers courses as both, weekday programmes and weekend programmes. Average performance of students in weekday mode has shown to be weaker compared to students in weekend mode. This study attempted to identify factors that affect performance of students in weekday programmes. Tinto’s model of student retention and drop out was used to conceptualise this descriptive survey study. Hard copies of a structured questionnaire were distributed among 97 participants, who have completed the degree in weekday mode. However, response rate was only 47.4 percent. The questionnaire addressed both, students’ individual factors and institutional factors related to their academic performance. Positive responses were received for both, individual and institutional factors. However, findings show that there is a great scope for improvement of factors related to both academic integration and institutional-related social integration in order to increase the graduation rate. Recommendations are to reveal the marking scheme just after each semester end examination and early release of results together with revision of continuous assessments with appropriate frequent feedback etc. Social factors of students may be improved with establishment of extra-curricular activities, sports and social events in academic calendar and introduction of more group activities during subject module delivery. Facilitation with better health services and provision of special training for student advisors are also recommended

Page(s): 229-232                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

 D.D.D. Suraweera
University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

 K. G. Alahapperuma
University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

[1] Goddard, R. D. (2003). Relational networks, social trust, and norms: A social capital perspective on students’ chances of academic success. Educational Evaluations & Policy Analysis, 25, 59-74.
[2] Hussain, C. A. (June 2006). Effect of guidance services on study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement of secondary school students. Bulletin of Education and Research, vol.28, No. 1 (35-45).
[3] Memduhoglu, H. B. & Tanhan, F. (2013). Study of organizational factors scale’s validity and reliability affecting university students’ academic achievements. YYU Journal of Education Faculty, X(I), 106–124.
[4] Sirin, Y. E. and Sahin, M. (2020). Investigation of factors affecting the achievement of university students with logistic regression analysis: school of physical education and sport example, SAGE Open January-March 2020: 1–9. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1177/2158244020902082 journals.sagepub.com/home/sgo.
[5] Tinto, V. (1975) ‘Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45, 89-125.

D.D.D. Suraweera, K. G. Alahapperuma “Enhance students’ performance in weekday mode: A case study at University of Vocational Technology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.229-232 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/229-232.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Availability of Assistive Technological Tools towards Academic Performance of Students Living with Disability (Visually Impaired) in Ekiti State Nigeria

Okoh, Maureen O. & Ajayi, Opeyemi – May 2022- Page No.: 233-238

This study examined the Availability of Assistive Technological Tools for Academic Performance of Students living with Disability (visually impaired) in Oke-Osun, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State. Descriptive case study research design type was employed. The population of the study was 20 students from the senior secondary school using a purposive sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. It was divided into two sections. The section A consists of the biometrics of the students while the section B consisted of 20 item questions to know the availability of assistive technological devices among students living with disabilities. Both face and content validity were satisfied by expert after the construction of the instrument. Specifically, this study sought to investigate if there are available assistive technological tools, to investigate the use of these tools and the academic benefits of these tools among students living with disabilities (visually impaired) and determine the level of usage among male and female students living with disabilities. The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to students, teachers, policy makers, society and prospective researchers. The result showed that that there is significant difference between the student academic performance and usage of assistive technological tools. It also revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female level of usage of assistive technological tools. It was concluded that the use of the available assistive technological tools among the students living with disabilities improves academic performance. Therefore, it was recommended that assistive technological tools be used continuously in special schools especially among the visually impaired students. Parent and teachers for students with special needs should make frequent use of assistive technological tools for instruction in and outside the classroom not only to enhance academic performance but also to make students living with disabilities participate actively in their communities as responsible active citizens.

Page(s): 233-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

 Okoh, Maureen O.
Department of Educational Foundations Faculty of Education, Federal University of Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

 Ajayi, Opeyemi
Department of Vocational and Technical Education Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1] Adebisi, R.O. (2014). Using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in teaching children with special needs in 21st century. Journal of Research in Science, Technology & Mathematics Education (IJRSTME), 2 (1), 129 – 138.
[2] Antoninus O E, Chigozie I U, Stephen S.E, Obinna C O, Adaora J O, Chukwudi M O, Ekezie M U, Benedict C O & Emmanuel C A (2019) Factors affecting the use of mobility aids devices among young adults with mobility disability in a selected Nigerian Population ISSN: 1748-3107 (Print) 1748-3115 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/iidt20
[3] Alquraini T, Gut D. (2012) Critical components of successful inclusion of students with severe disabilities: Literature review. International Journal of Special Education. 27(1):42-59.
[4] Beijen J, Mylanus EAM, Snik AFM. Education qualification levels and school careers of unilateral versus bilateral hearing aid users. Clin Otolaryngol. 2007;32(2):86-92
[5] Bouck EC, Flanagan S, Miller B, Bassette L. (2012) Rethinking everyday technology as assistive technology to meet students’ IEP goals. Journal of Special Education Technology.;27(4):47-57.26.
[6] Cook, A.M., & Polgar, J.M. (2013). Assistive Technologies – E-Book: Principles and Practice. Elsvier Health Science Medical, ISBN 0323266304, 9780323266307, 592pages
[7] Emeka J.C and Dominic S.,(2019) Teachers’ Perception and Factors Limiting the use of High-Tech Assistive Technology in Special Education Schools in Northwest Nigeria Contemporary Educational technology 2020, 11( 1), 99-109 DIO: https://doi.org/10.30935/cet.646841-TYPE:Research Article
[8] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education (4th edition). Lagos: NERDC press
[9] Ground A, Lim N, Larsson H. (2010) Effective use of assistive technologies for inclusive education in developing countries: Issues and challenges from two case studies. International Journal of Education &Development using Information & Communication Technology
[10] Illinois University Library. https://guides.library.illinois.edu/c.php?g=526852&p=3602299
[11] Joseph P. (2003). A study on certain factors influencing language performance of hearing impaired students. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal. 14(2):2018.
[12] Komolafe A.F (2020). Assistive Technology and Learning Outcome of Students with Visual Impairment in Social Studies among Inclusive Schools in Nigeria Journal of Education Research and Rural Community Development www.jerrcd.org ISSN: 2706-55962020: Volume 2, Issue 1,11-10
[13] Matsen SL. (1999). A closer look at amputees in Vietnam: a field survey of Vietnamese using prostheses. Prosthet Orthot Int.;23(2):93-101.
[14] Netherton DL, Deal W.F. (2006) Assistive Technology in the Classroom. Technology Teacher.;66(1):10-5.28.
[15] Olusanya B. (2004). Self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a developing country. International Journal of Audiology.;43(10):563-71.7.
[16] Parette H.P, Peterson-Karlan G.R. (2007). Facilitating student achievement with assistive technology. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities;42(4):387-97.
[17] Park, S.Y. (2009). An Analysis of the Technology Acceptance Model in Understanding University Students’ Behavioral Intention to Use e-Learning. Educ. Technol. Soc., 12, 150–162.
[18] Parving A, Christensen B. (2004). Clinical trial of a low-cost, solar-powered hearing aid. Acta Otolaryngol.;124(4):416-20.6.
[19] Petty, R.E (2012) Technology Access in the workplace and Higher Education for persons with visual impairment: An Examination of Barriers and Discussion of Solutions Independent Living Research Utilization at TIRR; Houston, Texas.
[20] Renaud, K. & van Biljon, J. (2008). Predicting technology acceptance and adoption by the elderly: A qualitative study. In Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Research Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists on IT Research in Developing Countries: Riding the Wave of Technology, Wilderness, South Africa, ACM: New York, NY, USA, 210–219.
[21] Shore S.L. (2008). Use of an economical wheelchair in India and Peru: Impact on health and function. Medical Science Monitor.;14(12):71-9.5.
[22] Scherer M.J, Glueckauf R. (2005). Assessing the benefits of assistive technologies for activities and participation. Rehabilitation Psychology. 50(2):132-41.
[23] Scherer, M.J., Sax, C., Van Biervliet A., Cushman L.A., Scherer J.V. (2005) Predictors of assistive technology use: The importance of personal and psychosocial factors. Disabilities and Rehabilitation.;27(21):1321-31
[24] URL: https://guides.library.illinois.edu/blind/visualimpairment Mar 10, 2020 1:31 PM
[25] UNICEF. The state of the world’s children (2013). Children with disabilities. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2013.
[26] Watson A.H, Ito M., Smith R.O, Andersen L.T (2010) Effect of assistive technology in public school setting. American Journal of occupational therapy 64, 18-29
[27] WHO. World report on disability. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
[28] WHO & UNICEF. Early childhood development and disability: A discussion paper. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
[29] WHO. Guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.
[30] Yusuf M.O., Fakomogbo, M.A, Issa, A.I (2012). Availability of Assistive Technologies in Nigerian Educational Institutions. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education ISSN: 2223-4934 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 44

Okoh, Maureen O. & Ajayi, Opeyemi, “Availability of Assistive Technological Tools towards Academic Performance of Students Living with Disability (Visually Impaired) in Ekiti State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.233-238 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/233-238.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Demographic Dynamics and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria

Dahiru Muhammed Kabiru, Ezekiel Ayiwulu, Choji V. Dung, Tasiu Muhammad, and Fatima, Sidi Sani – May 2022- Page No.: 239-242

Demographically, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with an average growth rate of 3.2% and an approximated population of 190 million people; the seventh world-wide, and the 8th largest exporter of oil and many other resources. However, Nigeria ranks low in human development index, with 39.1% of her population living below income poverty line of US$1.90 a day. These and many other factors combined to spur the various conflicts for which the country is now known, with its huge youth population as one of the most important factors in these perennial conflicts, especially the farmers-herders conflicts, which has become a near daily affair, especially since the return of the country to civil rule in 1999. This paper examines the roles of population dynamics on violent conflicts in Nigeria and its implications on national security and development through field surveys, focused group discussions, and literature review. The study has found out that the country’s huge youths population in addition to issues of governance, are potent tools in the perennial violent conflicts for which the country is known for (of late), and recommends that the state should ensure adequate governance; put in place effective national development policy that caters well for the youths and the nation as a whole.

Page(s): 239-242                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 May 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6509

 Dahiru Muhammed Kabiru
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia

 Ezekiel Ayiwulu
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia

 Choji V. Dung
Department of Geography, Plateau State University, Bokkos

 Tasiu Muhammad
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia

 Fatima, Sidi Sani
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia

[1] Abidoye, B., & Cali, M. (2015). Income shocks and conflict: Evidence from Nigeria. Policy Research Working Paper; No. 7213. World Bank Group, Washington, DC.
[2] Ahmad, A.O., & Idowu, O. (2013). National Security and Insurgency in Nigeria: 1999 – 2012.
[3] A preliminary assessment of Federal Government strategy of containment. In Ozoemenan, M. & Umar, M.B. (eds) (2013), Internal Security Management in Nigeria: A Study in Terrorism and Counter–terrorism. Medusa Academic Pubs Ltd., 323 – 340.
[4] Akresh, R., & deWalque, D. (2008). Armed conflicts and schooling: evidence from the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Policy Research Working Paper; No. 4606, World Bank, Washington DC.
[5] Almond, D., Chay, K.Y., & Leo, D.S. (2005). The costs of low birth weights. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(3), 1031-1083.
[6] Almond, D., & Currie, J. (2011). Human capital development before the age of 5. In Elsevier, International hand book of labour economics, Vol. 4.
[7] Azad, A., Crawford, E., & Kaila, H. (2018). Conflicts and violence in Nigeria: results from the NE, NC, and SS Zones. Preliminary Draft Report. World Bank and National Bureau of Statistics. Nigeria.
[8] Collier, P. (1999). On the economic consequences of civil war. Oxford University Economic Papers, 5(1), 168-183.
[9] Currie, J., & Vogel, T. (2013). Early life health and adult circumstances in developing countries. Annual Review of Economics, 5(1), 1-136.
[10] Dablen, A.L., & Paul, S. (2014). Effects of conflict on dietary diversity: evidence from Cote-d’ Ivoire. World Development No. 58. http://dx. Doi.Org/10.1016/j. worlddev.2014.01.010.
[11] Dahiru, M.K. (2004). Youths and economic self reliance in Nigeria: a paper on the occasion of 2004 youths’ day, Lafia development association.
[12] David, E.B., David, C., & Jaypee, S. (2001). Economic growth and the demographic transition. Working Paper Series, National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge MA.
[13] Genyi, C.A. (2017). Ethnic and religious identities shaping contestations for land based resources: the tiv farmers and pastoralists’ conflicts in central Nigeria until 2014. Journal of Living Together and Land, 5(10), 136-151.
[14] Helge, B., & Henrik, U. (2005). The demography of conflict and violence: an introduction. Journal of Peace Research, 42( 4), 371 – 374. Https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343305054084
[15] Henrik, U. (2007). Demography and conflict: How population pressure and youth bulges affect the risk of civil war. Oslo International Peace Research Centre.
[16] John, C.O., & Ruth, U.O. (2019). Violent conflict exposure in Nigeria and economic welfare. IZA Institute of Labor Economics, Germany.
[17] Kingsley, E. E. (2021). Youth violence and human security in Nigeria. Univ of HradecKralove, Czech Republic.
[18] Leon, G. (2001). Civil conflict and human capital accumulation: the long term effects of political violence in Peru. Journal of Human Resources, 47(4), 991–1022.
[19] Mohammed, N.S., & Mohammed, A.K. (2015). Cycle of bad governance and corruption: the rise of boko haram in Nigeria. SAGE Journals, 5(1). https:/doi.org/10.1177/2158244015576053.
[20] Minoin, C., & Olga, N.S. (2012). Child health and conflict in Coted’Ivoire. American Economic Review: Papers of proceedings, 102(3), 294 – 299.
[21] Nachana’a, A.D., & Manu, Y.A. (2015). Democracy, youths and violent conflicts in Nigeria’s fourth republic: a critical analysis. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(2), 159-171.
[22] Nwokolo, A. (2015). Terror and birth weight: evidence from boko haram attacks. Department of Economics, University of Navara.
[23] Nigeria Watch (2018). 10 myths about violence in Nigeria. French Institute for Research in Africa, University of Ibadan.
[24] Okpanachi, E. (2010). Ethno-religious identity and conflict in northern Nigeria: understanding the dynamics of sharia in Kaduna and Kebbi States. Department of Political Science, University of Ibadan. IFRA-Nigeria.
[25] Oluwale, O. (2021). Violent conflict in north central Nigeria: what communities are doing to cope. Ile-Ife, ObafemiAwolowo University.
[26] Shemykina, O. (2011). The effect of armed conflicts on accumulation of schooling: result from Tajikistan. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), 186–200.
[27] Stanley, P.J., Martin, W.H., Asit, K.B., Duncan, P., & Bent, J. (2009). Our environmental hopes for 1985-86. Environmental Conservation, Multi Editorial, Cambridge University, 12(1). 1-4.
[28] The Overpopulation Project (2019). Solutions to over population and what you can do.
[29] Therese, P., & Magnus, O. (2020). Organized violence, 1989-2019. Journal of Peace Research (SAGE), 57(4). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343320934986
[30] Ujoh, F. (2014). Population, growth and land resources conflicts in tiv land, Nigeria. In Resource and Environment, 4(1), 67-68.
[31] Zakari, F. (2001). The roots of rage’.newsweek, 138(16), 14-33.

Dahiru Muhammed Kabiru, Ezekiel Ayiwulu, Choji V. Dung, Tasiu Muhammad, and Fatima, Sidi Sani “Demographic Dynamics and Violent Conflicts in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.239-242 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6509

Download PDF

pdf

Ethnic Hiring in Kenya as a Development Concern

Betty Muthoni, Njagi – May 2022- Page No.: 243-249

Ethnicity is a very sensitive and emotive subject that is not publicly discussed in Kenya when it comes to economic and social issues. But ethnicity has been known to influence our way of life in many ways especially politics and social interactions. However little regard has been paid to how ethnicity influences hiring in Kenya which has left many ethnic groups marginalized when it comes to employment. This study seeks to find the logic of employers’ ethnic hiring and how they deal with ethnicity when hiring to ensure competitive hiring when under pressure from different parties and in the interest of the organization’s growth and profitability. The study undertakes a desk review of theoretical and empirical studies and policy documents. This is done by looking at Kenya’s hiring and ethnicity environment. The study found there is lack of economic logic in ethnic hiring in Kenya and it is a social attitude that lacks substantive economic backing.

Page(s): 243-249                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

 Betty Muthoni, Njagi
Department of Economics, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, P.O Box 62157, Nairobi, Kenya.

[1] Baert, S., Cockx, B., Gheyle, N., & Vandamme, C. (2015). Is there Less Discrimination in Occupations where Recruitment is Difficult? Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 68(3), pp. 467-500. https://doi.org/10.1177/0019793915570873
[2] Berry, D., & Bell, M. P. (2012). Inequality in organizations: stereotyping, discrimination, and labor law exclusions. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 31(3), pp. 236-248. https://doi.org/10.1108/02610151211209090
[3] Bisin, A., Patacchini, E., Verdier, T., & Zenou, Y. (2011). Ethnic identity and labour market outcomes of immigrants in Europe. Economic Policy, 26(65), pp.57-92. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0327.2010.00258.x
[4] Brynin, M., Karim, M. S., & Zwysen, W. (2019). The value of self-employment to ethnic minorities. Work, Employment and Society, 33(5), pp. 846-864. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017019855232
[5] Chandra, K., & Wilkinson, S. (2008). Measuring the effect of “ethnicity”. Comparative Political Studies, 41(4-5), pp. 515-563. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414007313240
[6] Chua, A. L. (1998). Markets, democracy, and ethnicity: toward a new paradigm for law and development. The Yale Law Journal, 108(1), pp. 1-107. https://doi.org/10.2307/797471
[7] Cunningham, D. (2012). Mobilizing ethnic competition. Theory and Society, 41(5), pp. 505-525.
[8] Derous, E., Pepermans, R., & Ryan, A. M. (2017). Ethnic discrimination during résumé screening: Interactive effects of applicants’ ethnic salience with job context. Human Relations, 70(7), pp. 860-882. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726716676537
[9] Desmet, K., Ortuño-Ortín, I., & Wacziarg, R. (2017). Culture, ethnicity, and diversity. American Economic Review, 107(9), pp. 2479-2513.
[10] Dinh, H. T., & Dinh, R. (2016). Managing natural resources for growth and prosperity in low income countries. Policy Paper, OCP Policy Center.
[11] Easterly, B & Levine, R (1997), Africa’s growth tragedy: Policies and ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics 112(4), pp. 1203-1218. https://doi.org/10.1162/003355300555466
[12] Gaddis, S. M. (2019). Understanding the “how” and “why” aspects of racial-ethnic discrimination: A multimethod approach to audit studies. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 5(4), pp. 443-455. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649219870183
[13] Gazibo, M. (2019). Democracy and the Question of Its Feasibility in Africa. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.702
[14] Gören, E. (2017). The persistent effects of novelty-seeking traits on comparative economic development. Journal of Development Economics, 126, pp.112-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2016.12.009
[15] Grossman, G. M., & Oberfield, E. (2021). The elusive explanation for the declining labor share (No. w29165). National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w29165
[16] Haggblade, S., Hazell, P., & Reardon, T. (2010). The rural non-farm economy: Prospects for growth and poverty reduction. World development, 38(10), pp. 1429-1441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.06.008
[17] Hellsten, S. (2016). Radicalization and terrorist recruitment among Kenya’s youth. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
[18] Hjort, J. (2014). Ethnic divisions and production in firms. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 129(4), pp. 1899-1946. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qju028
[19] Hope, K. R. (2017). Economic performance and public finance in Kenya, 1960‒2010. Africanus, 47(2), pp. 1-19. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC-10ce56d66f
[20] Jailani, M., Dewantara, J. A., & Rahmani, E. F. (2021). The awareness of mutual respect post-conflicts: ethnic chinese strategy through social interaction and engagement in West Kalimantan. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, pp. 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2021.1990170
[21] Johnson, P. W. (2018). An Exploration of Names in Social and Professional Settings for Persons with Ethnically Identifying Names. FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 3900.
[22] Karnane, P., & Quinn, M. A. (2019). Political instability, ethnic fractionalization and economic growth. International Economics and Economic Policy, 16(2), pp.435-461. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10368-017-0393-3
[23] Keller, E. J. (2019). The state, public policy and the mediation of ethnic conflict in Africa. In State versus ethnic claims: African policy dilemmas. pp. 251-280. Routledge.
[24] Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2020). Population Census for 2019.
[25] Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2020). Quarterly Labor Force Survey.
[26] Kimenyi, M. S. (2017). Harmonizing ethnic claims in Africa: a proposal for ethnic-based federalism. In Ethnicity and Governance in the Third World. pp. 125-148. Routledge.
[27] Kirk, T., Stein, D., & Fisher, A. (2018). The Relationship between Ethnic Diversity & Development: A Diversity Dividend. Konung International.
[28] Kramon, E., & Posner, D. N. (2016). Ethnic favoritism in education in Kenya. Journal of Political Science, 11(1). https://doi.org/ 10.1561/100.00015005
[29] Ksoll, C., Macchiavello, R., &Morjaria, A. (2010).The effect of ethnic violence on an export oriented industry. CID Research Fellow and Graduate Student Working Paper Series. https://www.hks.harvard.edu/centers/cid/publications/fellow-graduate-student-working-papers
[30] Lazear, Edward P. (1999). “Globalization and the Market for Team-Mates,” The Economic Journal, 109, C15–C40. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0297.00414
[31] Lee, A. (2018). Ethnic diversity and ethnic discrimination: Explaining local public goods provision. Comparative Political Studies, 51(10), pp.1351-1383. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414017740604
[32] Li, J. (2018). Ethnic favoritism in primary education in Kenya: effects of co-ethnicity with the president. Education Economics, 26(2), pp. 194-212. https://doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2017.1398310
[33] Loizou, E., Karelakis, C., Galanopoulos, K., & Mattas, K. (2019). The role of agriculture as a development tool for a regional economy. Agricultural Systems, 173, pp. 482-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2019.04.002
[34] Melo, G., & Ames, G. (2016). Driving Factors of Rural-Urban Migration in China. 333, pp. 2016-14408. https://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.235508
[35] Miller, N. (2018). Kenya: The quest for prosperity. Routledge.
[36] Mitra, A., Bapuji, H., Ertug, G., & Shaw, J. D. (2020). As You Sow, So Shall You Reap: Organizations and Economic Inequality. Econometric Society World Congress.
[37] Musset, P., & Kurekova, L. M. (2018). Working it out: Career guidance and employer engagement. https://doi.org/10.1787/19939019
[38] Muyanga, M., & Jayne, T. S. (2014). Effects of rising rural population density on smallholder agriculture in Kenya. Food Policy, 48, pp. 98-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.03.001
[39] Mwaura, G. M. (2017). The side-hustle: diversified livelihoods of Kenyan educated farmers. IDS Bulletin, 48(3). https://doi.org/ 10.19088/1968-2017.126
[40] NCIC (2016). Ethnic and Diversity Audit for Parastatals. Ethnic Audit of Parastatals in Kenya, Vol 1.
[41] Nguyen, T., & Velayutham, S. (2018). Everyday inter-ethnic tensions and discomfort in a culturally diverse Australian workplace. Social Identities, 24(6), pp. 779-794. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504630.2017.1329655
[42] Nicodemus, M., & Ness, B. (2010). Peri-urban development, livelihood change and household income: A case study of peri-urban Nyahururu, Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 2(5), pp. 73-83. https://doi.org/10.5897/JAERD.9000056
[43] Nirola, N., & Sahu, S. (2019). The interactive impact of government size and quality of institutions on economic growth-evidence from the states of India. Heliyon, 5(3), p. 01352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01352
[44] Novak, A. (2017). Disability sport in Sub-Saharan Africa: From economic underdevelopment to uneven empowerment. http://repositoriocdpd.net:8080/handle/123456789/1561
[45] Noyoo, N (2000), Ethnicity and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Social Development in Africa. vol 15(2).
[46] Nwapi, C., & Andrews, N. (2017). A New Developmental State in Africa: Evaluating Recent State Interventions vis-a-vis Resource Extraction in Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda. McGill Journal of Sustainable Development Law., 13(2), p. 223.
[47] Odhiambo, O. (2012). Corporate governance problems of savings, credit and cooperative societies. International journal of academic research in business and social Sciences, 2(11), p. 89. http://www.hrmars.com/admin/pics/1266.pdf
[48] Oino, P. G., & Kioli, F. N. (2014). Ethnicity and Social Inequality: A Source of Under-Development in Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(4), pp. 723-729. http://41.89.196.16:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/886
[49] Omolo, O.J (2010). The Dynamics and Trends of Employment in Kenya: Institute of Economic Affairs-Kenya. Research paper series No.1/2010
[50] Parshotam, A. (2018). Can the African Continental Free Trade Area offer a new beginning for trade in Africa? South African Institute of International Affairs.
[51] Republic of Kenya (2008a). First Medium Term Plan: Kenya Vision 2030-A Globally Competitive and Prosperous Kenya: Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030, Nairobi.
[52] Republic of Kenya (2008b). Sector Plan for Labor, Youth and Human Resource Development, 2008-2012, Ministry of Labor, Nairobi.
[53] Rockmore, M. (2011). The cost of fear: The welfare effects of the risk of violence in Northern Uganda. Households in Conflict Network Working Paper, p.109. From worldbank.org
[54] Saasa, O. S. (2018). Poverty profile in sub-Saharan Africa: The challenge of addressing an elusive problem. In Contested Terrains and Constructed Categories. pp. 105-116. Routledge.
[55] Simson, R. (2019). Ethnic (in) equality in the public services of Kenya and Uganda. African Affairs, 118(470), pp. 75-100. https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/ady034
[56] Singh, A., & Zammit, A. (2019). Globalisation, labour standards and economic development. In The Handbook of Globalisation, 3rd ed. Edward Elgar Publishing.
[57] Smith, T. B., & Silva, L. (2011). Ethnic identity and personal well-being of people of color: A meta-analysis. Journal of counseling psychology, 58(1), p. 42. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021528
[58] Stiglitz, J. E. (2017). Structural transformation, deep downturns, and government policy (No. w23794). National Bureau of Economic Research.
[59] Stiglitz, J. E. (2021). The proper role of government in the market economy: The case of the post-COVID recovery. Journal of Government and Economics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jge.2021.100004
[60] Thorns, D. C. (2017). The transformation of cities: urban theory and urban life. Macmillan International Higher Education. Palgrave Macmillan.
[61] Van Laer, K., & Janssens, M. (2017). Agency of ethnic minority employees: Struggles around identity, career and social change. Organization, 24(2), pp. 198-217. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508416664143
[62] Verhoogen, E. (2021). Firm-level upgrading in developing countries. NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH. http://www.nber.org/papers/w29461
[63] wa Githinji, M (2015), “Erasing class (Re) creating Ethnicity: Jobs, politics, accumulation and identity in Kenya”; Review of black political economy, Springer; National Economic Association, Vol 42(1), pp. 87-110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12114-014-9191-0
[64] Wanyande, P (2016). Devolution and territorial development inequalities: The Kenyan experience. Territorial Cohesion for Development Working Group, Working Paper Series N° 187. Rimisp, Santiago, Chile.
[65] Warrick, D. D. (2017). What leaders need to know about organizational culture. Business Horizons, 60(3), pp. 395-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2017.01.011
[66] Wineman, A., & Liverpool-Tasie, L. S. (2019). All in the family: bequest motives in rural Tanzania. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 67(4), pp.799-831.
[67] World Bank Development Indicators (2016).
[68] Yieke, Felicia. (2010). Ethnicity and Development in Kenya: Lessons from the 2007 General Elections. Kenya Studies Review, 3(3), pp.5-16.

Betty Muthoni, Njagi “Ethnic Hiring in Kenya as a Development Concern” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.243-249 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/243-249.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Grade Retention in the Eyes of Learners: A Subjective View from St Joseph Primary School in Mutare District

Senzeni Chiutsi – May 2022- Page No.: 250-257

The study explored the perceptions of grade retained learners at St Joseph’s Primary School in Mutare District. Fifteen repeated learners (aged 10 to 13 years thus from grade four to six) participated in the study. Altogether, there were fifteen (15) learners who repeated grades thus eight (8) 53% were boys and seven (7) 47% were girls. Because of the small number of grade retained learners, the researcher decided to use them all in the study. The fifteen automatically became the participants of the study. Qualitative approach was used. Semi- structured interviews were conducted and analyzed through phenomenological analysis. Based on the findings it is clear that twelve (12)80% of the learners who participated in the study viewed grade retention as a positive exercise. This was contrary to three (3) 20% who perceived grade retention negatively. They regarded the exercise as stressful and thus eventually failed to achieve its objective. The findings revealed that the policy had positive effects on academic performance. The following recommendations emerged based on the findings of this study. Schools should introduce weekend learning to help pupils who have been earmarked for grade retention. Teachers should also offer individualized attention to pupils earmarked for grade retention so that they can improve in their academic performance. Pupils should also be provided with extra time by school authorities at the end of the school term especially 1st and 2nd term with a focus on pupils whose academic performance shows weakness during the term. However, (Mainrades, 2002) carried out a content analysis study on grade retention on a global scale. The analysis indicated that the grade retention is usually used in poor countries. The situation of grade retention in Europea8n countries have decreased between 1980 and 2011 from 3, 1% to 2%. (Massachusetts, 2009). Global estimates published by World Health Organisation in 2016 indicate that about 1 in 20 of primary going children worldwide have undergone retention in their primary level.

Page(s): 250-257                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

 Senzeni Chiutsi
Intern Counselling Psychologist, Ministry of Education, Bulawayo, P O Box 206 Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

[1]. UNESCO (2005). EFA Global monitoring report: The quality imperative. Paris: UNESCO
[2]. Barker, E.R. (1998). The basics of social research. Mexico: Cengage Learning.
[3]. Mess, T. (1978). What research says about grade retention. New York: National Centre for education statistics.
[4]. Cunningham, R and Owen, S. (1977) ‘The Greenville program: A commonsense approach to basics’. Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 58, pp. 531-539 Carson, (2003). Grade repetition. Paris: UNESCO.
[5]. Mauser. T, Fredricks and Andrew, H (2007). Early elementary school predictors of a learning disability in reading. Weiss: Stacy
[6]. Mavard, P. (2011). “Grade Retention and Seventh-Grade Depression Symptoms in the Course of School Dropout among High risk Adolescents”. Psychology, 3, 749-755.
[7]. Jacobs, E. (2016). The importance of teacher/parent collaboration. Education Planet, Inc; 1999-2015
[8]. Manrades, J. (2014). Strengths and weaknesses of descriptive research (www.questia.com.journals); accessed on 12/07/2014 at 13:13.
[9]. Massachusetts, E. (2009). Mastering the Psychology of Teaching and Learning. Lusaka: The University of Zambia Press.
[10]. Jere, B. (2006). Grade Repetition. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) and International Academy of Education (IAE).
[11]. Miller, L (2010). Management and organizational behaviour, (5th Ed.). Britain: Pearson Rd.
[12]. Kabay, R.L. (2009). Eye and Brain. London: Weidenfeld.
[13]. UNESCO. (2005).Equity and Quality in Education Supporting Disadvantaged Students. Amazon: UNESCO
[14]. Lunnel, M. (2000) Research Review, London: Rowntree Foundation
[15]. Naddad, M. Q. (1979). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park: SAGE Publications.
[16]. Weed, G. (2011). Introduction to qualitative and quantitative research. Pretoria: Pearson.www.ppic.org
[17]. Range, G.A. (2012). Grade Retention: Elementary teacher’s perceptions for students with and without disabilities; DOI: 10.1177/2158244013486993Published 29 April 2012
[18]. Burkaman, D.A. (2007). Attitudes of students, parents, and educators toward repeating a grade. In L.A.
[19]. Marse, D. and Field, A. (2010) “Towards a framework for establishing policy success”, in Public Administration, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 564 – 583
[20]. Parhow, R. S. (2007). Patterns and Trends in Grade Retention Rates in the United States, 1995, 2010. Educational Researcher 43(9) 433-443.
[21]. Nzuve, N.M. (1999). An assessment of employees’ perception of performance appraisal: A case study of the department of immigration-Nairobi. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.
[22]. Shepard, L.A. and Smith, M.L. (2005). “Escalating academic demand in kindergarten: Counterproductive policies. Elementary school journal 89(1988): 135-146.
[23]. Jimerson, S. R. (1999). On the failure of failure: Examining the association between early grade retention and education and employment outcomes during late adolescence. Journal of School Psychology, 37, 243-272.
[24]. Jimerson, S. R., & Ferguson, P. (2007). A longitudinal study of grade retention: Academic And behavioral outcomes of retained students through adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 22, 314-339.
[25]. Tomchin, E., & Impara, C. (1997). Unraveling teachers’ beliefs about grade retention. American educational Research Journal, 29, (99-223).
[26]. Sabatier, Paul, A. (1996). Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Implementation Research: a Critical Analysis and Suggested Synthesis. Journal of Public Policy, 6, pp. 21 – 48
[27]. Ndhlovu, D. (2015). Theory and practice of guidance and counselling. Lusaka: UNZA Press.
[28]. Moloney (2015). Retaining Students in the Early Grades Self-Defeating. London: World Press.
[29]. Malambo, B. (2013).Factors Affecting Pupil performance in Grant Aided and Non-Grant Aided Secondary Schools: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in the Western Province, (MED Thesis), Lusaka: University of Zambia
[30]. Kukupa, B. (2014). Advanced Educational Psychology. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers (P) Ltd
[31]. Ribbins, E. And Burridge, E. (1994). Defining effective schools. London: Routledge.
[32]. Kasonde-Ng’andu, S. (2013) Writing a Research Proposal in Educational research. Lusaka: University of Zambia Press

Senzeni Chiutsi , “Grade Retention in the Eyes of Learners: A Subjective View from St Joseph Primary School in Mutare District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.250-257 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/250-257.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

The Influence of Custom Values on Implementation of Accrual-Based IPSAS in Tanzanian Public Corporations

Williard Yohana Kalulu – May 2022- Page No.: 258-265

Accounting and auditing matters are central and have a justifiable connection to organizational and national development. The purpose of this paper is to assess the influence of custom values on implementation of accrual-based IPSAS in public corporations in Tanzanian. To attain this objective qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used whereby cross-sectional survey research design techniques of data compilation method were used. Both primary data and secondary data were involved in the form of interviews, document reviews and survey. Systematic and unsystematic random sampling and purposively sampling was used as sampling procedures in the study, this study involved with the sample size of 99 respondents from the Public Corporation. The findings reveal that statutory control is positively related to the implementation of accrual-based IPSAS while transparency and conservatism were found to be negatively related to the implementation of accrual-based IPSAS. The findings also revealed that only conservatism was found to be insignificantly related to the implementation of accrual-based IPSAS. The study recommended that the accrual-based IPSAS should be embraced by all stakeholders and prescribed as a basis for the preparation of public sector financial statements. Thus, the parliament and other government bodies should influence the implementation of accrual-based IPSAS in public sector organizations.

Page(s): 258-265                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6510

 Williard Yohana Kalulu
Research Scholar, Department of Accounting and Finance, The University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania

[1] Aggestam, C. (2010). A Project Management Perspective on the Adoption of Based IPSAS. International Journal of Government Financial Management, 10(2), 49
[2] Andrei, R. and Melinda T. F. (2014). An analysis of the international proposals for harmonization accounts statement and government finance statistics. Accounting and Management Information Systems Journal, Vol. 13 (4) p 800-819
[3] Azmi, A. H., & Mohamed, N. (2014). Readiness of Malaysian public sector employees in moving towards accrual accounting for improve accountability: The case of Ministry of Education (MOE). Procedia-Social, and Behavioral Sciences, 164, 106–111.
[4] Bellanca, S., & Vandernoot, J. (2014). International public sector accounting standards (IPSAS) implementation in the European Union (EU) member states. Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, 10(3) 17-23
[5] Bentley, P. A., & Franklin, M. A. (2013). Which international cultures favor disclosure of risk. International Journal of Business, Accounting, & Finance, 7(2) 2013
[6] Borker, D. R. (2013). Is there a favourable cultural profile for IFRS? An examination and extension of Gray’s accounting value hypotheses. The International Business & Economics Research Journal (Online), 12(2), 167-178
[7] Borker, D. R. (2016b). Gauging the Impact of Country-Specific Values on the Acceptability of Global Management Accounting Principles. European Research Studies, 19(1), 149
[8] Christiaens, J., & Rommel, J. (2008). Accrual accounting reforms: only for usinesslike (parts of) governments. Financial Accountability & Management, 24(1),59-75.
[9] Christiaens, J., Reyniers, B., &Rollé, C. (2010). Impact of IPSAS on reforming governmental financial information systems: a comparative study. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 76(3), 537-554.
[10] Connolly, C., & Hyndman, N. (2006). The actual implementation of accruals accounting: caveats from a case within the UK public sector. Accounting, Auditing &Accountability Journal, 19(2), 272-290.
[11] Dabbicco, G. (2015). The Impact of Accrual-Based Public Accounting Harmonization on EU Macroeconomic Surveillance and Governments. Policy Decision-Making. International Journal of Public Administration, 38(4), 253–267.
[12] Deaconu, A., Cristina Silvia, N., & Crina, F. (2011). The Impact of Accrual Accounting on Public Sector Management: An Exploratory Study for Romania. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, (32E).
[13] Deegan, C. (2006). Legitimacy theory. Methodological Issues in Accounting Research: Theories and Methods, 195 – 203.
[14] Donaldson, L., & Davis, J. H. (1991). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management, 16(1), 49–64.
[15] Drucker, P. F. The effective decision. Harvard Business Review, January/February 1967, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 92-98
[16] Edeigba, J., & Amenkhienan, F. (2017). The influence of IFRS adoption on corporate transparency and accountability: Evidence from New Zealand. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 11(3), 3–19.
[17] Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 57–74.
[18] Faundez, J. (2016). Douglass North‟s theory of institutions: lessons for law and
development. Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 8(2), 373-419.
[19] Gray, S. J. (1988). Towards a theory of cultural influence on the development of accounting systems internationally. Abacus, 24(1), 1–15.
[20] Guerreiro, M. A. S. (2012). Essays on the institutionalisation of a new accounting regime for unlisted companies in Portugal.
[21] Guthrie, J. (1998). Application of accrual accounting in the Australian public sector–rhetoric or reality. Financial Accountability & Management, 14(1), 1–19.
[22] Guthrie, J., Olson, O., & Humphrey, C. (1999). Debating developments in new public financial management: The limits of global theorising and some new ways forward. Financial Accountability & Management, 15(3‐4), 209–228.
[23] Hood, C. (1995). The “New Public Management” in the 1980s: variations on athame. Accounting, organizations and society, 20(2), 93-109.
[24] Huang, H. J., Hooper, K., & Sinclair, R. (2013). China’s participation and resistance in adopting Western accounting practices
[25] IFAC, (2002). Public Sector Committee. In Handbook on International Public Sector Accounting. IFAC: New York.
[26] Ilie, E., &Miose, N.-M. (2012). IPSAS and the Application of These Standards in the Romania. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 62, 35–39.
[27] International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) 2011
[28] International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board (IPSASB), 2017 Review Journal.
[29] Irvine, H. (2011). From go to woe: How a not-for-profit managed the change to accrual accounting. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 24(7), 824–847.
[30] Kartiko, S. W., Rossieta, H., Martani, D. and Wayne T.(2017).
[31] Matekele, C. K., & Komba, G. V. (2020). The Influence of Demographic Attributes in the Implementation of Accrual-Based International Public Sector Accounting Standards. Journal of Economics and Business, 3(1).
[32] Meyer, J. (2008). The adoption of new technologies and the age structure of the workforce. ZEW-Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper, (08–045).
[33] North, D. C. (1993). Institutional change: a framework of analysis. Institutional
change: Theory and empirical findings. 35-46.
[34] Peters, B. G. (2000). Institutional theory: Problems and prospects. Political Science
Series 68, Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS). 18pp
[35] Tanjeh, M. S. (2016). Factors influencing the acceptance of international public sector accounting standards in Cameroon. Accounting and Finance Research, 5(2), 71–83.
[36] ACCA. (2017). Tanzania leads the move to IPSAS adoption.
[37] Azmi, A. H., & Mohamed, N. (2014). Readiness of Malaysian public sector employees in moving towards accrual accounting for improve accountability: The case of Ministry of Education (MOE). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 164, 106–111.
[38] Bentley, P. A., & Franklin, M. A. (2013). Which international cultures favor disclosure of risk. International Journal of Business, Accounting, & Finance, 7(2).
[39] Borker, D. R. (2013). Is there a favorable cultural profile for IFRS?: an examination and extension of Gray’s accounting value hypotheses. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 12(2), 167–178.
[40] Edeigba, J., & Amenkhienan, F. (2017). The influence of IFRS adoption on corporate transparency and accountability: Evidence from New Zealand. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 11(3), 3–19.
[41] Gray, S. J. (1988). Towards a theory of cultural influence on the development of accounting systems internationally. Abacus, 24(1), 1–15.
[42] Irvine, H. (2011). From go to woe: How a not-for-profit managed the change to accrual accounting. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 24(7), 824–847.
[43] Matekele, C. K., & Komba, G. V. (2020). The Influence of Demographic Attributes in the Implementation of Accrual-Based International Public Sector Accounting Standards. Journal of Economics and Business, 3(1).
[44] Meyer, J. (2008). The adoption of new technologies and the age structure of the workforce. ZEW-Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper, (08–045).
[45] Minovski, Z., Hughes, J., & Kocevski, A. (2016). Transitioning to accrual accounting in the public sector. Journal of Contemporary Economic and Business Issues, 3(2), 75–88.
[46] Tanjeh, M. S. (2016). Factors influencing the acceptance of international public sector accounting standards in Cameroon. Accounting and Finance Research, 5(2), 71–83.
[47] Vergauwen, P. G. M. C., & Van Alem, F. J. C. (2005). Annual report IC disclosures in the Netherlands, France and Germany. Journal of Intellectual Capital.
[48] Zeghal, D., & Mhedhbi, K. (2006). An analysis of the factors affecting the adoption of international accounting standards by developing countries. The International Journal of Accounting, 41(4), 373–386.

Williard Yohana Kalulu “The Influence of Custom Values on Implementation of Accrual-Based IPSAS in Tanzanian Public Corporations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.258-265 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6510

Download PDF

pdf

Science Learners’ Perspective towards the Use of Module and Social Media as a Tool for Remote Learning

Donna H. Gabor and Josel A. Galve – May 2022- Page No.: 266-275

This study aimed to present the perspective of senior high school students towards the use of modules and social media for remote learning and find out if there would be a significant difference in the student performance after the use of modules and social media. The modules were composed of a series of topics distributed to participants and were followed up with the users of social media, especially messenger and Facebook. The participants of the study were classified according to strand and grade levels: the HUMSS and STEM students who are grade 11 and 12 students. A total of 87 students participated in this study. Researchers created 15 items checklist form that is divided according to namely; Perceived Based on Usefulness of Module and Social Media, Perceived Student Self- Efficacy of Using Module and Social media, and Perceived Ease of Use of Module and Social Media was prepared and validated by the experts in subject matter for gathering data. The findings revealed that there was an increase in the performance of students in the pretest and post-test after the use of modules and follow-up through social media. T-test results revealed that there was a significant difference in the test scores of the students before and after using the module which can be used as a future reference for remote learning and as an additional teaching tool in physics.

Page(s): 266-275                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6511

 Donna H. Gabor
Division of Physical Sciences and Mathematics,
University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao Iloilo 5023, Philippines

 Josel A. Galve
New Lucena National High School, New Lucena Iloilo, 5005, Philippines

[1]. Armstrong , David Ed. D. D, “ Student’s Perceptions of Online Learning and Instructional Tools: A Qualitative Study of Undergraduate Students Use of Online Tools, TOJET”, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 2011.
[2]. Song Liyan and Mcnary Scot,”Understanding Students’ Online Interaction: Analysis of Discussion Board Postings, Journal of Interactive Online Learning, Volume 10, Number 1, 2011.
[3]. Smart Karl and Cappel James,” Students’ Perceptions of Online Learning:A Comparative Study”, Journal of Information Technology Education, Volume 5, 2006.
[4]. Gabor, Donna, “Development and Validation of an Electronic Module in Linear Motion for First Year College Students of Iloilo City, The IAFOR International Conference on education- Hawaii 2020, Official Conference Proceedings
[5]. Sadia Sadiq and Shazia Zamir, “Effectiveness of Modular Approach in Teaching at University Level”, Journal of Education and Practice, Vol.5, No.17, 2014.
[6]. Van Wyk, Micheal, Using Social Media in an Open Distance Learning Teaching Practice Course,Mediterranean Journal of Socila Sciences, Vol 5, No.4 , 2014.
[7]. Azure, James, Students’ Perspective of Effective Supervision of Graduate Programmes in Ghana, American Journal of Educationl Research, Vol 4, no. 2, pp 163-169, 2016.
[8]. Guido, Ryan Manuel, “Evaluation of a Modular Teaching Approach in Materials Science and Engineering, American Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp.1126-1130, 2014
[9]. Amir, Lisa R et.al, Student perspective of classroom and distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic in the undergraduate dental study program Universitas Indonesia, BMC Medical Education, vol 20, No. 392, 2020.

Donna H. Gabor and Josel A. Galve, “Science Learners’ Perspective towards the Use of Module and Social Media as a Tool for Remote Learning” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.266-275 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6511

Download PDF

pdf

Strategic Leadership and Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi City County

Agnes Wanja Nyawira, David Kiiru – May 2022- Page No.: 276-283

Enterprises derive competitive advantage from the implementation of strategic plans creatively and innovatively. A way of achieving a competitive advantage in an organization is to apply strategic leadership in the implementation process. This study evaluates the influence of strategic leadership on the achievement of competitive advantage among SMEs in Nairobi county. The study derived its guide mainly from the Porter five theory on achievement of competitive advantage among firms. The study was a cross-sectional survey that included 186 top and middle-level managers, who participated in the study by responding to online questionnaires as well as hand-delivered. Data for the study was analyzed through descriptive and inferential analysis. With a response of 164 respondents, the results of the study revealed that strategic leadership had a positive and significant influence on the competitive advantage of small and medium firms in Nairobi County. The study recommended frequent training of the employees on leadership, ethics, and integrity issues. The study further recommended that the employees should be aware of the goals, vision, and objectives of the organization at all times to enhance competitive advantage among SMEs in Nairobi City County.

Page(s): 276-283                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 June 2022

 Agnes Wanja Nyawira
Kenyatta University, Department of Business Administration

 David Kiiru
Kenyatta University, Department of Business Administration

[1] Aladwani, A. (2018). Change Management Strategies for Successful Enterprise resource planning Implementation. Business Process Management Journal, 7(3), 266-275.
[2] Alayoubi, M. M., Al Shobaki, M. J., & Abu-Naser, S. S. (2020). Strategic leadership practices and their relationship to improving the quality of educational service in Palestinian. Journal of Competitiveness, 10(2), 132-157 Universities. International Journal of Business Marketing and Management (IJBMM), 5(17),111-126.
[3] Alshehhi, A., Nobanee, H., & Khare, N. (2018). The impact of sustainability practices on corporate financial performance: Literature trends and future research potential. Sustainability, 10(2), 494-501.
[4] Asif, M., Qing, M., Hwang, J., & Shi, H. (2019). Ethical leadership, affective commitment, work engagement, and creativity: Testing a multiple mediation approach. Journal of Sustainability, 11(16), 4489.
[5] Bagheri, A. (2017). The impact of entrepreneurial leadership on innovation work behavior and opportunity recognition in high-technology SMEs. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 28(2), 159-166.
[6] Berkovich, I., & Eyal, O. (2021). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and moral reasoning. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 20(2), 131-148.
[7] Chege, F. (2016). An Investigation of Competitive Strategies Adopted by Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. [Doctoral dissertation, United States International University Africa].
[8] Chizema, A., & Pogrebna, G. (2019). The impact of government integrity and culture on corporate leadership practices: Evidence from the field and the laboratory. The Leadership Quarterly, 30(5), 10-23.
[9] Faraj, A. H. M. (2020). Transformational leadership impact employees’ performance. Eurasian Journal of Management & Social Sciences, 1(1), 49-59.
[10] Garde Sanchez, R., Flórez-Parra, J. M., López-Pérez, M. V., & López-Hernández, A. M. (2020). Corporate governance and disclosure of information on corporate social responsibility: An analysis of the top 200 universities in the Shanghai ranking. Sustainability, 12(4), 1549.
[11] Greenwood, M., & Mir, R. (2018). Critical management studies and stakeholder theory: Possibilities for a critical stakeholder theory. Available at SSRN 3234947.
[12] Huberts, L. W. (2018). Integrity: What it is and Why it is Important. Public Integrity, 20(sup1), S18-S32.
[13] Huynh, Q. L. (2020). A triple of corporate governance, social responsibility, and earnings management. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(3), 29-40.
[14] Ikupolati, A. O., Adeyeye, M. M., Oni, E. O., Olatunle, M. A., & Obafunmi, M. O. (2017). Entrepreneurs’ managerial skills as determinants for growth of small and medium enterprises in Nigeria, Journal of Business and Economics, 2 (2), 1778-1793.
[15] Kihara, M. P. (2016). Influence of strategy implementation on the performance of manufacturing small and medium firms in Kenya. [Mastes Thesis, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology].
[16] Kihia, G. (2017). Strategic Management Practices Effect on Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi. [Masters Thesis, United States International University].
[17] Matsiliza, N. S. (2018). The application of results-based monitoring and evaluation to improve performance in small businesses. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(3), 1-9.
[18] Mosoti, Z., & Murabu, E. K. (2014). Assessing the implication of strategic planning on performance of small-sized organizations: A case study of small enterprises in Thika town. [MBA Project, United States International University].
[19] Muhammad, H. K., El Talla, A. S., Mazen, J. S., & Abu-Naser, S. S. (2020). Strategic Sensitivity and Its Impact on Boosting the Creative Behavior of Palestinian NGOs. International Journal of Academic Accounting, Finance and Management Research, 4(5), 18-56.
[20] Mwanthi, T. N. (2018). Linking Strategy Implementation with Organizational Performance in Kenyan Universities. Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation, 5(2), 27-49.
[21] Nakpodia, F., Adegbite, E., Amaeshi, K., & Owolabi, A. (2018). Neither principles nor rules: Making corporate governance work in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Business Ethics, 151(2), 391-408.
[22] Patel, H. (2016). An Evaluation of How Strategic Financial Management Enhances Performances of Small & Medium Enterprises in the Nairobi County. [MBA Project, United States International University].
[23] Porter, M.E. (2014). Location, Competition, and Economic Development: Local Clusters in a Global Economy. Economic development quarterly, 14 (1), 15-34.
[24] Salum, V. S. (2018). Factors influencing implementation of strategic plans in Tanzania’s executive agencies. [Doctoral dissertation, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology].
[25] Schiff, D., Biddle, J., Borenstein, J., & Laas, K. (2020, February). What’s next for ai ethics, policy, and governance? a global overview. In Proceedings of the AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society (pp. 153-158).
[26] Turner, S., & Endres, A. (2017). Strategies for enhancing small business owners’ success rates. International Journal of Applied Management and Technology, 16(1), 3-18.
[27] Ungerman, O., Dedkova, J., & Gurinova, K. (2018). The impact of marketing innovation on the competitiveness of enterprises in the context of the industry. Journal of Competitiveness, 10(2), 132-157.
[28] Waithaka, E. (2017). A Study of Critical Success Factors Affecting Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi County: A Case Study of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Nairobi City Central Business District. [Masters Thesis, United States International University].
[29] Widiatmika, P. H., & Darma, G. S. (2018). Good Corporate Governance, Job Motivation, Organization Culture Which Impact Company Financial Performance. Jurnal Manajemen Bisnis, 15(3), 82-99.

Agnes Wanja Nyawira, David Kiiru “Strategic Leadership and Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi City County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.276-283 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/276-283.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Desai’s Cry the Peacock- A journey to the voiced world

Mrs Jaya Jaiswal, Prof (Dr) Anita Kumari – May 2022- Page No.: 284-286

Women are the marginalised section of the society. But they cannot remain voiceless for long, they have to speak and find an outlet for their tears and fears, anguish and anger, thus register their existence. The voices resisting exploitation are fully aware of their own strength and dignity. The age-old existence of oppression, despair and suffering is common in the lives of marginalized classes across countries and continents. It’s an archaic system that has produced the men who run the country negotiate domestic and foreign policy and penned sexiest laws that made it easier for women to slide through the cracks. Woman is marginalised defined only by her difference from male norms and values in every country and culture. Anita Desai, one of the Indian novelists focussed on women’s situation in Indian society, whose leading voices has given the inner description of women’s inner world, her sensibility, her sulking frustration and the storm raging inside her mind. Her Cry The Peacock, presents the story of a young sensitive girl obsessed by a childhood prophecy of disaster. The novel points the role and contribution of patriarchy and patriarchal values towards misery, suffering, loneliness and unhappiness of women. Desai’s heroine in the novel chooses to remonstrate and fight against the general accepted norms and currents. The thoughts of the women protagonists in the novel are sure to crop up in her struggle to live their desired life. The main focus of the paper is to discuss a journey of a woman who confronts the gender-oriented tradition in search of her true self.

Page(s): 284-286                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6512

 Mrs Jaya Jaiswal
Research Scholar, Department of English, RKDF University, Ranchi, Jharkhand

 Prof (Dr) Anita Kumari
Assistant Professor, Department of English, RKDF University, Ranchi, Jharkhand

[1] Desai Anita 1980 Cry, The Peacock New Delhi: Orient Paperbacks
[2] Maini Irma 1984. Anita Desai and Feminine sensibility. Commonwealth Quarterly 9.1
[3] Showalter Elaine 1985. Towards a Feminist Poetics. New Feminist Criticism. New York: Pantheon Books

Mrs Jaya Jaiswal, Prof (Dr) Anita Kumari “Desai’s Cry the Peacock- A journey to the voiced world” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.284-286 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6512

Download PDF

pdf

Determinants of International Reserves in Nigeria

Scholastica A. Abuh-Amasi, Nsikak J. Joshua, Margaret O. Onoyom – May 2022- Page No.: 287-297

Over the past decades, nations have accumulated international reserves to leverage foreign counterparts or protect themselves against external shocks resulting from integration. The factors identified by researchers as contributing to international reserve accumulation, however, have primarily been market factors. This study sets out to identify some distinct factors of the Nigerian economy. This is accomplished using annual data from 1970 to 2016. Several econometric methods, including the unit root test and Granger causality, were applied to test two hypotheses. The results showed substantial long-run correlations between the variables examined. Thus, the Error Correction Methodology (ECM) was used to investigate short-term and long-term relationships. Findings reveal that the accumulation of foreign reserves was significantly influenced in the long run only by aggregate exports EXPT and trade openness OPN since both variables were statistically significant at 5 percent. At the specified beak-point, there was an important structural change. Finally, Nigeria’s level of international reserves was significantly impacted by the quality of its institutions. Thus, the study recommends that policymakers maintain the current exchange rate regime in order to ensure world competitiveness. The research also suggested that the government take steps to improve and build strong institutions in order to promote transparency and accountability.

Page(s): 287-297                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6513

 Scholastica A. Abuh-Amasi
University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria

 Nsikak J. Joshua
Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Calabar, Nigeria

 Margaret O. Onoyom
University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria

[1] Abdullateef, U. & Waheed, I. (2010) External reserve holdings in Nigeria: Implications for investment, inflation and exchange rate. Journal of Economics and International Finance Vol. 2(9), pp. 183-189.
[2] Adam Elhiraika & Léonce Ndikumana (2007). Reserves Accumulation in African Countries:Sources, Motivations, and Effects. Economics Department Working Paper Series. Paper 24.
[3] Aizenman, J. (2007). Large Hoarding of International Reserves and the Emerging Global Economic Architecture, NBER Working Paper, no. 13277, 1-21.
[4] Aizenman, J. and Lee, J., (2005). International reserves: precautionary vs. mercantilist views, Theory and Evidence. IMF Working Paper WP/05/198.
[5] Aizenman, J. & Marion, N. (2003). The High Demand for International Reserves in the Far East: What’s Going On. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 17: 370-400.
[6] Aizenman, J. & Lee, J. (2006). Financial Versus Monetary Mercantilism-Long-Run Views of Large International Reserves Hoarding. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 12718
[7] Aizenman, J., Lee, Y. & Rhee, Y. (2004). International Reserve Management and Capital Mobility in a Volatile World: Policy Considerations and a Case Study of Korea. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 10534.
[8] Badinger, H. (2004), Austria’s Demand for International Reserves and Monetary Disequilibrium: The Case of a Small Open Economy with a Fixed Exchange Rate Regime. Economica, 71: 39–55. doi:10.1111/j.0013-0427.2004.00356.x
[9] Bastourre, D., Carrera, J. & Ibarlucia, J. (2009). What is Driving Resreves Accumulation. Review of International Economics, 17, 861-877.
[10] Bird, G. & Mandilaras, A. (2008). Revisiting Mrs. Machlup’s Wardrobe: the Accumulation of International Reserves, 1992-2001. Applied Economics Letters, 2008.
[11] Burke, D. & Lane, P. (2001). ‘The Empirics of Foreign Reserves.’ Open Economics Review, 12 (4); pp. 423–434.
[12] Calvo, G. A. & Reinhart, C. M. (2002). ‘Fear of Floating’, Quarterly Journal of Economics CXVII, pp. 379-408.
[13] Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, 2009,2014, and 2016.
[14] Charles-Anyaogu, .N. (2012). External reserves: causality effect of macroeconomic variables in Nigeria (1980-2009)”, Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 1 (12)
[15] Cheung, Y. & Ito, H. (2009). A Cross‐Country Empirical Analysis of International Reserves. International Economic Journal 23, no. 4:447–81.
[16] Cheung, Y.W. & Xing, X.W. (2007). Hoarding of International Reserves: Mrs Machlup’s Wardrobe and the Joneses. CESifo Working Paper No. 2065.
[17] Choi, C., & Beak, S.G. (2004). Exchange Rate Regime and International Reserves. Myongji University and Hongik University, Manuscript.
[18] Craigwell, R., Downes, D. & Greenidge, K. (2008) The Demand for International Reserves in Barbados: Empirical Evidence for the Past Three Decades. Central Bank of Barbados Working Papers, Bridgetown, Barbados.
[19] Delatte A. & Fouquau, J. (2009). The Determinants of International Reserves in the Emerging Countries: a Non-Linear Approach’. Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16311/MPRA Paper No. 16311, posted 16. July 2009 / 17:16.
[20] Dickey, D.A. & Fuller, W.A., 1979. Distributions of the estimators for autoregressive time series with a unit root. Journal of the American Statistical Association 74(366), pp. 427– 431.
[21] Dominguez, K.M.E. (2010); International Reserves and Underdeveloped Capital Markets. IPC Working Paper Series Number 92. International policy center, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy University of Michigan.
[22] Dooley, M., Folkerts-Landau, D. & P. Garber, (2003), An Essay on the Revived Bretton Woods System. NBER Working Paper No. 9971. National Bureau of Economic Research Inc.
[23] Edwards, S. (2004). The Demand for International Reserves and Exchange Rate Adjustment: the Case of LDCs, 1964-72. Economica, 50, 269-80.
[24] Emmanuel, F. (2013). Dilemma not Trilemma. Capital Controls and Exchange Rates with Volatile Capital Flows. Washington, DC: 14th Jacques Polak Annual Research Conference.
[25] Elhiraika, A. & Ndikumana, L. (2007), Reserves Accumulation in African Countries: Sources, Motivations and Effects, University of Massachusset Economic Department Working Paper, 2007–12, pp. 1–27.
[26] Feldstein, M. (1999). A Self-Help Guide for Emerging Markets. Foreign Affairs 78, 93 – 109.
[27] Fischer, S. (2001). Opening Remarks, IMF/World Bank International Reserves: Policy Issues Forum (Washington, DC, April 28).
[28] Flood, R., & Marion, N. (2002). Holding International Reserves in an Era of High Capital Mobility. International Monetary Fund, Working Paper No. 02/62.
[29] Frenkel, J. (1978). International Reserves: Pegged Exchange rates and Managed Float. Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series 9, 111-140.
[30] Frenkel, J. & Jovanovic, B. (1981). Optimal International Reserves: A Stochastic Framework. Economic Journal, 91, 507-514.
[31] Gosselin, M & Parent, N. (2005) An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Exchange Reserves in Emerging Asia. Bank of Canada Working Paper 2005-38. Ottawa, Canada.
[32] Gupta, A. S.(2008) Cost of Holding Excess Reserves: The Indian Experience. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations working paper no. 206.
[33] He, Y. (2009). A Test on Determinants of China’s Demand for International Reserves. (Electronic Thesis or Dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/
[34] Huang, G. (1995); Modeling China’s demand for international reserves. Applied Financial Economics, 5, 357-66, 1995.
[35] Ricardo, H., Gavin, M., Perotti, R. & Talvi, E. (1996) Managing Fiscal Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: Volatility, Procyclicality, and Limited Creditworthiness. Working Paper 326, Office of the Chief Economist, Inter-American Development Bank (1996).
[36] IMF (2003) Are Foreign Exchange Reserves in Asia Too High. World Economic Outlook (September): 64–77.
[37] IMF (2003): Three Current Policy Issues in Developing Countries. World Economic Outlook: Building Institutions (Sep) pp 65-111.
[38] Irefin, D., and Yaaba, B., (2012). Determinants of Foreign Reserves in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach. CBN Journal of Applied Statistics Vol. 2 No.2 69.
[39] Iyoha, M. H. (1976). A Distributed Demand for International Reserves in Less Developed countries. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 58; pp. 351–355.
[40] Je Jo, G. ( 2007). The Determinants of International Reserve Hoarding in Korea: Cointegration and Error Correction Approach. Presented at Singapore Economic Review Conference (SERC) August 2007.
[41] Johansen S., & Juselius, K. (1990). Maximum likelihood estimation and inference on cointegration with application to the demand for money. Oxford Bulletin of Economics & Statistics, 52, 169–210.
[42] Kim J. S., Li J., Rajan, R. S., Sula, O. & Willett, T. D (2005). Reserve Adequacy in Asia Revisited: New Benchmarks Base on the Size and Composition of Capital Flows, in Monetary and Exchange Rate Arrangement in East Asia, KIEP: Seoul, [Available from:www.spp.nus.edu.sg/Handler.ashx?path=Data/Site/SiteDocuments/wp/2005/wp1105.pdf]
[43] Landell-Mills, J.M. (1989): The Demand for International Reserves and their Opportunity Cost. International Monetary Fund Staff Papers, 36(3): 10732.
[44] Li, J. O., & Alice, Y. (2009). Currency crises: can high reserves offset vulnerable fundamentals. Applied Economics, 1-15.
[45] Mendoza, R. (2004) International reserve-holding in the developing world: self insurance in a crisis prone era. Emerging Markets Review, 5: 61-8.
[46] Mishra, R. & Sharma, C. (2010) The Demand for International Reserves and Monetary Equilibrium: New Evidence from India. Retrieved from:
[47] Narayan, P.K. (2005), The Saving and Investment Nexus for China: Evidence from Cointegration Tests, Applied Economics,Vol. 37, pp. 1979–1990.
[48] Nor, E., M Azali, S. Law (2008) International Reserves, Current Account Imbalance and External Debt: Evidence from Malaysia. IIUM Journal of Economics and Management 16(1): 47-76
[49] Obaseki, P.J. (2007). Sources, Currency Composition and Uses of External Reserves. 31, Nigeria:CBN Bullion, Central Bank Nigeria (CBN) , 15-18
[50] Obstfield, M., Shambaugh, J., & Taylor, A. (2008) Financial Stability, the Trilemma, and International Reserves. NBER Working Paper 14217. [ http://www.nber.org/papers/w14217]
[51] Olokoyo, F.O., Osabuohien, E. S. & Salami, O. A. (2009) ‘‘Econometric Analysis of Foreign Reserves and Some Macroeconomic Variables in Nigeria’’, African Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, 454–475.
[52] Omeje A.N. (2012) The Determinants International Reserves in Nigeria. An Unpublished Master’s thesis presented to the department of Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[53] Orok-Duke, O. E., Omor-Egbeji, J. O. & Ekott, G. A. (2010) ‘‘Critical Review of Managing and Building Foreign Reserves for Economic Development in Selected Countries (Conceptual Issues, Management and Experience)’’, April 9, 2010. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1586923.
[54] Osabuohien, E.S.C. (2007). ‘Foreign Capital and Africa’s Economic Progress: Facts from Nigeria and South Africa’, Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 24-37.
[55] Polak J (1957) Monetary Analysis of Income Formation and Payments Problems. IMF
[56] Staff Papers, 6, 1-50.
[57] Pablo García and Claudio Soto (2004). Large Hoardings of International Reserves: Are They Worth It. Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 299, Central Bank of Chile.
[58] Pedroni, P. (1999). Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels With Multiple Regressors. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, special issue: 653–70.
[59] Perron, P., (1988). Trends and random walks in macroeconomic time: series further evidence from a new approach. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control No.12, pp 297– 332.
[60] Pesaran M H, Shin Y & Smith R J (2001): Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Economics 16(3) 289-326.
[61] Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y. & Smith, R.J. (1999). Structural Analysis of Vector Error Correction Models with Exogenous I(1) Variables’. Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 97, pp. 293–343.
[62] Prabheesh, K.P., Malathy, D. & Madhumat, R. (2007). Demand for Foreign Exchange Reserves in India: A Cointegration Approach. South Asian Journal of Management, 14: 36-46.
[63] Ramachandran, M. (2004). The optimal level of international reserves: Evidence for India. Economics Letters, 83, 365–370.
[64] Romero, A. M. (2005). “Comparative Study: Factors that Affect Foreign Currency Reserves in China and India” Honors Projects. Paper 33. [http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/econ_honproj/33]
[65] Shegal, S., & Sharma, I. (2008) ‘A Study of Adequacy, Cost and Determinants of International Reserves in India’, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics. ISSN 1450-2887 Issue20. http://www.eurojournals.com/finance.htm.
[66] Shuaibu, M. I & Mohammed, I, T. (2014) Determinants and Sustainability of International Reserves Accumulation in Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Economy Vol. 6 No. 3. (Inderscience) 60%

Scholastica A. Abuh-Amasi, Nsikak J. Joshua, Margaret O. Onoyom , “Determinants of International Reserves in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.287-297 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6513

Download PDF

pdf

Effects of modernization strategy on performance of department of immigration and citizen services in Kenya

Daniel M. Thirikwa – May 2022- Page No.: 298-303

Modernization as strategy has been widely discussed in the strategy field, where the majority of studies have examined the performance consequences of diversification. The study was anchored under Life Cycle Theory. The study populace was 124 representatives of the Department of Immigration and Citizen Services. The researcher utilized a straightforward separated arbitrary examining technique to choose a sample size of 74 respondents. Questionnaires were utilized which had open finished and shut finished inquiries to gather information which were then analyzed and information presented in tables showing Mean, frequencies and standard deviation for interpretation. The study recorded a response rate of 78%, with a gender ration of 60.3% of the respondent were male while 39.7% were female. modernization strategy yields a β value of 0.435 (effect) on the performance of the state department of immigration and citizen services in Kenya, and a p- value of 0.05 which is considered huge yet to weak levels. The study revealed that the organizations had adopted appropriate technologies suitable to context, that technology improvement had been streamlined to be in line with the competency desired and that it helped improve on the operations efficiency. The study recommended to the various scholars and academicians as it has made an important contribution to the scholarly world and in the general advancement of academic knowledge on turnaround strategies especially in the state owned organizations which mostly experience the decline in performance and end up closing doors.

Page(s): 298-303                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

 Daniel M. Thirikwa
Masters of Business Administration, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

[1] Akrani, G. (2012). Concept of Turnaround Strategies: Management Wisdom Transformation of the Company, Kalyan City: Wordspot
[2] Anders, V.H. (2012). Corporate Turnaround and Corporate Governance – An Empirical Study of the Role of Ownership Structure in Corporate Reorganizations in Western European Firms, Copenhagen Business School November 12th, 2012.
[3] Berdahl, M .A. (2011). Corporate Reorganization Strategies and Business Performance: The Effect of Size and Government Assistance on the Manufacturing Companies. Unpublished PhD thesis, Malaysia: University Utara Malaysia.
[4] Bibeault, D.G. (2012). Corporate Reorganization: How managers turn losers into winners. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[5] Bowman, C, Schoenberg, R., & Collier, N. (2013). Strategies for business reorganization and recovery: a review and synthesis”, European Business Review, 25(3), 243-262.
[6] Collard, J. (2011). Managing Reorganizations: Phases and Actions in Reorganization Process. Chicago, IL: Reorganization Management Association.
[7] Cooper, C. & Schindler, P. (2008). Business Research Methods (10th ed.), Boston: McGraw-Hill.
[8] Cooper, D. R & Schindler, P.S (2013). Business research methods, (12th ed.). Irwin; Mc GrawHill
[9] Creswell, J. & Plano-Clark, V. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods esearch. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[10] Creswell, J.W (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. (4th ed.).Thousand Oaks, Calf: Sage Publications
[11] David, F. (2008). Strategic Management, Columbus: Merrill Publishing Company.
[12] David, F. G., Patrick, W.S., Phillip, C.F., & Kent, D.S. (2010). Strategic Alliances and Inter-firm Knowledge Transfer, Strategic Management Journal, 17(5),
[13] Donaldson, L. (2006). The Contingency Theory of Organizational Design: and Opportunities. In R. M. Burton, B. Eriksen, D.D. Hakonsson and C.C. Snow (eds). Organizational Design: The evolving state of the Art. New York: Springer.
[14] Gibson, E., & Billings, A. (2010), Best practices at Best Buy: a Reorganizationd Strategy. Journal of Business Strategy, 6(24), 10-16.
[15] Gupta, D. &Sathye, M. (2008). Financial Reorganization of the Indian Railways: A Case Study. ASARC Working Paper 2008/06
[16] Hair, J. F., Money, A. H. & Page, P. (2007). Research Methods for Business.West Sussex: John Wiley Sons.
[17] Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R. & Tatham, R. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.).New Jersey: Pearson Education
[18] Hair, J.F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: Maxwell: MacMillian International Editions
[19] Hanks, S. H. (2009). The organization life cycle: Integrating content and process. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 1, 1–12.
[20] Kiarie, W.C. (2009). Reorganization strategies adopted by Uchumi supermarket Limited, Retrieved from: http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke.
[21] Kinyanjui, P., & Ngugi, K. (2014). Influence of Reorganization Strategy on Performance of Consolidated Bank Kenya Limited.
[22] Kothari, C. (2012). Research Methodology Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.
[23] Morrow, J.L. (2007). Creating value in the face of declining performance: Firm strategies and organizational recovery, Strategic Management Journal, 2.
[24] Mungai, B. W., & Bula, H. O. (2018). Reorganization Strategies and Performance of Kenya Airways. The University Journal, 1(2), 1-16.
[25] Ondimu, A. A. (2015). Reorganization Strategies and Performance of Selected Commercial Banks in Kenya. Retrieved from: http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke.
[26] Sasaka, P. Namusonge, G.S. &Sakwam M.M. (2016). Effect of Strategic Management Practices on the Performance of Corporate Social Responsibility of State Parastatals in Kenya. Retrieved from: IR@jkuat.ac.ke
[27] Scherrer, P. S. (2010). Management reorganization: diagnosing business ailments. Corporate Governance journal, 3(4), 52-62.
[28] Sije, O.A. (2017), Relationship between reorganization strategies and performance of small and medium enterprises in Kenya. Retrieved from: IR@jkuat.ac.ke

Daniel M. Thirikwa “Effects of modernization strategy on performance of department of immigration and citizen services in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.298-303 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/298-303.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Development of Indigenous Physics as Solution to Socio-economic Problems: Insights from Physics Teachers and Elders

Edson Mudzamiri, Conlious.J. Chagwiza, Ensleem. T .Madudzo – May 2022- Page No.: 304-313

The limited application of Indigenous Physics in the development programs of many nations has resulted in the emergence and reoccurrence of many socio-economic problems. This study argues that, if Indigenous physics including its teaching, learning and practice are demystified and developed people’s socio-economic problems can be solved. Indigenous physics is a reservoir of critical scientific knowledge, skills, technology and practices that are compatible with the people’s socio-economic contexts hence can offer solutions to problems such as energy crisis and those associated with climatic change as well as environmental degradation. Electricity shortages may be minimized by increasing its generation using Indigenous Physics Knowledge of electrostatics applied in creating of lightning that requires neither large dams, foreign currency nor large workforce. This qualitative study adopted Post-colonial theory ideas grounded in indigenous research paradigm. The participants were selected purposively, and interviewed. Teachers formed focus groups while Elders engaged in cultural talks at cultural meetings. Thematic data analysis revealed findings indicating that development of IP is possible and necessary as it can provide solutions to people’s problems. The study stimulates new thoughts and generates discussion on the wealth of Indigenous Physics Knowledge that can be used to solve socio-economic problems .

Page(s): 304-313                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6514

 Edson Mudzamiri
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 Conlious.J. Chagwiza
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 Ensleem. T .Madudzo
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

[1] Tharakan, J. (2017). Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Appropriate Technology Development, Indigenous People, Purushothaman Venkatesan, IntechOpen,. doi: DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69889. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/indigenous-people/indigenous-knowledge-systems-for-appropriate-technology-development
[2] Emeagwali, G., & Shizha, E. (2016). African indigenous knowledge and the sciences: Journeys into the past and present. Rotterdam: Sense publishers.
[3] Stevick, E. W. (1962). Standard Shona Dictionary: JSTOR.
[4] Shukla, S., Singh, G., Sarkar, S. K., & Mehta, P. L. (2021). “Novel Umbrella 360 Cloud Seeding Based on Self-Landing Reusable Hybrid Rocket.” In International Conference on Innovative Computing and Communications, pp. 999-1011. Springer, Singapore, 2021.
[5] Sithole, M. (2016). Indigenous Physics and the Academy. In G. Emeagwali & E. Shizha (Eds.), African Indigenous Knowledge and the Sciences: Journeys into the Past and Present (pp. 93-105). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
[6] Shizha, E. (2011). Neoliberal globalisation, science education and 7. 7. 7.African indigenous knowledges. In Critiacl perspectives on neoliberal globalization, development and education in Africa and Asia (pp. 15-31). SensePublishers.
[7] Chirimuuta, C., Gudhlanga, E., & Bhukuvhani, C. (2012). Indigenous Knowledge Systems: A Panacea in Education for Development? The Place and Role of Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Curriculum Innovations in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(5), 1-4.
[8] Handayani, R. D., Wilujeng, I., Prasetyo, Z. K., & Triyanto. (2019). Building an indigenous learning community through lesson study: challenges of secondary school science teachers. International Journal of Science Education, 41(3), 281-296. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2018.1548789
[9] Baquete, A. M., Grayson, D., & Mutimucuio, I. V. (2016). An exploration of indigenous knowledge related to physics concepts held by senior citizens in Chókwé, Mozambique. International Journal of Science Education, 38(1), 1-16. doi: DOI:10.1080/09500693.2015.111513
[10] Tanyanyiwa, V. I. (2019). Indigenous Knowledge Systems and the Teaching of Climate Change in Zimbabwean Secondary Schools. SAGE Open, 9(4). doi: 10.1177/2158244019885149
[11] Atalay, S. (2020) Indigenous Science for a World in Crisis, Public Archaeology, DOI: 10.1080/14655187.2020.1781492 .
[12] Murove, M.F. (2018). Indigenous knowledge systems discourse and inclusionality: An Afro-centric quest for recognition in a globalised world. Journal for the Study of Religion, 31(1), 159-176. https://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2413-3027/2018/v31n1a9.
[13] Snively, G., & Corsiglia, J. (2001). Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education. Science Education, 85(1), 6-34.
[14] Chaudhuri, B. (2015). Science in society: challenges and opportunities for indigenous knowledge in the present-day context. Global Bioethics, 26(2), 78-85.
[15] Alexander, R. B. (2018). Science Under Attack: The Age of Unreason: Algora Publishing.
[16] Gerrard, M. (2020). errard, M. 2020. Silencing Science Tracker. Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, Columbia Law School [online] [accessed 28 April 2020]. Available at: https://climate.law.columbia.edu/Silencing-Science-Tracker.
[17] Pettorelli, N. W., Barlow, J., Cadotte, M., Lucas, K., Newton, E., Nuñez, M. A., & Stephens, P. A. (2019). Applied Ecologists in a Landscape of Fear. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56 (5): 1034–39. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13382.
[18] Thompson, K. L., Lantz, T., & Ban, N. (2020). A review of Indigenous knowledge and participation in environmental monitoring. Ecology and Society, 25(2).
[19] A Aikenhead, G., & Michel, H. (2011). Bridging cultures: Indigenous and scientific ways of knowing nature. Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada.
[20] Kapoor, D., & Shizha, E. (2010). Introduction .In D, Kapoor and E, Shizha (Eds.), Indigenous knowledge and learning in Asia/Pacific and Africa :Perspectives Development, Education and culture,pp1-13, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
[21] Mashoko, D. (2014). Indigenous knowledge for plant medicine:Inclusion in the school science teaching and learning in Zimbabwe. Internatinal J ournal of English and Education, 3(3), 558-540.
[22] Popp, J. (2018). How Indigenous knowledge advances modern science and technology. The Conversation : Available at: http://theconversation.com/how-indigenous-knowledge-advances-modern-science-and-technology-89351.Accessed 9 May 2021.
[23] Lowan, G. (2012). Expanding the conversation: Further explorations into indigenous environmental science education theory, research, and practice. Cultural studies of science Education, 7(1), 71-81.
[24] McLeod, S. A. (2018). Questionnaire, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/questionnaires.html
[25] Cresswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed approaches (2nd ed ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[26] Lincoln, Y. S., & Denzin, N. K. (1994). Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
[27] Kothari, C. R. (2005). Research Methodology:Methods and Technologies. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt, Ltd.
[28] Makamure, C. (2015). Attitudes toward Homosexual Practices among the Karanga People: A Religious Perspective. Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR- JHSS), 20(6), 50-56.
[29] Zipf, R., & Harrison, A. (2002). The terrarium unit : a challenge to teachers’ concepts of what is science teaching. In B. A. Knight (Ed.), Reconceptualising learning in the knowledge society (pp. 35-56). Flaxton Qld.: Post Pressed. Retrieved from http://hdl.cqu.edu.au/10018/21149.
[30] Khupe, C. (2020). Indigenous Knowledge Systems Science Education in Theory and Practice (pp. 451-464): Springer.
[31] FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, & WHO. (2018). The state of food security and nutrition in the world 2018: building climate resilience for food security and nutrition. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
[32] Sibanda, F. (2013). Experiencing Sex via the ‘Blue Tooth’: Phenomenological Reflections on the Nature, Use and Impact of Mubobobo in Zimbabwe. Greener Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 84-90. doi: DOI: 10.15580/GJSS.2013.2.011313376
[33] Frost, D. M. (2011). Social stigma and its consequences for the socially stigmatized. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(11), 824-839.
[34] Duri, F. P. T. (2017). Chapter Three African Indigenous Belief Systems on the Crossroads: The Tsikamutanda and Witchcraft-Related Disputes in the 21st Century Zimbabwe. Mankon, Bamenda La ng a a Resea rch & Publishing CIG
[35] Ullah, I., Baharom, M. N. R., Ahmed, H., Luqman, H. M., & Zainal, Z. (2017). Laboratory demonstration of lightning strike pattern on different roof tops installed with Franklin Rods. In EPJ Web of Conferences (Vol. 162, p. 01065). EDP Sciences.
[36] van Schalkwyk, S. (2018). Mubobobo: Memories of the Past, Metaphors for the Current Self Narrative Landscapes of Female Sexuality in Africa (pp. 85-112). Cham: Springer.
[37] Peter, U. T. (2015). The evolution of African indigenous science and Technology. Available at:www.iiste.org. Assessed 24 May 2021.
[38] Zeadally, S., Siddiqui, F., & Baig, Z. (2019). 25 years of bluetooth technology. Future Internet, 11(9), 194.
[39] The Sunday Mail. (2015, April 12 ). Witchcraft in Zimbabwe The Sunday Mail, Retrieved from www.thesundaymail.co.zw
[40] Mbiti, J. S. (1990). African religion and Philosophy. Oxford: Heinmann.
[41] Blunt, R. (2020). Anthropology After Dark: Nocturnal Life and the Anthropology of the Good-Enough in Western Kenya. Journal of Religion and Violence, 8(1), 35–57.
[42] Riffel, A., Luckay, M., Angaama, D., & Magaseti, A. (2016). Exploring connections among Meteorological Science and Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) approach to Science teaching, learning and assessment. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of the African Association for the Study of Indigenous Knowledge Systems – AASIKSAt: Maputo, MozambiqueVolume: 1 of 2 p.g 90.
[43] Ponge, A. (2011). Integrating indigenous knowledge for food security: perspectives from the millennium village project at Bar-Sauri in Nyanza Province in Kenya. Paper presented at the International Conference on Enhancing Food Security in the Eastern and Horn of Africa regions, held at the Imperial Royale Hotel in Kampala, Uganda on 16 – 17 November 2011
[44] Ogawa, M. (1995). Science education in a multiscience perspective. Science Education, 79, 593–593. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.3730790507
[45] Chirikure, S., Nyamushosho, R. T., Chimhundu, H., Dandara, C., Pamburai, H. H., & Manyanga, M. (2017). Concept and knowledge revision in the post-colony: mukwerera, the practice of asking for rain amongst the Shona of southern Africa. Archives, objects, places and landscapes: Multidisciplinary approaches to decolonised Zimbabwean pasts, 14-55.
[46] Taylor, D. L., & Cameron, A. (2016). Valuing IKS in successive South African Physical Science Curricula. Afrcan Journal of Research in Mathematics,Science and Technology Education, 20(1), 35-44.
[47] Hewson, M. G. (2015). Integrating indigenous knowledge with science teaching Embracing Indigenous Knowledge in Science and Medical Teaching (pp. 119-131): Springer.
[48] Aikenhead, G. S., & Elliott, D. (2010). An emerging decolonizing science education in Canada. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 10(4), 321-338.
[49] Logan, A. L., Stump, D., Goldstein, S. T., Orijemie, E. A., & Schoeman, M. (2019). Usable pasts forum: Critically engaging food security. African Archaeological Review, 36(3), 419-438.

Edson Mudzamiri, Conlious.J. Chagwiza, Ensleem. T .Madudzo, “Development of Indigenous Physics as Solution to Socio-economic Problems: Insights from Physics Teachers and Elders” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.304-313 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6514

Download PDF

pdf

Diponegoro War (1825-1830) In the Perspective of Total War Strategy

Dhiah Ayu Duwi Wahyuni, Sukma Wijaya, Jeffri Dominggus Ritiau, I Wayan Midhio – May 2022- Page No.: 314-318

Indonesia is one of the countries that implements a universal defense system, which in the universal defense system involves all people and all national resources, national facilities and infrastructure, and all regions of the country as a defense unit. The concept of the Universe War was born long before independence, at which time Indonesia was faced with a difficult and critical situation due to the arrival of the Dutch who wanted to spread their influence in the archipelago. With all the limitations it has, the Indonesian nation must fight to face the colonization carried out by the Dutch, both through diplomatic struggles and armed struggles. Both forms of struggle in the war are carried out guerrillaally, integrated, and supporting each other, and by mobilizing all their resources. Based on this phenomenon, the author was encouraged to analyze the birth of the concept of the Universe War which stemmed from the historical experience of the struggle of the Indonesian nation during the Diponegoro War. The discussion in this article uses qualitative research methods using a historical approach, where in the procedure of preparation through four stages, namely: heuristic, criticism, interpretation, and historiography. The data analysis used is historical analysis, with an emphasis on sharpness in interpreting historical facts. From the analysis and research conducted, it can be proven that during the Diponegoro War, armed struggle and diplomatic struggle can run parallel and strengthen each other. The essence of equality has been embedded in both forms of struggle with the support and mobilization of the people, the deployment of all resources owned and the entire area of struggle.

Page(s): 314-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 June 2022

 Dhiah Ayu Duwi Wahyuni
Study Program Total War Strategy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 Sukma Wijaya
Study Program Total War Strategy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 Jeffri Dominggus Ritiau
Study Program Total War Strategy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

 I Wayan Midhio
Study Program Total War Strategy, Faculty of Defense Strategy, Republic of Indonesia Defense University

[1] Abdi, R. N., Wijayanto, J., & Midhio, I. W. (2020). Aspects of Diplomacy, Universal Defense Strategy, and Irregular Warfare in Handling the Disintegration Movement in Indonesia. Pulpit of Cultural Religion, November, 8–12. https://doi.org/10.15408/mimbar.v37i1.17827
[2] Ariwibowo, T. (2021). Universe War Strategy: The Battle of Prince Diponegoro Against the Netherlands 1825-1830. Syntax Literate ; Indonesian Scientific Journal, 6(5), 2537. https://doi.org/10.36418/syntax-literate.v6i5.2742
[3] Bungin, B. (2007). Qualitative Research. Prenada Media Group.
[4] Djoko Surjo. (1990). No Title. The Leadership of Prince Diponegoro in a Historical Perspective. https://www.neliti.com/publications/12153/kepemimpinan-pangeran-d1ponegoro-dalam-perspektif-sejarah
[5] Hartono, A. S. (2021). The Largest Java War (Diponegoro War) 1825-1830 in view of the Concept of Universe War or Total War. Syntax Idea, 3(6), 1247. https://doi.org/10.36418/syntax-idea.v3i6.1227
[6] Nurbantoro, E., Midhio, I. W., Risman, H., Prakoso, L. Y., & Widjayanto, J. (2021). Indonesian War of Independence (1945-1949) in the Perspective of The Universe War Strategy. Tambusai Journal of Education, 5(3), 10520–10530.
[7] Clausewitz, C. Von. (1976). Carl Von Clausewitz On War, (translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret) (M. H. and P. Paret (ed.)). Princeton University Press.
[8] Marsono & Legionosuko, T. (2020). Strategy Theory: From various Experts. Unhan Press.
[9] Secretariat of State, (2004). Indonesian Law Number 3 of 2002 concerning State Defense.
[10] Secretariat of State, (2004). Indonesian Law Number 34 of 2004 concerning tni.
[11] Law Number 3. (2002). Indonesian Law Number 3 of 2002 concerning State Defense. Secretariat of State.
[12] Law Number 34. (2004). Indonesian Law Number 34 of 2004 concerning tni. Secretariat of State
[13] Warto. (2016). Inheritance of Prince Diponegoro’s Heroic Value in the Java War. Science Library; Jakarta
[14] Wijaya, Sukma (2022). ITWS Course Assignment Topic 11 UNHAN S2 Program, CohortXIII.

Dhiah Ayu Duwi Wahyuni, Sukma Wijaya, Jeffri Dominggus Ritiau, I Wayan Midhio “Diponegoro War (1825-1830) In the Perspective of Total War Strategy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.314-318 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/314-318.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Trajectories of Curriculum Change in Initial Primary Teacher Education in Zambia

Kalisto Kalimaposo, PhD – May 2022- Page No.: 319-331

This chapter reviews trends in primary teacher education for the last five decades in Zambia. Since independence, Zambia has undertaken the following curriculum reforms in primary teacher education; the Zambia Primary Course(ZPC), The Zambia Basic Education Course(ZBEC), The Field Based Teacher Training Approach(FIBATTA) which was discontinued hardly three months of trial, The Zambia Teacher Education Reform Programme(ZATERP) piloted in three colleges of education, The Zambia Teacher Education Course(ZATEC-one year college based and one year school-based);the Zambia Teacher Education Course(ZATEC-two year residential course) and the current three year Diploma Primary Teacher Education Programme. The Ministry of Education upgraded all primary colleges of education to Diploma status and affiliated them to the University of Zambia. For a couple of years, the Ministry of Education back peddled and attached all Colleges of Education to the Examinations Council of Zambia (ECZ), a decision that was roundly condemned as a departure from the SADC protocol on education. Meanwhile, Colleges of Education which were under ECZ have now reverted to the University of Zambia with respect to quality assurance and programme supervision.

Page(s): 319-331                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6515

 Kalisto Kalimaposo, PhD
Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education, School of Education, University of Zambia, Zambia

[1] Achola, P.P.W. (1990) Implementing Educational Policies in Zambia. Washington, D.C: World Bank.
[2] Anderson, L. (1995) International Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher Education. Oxford: Elsevier Science.
[3] APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) (1999) “Preface and Highlights of the Study Teacher Preparation and Professional Development in APEC members: A Comparative Study”. APEC Education Forum Document, No. 9. P.36-62 October.
[4] Avalos, B. (2000) “Policies for Teacher Education in Developing Countries”. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 457 – 474.
[5] Bennis, W., Benne,K., and Chin, R. (1986) The Planning of Change. New York: Rinehart and Winston.
[6] Beaty, L. (1998) “The Professional Development of Teachers in Higher Education: Structures, Methods and Responsibilities” Innovations in Education and Training, 35 (2), 99-107.
[7] Ben-Peretz, M. (1990) “Research on Teacher Education in Israel: Topics, Methods and Findings”. In: Tisher, R.P. and Wideen, M. F. (Eds.) Research in Teacher Education: International Perspectives. London: Falmer Press.
[8] Ben-Peretz, M., and Dror, Y. (1992) Issues and Problems in Teacher Education: An International Handbook. New York: Greenwood.
[9] Berg, A.M. (1998) “Curriculum Reform and Reconstruction in Africa and Latin America”. In: Dekker, I.E., and Lemmer, E.M. (Eds.) Critical Issues in Modern Education. Johannesburg: Heinemann.
[10] Berry, B. (2001) “No Shortcuts To Preparing Good Teachers”. Educational Leadership, 58 (8), 32-36.
[11] Blumer, H. (1969) Symbolic Interactionism. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
[12] Buchanan, K. (1980) Reflections on Education in the Third World. Nottingham: Spokesman Books.
[13] Bulmer, M and Warwick, D (1993) (eds.) Social Research in Developing Countries: Surveys and Censuses in the Third World. London: UCL Press
[14] Burgess, R.G. (1986) Sociology, Education and Schools: An Introduction to the Sociology of Education. London: Heinemann.
[15] Calderhead, J. and Shorrock, S.B. (1997) Understanding Teacher Education: Case Studies in the Professional Development of Beginning Teachers.
[16] CERI (1969) The Management of Innovation in Education. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
[17] Chin, P. and Russell, T. (1998) “Reforming Teacher Education: Making Sense of Our Past to Inform the Future”. In: Cole, A.L.,Elijah,R. and Knowles, J.G. (Eds.), The Heart of the Matter: Teacher Educators and Teacher Education Reform. San Francisco: Caddo Gap Press.
[18] Chishimba, C.P. and Luangala, J.R. (2000) A Study on Basic School Curriculum Development in an International Perspective. Lusaka: Unpublished.
[19] Chishimba, C.P., (1979) “A Study of the Zambia Primary English Course.” D.Ed Thesis. New York, Columbia University, Teachers College.
[20] Chishimba, C.P., (1996) “A study to determine Strategies for Organising In-Service Education Programmes for Primary Teacher Educators in Zambia” Zambia Educational Research Network (ZERNET Journal) Vol.1 Nos 3-4, July –December,1996. pp34-42.
[21] Chivore, B.R.S., (1986) “Teacher Education in Post-Independence Zimbabwe: Problems and Possible Solutions” Journal of Education for Teaching Vol. 12, No. 3. pp. 205-231.
[22] Clark, C.M. (1988) “Asking the right questions about teacher preparation: contribution of research on teacher thinking” Educational Researcher, 17 (2), 5-12.
[23] Clarke, R. (1978) “Policy and Ideology in Education Reform in Zambia,1974- 1978.” M. Ed Thesis. Lancaster University.
[24] Cobb, V. (1999) An International Comparison of Teacher Education. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher and Teacher Education.
[25] Cobb, V. (1999) An International Comparison of Teacher Education. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearing House on Teaching and Teacher Education.
[26] Cohen, L. and Manion, L., (1998) Research Methods in Education. 4th ed. London: Routledge.
[27] Cole, A.L., Elijah, R, Knowles, J.G. (Eds.) (1998) The Heart of the Matter: Teacher Educators and Teacher Education Reform. San Francisco: Caddo Gap Press.
[28] Commonwealth of Learning (2005) Draft Report for Consultancy Services to Develop and Review the Ministry of Education’s Teacher Education Strategy. Vancouver: COL.
[29] Cook, P.F. (1993) “Defining reflective teaching: How has it been done for research?” Paper presented at the Annual Association of Teacher Educator’s Conference in Los Angeles, California. 16th February.
[30] Covenant University (2005) News Bulletin (January Edition) Lagos: University Press.
[31] Craft, M. (1996) Teacher Education in Plural Societies: An International Review. London: The Falmer Press.
[32] Darling-Hammond, L. (1996) “The Quiet Revolution: Rethinking Teacher Development”. In: Educational Leadership, 53 (6), 4-10.
[33] Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y. (eds) (2003) Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed. London: Sage.
[34] Dewey, J., (1933) How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process. Boston: Health and Company.
[35] Dove, L.A.(1982) “The Development and Training of Teachers for Remote Rural Areas in Less Developed Countries” International Review of Education, Vol.27. pp.3-27
[36] Egbegbedia, A.E. (2005) Part-time Teacher Education Programmes in Colleges of Education. In: E. J. Madueswesi (Ed.) Nigeria Journal of Teacher Education and Teaching, Asaba: Nigerian Primary and Teacher Education Association. 1,
[37] Eggleston, J. (1977) The Sociology of the School Curriculum. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
[38] Elliot, J. (ed), (1993) Reconstructing Teacher Education: Teacher Development. London: Falmer Press.
[39] Eraut, M. (1995) “Developing Professional Knowledge Within a Client-Centred Orientation”. In: Guskey, T.; Huberman, M. (Eds.), New Paradigms and Practices in Professional Development. New York: Teachers College Press.
[40] Eraut, M. (Ed.) (2000) “Design of Initial Teacher Education”. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, Special Issue. Pp. 23-36.
[41] Ezewu, E. (1984) Sociology of Education. London: Longman.
[42] Fafunwa, A.B. (1977) New Perspectives in African Education. Lagos: Macmillan.
[43] Farrell, J., Oliveira, J. (1999) Teachers in Developing Countries: Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
[44] Feiman-Nemser, S. (1990) “Teacher Preparation: Structural and Conceptual Alternatives.” In W.R. Houston (Ed.) Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. New York: Macmillan. pp.212-233
[45] Fernandez, C. (2002) “Learning from Japanese Approaches to Professional Development”. Journal of Teacher Education, 53 (5), 393-405.
[46] Fish, D. (1989) Learning Through Practice in Initial Teacher Training: A Challenge for the Practioners. London: Kegan Paul.
[47] Fontana, A. and Frey, J.H. (2003) “The Interview: From Structured Questions to Negotiated Text” In: Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed. London: Sage.
[48] Fullan, M. (1991) The New Meaning of Educational Change. New York: Teachers College Press.
[49] Fuller, F.F. (1969) “Concerns of Teachers: A developmental Conceptualization.” American Educational Research Journal, 6, 207-226
[50] Furlong, J. (2002) “Ideology and Reform in Teacher Education in England: Some Reflections on Cochran-Smith and Fries”. Educational Researcher, no. 3. Pp. 56.
[51] Futrell, M.H., Hol;mes,D.H., Christie, J.L., (1995) Linking Education Reform and Teacher Professional Development: The Efforts of Nine School Districts. Occasional Paper Series. Washington, DC: Centre for Policy Studies, Graduate School of Education and Human Development. George Washington University.
[52] Gatawa, B.S.M. (1990) The Politics of the School Curriculum. Harare: College Press.
[53] Gatawa, B.S.M. (1999) The Politics of the School Curriculum: An Introduction. Harare: College Press.
[54] Ghani, Z. (1990) “Pre-service Teacher Education in Developing Countries”. In: Rust, V.D., Dalin, P. (Eds.), Teachers and Teaching in the Developing World. New York: Garland.
[55] Glatthorn, A. (1995) “Teacher Development”. In: Anderson, L. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher Education. London: Pergamon Press.
[56] Goodlad, J.I. (1990) Teachers for Our Nation’s Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[57] Goodson, I. (2000) “Professional Knowledge and the Teachers’ Life and Work” In: Day, C.,Fernandez, A., Hauge, T.E., and Moller, J. (Eds.) The Life and Work of Teachers: International Perspectives in Changing Times. London: Falmer Press.
[58] Gran, B. (1990) “Research in Swedish Teacher Training”. In: Tisher, R., Wideen, M.F. (Eds.), Research in Teacher Education: International Perspectives.
[59] Griffiths, V.L. (1978) The Problems of Rural Education. Paris: UNESCO.
[60] Grossman, P., Schoenfeld, A. (2005) “Teaching Subject Matter” In: L. Darling- Hammond and J. Bransford(Eds.), Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do (pp. 201-231).
[61] GRZ / DANIDA (1997) “Zambia Teacher Education Reform Programme (ZATERP) Basic Teacher Education Course: A Guide for Tutors in the Teachers Colleges” (Experimental Version), Lusaka. MoE.
[62] GRZ / DANIDA (1997) “Zambia Teacher Education Reform Programme (ZATERP): The Curriculum Framework and Course Outline for Basic Teacher Education.” Lusaka: MoE.
[63] GRZ / MOE (1977) Educational Reform: Proposals and Recommendations. Lusaka: Government Printer.
[64] GRZ / MOE (1992) Focus on Learning. Lusaka: Government Printer.
[65] GRZ / MOE (1996) Educating Our Future: National Policy on Education. Lusaka: Zambia Education Publishing House.
[66] Guba, E.G. (1968) “ The Process of Educational Innovation” in Educational Change: The Reality and the Promise, ed. Goulet, R.R. New York: University Press.
[67] Guba, E. G. (1968) “Attitude and Perceptual Change in Teachers” The Reality and the Promise, (Ed.) Goulet, R.R. New York: University Press.
[68] Guskey, T. R. (1989) “Attitude and Perceptual Change in Teachers” International Journal of Educational Research, 13 (4). pp. 439-453.
[69] Guskey, T.R., and Huberman, M (Eds.) (1995) Professional Development in Education: New Paradigms and Practices. New York: Teachers College Press.
[70] Haddad, W.D. (1985) Teacher Training: A Review of World Bank Experience. Washington, D.C: World Bank.
[71] Halsey, A.H. and Karabel, J. (eds) (1977) Power and Ideology in Education. New York: Oxford University Press.
[72] Hamilton, D. (1986) Curriculum Evaluation. London: Open University.
[73] Hargreaves, A, Fullan, M. (Eds.) (1992) Understanding Teacher Development. New York: Teachers College.
[74] Harris, L and Associates. (1990) The American Teacher: New Teachers: Expectations and Ideals. Part 1. Entering the Classroom. New York: Metropolitan Life. (ERIC Documentation Reproduction No. ED 327 511)
[75] Harris, L. (1978) Curriculum Innovation. London : University Press.
[76] Harris, L and Prescott, T. (Ed.) (1990) Curriculum Innovation. London: Open University Press.
[77] Hauge, T.E. (2000) “Student Teachers’ Struggle in Becoming Professionals: Hopes and Dilemmas in Teacher Education”. In: Day, C., Fernandez, A., and Moller, J. (Eds.) The Life and Work of Teachers: International Perspectives in Changing Times. London: Falmer Press.
[78] Havelock, R.G. (1971) “The Utilisation of Educational Research and Development” British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 2, No. 2. pp17-28.
[79] Havelock, R.G. (Ed.) (1978) Planning for Innovation Through Dissemination and Utilization of Knowledge. Michigan: University Press.
[80] Hawes, H. (1986) Curriculum and Reality in African Primary Schools. London: Longman.
[81] Hirst, P. (1984) Knowledge and the Curriculum. London: Routledge.
[82] Hooper, R. (1981) The Curriculum: Context, Design and Development. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.
[83] Hoyle, E. (1969) “How Does the Curriculum Change?” Journal of Curriculum Studies, vol.1. pp. 63-82.
[84] Huberman, A.M. (1978) Understanding Change in Education: An Introduction. Paris: UNESCO.
[85] Huberman, M., Miles, M. (1984) Innovation Up Close: How School Improvement Works. New York: Plenum Press.
[86] Hughes, P. (Ed.) (1983) The Teacher’s Role in the Curriculum Design. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
[87] Huling-Austin, L. (1990) “Teacher Induction Programmes and Partnerships”. In: R.W. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. In: Tisher, R.P., Wideen, M.F., (Eds.), Research in Teacher Education: International Perspectives. London: Falmer Press.
[88] Jackson, R.K., Leroy, C.A. (1998) “Eminent Teachers’ Views on Teacher Education and Development”. In: Action in Teacher Education, 20 (3), 15-29.
[89] Judge, H. (1992) “England and Wales” In: Leavitt, H.B. (Ed.), Issues and Problems in Teacher Education: An International Handbook. New York: Greenwood Press.
[90] Kalimaposo, K. (2011). The Politics of Curriculum Reforms in Pre-service Primary Teacher Education in Zambia. Zambia Journal of Education. Vol.3. No.1. pp. 88-97. ISSN 1996-3645
[91] Kalimaposo, K. (2010). ‘The Impact of Curriculum Innovations on Pre-service Primary Teacher Education in Zambia.’ University of Zambia. Unpublished PhD Thesis
[92] Katz, L.G. and Raths (1992) “Dispositions as goals for Teacher Education.” Teaching and Teacher Education, 1, 301-307
[93] Kelly, M.J. et al (1986) “The Provision of Education for all: Towards the Implementation of Zambia’s Educational Reforms Under Demographic and Economic Constraints 1986-2000.” Lusaka: UNZA.
[94] Kemmis, S. (1988) Curriculum Theorising: Beyond Reproduction Theory. Geelong: Deakin University Press.
[95] Kerr, J.F. (1989) (Ed.) Changing the Curriculum. London: University Press.
[96] Lawton, D. (1978) Theory and Practice of Curriculum Studies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
[97] Leavitt, H.B., (1992) “World issues and Problems in Teacher Education.” Journal of Teacher Education. Vol. 42. No. 5. Pp. 323-331.
[98] Lewin, K.M., Stuart , J.S. (2003) Researching Teacher Education: New Perspectives on Practice, Performance and Policy: Multi-site Teacher Education Research Project (MUSTER) Synthesis Report. London: Department for International Development.
[99] Lieberman, A., and Miller, L., (Eds.) (2001) Teachers Caught in the Action: Professional Development that Matters. New York: Teachers College Press.
[100] Lin, N., (1976) Foundations of Social Research. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[101] Lippit, R., Watson, J., and Westley, B. (1968) The Dynamics of Planned Change. New York: Harcourt and Brace.
[102] Lockheed, M., Verspoor, A. (1991) Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries. Washington, D.C: The World Bank.
[103] Lortie, D. (1975) Schoolteacher: A Sociological Study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[104] Lourdusamy, A., and Tan, S.K. (1992) “Malaysia”. In: Leavitt, H.B. (Ed.), Issues and Problems in Teacher Education. An International Handbook. New York: Greenwood.
[105] Lungwangwa, G., (1987) “Basic Education in Zambia: A study in Educational Policy Development.” Ph. D Thesis. University of Illinois.
[106] MacKinnon, A., and Scarff-Seatter, C. (1997) “Constructivism: Contradictions and Confusions in Teacher Education” In: V. Richardson (Ed.), Constructivist Teacher Education: Building a World of New Understandings. London: Falmer Press.
[107] Maduewesi, B.C. (2005) Benchmarks and Global Trends in Education, Benin City: Dasylva Influence Enterprises.
[108] Manchishi, P.C., (1996) “In-service Teacher Training in Zambia: An Evaluation of the Zambia Primary Course at the National In-Service Teachers College.” Zambia Educational Research Journal (ZERNET Journal) Vol.1 No. 3-4. July-December, 1996. pp12-22.
[109] Manchishi, P.C., (2007) Teacher Education in Zambia: Past, Present and Future Prospects. Zambia Forty Years of Independence; 1964-2004. Lusaka: UNZA, Department of History.
[110] Marcondes, M.I. (1999) “Teacher Education in Brazil” Journal of Education for Teaching, 25 (3), pp. 203-213.
[111] Marsh, C.J. (2001) Perspectives: Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum. London: Falmer Press.
[112] McNeil, J.D. (1985) Curriculum: A Comprehensive Introduction. Boston: Little Brown.
[113] McNamara, D. (1993) “Towards Reestablishing the Professional Authority and Expertise of Teacher Educators and Teachers”. Journal of Education for Teaching,19, pp. 277-291.
[114] Miles, M., Ekholm, M., and Vandenberghe, R. (1988) Lasting School Improvement: Exploring the Process of Institutionalisation. Paris: OECD.
[115] Miles, M.B. (1968) “Innovation in Education: Some Generalisations” Innovation in Education, Miles, M.B. (ed.) New York: Teachers College Press.
[116] Miller, J., McKenna, M., and McKenna, B. (1998) “A Comparison of Alternatively and Traditionally Prepared Teachers”. Journal of Teacher Education, 31 (6), 23-25.
[117] Musgrove, F. (1983) “The Curriculum for a World of Change” The Curriculum: Research, Innovation and Change. Taylor, P.H. and Walton, J. London: Ward Lock.
[118] Musgrove, F., and Taylor, P.H. (1969) Society and the Teacher’s Role. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
[119] Musonda, L.W., (1999) “ Teacher Education Reform in Zambia: Is It a Case of a Square Peg in a Round Hole?” Teaching and Teacher Education: International Journal of Research and Studies. Vol 15. No.2.
[120] Musonda, L.W., (2005) “The Theory and Practice in Teacher Education: A Case Study of Teacher Education and Training in Zambia. Lusaka: Unpublished.
[121] Natriello, G and Dornbusch, S.M. (1984) Teacher Evaluation Standards and Student Effort. New York: Longman
[122] Newby, P. (2010) Research Methods for Education. London: Pearson.
[123] Ndofot, M.A. (2005) “Ensuring Qualitative Teachers for Sustainable Nigerian Educational System”. In: J.O. Afe (Ed.) Status and Future of Education in Nigeria. Asaba: Nigerian Primary and Teacher Education Association. Book of Abstracts.
[124] Nicholls, A. (1984) Managing Educational Innovations. London: Unwin.
[125] Nicholls, A. and Nicholls, S.H. (1978) Developing a Curriculum: A Practical Guide. London: Allen and Unwin.
[126] Nicholls, S. H., and Nicholls, A. (1978) Developing a Curriculum: A Practical Guide, Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
[127] Nyerere, J. (1977) Education for Self Reliance. Dar-es-Salaam: Government Printer.
[128] Obanya, P.A.I. (1974) “Nigerian Teachers’ Reception of a New French Syllabus” Journal of Curriculum Studies. Vol. 6. No.2. p.171.
[129] OECD. (2005) Teacher Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers. Paris: OECD.
[130] Owen, J.G. (1985) The Management of Curriculum Development. Cambridge: University Press.
[131] Patterson, R,S. (1991) Teacher Preparation in the Normal School. In: L.G. Katz and J. Raths, (Eds.), Advances in Teacher Education (vol. 4, pp. 20-36).
[132] Patton, M. (1986) Utilisation-Focussed Evaluation. Beverly Hills: SAGE.
[133] Philips, D.C. (1987) Philosophy, Science and Social Inquiry. New York.: Pergamon.pp. 168-170.
[134] Ponsioen, J.A. (1982) Educational Innovations in Africa. The Hague: Institute of social Studies. (1) pp. 168-170.
[135] Pratt, D. (1980) Curriculum: Design and Development. New York: Harcourt Brace.
[136] Print, M. (1993) Curriculum Development and Design. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
[137] Reimers, E.V. (2003) Teacher Professional Development: An International Review of the Literature. Paris: UNESCO.
[138] Schubert, W. (1988) Curriculum: Perspectives, Paradigm and Possibility. New York: Macmillan.
[139] Setijadi, J. (1989) Educational Planning-Indonesia: Regional Office for Education in Asia. Paris: UNESCO.
[140] Shaeffer, S. (1990) “Participatory Approaches to Teacher Training”. In: V.D. Rust and Dalin (Eds.), Teachers and Teaching in the Developing World. London: Longman.
[141] Shah, S. (1995) “Planning Teacher Education”. In: Anderson, L. (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Teaching and teacher education. London: Pergamon Press.
[142] Socket, H. (1989) “Practical Professionalism” In: Cass, W. (Ed.), Quality in Teaching. New York: Falmer Press.
[143] Sockett, H. (1986) Designing the Curriculum. London: Open Books.
[144] Soler, J., Craft, A, Burgess, H. (Eds.) (2001) Teacher Development: Exploring Our Own Practice. London: Chapman Publishing.
[145] Stenhouse, L. (1975) An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development. London: Heinemann.
[146] Stuart, J. (1991) “Classroom Action Research in Africa: Lesotho Case Study of Curriculum and Professional Development”. In: Lewin, K. and Stuart, J. (Eds.), Educational Innovations in Developing Countries: Case Studies of Changemakers. Hampshire, Macmillan.
[147] Swarts, P.S. (2003) The Transformation of Teacher Education in Namibia. Gamsberg: Macmillan.
[148] Tatto, M.T. (1999) Conceptualizing and Studying Teacher Education Across World Regions: An Overview. A background paper prepared for the Conference on Teachers in Latin America: New Perspectives on their Development and Performance. San Juan, Costa Rica.
[149] Tatto, M.T. (Ed.). (2006) Reforming Teaching Globally. Didcot: Symposium Books.
[150] Thompson, A. (1981) Education and Development in Africa. London: Macmillan.
[151] Tsan, M. (1996) “Financial Reform of Basic Education in China”. Economics of Education Review, 15 (4), pp. 423-444.
[152] Turney, C., (1977) (ed) Innovation in teacher education. Sydney. University Press.
[153] Ukeke, T.U. (2007) “Re-programming Teacher Education for Economic Empowerment and Development”. In: O. Emenike (Ed.) Nigerian Journal of Educational Management. 6, pp. 160-161.
[154] UNESCO (2007) Global Perspectives on Teacher Learning: Improving Policy and Practice. Paris: IIEP.
[155] UNESCO. (1998) World Education Report 1998: Teachers and Teaching in a Changing World. Paris: UNESCO.
[156] UNESCO. (2001) UNESCO/ PROAP Activities in Asia-Pacific: Project 2000 (www.unesco.org).
[157] Villegas-Reimers, E., Reimers, F. (1998) The Preparation of Teachers in Latin America: Challenges and Trends. Washington, DC: Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office. The World Bank.
[158] Vonk, J.H.C. (1995) “Teacher Education and Reform in Western Europe: Socio-political Contexts and actual Reform”. In: Shimahara, N.K., Holowinsky, I.Z. (Eds.) Teacher Education in Industrialised Nations. New York: Garland Publishing.
[159] Vulliamy, G., Webb, R. (1991) “Teacher Research and educational Change: An Empirical Study”. British Educational Research Journal, 17 (3), 219-236.
[160] Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: University Press.
[161] Westbury, I, Hopmann, S and Riquarts, K. (Eds.) (2000) Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[162] Wideen, M.F., Holborn, P. (1990) “Teacher Education in Canada: A Research Review”. In: Tisher, R.P., Wideen, M.F. (Eds.), Research in Teacher Education: International Perspectives. London: Falmer Press.
[163] Wise, A. (2000) “Creating a HighQuality Teaching Force”. Educational Leadership, 58 (4), 18-21.
[164] Woodring, P. (1975) “The Development of Teacher Education” In: Ryan, K. (Ed.) Teacher Education. Chicago: University Press.
[165] Woods, P. (1994) “The Conditions for Teacher Development”. In: Grimmett, P.P., Neufeld, J. (Ed.), Teacher Development and the Struggle for Authenticity; Professional Growth and Restructuring in the Context of Change. New York: Teachers College Press.
[166] Woods, P. and Pollard, A. (eds.) (1988) Sociology and Teaching: A New Challenge for the Sociology of Education. London: Croom Helm.
[167] Yinger, R.J. (1980) “A study of Teacher Planning: Description and a model of Pre-ActiveDecision-Making”.Elementary School Journal, 80 (3), 107-127
[168] Young, M.F.D. (1971) Knowledge and Control. New York: Macmillan.
[169] Zeegers, Y. (1995) “Supporting Teachers to Implement the National Curriculum: A New ZealandPerspective”. Educational Policy, 15 (2), 278-301.
[170] Zeichner, K. and Dahlstrom, L. (1999) Democratic Teacher Education Reform in Africa: The Case of Namibia. Boulder. West View Press.
[171] Zeichner, K. M., Dahlstrom, L., (Eds.), (1999) Democratic Teacher Education Reform in Africa: The Case of Namibia. Boulder, Colorado: West View Press.
[172] Zeichner, K., and Liston, D. (1987) “Teaching Student Teachers to Reflect.” Harvard Educational Review, 57, 23-48.
[173] Zvobgo, R.J. (1986) Transforming Education: The Zimbabwe Experience. Harare: College Press.,5, 99-121.

Kalisto Kalimaposo, PhD “Trajectories of Curriculum Change in Initial Primary Teacher Education in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.319-331 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6515

Download PDF

pdf

Distress, Gratitude, and Online Coping Strategies in the Academe during the Pandemic (COVID-19) Epoch

Amelie L. Chico, DM FRIM – May 2022- Page No.: 332-336

COVID-19 is a global problem affecting Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). This pandemic led to a strong reason among students who experience distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine students’ distress, gratitude and coping strategies in the academic during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings showed that adequate information and high-risk perceptions were accessible to students. Non-medical prevention measures were perceived as highly effective. There were students satisfied with the government’s actions to mitigate problems. Unwillingness to the online-blended learning approach, however, has been observed. Students used different approaches to deal with the problems of mental health challenges. During this COVID-19 pandemic among HEIs, it is important to address the mental health of learners.

Page(s): 332-336                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6516

 Amelie L. Chico, DM FRIM
University Professor/Research Coordinator
College of Business Administration Education
University of Mindanao –Panabo College
Panabo, Davao del Norte, Philippines

[1] Barak, A., Boniel-Nissim, M., & Suler, J. (2008). Fostering empowerment in online support groups. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 1867–1883. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2008.02.004
[2] Bono, G., Riel, K., & Hescox, J. (2020). Stress and wellbeing in college students during Covid 19 pandemic. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344367993_Stress_and_wellbeing_in_college_students_during_the_COVID19_pandemic_Can_grit_and_gratitude_help10.5502/ijw.v10i3.1331
[3] Damian, E., & Van Ingen, E. (2014). How does SNS usage affect the personal networks of migrants? Societies, 4, 640–653. doi:10.3390/soc4040640
[4] David, G., Rye, R., and Agbulos, M. P. (2020). COVID-19 Forecasts in the Philippines: Insights for Policy Making. First week of MECQ.
[5] Emmons R.A (2007). Gratitude, subjective well-being, and the brain. In: Larsen R.J., Eid M., editors. The Science of Subjective Well-Being. The Guilford Press; New York: 2 [Google Scholar] [Ref list] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304946/
[6] Emmons R.A. (2002). Shelton C.M. Gratitude and the science of positive psychology. In: Snyder C.R., Lopez S.J., editors. Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press; New York: pp. 459–471. [Google Scholar] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304946/
[7] Emmons R.A. (2010). Why gratitude is good. Greater Good Magazine. https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/why_gratitude_is_good Retrieved from
[8] Emmons R.A. (2013). How gratitude can help you through hard times. Greater Good Magazine. https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_gratitude_can_help_you_through_hard_times
[9] Emmons R.A. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; Boston: (2007). Thanks! How the New Science of Gratitude Can Make You Happier. [Google Scholar] [Ref list] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304946/
[10] Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2004). Coping: Pitfalls and promise. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 745–774.
[11] Fredrickson B.L. Crown (2009). New York:. Positivity: Groundbreaking Research Reveals How to Embrace The Hidden Strength Of Positive Emotions, Overcome Negativity, And Thrive. [Google Scholar]
[12] Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2015). Exploring the relationships between different types of Facebook use, perceived online social support, and adolescents’ depressed mood. Social Science Computer Review. doi:10. 1177/0894439314567449
[13] Gnilka, P. B., Chang, C. Y., & Dew, B. J. (2012). The Relationship Between Supervisee Stress, Coping Resources, the Working Alliance, and the Supervisory Working Alliance. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90, 63–70.
[14] Gruber J., Mauss I., Tamir M. (2011). A dark side of happiness? How, when, and why happiness is not always good. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2011;6(3):222–233. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
[15] Hoff, L. A. (2014). Crisis: How to help yourself and others in distress or danger. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
[16] Koch-Weser, S., Bradshaw, Y. S., Gualtieri, L., & Gallagher, S. S. (2010). The Internet as a health information source: Findings from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey and implications for health communication. Journal of Health Communication, 15, 279–293. doi:10.1080/10810730.2010. 522700
[17] Oh, H. J., Ozkaya, E., & LaRose, R. (2014). How does online social networking enhance life satisfaction? The relationships among online supportive interaction, affect, perceived social support, sense of community, and life satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 69–78. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.07.053
[18] Ohayashi, H., & Yamada, S. (Eds.). (2012). Psychological distress: Symptoms, causes and coping. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
[19] Rains, S. A., & Young, V. (2009). A meta-analysis of research on formal computer-mediated support groups: Examining group characteristics and health outcomes. Human Communication Research, 35, 309–336. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2958.2009.01353.x
[20] Seligman M. (2011). Free Press; New York:. Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-Being. [Google Scholar]
[21] Sideridis, G. D. (2008). The regulation of affect, anxiety, and stressful arousal from adopting mastry-avoidance goal orientations. Stress and Health, 24(1), 55-69.
[22] Smail, D. (2015). The origins of unhappiness: A new understanding of personal distress. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
[23] William, O., Rebecca, E., & Joseph, M. (2010). The challenges distant students face as they combine studies with work: The experience of teachers pursuing tertiary distance education at The University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, 12(1), 13–35.
[24] Wise, J. B. (2005). Empowerment practice with families in distress. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
[25] World Health Organization, (2020). Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19) in the Philippines. Retrieved at: https://www.who.int/philippines/emergencies/covid-19-in-the-philippines (Accessed 8.13.20)
[26] Wright, K. B., & Bell, S. B. (2003). Health-related support groups on the Internet: Linking empirical findings to social support and computer-mediated communication theory. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 39–54.
[27] Zvolensky, M. J., Bernstein, A., & Vujanovic, A. A. (Eds.). (2010). Distress tolerance : Theory, research, and clinical applications. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

Amelie L. Chico, DM FRIM , “Distress, Gratitude, and Online Coping Strategies in the Academe during the Pandemic (COVID-19) Epoch” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.332-336 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6516

Download PDF

pdf

Formal Education a Multi – sided key in mitigating teenage pregnancy among secondary school children. A case of Munali area, in Lusaka Province, Zambia

Lungowe Wamunyima P, Margaret Mwale Mkandawire and Harrison Daka – May 2022- Page No.: 337-343

The purpose of this study was to explore the role of education in mitigating teenage pregnancy among secondary school children in Munali area, Lusaka. The study design was a case study in which interviews were conducted and questionnaires were distributed. This study took a total of 40 participants including 20 school teenage girls who happen to be the main characteristic feature for which this study was undertaken, 10 teachers, and 10 heads of department. In response to the educative measures in order to mitigate teenage pregnancy, among the findings the study found that there is need to promote community service activities, and providing education about birth control among the main measures to consider in order mitigate teenage pregnancies. Also, the study found that misinterpretation of children’s rights, lack of awareness and insight regarding the consequences of teenage pregnancy were among the major factors leading to teenage pregnancy. More so, it found that poor collaboration among school departments, lack of public awareness and programs, lack of sensitization workshops and having unqualified educators in terms of counselling both in the communities and schools were some of the challenges and barriers faced thereby leading to high levels of teenage pregnancies. The study recommended that parents should be actively engaged in partnership with the school, educators and social workers. In addition, that there should be collaboration among different school departments should be emphasized in order for better coordination of programmes about sex education and psychosocial; collaboration with healthcare services, schools and communities to engage trained educators who will be able to counsel learners in relation to psychosocial issues, as they are supposed to focus on the education of learners.

Page(s): 337-343                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6517

 Lungowe Wamunyima P
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka Zambia

 Margaret Mwale Mkandawire
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka Zambia

 Harrison Daka
Department of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, School of Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka Zambia

[1] Bomber, H. S., Daka, H. and Mphande, F. (2020). Strategies to Overcome the Challenges faced by Weekly Boarders: A case study of Selected Day Secondary Schools in Chikankata District in Southern Province, Zambia. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education. 7 (6), 175 – 186.
[2] Central Statistical Office (2009). Basic Statistics in Education. Lusaka, Zambia
[3] Collins et al (2011). Enhancing Gender Equity, Dar es D Limited.(Published for TGNP).
[4] Daka, H., Jacob, W.J., Kakupa, P. and Mwelwa, K. (2017). The Use of Social Networks in Curbing HIV in Higher Education Institutions. A Case of the University of Zambia. World Journal of AIDS, 7, 122-137.
[5] Daka, H., Banda, S. S. and Namafe, C. M. (2017). Course management, Teaching and Assessing Undergraduates at the Medical School of the University of Zambia. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education. 4 (10), 10 – 18.
[6] Daka, H. (2019). Understanding the Correlation between Institutional Characteristics and Academic Performance: A case of Undergraduate Medical Students at University of Zambia. Journal of Lexicography and Terminology, 3 (2), 96 – 116.
[7] Daka, H. and Changwe, R. (2020). An Exploration of Education Quality in the Light of the Grade Point Average and Examination Attrition Rate. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education. 7 (6), 196-207
[8] Daka, H., Mwelwa, K., Chibamba, A. C.,Mkandawire, S. B. and Phiri, D. (2020). The Role of Traditional Leadership in Ending Early Child Marriages for Education: Experiences from Kalonga Gawa Undi Chiefdom of Katete District, Zambia. Malcolm Moffat Multidisciplinary Journal of Research and Education, 1, (1), 101 – 121.
[9] Dunton et al (2010). Early Marriage Among Women In Developing Countries” in International Family Planning perspectives, 22 (4), 148
[10] Jewkes (2010). Impact of Early Marriage Model (IEMM) (2001): The unchartered passage: Girl’s adolescence in the developing world. New York: Population Council.
[11] Kakupa, P., Tembo P., and Daka, H. (2015). Linking Teacher Effectiveness to School Performance: Evidence from Rural Day-Secondary Schools in Western Province of Zambia. Zambia Journal of Teacher Professional Growth. 2 (2), 17-30.
[12] Kamanga, R., Daka, H. and Mkandawire, M. M. (2022). Perspectives of Managers on how Girl Re-entry Policy Should Be Managed –to Deter Re – Entered Girls from Falling Pregnant Again. A Case of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Lusaka District. Global Scientific Journal. 10 (3), 1934 – 1946.
[13] Katata (2018). The Role of Religious Organizations in Developing Women’s Capacity: A case of the Presbyterian women’s center. In F.A. Dolphyne and E.Ofei-Aboagye.
[14] Kawonga, S., Mbozi, E. H. and Daka, H. (2021). Community Involvement in the Implementation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Rural Areas: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Chibombo District of Central Province, Zambia. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation. 8 (4), 216 – 228
[15] Mkandawire, M. M. (2019). Current Trends in Gender Issues in Education. Lusaka, Zambia: University of Zambia Press.
[16] Ministry of Education, (2010). An Evaluation of Re-Entry Policy In Zambia. Lusaka Government Printers.
[17] Ministry of Education, (2015). Zambia Demographic Health Survey Lusaka: Government Printers.
[18] MOESTVEE, (2014). Annual School Census. Namwala Education Board. Zambia: Namwala.
[19] Mulenga, F. and Daka, H. (2022). An Exploration of School-Community Collaboration in Curbing Child Marriages Among Girls in three Selected Primary Schools of Chama District, Zambia. Journal of Lexicography and Terminology, 6 (1), 37 – 59.
[20] Phiri, M., Musonda, A and Daka, H. (2020). The Effects of Chinamwali Initiation Schools on Girl Child Education. A Case of Selected Public Primary Schools of Katete District, Zambia. Malcolm Moffat Multidisciplinary Journal of Research and Education 1, (1), 137 – 155.
[21] Shuby (2014). Self-Perception Variables That Mediate Aids-Preventive Behavior in College Students, Health Psychology, 12, 489-498.
[22] Sorners and Surmann (2013). Representing Young People’s Sexuality in the Youth Media. Health Education Research, 19, 669–676.
[23] Strasburger (2011). Adolescence: Peer Groups. Retrieved 19th February 2011 from http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/family/nf211.htm
[24] UNESCO, (2018). Levers of Success: Case Studies of National Education Programs Kenya: Growing Up and Sexual Maturation. Targeting the Quality of Education in Rural Primary Schools.
[25] UNFPA (2013). Human Development Report, 2013.
[26] UNICEF (2018). Teenage Childbearing and Social Disadvantage: unprotected discourse. Family Relations, 41, 244–248.
[27] UNICEF (2015). Early Marriage: Mission Statement of the Forum on Marriage and the Rights of Women and Girls.UK.
[28] World Health Organization (2016). Peer Pressure is Not Peer Influence. The Education Digest, 68, 4-6.
[29] World Health Organization (2018). Programming For Adolescent Health and Development. Report of WHO, UNFPA and UNICEF study group, Geneva.

Lungowe Wamunyima P, Margaret Mwale Mkandawire and Harrison Daka “Formal Education a Multi – sided key in mitigating teenage pregnancy among secondary school children. A case of Munali area, in Lusaka Province, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.337-343 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6517

Download PDF

pdf

The Effect of Identified Social ICT Platforms on Prevalence of Conflicts in Kenya

Dr. Jacob Asige Chavulimu, Ph.D., Prof. Godrick Bulitia Mathews, Ph.D. – May 2022- Page No.: 344-350

Information Communication Technology contributes immensely to the world economy. In Developed countries, ICT innovations are utilized for safety, economic improvement and health while much is yet to be realized in developing countries. Africa has advanced in ICT though not clear on how it enhances the people’s wellbeing apart from positive and negative causes on moral value erosion and wars. This paper sought to establish the influence of identified ICT platforms on conflict prevalence in Kenya. Specifically, the study objectives were to establish the effect of Facebook communication and information flow on conflict prevalence, establish the information flow through WhatsApp on conflict prevalence, determine the influence of Twitter on conflict prevalence and establish the influence of Instagram on conflict prevalence in Kenya. Social exchange and innovation theories were adopted. The population of the study will entail the general public with a sample of 384 respondents sourced through media. Simple random sampling was employed to get the sample respondents. Questionnaires were formulated and sent online through the media and feedback analyzed with the aid of SPSS. Reliability of the instruments was ensured using Cronbach’s reliability technique while validity was checked using content validity methods. The findings revealed a reliability coefficient of 0.83 for the overall instruments implying that it was reliable. Pearson product moment correlation and multiple linear regression models were mingled with descriptive statistics to obtain meaningful associations and ratings. The findings were presented in tables. First, it emerged from the demographic characteristics that most of the respondents, 200(52.6%) were aged 51-60, 171(45.0%) were male and majority of professionals worked in NGOs. The findings revealed that ICT platforms (social media) accounted for an overall significant variance of 72.1% in conflict prevalence. Facebook (β=.333, p<.05), WhatsApp (β=.329, p<.05), Instagram (β=.278, p<.05) and Twitter (β=.225, p<.05) has a significant effect on Conflict prevalence in Kenya. It was concluded that the selected social media ICT platforms contributed significantly to conflict prevalence in Kenya. The findings may be helpful to stakeholders in the ICT, scholars and conflict sector in controlling disruptive innovations and managing conflicts.

Page(s): 344-350                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

 Dr. Jacob Asige Chavulimu, Ph.D.
Division of Academics and Students Affairs, Murang’a University of Technology

 Prof. Godrick Bulitia Mathews, Ph.D.
Division of Academics and Students Affairs, Masai Mara University

[1] Alade, M. (2017). Instagram Use, Instagram-related Conflict, and Negative Relationship Outcomes among Undergraduates of Redeemer’s University, Osun State, Nigeria.
[2] Brooks, S., Longstreet, P., & Califf, C. (2017). Social media induced technostress and its impact on Internet addiction: A distraction-conflict theory perspective. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 9(2), 99-122.
[3] Fox, J., Osborn, J. L., & Warber, K. M. (2014). Relational dialectics and social networking sites: The role of Facebook in romantic relationship escalation, maintenance, conflict, and dissolution. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 527-534.
[4] Fox, N., Hunn, A., & Mathers, N. (2009). Sampling and sample size calculation. East Midlands/Yorkshire: the National Institutes for Health Research. Research Design Service for the East Midlands/Yorkshire & the Humber.
[5] García-Gómez, A. (2018). Managing conflict on WhatsApp: A contrastive study of British and Spanish family disputes. Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 6(2), 320-343.
[6] Jiang, H., Luo, Y., & Kulemeka, O. (2017). Strategic social media use in public relations: Professionals’ perceived social media impact, leadership behaviors, and work-life conflict. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 11(1), 18-41.
[7] Jonker, J., & Pennink, B. (2010). The essence of research methodology: A concise guide for master and PhD students in management science. Springer Science & Business Media.
[8] Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). 2019 Kenya population and housing census, volume III: Distribution of population by age and sex.
[9] Kim, M. (2018). How does Facebook news use lead to actions in South Korea? The role of Facebook discussion network heterogeneity, political interest, and conflict avoidance in predicting political participation. Telematics and Informatics, 35(5), 1373-1381.
[10] Kothari, R., Buddhi, D., & Sawhney, R. L. (2008). Comparison of environmental and economic aspects of various hydrogen production methods. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(2), 553-563.
[11] Lange-Ionatamishvili, E., Svetoka, S., & Geers, K. (2015). Strategic communications and social media in the Russia Ukraine conflict. Cyber War in Perspective: Russian Aggression against Ukraine, 103-111.
[12] Mugenda, O., & Mugenda, A. (2003). Research methods: Quantitative and Qualitative methods. Revised in Nairobi, 56(12), 23-34.
[13] Njeri, M. (2021). Influence of Social Media in Political and Tribal Conflict in Kenya. Journal of Public Relations, 1(1), 14-28.
[14] Pitafi, A. H., Khan, A. N., Khan, N. A., & Ren, M. (2020). Using enterprise social media to investigate the effect of workplace conflict on employee creativity. Telematics and Informatics, 55, 101451.
[15] Ponnusamy, S., Iranmanesh, M., Foroughi, B., & Hyun, S. S. (2020). Drivers and outcomes of Instagram Addiction: Psychological well-being as moderator. Computers in human behavior, 107, 106294.
[16] Valenzuela, S., Piña, M., & Ramírez, J. (2017). Behavioral effects of framing on social media users: How conflict, economic, human interest, and morality frames drive news sharing. Journal of communication, 67(5), 803-826.
[17] Ward, W. (2019). Social media in the Gaza conflict. Arab Media & Society, 7.
[18] Zeitzoff, T. (2017). How social media is changing conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 61(9), 1970-1991.
[19] Zeitzoff, T. (2018). Does social media influence conflict? Evidence from the 2012 Gaza Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(1), 29-63.

Dr. Jacob Asige Chavulimu, Ph.D., Prof. Godrick Bulitia Mathews, Ph.D., “The Effect of Identified Social ICT Platforms on Prevalence of Conflicts in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.344-350 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/344-350.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Methodology in Teaching and Learning: a Paradigm Shift in Tertiary Education with Web 2.0

Ogunlade, Bamidele Olusola Ph.D, J. O. Akhigbe. Ph.D, O. V. Adeoluwa. Ph. D. – May 2022- Page No.: 351-355

This conceptual study looks at how Web 2.0 can be used to improve teaching and learning in tertiary institutions’ research processes. The study investigates the dynamic technical and philosophical developments in education, as well as how to put new technology into practice. It explores various aspect of Web 2.0 as well as the evolving perspectives on teaching and learning in higher education. The integration of appropriate pedagogies and Web 2.0 tools can help create and support collaborative student learning and teaching.

Page(s): 351-355                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 June 2022

 Ogunlade, Bamidele Olusola Ph.D
Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology. Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

 J. O. Akhigbe. Ph.D
Auchi Polytechic, Auchi, Nigeria

 O. V. Adeoluwa. Ph. D.
Ekiti State University Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1] Bass, R. (2009) Classroom Assesment and inquiry. Retrived from http://www.academiccommons.org/issue/case-studies-vkp
[2] Cormode, G. (2008) Key difference between Web 2-0 and Web 3-0. Retrieved from http://firstmoday.org/htbin/egiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fmarticle/view/2125/1972
[3] Greenhow C. (2009) Learning, Teaching and scholarship in a digital age web 2.0 and classroom research what path should we take now? Educational Research
[4] Hicks A. (2010) “Web Twopointopia” presentation sponsored by the faculty staff development committee retrieved from https:/lj.libraryjounal.com/a
[5] Lipika Tak (2016) What is Web2.0 Retrieved on 13/12/2018 from https://www.znetive.com/blog/web–2-0
[6] Mcloughlin C & Lee, M J W (2008) Mapping the digital terrain, new media and social software as a catalysts for pedagogical change. Proceeedings ascilite melbourn. Retrieved from http://wwwascilite.org.au.conference/melborurn08.Jan. 2013
[7] Mcloughlin C & Lee, M J W (2010) Personalized and self-regulated learning in the Web2.0 era exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software. Australasian journal of Educational technology. https:/www.researchgate,net/jornal144 2016
[8] Ogunlade, B.O. & Fakuade, O.V. (2018) Perception of Stakeholders on the Use of Social Networking Tools for Classroom Instruction in School Environment. IGI Global Publication. U.S.A Pgs. 64-83
[9] Ogunlade, B.O. and Akhigbe, O.J (2016). Social Media: A veritable tool for effective Instructional Delivery in the Tertiary Institution for sustainable National Development. Journal of Nigeria Association for Educational Media and Technology (JEMT) Vol.21 (1), pp 226-238
[10] O.Reily (2007) what is Web 2.0.design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. International Journal of Digital economics17-35 https://researchgate
[11] Osimo D. (2008) Web.2.0 in government. Why and how Retrieved online from https://www.researchgate.net/…./2680451
[12] Ellen Collins and Branwan Hide (2017) Use and relevance of web 2.0 resources for researchers retrieved from https://pdfs.sematicsscholar.org/why is Web 2.0 is so important. Retrieved from Stritar.net/post/why-web-2.0 is-so-important-aspx 12/12/2018
[13] Shaw, R. (2005) Web 2.0? It doesn’t exist. Retrieved from: http://blogsdnet.com.telephony/? 2011

Ogunlade, Bamidele Olusola Ph.D, J. O. Akhigbe. Ph.D, O. V. Adeoluwa. Ph. D. “Methodology in Teaching and Learning: a Paradigm Shift in Tertiary Education with Web 2.0” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.351-355 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/351-355.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Students Pedagogical Competencies in Teaching Assistant Programs and Its Impact on Reinforcement of Learning in Partner Schools

Suwarsito, Hindayati Mustafidah, Mustolikh – May 2022- Page No.: 356-359

Merdeka Belajar Kampus Merdeka (MBKM) Program as launched by the Ministry of Education and Culture, Research and Technology, has had a tremendous impact on the qualitative development of education in Indonesia. As a form of support for the MBKM program, the Geography Education Study Program, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto (UMP) held a Teaching Assistance program with partners from 3 public and private schools in Banyumas Regency. This program was attended by 19 students. The results of this Teaching Assistance program, students have pedagogical competence with an average value of 88.22. The competencies achieved include lesson planning, learning implementation, attitudes, and non-teaching activities. This activity not only has an impact on increasing the strengthening of learning in partner schools, but also has an impact on changes in the physical environment, culture, and school administration. The Teaching Assistance program needs to be continued because there are benefits that are felt by partner schools, although there are improvements that need to be made, namely this activity should be carried out in its entirety and it is necessary to provide students with basic knowledge about learning and administration.

Page(s): 356-359                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6518

 Suwarsito
Geography Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia

 Hindayati Mustafidah
Informatics Engineering, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia

 Mustolikh
Geography Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia

[1] Dirjendiktikemdikbud, 2020, “Guidebook of Merdeka Belajar – Kampus Merdeka.” Dirjendikti, Jakarta.
[2] M. R. Baharuddin, 2021, “Curriculum Adaptation of Merdeka Belajar Kampus Merdeka (Focus: Study Program MBKM Model),” J. Stud. Guru dan Pembelajaran, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 195–205.
[3] I. Rohiyatussakinah, 2021, “Implementation of MBKM and the Relationship of Curriculum Policy based on a Case of EFL Education in Japan,” J. English Lang. Teach. Lit., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 39–50.
[4] D. Sopiansyah, S. Masruroh, Q. Y. Zaqiah, and M. Erihadiana, 2022, “MBKM Curriculum Concept and Implementation,” Reslaj Relig. Educ. Soc. Laa Roiba J., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 34–41.
[5] T. M. Fuadi and D. Aswita, 2021, “Merdeka Belajar Kampus Merdeka (MBKM): How to Apply and Constraints Faced by Private Universities in Aceh,” J. Dedik. Pendidik., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 603–614.
[6] J. Sutarto and T. joko Rahardjo, 2021, “RELATIONSHIP OF LEARNING MOTIVATION AND LEARNING ENVIRONMENT WITH THE LEARNING ACHIEVEMENTS OF STUDENTS OF TATA BOGA UNNES-EDUCATION AS A FORM OF EVALUSION OF MBKM PROGRAM IN 2021,” Rev. Int. Geogr. Educ. Online, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1672–1680.
[7] Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (Pusat Bahasa), 2021, “Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI),” https://kbbi.web.id/. (accessed Dec. 08, 2021).
[8] REGULATION OF UMP RECTOR, 2020, ACADEMIC REGULATIONS CONCERNING EDUCATION STANDARDS OF UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIVAH PURWOKERTO. Indonesia.
[9] R. Rosmiati, I. Putra, and A. Nasori, 2021, “Measuring the Quality of Learning at FKIP UNJA in an Effort to Build an Economic Citizen Generation that Elaborates the Ministry of Education and Culture’s MBKBM Program,” EDUKATIF J. Ilmu Pendidik., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 5256–5264.

Suwarsito, Hindayati Mustafidah, Mustolikh “Students Pedagogical Competencies in Teaching Assistant Programs and Its Impact on Reinforcement of Learning in Partner Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.356-359 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6518

Download PDF

pdf

Competencies That the Pre-Service Performing Arts Teachers’ Lack in Their Preparation at Colleges of Education, Ghana

Ebenezer Osei-Senyah, Maxwell Adu, Samuel Kumih – May 2022- Page No.: 360-373

The study aimed at examining the special competencies that pre-service Performing Arts teachers’ lack in their preparation at Colleges of Education: Ghana. The descriptive survey technique of sequential exploratory mixed- method inquiry was adopted for the study. Purposive sampling techniques were used to sample (514) respondents made up of (509) pre-service teachers’ and (5) tutors in the selected Colleges of Education in Ghana. The main instruments used for data collection was questionnaire and classroom observation. The study revealed that the pre-service Performing Arts teachers lack the following: singing skills, skills in creating pop song, conducting skills, skills in playing traditional drums, skills in playing Atεntεbɛn and Gyile, dancing skills, skills in playing western melodic instruments like trumpet, skills in creating drama or dance drama and melodic and harmony writing skills. It was recommended that the pre-service Performing Arts teachers should be deeply involved in all the activities that will lead to the total development of their cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.

Page(s): 360-373                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

 Ebenezer Osei-Senyah
Offinso College of Education

 Maxwell Adu
McCoy College of Education

 Samuel Kumih
Al-Faruq College of Education

[1] Adegoke, (2003)., The Education in Ghana: A contemporary Sypnosis and Matters arising. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244014529781
[2] Aduonum, K., (1981). A compilation, analysis, and adaptation of selected Ghanaian folktale songs for use in the elementary general music class. Doctoral dissertation in music education, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, 1980 (UMI No. AAI 8017212).
[3] Asare, B., & Kofi Nti, S. (2016). Teacher Education in Ghana: A Contemporary Sypnosis and Matters arising. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244014529781.
[4] Benneh, B., (2006). The Education in Ghana: A contemporary Sypnosis and Matters arising. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244014529781.
[5] Boamajeh, C. Y., & Ohene-Okantah, M., (2000). An introduction to music education for music teachers in schools and colleges. Kumasi: Payless Publication Ltd.
[6] Cochran- Smith, M., (2002, 3 -7 February). The outcomes question in teacher education.Paper presented at the Challenging futures: Changing agendas in teacher education, Armidale.
[7] Creswell J.W. (2005), Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. The University of Michigan.
[8] Gordon, E.E., (1971). The Psychology of Music Teaching. Eaglewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.
[9] Frederick J. Gravetter, Lori-Ann B., Forzano (2009), Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences.Thomson/Wadsworth, 2009.
[10] Kodaly, Z., (1973). Teaching music at beginning levels through the Kodaly concept. 3 vols. Wellesley, Mass: Kodaly Musical Training Institute.
[11] Manford, R., (1986). A Handbook for Primary School Music Teachers, Accra: Samwoode Limited. “The status of music teacher education in Ghana with Recommendation for improvement”. Ph D. Diss. Ohio: University, USA.
[12] Mereku, C.W.K., (2001). “Cultural Education in Ghana through Effective Teaching of Music and Dance in Schools”, Paper delivered at the Inaugural ceremony of UCEW Association of Music Students (AMUS). UCEW, Winneba.
[13] Mereku, K. D., (2019). Sixty Years of teacher education in Ghana: Successes, challenges and way forward. African journal of Education Studies in Mathematics and Science.
[14] Mereku, C. W. K., & Addo, G. W., & Ohene-Okantah, M., (2005). Teaching music and dance in Junior Secondary Schools: A Handbook for J.S.S. 1 Teachers. Accra: Adwinsa Publications (Gh) Ltd.
[15] Mereku, C. W. K., & Ohene-Okantah, M. (2010). Music and dance for the basic school teacher. Institute for education development and extension (UEW).
[16] National Teachers’ Standards and Teacher Education Curriculum Framewor`k for Ghana (MoE-NCTE-2017).
[17] Smith, B.O., & Stanley, M.O., Shores, J.H., (1957). Fundamentals of Curriculum Development. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc.

Ebenezer Osei-Senyah, Maxwell Adu, Samuel Kumih , “Competencies That the Pre-Service Performing Arts Teachers’ Lack in Their Preparation at Colleges of Education, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.360-373 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/360-373.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Return on Capital Employed of Listed Manufacturing Companies and Government Spending on Infrastructures in Nigeria (1990 -2015)

Olajire Aremu Odunlade, Folajimi Festus Adegbie – May 2022- Page No.: 374-378

Government spending on infrastructures in various subsectors of the economy such as power, roads, education for human capital development and security is often directed towards increase in the production of goods and services and creating environment that will enhance the welfare of the citizens. However poor state of infrastructure in Nigeria, have been noted to be affecting the financial performance of manufacturing companies in the country. Our focus in this study was to link government spending on Power, Roads, Security and Human Capital Development with the micro variables of firm performance in the area of Return On Capital Employed (ROCE).The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The population of the study was 83 listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria as at December 31, 2016, from which a sample size of 20 was purposively selected based on availability of data covering the period from 1990 to 2015. Secondary data were obtained from published financial statements of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria, publications of government and the World Bank. Validity and Reliability of the data were based on the reports of external auditors and other regulatory agencies. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods.
The study found that government spending on Power, Roads, security and human capital development have no joint significant effect on ROCE (F(4, 21 ) = 0.523, the P-value associated with the F-value as is 0.720, this is greater than 0.05 indicating that there was no significant relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. adj R2 = -0.083. Coefficients of the independent variables show that Government spending on Power had positive but insignificant effect on ROCE (t=0.524, p>0.05). Roads had negative, insignificant effect on ROCE(t=-0.498, p>0.05) Security had negative but insignificant effect on ROCE (t(26) = -1.221, p>0.05), HCD had positive but insignificant effect on ROCE (t(26) = 0.823, p>0.05). The study concluded that government spending on infrastructural development in the areas of power, road, security and education did not impact on the Return On Capital Employed of manufacturing companies in Nigeria within the period of study. Sustainable industrial development requires adequate funding of infrastructures in Nigeria to reduce cost of operations and increase profitability level of manufacturing companies.

Page(s): 374-378                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6519

 Olajire Aremu Odunlade
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo Ogun State, Nigeria

 Folajimi Festus Adegbie
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo Ogun State, Nigeria

[1] Andrew, S., Emily, D., Alberto, L. & Juan-Pablo, R. (2014). How does electricity insecurity affect businesses in low and middle income countries? London: Overseas Development Institute
[2] Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and Annual Reports Various Issues
[3] Central Intelligence Agency Fact Book 2017
[4] Chinedum, E. M. & Nnadi, K. U. (2016). Electricity Supply and Output in Nigerian Manufacturing. Retrieved 23/2/2018 www.researchgate.net, 7(6) 154
[5] Crook, T. R., Todd, S. Y., Combs, J. G., Woehr, D. J.,& Ketchen, D. J. (2011), Does human capital matter? A meta-analysis of the relationship between human capital and firm performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(3), 443–456. Sector. Journal of Economics and sustainable development (7)6, 2222-2855
[6] Dunne, P. & Perlo-Freeman, S. (2003). The demand for military spending in developing Countries International Review of Applied Economics 17(1):23-48  
[7] Dhanawade, M.S. & Geadeka, A. B.(2017). An analysis of Return On Capital Employed and Enhanced Return On Capital Employed as a tool for appraisal of financial performance of phamarceutical companies in India. Journal of Advances in Business 3(3), 155-158
[8] Deger, S. & Sen, S. (2013) Defence, innovation and development: the case of Israel. Journal of Innovation Economics & Management 2(12),37-57
[9] Eurostat data (2015)
[10] Eurostat data (2017)
[11] Federal Government of Nigeria Publications
[12] Gorton, D. (2017). Key financial ratios for manufacturing companies. www.investopedia.com International Energy Outlook, (2016)
[13] Holodny, E ( 2015 ). The eleven countries with the best infrastructure around the world. Business Insider, www.ntu.eu
[14] Institute for Energy Research. Electricity Generation (2014)
[15] Institute for Energy Research. Electricity Generation (2015)
[16] Karim, A. Al-Huda, N & Shabbir, A. (2012). Human capital and the development of manufacturing sector in malaysia. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development 4(4):105-114
[17] Meyers, R. T. (1996). Is there a key to the normative budgeting lock? Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[18] National Planning Commission Report (2015)
[19] Otto, G & Ukpere, W. (2015). The impact of national security on foreign direct investment in Nigeria. IOSR journal of Business and Management 17(5), 69-74
[20] Ogwo, E. O, & Agu, G. A,(2016). Transport infrastructure, manufacturing sector performance and the growth of gross domestic product in Nigeria, (1999-2011). Journal of Business and African Economy 2(1), 1-21
[21] O’Sullivan, A. & Sheffrin, S. M. (2003). Economics: principles in action. Upper saddle River. New Jersey, Pearsonv prentice hall.
[22] Poepsel, M. (2017) Major human capital trends that will shape the coming year. The Predictive Index www.predictiveindex.com
[23] Rahmah, I (2009). The impact of human capital attainment on output and labor Productivity of Malaysia firms. Journal of international management studies 4(1),221-222.
[24] Rothbard, M. (2013). Man, Economy, and State, with Power and Market. www. mises.org/library/man-economy-and-state-power-and-market
[25] Schick, A (1998). An inquiry into the possibility of a budget theory.” Washington, DC: The urban institute.
[26] Wee, R. Y. (2017). Countries most prone to power outages financial loss. World Facts, 2017
[27] World Bank (2011). World development indicators: electricity production, sources, and access wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.7
[28] World Bank Report (2014)
[29] World Bank Report (2017)
[30] World Fact Book (2017)
[31] World Facts (2017)
[32] World Bank Enterprise Survey of Business (2017)
[33] World Development Indicator (2015)
[34] Z alk, N . (2014). South Africa Infrastructure

Olajire Aremu Odunlade, Folajimi Festus Adegbie “Return on Capital Employed of Listed Manufacturing Companies and Government Spending on Infrastructures in Nigeria (1990 -2015)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.374-378 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6519

Download PDF

pdf

An Examination of the Nexus between Law and Medical Ethics in the Procurement and Transplantation of Human Organs in Nigeria

Prof. Justus A. Sokefun, Prof Ak Anya, Dr Du Odigie – May 2022- Page No.: 379-390

The interaction subsisting between law and medical ethics, more particularly, legal control of procurement and transplantation of human organ in Nigeria is attractive premised on grounds of its history and the resultant effect of the conundrum in a heterogeneous society, largely made up of different religious beliefs. Against this backdrop, the authors examined the relational basis for the overall interaction between law and medical ethics, regard been had to the fact that medical practitioners are in the main saddled with the responsibility of procuring and transplanting of human organs aimed at restoring and where applicable reviving the health conditions of patients, notwithstanding the socio-cultural religious belief system of the individuals comprised in the Nigerian society. The authors argued that law should be a supportive instrument in providing a stabilising effect on all aspects of practice of medicine, inclusive of the process of obtaining consent of the patient, procurement and transplantation of human organs. Consequently, the paper therefore maintained the imperatives of having various social and legal systems evolve a similitude of standardised proceedings and ethos relating to the protection of the health of its population, even at the detriment of socio- cultural and religious systems as applicable in Nigeria. The institutionalisation of the medical regime sector will invariably lead to the control of medical practice in the process of obtaining consent, procurement and transplantation of human organs in a developing multicultural society.

Page(s): 379-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

 Prof. Justus A. Sokefun
Ph.D, B.L, Professor of Law, National Open University, Abuja, Nigeria

 Prof Ak Anya
Ph.D, B.L, Professor of Law, Igbinedion University College of Law, Okada, Nigeria

 Dr Du Odigie
Ph.D, B.L, Associate Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Benin, Nigeria

[1]. Mark J. Bliton and Virginia L. Bartlett, Exploring Clinical Ethics‟ Past to Imagine Its Possible Future(s), June, Volume 18, Number 6, 2018, American Journal of Bioethics, 55
[2]. If for instance, an automobile accident patient is brought to a medical practitioner with serious loss of blood, it would be unethical for the practitioner to refuse to administer blood drips on him. If the patient dies of loss of blood, the medical practitioner may face the Ethics Panel which, after examining the matter and giving him a fair trial, may suspend or expel him from the practice of the profession or exculpate him entirely from the allegation depending on the circumstances
[3]. The exception to this assertion is where a patient refuses blood transfusion, on personal basis. See the case of Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal v Okonkwo [2001] FWLR (pt. 44) 542 and Dr Obioma Azubuike Okezie v Chairman, Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal (2010)LPELR-4717 (CA)
[4]. Blackstone‟s Commentaries 1 129: Blackstone must have relied on Saint Thomas Aquinas‟ view that the time of animation of the foetus began with quickening; Suma Theological Part 1 Question 75 Article 1 available at https://spot.colorado.edu/~pasnau/westview/st1a75-76.htm accessed 29 May, 2019
[5]. 2014.
[6]. Cap. 221 [Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[7]. Cap 332 [Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[8]. Cap. 357 [Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[9]. Cap. 386 [Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[10]. Cap. 463 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004]
[11]. Cap.131 of 1998 (SA)
[12]. Cap. 61 of 2003 (SA)
[13]. 2002 (SA)
[14]. Cap.29 of 2007 (SA)
[15]. Cap.1 of 2008 (SA)
[16]. Plato Phaedrus 270 c-d available at http://www.english.hawaii.edu/criticalink/plato/guide12.html accessed 28 May, 2019
[17]. The admission qualifications are at least, 5 credit level passes at not more than two sittings in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and one other subject in the West African School Certificate Examination or National Examination Commission. This is exclusive of the Joint Admissions and Matriculations Examination in which a candidate must score not less than 180 points to qualify. The final point for admission is the Post-Universities Matriculations Examination which is administered by individual universities. The minimum score for admission is usually locally determined. The duration of study is 6 years with one year mandatory „houseman ship‟ after which the candidate is awarded the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS or MB ChB). After this, a person may be referred to as a Physician or Medical Doctor. The situation in South Africa is not different in that there are sacrosanct entry requirements for admission to study medicine. For a candidate to convert a Grade 12 score for admission into medicine, an admission point of 28 is required with an achievement level of 5 (60%) in Physical Sciences and Mathematics respectively and 4 (50%) in English Language.
[18]. In referring to previous epochal works on Ethics, Mark J, and Virginia L. Bartlett, I „.Exploring Clinical Ethics Past to Imagine its Possible Future(s)‟, volume 18, 2018 – Issue 6 page 55 noted as follows,„…contributing to moving beyond initial boundaries of the field, to providing investigations and to sustaining rigorous practice are crucial elements of clinical ethics origin stories and so deserve considerably more attention…‟
[19]. Adopted by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association, September 1948. It reads; I solemnly pledge to concentrate my life to the service of humanity, I will give to my teachers the respect and gratitude which is their due. I will practice my profession with conscience and dignity. The health of my patient will be my first consideration; I will respect the secrets which are confided in me, even after the patient has died, I will maintain by all means in my power, the honour and the noble tradition of the medical profession. My colleagues will be my brothers; I will not permit considerations of religion, nationality, race, party politics or social standing to intervene in my duty and my patient, I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception. Even under threat, I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity. I make these promises solemnly, freely and upon my honour.
[20]. Citizen Compendium, „Medical Ethics‟ available at http://en.citizendium.org/medicalethics.
[21]. William Ruddick, „Medical Ethics‟ http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/ruddick/papers/medethics accessed 30 May 2019.
[22]. Ernest J Soulsby, „Resistance to antimicrobials in humans and animals‟ British Medical Journal (BMJ) (2005): 1219–1220.
[23]. John L. Couleha, The Medical Interview: Mastering Skills for Clinical Practice (Medical Interview) 5th edition (2005): 55
[24]. Mackie, J.L., and Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, (New York: Penguin Books, 1977): 109.
[25]. The consequentialist‟s view on this is that the family‟s burden of the pain on their kin is lighter, knowing, at least, that he had died peacefully. The deontological approach is entirely different. The deontologist believes that lying is fundamentally wrong and that the family members are entitled to the truth about the circumstances of the death of their kin.
[26]. Ajayi S O, Raji Y, Salako B L, Ethical And Legal Issues in renal transplantation in Nigeria. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016 : 27: 125
[27]. Ibid, at P. 125. See also Abubakar A Bakari, Umar S Abbo Jimeta, Mohammed A Abubakar, Sani U Alhassan and Emeka A Nwankwo, “Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspectives in Nigeria,” Nig. J. Surg. 18 (2) (2012): 53-60
[28]. The question may be asked, „whether law must possess a coercive element by way of sanction.‟ Is law devoid of its character as law on grounds of lacking an incidental element of sanction. Is „obedience‟ a necessary ingredient of law. It should be noted however, that compliance to effective laws is not in any an infraction to the existence of the given law.
[29]. Law Dictionary accessed 7 January, 2019.
[30]. The state as a matter of fact, and through its legislative arm is charged with law-making. Baring all odds, some jurisdictions are usually inclined in accommodating bills of private individuals, in the course of enriching its legal system.
[31]. There is need to emphasis the fact that laws aimed at achieving control of medical profession and incidental ethics are constitutive and manifesting forms of positive laws.
[32]. In this instance, he cited the case of a robber who inflicts an evil upon his victim who loses his money. This is primary evil. The secondary evil aspect of it is that a successful robbery will give the impression that robbery is easy. The effect of this is to weaken the sanctity of life and property in the community. The secondary evil aspect is more important than the primary evil in that the actual loss to the victim may well be considerably less than the harm against security, property and life, which are against the society at large.
[33]. Antal Szerletics, Paternalism: Moral Theory and Legal Practice, (2015) Warsaw Studies in Philosophy and Social Sciences, New York available at https://www.peterlang.com/view/9783653958171/chapter2.xhtm accessed 20 may, 2019.
[34]. Dworkin, Paternalism: Some Second Thoughts (University of Minnesota Press, 1983): 107
[35]. Ibid.
[36]. In the practical sense, paternalism is a limitation of the right of the individual up to the point at which he ought to be protected by the State. Some of the ways of protecting the individual are contained in Chapter Four of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Chapter two of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. The same type of provisions exist in jurisdictions where there are written constitutions like Ghana, America, Finland among others. These provisions protect the rights of individual from interference by the State and other persons. As was noted by the European Court of Human Rights in Neimeitz v. Germany 16 December 1992 paragraph 29, the rights ensure „the development without outside interference, of the personality of each individual in his relations with other human beings.‟
[37]. Notwithstanding the teleological paternalism of law, there are however, limits as observed by Dworkin. (1) The state must show that the behaviour governed by the proposed restriction involves the sort of harm that a rational person would avoid. (2) The calculations of a fully rational person, the potential harm restriction outweighs the benefits of the relevant behaviour. (3) The proposed restriction is the least restricted alternative for protecting against the harm. See generally Dworkin R, Ibid, at Pp. 109, 111.
[38]. Code of Medical Ethics in Nigeria, 2004 edition [Hereafter, Code of Medical Ethics]
[39]. Oxford Advanced learner‟s dictionary 82.
[40]. Berube M, The American Heritage Steadman‟s Medical Dictionary (Boston: 2002) 583.
[41]. Ibid.
[42]. Centre for Bioethics, “Ethics of Organ Transplant,” University of Minnesota, Centre for Bioethics, (2004) 5.
[43]. Ibid, at Pp. 7, 11.
[44]. [Hereafter, The Health Act]
[45]. Section 64, National Health Act 2014
[46]. WHO, “Human Transplants” http://www.who.int/ethics/topics/human.transplant/en. accessed 15 January, 2018.
[47]. History of Organ and Tissue Donation, http://www.ctdn.org/downloads/history accessed 15 January, 2018
[48]. Ibid.
[49]. Ibid. Cf. with Nigeria, it is a known fact that the pioneer kidney transplant in Nigeria was carried out in 1999 at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. After this, Teaching Hospitals with facilities for kidney transplant in Nigeria have increased. They include the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Bayero University Teaching Hospital, Kano and lately St. Nicholas Hospital, Lagos.
[50]. Fadare J. and Salako B., “Ethical Issues in Kidney Transplantation-Reflections from Nigeria,” Dove Press Journal (2010): 87.
[51]. Ibid.
[52]. In the communiqué issued at the first Scientific and Biennial meeting of the Transplant Association of Nigeria on 24 October, 2012, the Association noted that 160 kidney transplantations had been successfully performed in Nigeria. See also Ifeoma Ulasi and Chinwuba K. Ijoma, Transplantation, April 2016. Volume 100. Number 4 where it was asserted that only living donation is offered in Nigeria and that a total of 201 kidney transplants have been performed between 2000 and 2014. This may be compared with a 2009 report that at least 1000 kidney transplants are done in Egypt in a year. See Delmonico L. Francis, The Implications of Istanbul Declaration on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism, Current Opinion on Organ Transplantation: April 2009-Volume 14-Issue 2- page 116-119.
[53]. Kanniyakonil, Http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kan/kan-03 organ donation.
[54]. Life issue.net, http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kan/kan-03 organ donationaccessed 30 January, 2018.
[55]. See for instance, the Organ Donation Foundation of South Africa, Transplant Links Charity of the United Kingdom, United Network For Organ Sharing of the United States and other organisations with such interest
[56]. Space constraint will not permit us do an in-depth investigation on consent. However, the following are the important factors to be considered in respect of consent. A. Mental and legal capacity to make the decision B. Consent without duress, undue influence and any form of coercion or misrepresentation It should also be noted the need for the availability of sufficient information on the proposed surgery to ground a decision. See generally Stauch M, et al Sourcebook on Medical Law, 2nd edition (London: 2000):119. See again, Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal v Okonkwo (2001) FWLR (Pt. 44) 542, on consent, breach of Medical ethics, procedure of adjudication by the Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal. Furthermore, the justices in the case of Dr. Amos Adebayo v Chairman, Medical and Dental Practitioners Investigative Panel & Ors (2018) LPELR 45537 (CA) relied on some of the rationes in the case of Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal v Okonkwo. It was decided inter alia that it was an act of professional negligence if a medical practitioner failed to obtain the consent of the patient (informed or otherwise) before proceeding on any surgical procedure, or course of treatment when such consent was necessary.
[57]. National Health Act, 2014, Act No 8
[58]. Section 54 provides that „Human organs obtained from deceased persons for the purpose of transplantation or treatment or Medical or dental training, shall only be used in the prescribed manner.
[59]. Section 56 provides for the purposes recognised under the Act for donation of the body as follows;(a) training of students in health sciences (b) health research (c) advancement of health sciences (d) therapy, including use of tissue in any living person; or (e) production of therapeutic, diagnostic and prophylactic substance.
[60]. Cap C24 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 2004.
[61]. Cap A16 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 2004. Nigeria being a federation of states, each state has its Anatomy Law. For instance, there is the Anatomy Law of Ogun State Cap 12 Laws of Ogun State of Nigeria of 2006, Anatomy Law, Cap 11 Revised Laws of Enugu State of Nigeria, 2004.
[62]. See section 3.
[63]. Cap C24 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 2004.
[64]. Cap C16 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria of 2004.
[65]. Act No. 61, 2003.
[66]. Regulation 2 of the Regulations Regarding the General Control of Human Bodies, Tissue, Blood, Blood Products and Gametes in Government Notice R180 of Government Gazette No 35099 of 2 March 2012.
[67]. Blackbeard M., “Consent to Organ Transplantation, TydskrifvirHeedendagseHollandsRomeinseReg, 66 (2003): 55.
[68]. Ibid.
[69]. Ibid at p. 56
[70]. Prabhu, Pradeep Kumar, Is Presumed Consent an ethically acceptable way of obtaining organs for transplant, Journal of Intensive Care Society, 0(0) 4
[71]. Shaw, David, Presumed Consent to organ donation and the family overrule, J Intensive Care Soc. 2017 May; 18(2) 96
[72]. Paul Flaman, “Organ and Tissue Transplants: Some Ethical Issues”, http://www.ualberta.ca/~pflaman/organtr Accessed 10 July, 2018.
[73]. It is doubtful if Animal Rights Organisations will agree to the removal of organs from animals as they may perceive that as cruelty against animals notwithstanding the positive effects on humanity.
[74]. Ibid at f/n 88
[75]. Ibid.
[76]. Ibid.
[77]. Cap C38 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004. Section 450 provides that: Any person who wilfully and unlawfully kills, maims, or wounds, any animal capable of being stolen, is guilty of an offence and is liable for imprisonment for seven years if found guilty. 459 (i)(a) „any person who cruelly beats, kicks, ill-treats, over-rides, over-drives, over-loads, tortures, infuriates, or terrifies any animal, or causes or procures, or being the owner, permits any animal to be so used‟ Or (e) „subjects, or causes or procured, or, being the owner, permits to be subjected, any animal to any operation which is performed without due care and humanity is guilty of and offence of cruelty and is liable to imprisonment for six years or to a fine N50 or to both such imprisonment and fine.‟
[78]. Cap C38 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004
[79]. Labuschagne D and Carstens P A, The Constitutional Influence on Organ Transplants With Specific Reference to Organ Procurement, 17 Potchefstroom Elec. L.J. 207 (2014) 218
[80]. Abouna G, Medical Principles and Practice (Basel: Karger AG, 2003): 61.
[81]. Davis D. and Wolitz R., “The Ethics of Organ Allocation”, Staff Working Paper 5, https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/pcbe/background/davispaper.html. accessed 7th November, 2018
[82]. Ibid at p. 4
[83]. See generally note 58 at P. 34
[84]. [Hereafter, HLA]
[85]. Note 58 at P.36
[86]. Ibid.
[87]. 87Ifeoma I, Ulasi and Chinwuba K. Ijeoma, Transplantation, April 2016, Volume 100. Number 4 page 695
[88]. 88.This literarily translated means „the transcended soul reincarnates fourteen times to atone for perceived sins before going into sublimation or eternity.‟ By this, relations are consoled with the fact that their dead relation will still return to them.
[89]. 89 See generally, the legislations on Health in Nigeria. See specifically, National Health Act, Medical and Dental Practitioners Act, Nursing and Midwifery Act, Pharmacy Act, Radiographers Registration Act and University Teaching Hospitals Act.
[90]. It should be noted that the age of the donor has always been a major problem in the procurement and transplantation of human organs. Some of the major reasons for this problem remains the issue of poverty, inaccessible and remote settlements and illiteracy.

Prof. Justus A. Sokefun, Prof Ak Anya, Dr Du Odigie, “An Examination of the Nexus between Law and Medical Ethics in the Procurement and Transplantation of Human Organs in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.379-390 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/379-390.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Meconium – Stained Amniotic Fluid in Labour – its Significance and Correlation to Early Maternal and Neonatal Outcome – A Prospective Case Control Study in A Tertiary Care Center

Samarawickrama NGCL, Pathiraja R, Gunasekara D, Withanathantrige MR – May 2022- Page No.: 391-397

Background: Meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a well-known factor which associated with significant adverse pregnancy outcomes. Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) occurs in about 5% of deliveries with MSAF and death occurs in about 12% of infants with MAS. The significance of meconium claimed to be varied from being entirely physiological, which exhibits sign of fetal maturity, to a sign of fetal distress as a response to hypoxic insult to the foetus. This study was carried out in a tertiary care centre; with the aim of detecting the significance of MSAF. Additionally, this study compares the fetal and maternal outcome in deliveries complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid and critically evaluates the associated predisposing maternal and fetal factors for MSAF.
Method: This prospective case-control study was carried out in Colombo South Teaching Hospital (University Professorial Obstetrics Unit), Sri Lanka. Women who presented to the unit with pre-defined selection protocol were recruited to the study until the sample size (n = 216 in each arm) is achieved. The Sample was categorized in to two groups depend on the presence or absence of Meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Mean, standard deviation, median and 95% confidence interval are computed for quantitative variables. Chi-square test is applied for calculating the statistical significance of variables such as grades of meconium and Apgar score at 95% confidence interval. The p-value <0.05 and 95% confident interval was utilised to assess the statistical significance. Results: Presence of diabetes in current pregnancy was a significant risk factor for meconium-stained amniotic fluid at delivery with odd ratio of 2.397 (95% Confident Interval 1.203 - 3.568) and p value of <0.00.1. There is a statistically significant association between the mode of delivery and the nature of meconium with odd ratio of 3.029 (95% Confident Interval 1.887 – 3.136) and p value < 0.001, when its moderate to thick meconium staining. Presence of moderate to thick meconium increase the risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity with increased NICU admissions, which is both statistically and clinically significant with odd ratio of 2.412 (95% Confident Interval 1.674 - 3.199) and p value 0.005 when compared with thin meconium staining. Overall, there is a 2-fold rise in operative vaginal deliveries and EM-LSCS (Emergency Lower Segment Caesarean Section) in the presence of MSAF which accountable for 67.3% of the deliveries compared to 37.2% in the clear liquor group. The follow up of neonates at one month and three months of life, revealed no statistically significant concerns on the development of these babies in either arm of the study population. Conclusion: Presence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid is one of the common indications for caesarean delivery. Therefore, the results of this study may help to reduce the number caesarean sections carried out when the meconium is detected during labour. Presence of thin MSAF can be physiological following gut maturation of term foetuses, thus utilization of continuous electronic fetal monitoring can reliably cut down the caesarean section rates without adding numbers to the adverse perinatal outcomes. On the other hand, timely interventions upon detection of abnormal Cardiotocography (CTG), such as operative vaginal delivery or EM-LSCS, can significantly minimise these adverse neonatal outcomes. Abnormal CTG in a clinical background of moderate to thick meconium is more alarming, which warrant urgent interventions compared to the presence of thin / lightly stained meconium.

Page(s): 391-397                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6520

 Samarawickrama NGCL
Consultant Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka

 Pathiraja R
Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

 Gunasekara D
Professor, Department of Paediatric, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 Withanathantrige MR
Consultant Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, Teaching Hospital Mahamodara, Sri Lanka

[1] Wood C L. Meconium stained amniotic fluid J Nurse Midwifery. 1994, Mar-Apr; 39(2 Suppl):106S-109S
[2] Katz VL, Bowes WA Jr. Meconium aspiration syndrome: reflections on a murky subject. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1992; 166:171-183
[3] Desai D et al. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jun;2(2):190-193)
[4] Donn S.M., Sinha S.K. Manual of Neonatal Respiratory Care. 2nd edition. Phipadelphia: Elsevier Mosby. 2006; 325.
[5] Rennie J.M. Roberton’s Textbook of Neonatology. 4th edition. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. 2005; 502.
[6] Hutton EK, Thorpe J, Consequences of meconium stained amniotic fluid: What does the evidence tell us? Early HumDev (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.04.05
[7] Tybulewicz AT, Clegg SK, Fonfe GJ, Stenson BJ. Preterm meconium staining of the amniotic fluid: associated finding and risk of adverse clinical outcome. Arch Dis Child Foetal Neonatal Ed 2004; 89: F328-30.)
[8] Hackey WE. Meconium Aspiration. In; Gomella TL. Neonatology.4th Edition. New York; Lange Medical Books; 1999. P.507.
[9] Elaine Foye, Meconium at resuscitation. journal of neonatal nursing 2007; 3(3) : 118-121
[10] Ibrahim H., Subhedar N.V. Management of meconium aspiration syndrome. Current Paediatrics 2005; 15: 92-98.
[11] Wiswell TE, Bent RC. Meconium staining and the meconium aspiration syndrome. Unresolved issues. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1993;40:955-81.
[12] Cleary GM, Wiswell TE. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and the meconium aspiration syndrome. An update. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1998;45:511-29.
[13] Ratnam SS, Bhaskar Rao K, Arulkumaran S. Practical approach to Intrapartum fetal monitoring in labour. Chapter 12. Obstetrics and Gynecology for Postgraduates 1992. Vol 1: 115-25
[14] Berkus MD, Langer O, Samueloff A, Xenakis EM, Field NT, Ridgway LE. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid: increased risk for adverse neonatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Jul; 84(1):115-20.
[15] International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology Volume 2 • Issue 2 Page 191
[16] Ibrahim H., Subhedar N.V. Management of meconium aspiration syndrome. Current Paediatrics 2005; 15: 92-98.
[17] Naqvi SB, Manzoor S. Association of meconium stained amniotic fluid with perinatal outcome in pregnant women of 37- 42 weeks gestation. Pak J Surg. 2011;27(4):292-8.
[18] Saunders K. Should we worry about meconium? A controlled study of neonatal outcome. Trop Doct. 2002;32(1):7-10.
[19] Becker S, Solomayer E, Dogan C, Wallwiener D, Fehm T. Meconiun stained amniotic fluid perinatal outcome and obstetrical management in low –risk sub urban population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;132(1):46-50.
[20] Perinatal outcome of meconium stained amniotic fuid among labouring mothers at teaching referral hospital in urban Ethiopia. Lemi Belay Tolu, Malede Birara, Tesfalem Teshome, Garumma Tolu Feyissa: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242025

Samarawickrama NGCL, Pathiraja R, Gunasekara D, Withanathantrige MR “Meconium – Stained Amniotic Fluid in Labour – its Significance and Correlation to Early Maternal and Neonatal Outcome – A Prospective Case Control Study in A Tertiary Care Center” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.391-397 May 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6520

Download PDF

pdf

Perception of marriage and divorce by married couples: Exploring the dimension and trends of divorce rate in South-East, Nigeria

Emmanuel Chimezie Eyisi, Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo Ekpechu, Innocent Nwosu, Jonathan Ukah, Emmanuel Orakwe – May 2022- Page No.: 398-410

The study investigated the rate of divorce in the South-Eastern region of Nigeria as a reflection of the perception of married couples on what is the essence of marriage and the bases for divorce. The study was conducted in two local governments areas and six communities in Anambra State South-East of Nigeria. Data were elicited through questionnaires administered on 195 respondents purposively and randomly selected among married couples in the study area. In-depth Interview (IDI) was also conducted on 45 couples. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The rate of divorce in the South-East; variability of divorce among groups and sections; the influence of modernisation and globalisation on the perception of couples and the impact of state intervention in marital stability constitute some of the major objectives of the study. Findings showed increasing rate of divorce; variability in divorce rates on the bases of education, social class, length of marriage and urban residence; increasing dissonance between traditional marital setting and influence of modernization values on the young couples; increasing level of empty shell marriage as reflected in the dilemma of couples towards divorce suits because of poverty, cost and complicated nature of divorce procedure to many couples. The study recommends a buoyant, stable society built on social justice that will rub off on the families as an important group in the society; a revitalisation of marriage counselling structures at the state, religious and NGO levels; and the strengthening of institutions that will be more committed to the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) than a purely legalistic orientation in the handling of marital suits.

Page(s): 398-410                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 June 2022

 Emmanuel Chimezie Eyisi
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo Ekpechu
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Innocent Nwosu
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Jonathan Ukah
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Emmanuel Orakwe
Department of Sociology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

[1] Adegoke, T. (2010). Socio-cultural factors as determinants of divorce rates among women of reproductive age in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Stud Tribes Trials, 8(2), 107-114.
[2] Alan, G. & Crow, G. (2001). Families, households and society. Basingstroke: Palgrave.
[3] Almond, B. (2006). The fragmenting family. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[4] Animashun, R and Fatile, F. (2017). Patterns of marital instability among married couples in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of African Studies and Development. 3(10), 192-199
[5] Ardayigio-Schandorg, E. (1999). Women in Ghana: An annotated biography. Accra: Wordi Publishing.
[6] Bauman, Z. (2003). Liquid love: On the frailty of human bonds. Cambridge: Polity.
[7] Becker, G., Laudes, E. & Michael, R. (1999). An economic analysis of marital instability. Journal of Political Economy. 85 (6).
[8] Bryman, C. (2016). Sociological research methods (5th ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press
[9] Giddens, A. & Sutton, P. (2013). Sociology. New Delhi: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
[10] Gittens, D. (1993). The family question: Changing households and familiar ideologies. Bassingstroke: Macmillan.
[11] Goodie, J. (1977). Bride wealth and dowry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[12] Haralambos, M. & Holborn, M. (2008). Sociology: Themes and perspectives. London: Hammersmith.
[13] Haviland, W., Prins, H., Walrath, D. & Mcbridge, B. (2007). The essence of anthropology. Belmont: Thompson Learning Inc.
[14] Iwarimie-Jaja, D. (2011). Law and its administration in Nigeria: A sociological approach. Port Harcourt: SIJ Publishers.
[15] Iwunze-Ibiam, C. (2019).The rate of divorce in Nigeria.Retrieved from: https://www.thecable.org. Accessed date: 14 September, 2021.
[16] Kottak, C. (2006). Anthropology: The exploration of human diversity. New York: McGraw- Hill.
[17] Leach, E. (1985). Social Anthropology. New York: Deford University Press
[18] Maciver, J. & Dimkpa, D. (2012). Factors influencing marital stability. Mediterranean Journa of Social Sciences. 3(1): 437-447
[19] Ntoimo, L. & Akokuwebe, S. (2014). Prevalence and patterns of marital dissolution in Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. Vol. 12 No. 2: 1-15. https://www.researchgate.net
[20] Obarisiagbon, E. (2016). A socio-legal inquiry into the perception of divorce among married couples in Irhirhi Community, Southern Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 7 (4). https://www.researchgate.net
[21] O`Neil, N. & O`Neil, G. (1977). Open marriage: A new life style for couples. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com. Accessed date: 17 June, 2021.
[22] Tarkiya, B. & Gyimah, S (2001). Marital instability in an African society: Exploring the factors that influence divorce processes in Ghana. Sociological Focus. 34 (3), 77-96
[23] Therborn, G. (2011). The world: A beggar’s guide. Cambridge: Polity.

Emmanuel Chimezie Eyisi, Joseph Ogbonnaya Alo Ekpechu, Innocent Nwosu, Jonathan Ukah, Emmanuel Orakwe “Perception of marriage and divorce by married couples: Exploring the dimension and trends of divorce rate in South-East, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-5, pp.398-410 May 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-5/398-410.pdf

Download PDF

pdf

Rethinking Police Reform in Liberia: With Focus on Police Brutality

Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo Sr – May 2022- Page No.: 411-424

From a qualitative approach coupled with firsthand experience view as a form of ethnographic research, this paper rethinks police reform in Liberia with a focus on police brutality. Empirically, it established the veracity of rising police brutality in Liberia.
As its theoretical framework that explained the causes of police brutality, this article through assumption attributes the causes of police brutality in Liberia to the individual-level factors, organizational-level factors, and the public unawareness or lack of knowledge of the rules and procedures that guide police operations.
Under the organizational-level factors, it assumes that the failure of the reform to have infused behavior health training and emotional intelligence into the Basic Recruit curricula and advanced in-service training module that would have helped tackle the individual-level factors and educate the public about rules and procedures that guide police operations give rise to police brutality in Liberia.
It recommends an assessment survey that will inform the Liberia National Police decision to infuse BHT and EI in both BRT and advance in-service training at the Liberia National Police Training Academy and Training School.

Page(s): 411-424                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 June 2022

 Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo Sr.
Department of Political Science, University of Liberia, Department of Sociology & Criminal Justice, African Methodist Episcopal University

[1] Brahimi, Lakhdar (2007) State building in crisis and post-conflict countries http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan026305.pdf.
[2] Brooks, David (2020) The Culture of Policing Is Broken- The Atlantic https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/06/how-police-brutality-gets-made/613030/
[3] Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1997). Writing narrative literature reviews Psychology, 1, 311–320. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.1.3.311.
[4] Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2021) 2021 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Liberia https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/liberia
[5] Call, Charles T. (2002) Challenges in Police Reform: Promoting Effectiveness and Accountability. International Peace Academy.
[6] Cuncic, Arlin (2022), The Psychology Behind Police Brutality https://www.verywellmind.com/the-psychology-behind-police-brutality-5077410
[7] Civil Service Success (2020) Emotional Intelligence—Why All Police Officers Need It https://civilservicesuccess.com/emotional-intelligence-why-all-police-officers-need-it/
[8] DeVylder J, Lalane M, Fedina L. (2019) The association between abusive policing and PTSD symptoms among U.S. police officers. J Soc Soc Work Res. 2019;10(2):261-273. doi:10.1086/703356
[9] Denham, Tara (2008) Police Reform and Gender. Gender and SSR Toolkit
[10] Degleh, Emmanuel (2019) Liberia: Police Allegedly Kill One, Injure Others in Lowe Montserrado County Riot https://frontpageafricaonline.com/news/liberia-police-allegedly-kill-one-injure-others-in-lower-montserrado-county-riot/
[11] Emansion (2008) ERU Gets Nod of Approval from Liberian Chief Executive https://emansion.gov.lr/2press.php?news_id=899&related=7&pg=sp
[12] Falkenbach D, et al., (2018). From theoretical to empirical: Considering reflections of psychopathy across the thin blue line. Personal Disord Theor Res Treat. ;9(5):420-428. doi:10.1037/per0000270
[13] FindLaw (2020) Excessive Force and Police Brutality https://www.findlaw.com/criminal/criminal-procedure/excessive-force-and-police-brutality.html
[14] FrontPage Africa, (2016) Reminiscing Rice Riot: April 14, 1979 – Was It Tolbert’s Mistake? https://frontpageafricaonline.com/politics/reminiscing-rice-riot-april-14-1979-was-it-tolbert-s-mistake/
[15] Global News Network (2016) China Gives US$2m Supplies To Liberia National Police https://gnnliberia.com/2016/10/05/china-gives-us2m-supplies-liberia-national police/
[16] Globalsecurity.org (n.d.) Liberia National Police
https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/liberia/lnp.htm
[17] Gray, John Laidlaw (2017) Owning Peace Assessing the Impact of Local Ownership of Police Reforms on Post-conflict Peace. https://ourarchive.otago.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10523/7322/GrayJohnL2017PhD.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
[18] Gortor, Wilfred S (2022) Justice Ministry Dismisses Four Over Police Brutality https://liberianewsagency.com/2022/03/30/justice-ministry-dismisses-four-over-police-brutality/
[19] Goleman D (1998). “What Makes a Leader?”. Harvard Business Review. 76: 92–105.
[20] Harris, C. J. (2009). Police use of improper force: a systematic review of the evidence. Routledge.
[21] Harmon, William (2018) Unarmed Motorcyclist Shot to Death by Police Commander.
[22] Hale, Lyons (2021) The importance of emotional intelligence https://www.police1.com/police-training/articles/what-does-it-mean-to-win-an-encounter-H7szLL5L3YsC7ipy/
[23] ISSAT, (2022) Police Reform https://issat.dcaf.ch/Learn/SSR-in-Practice/Thematics-in-Practice/Police-Reform
[24] Junne, G. & Verokren, W. (2005) Post-conflict development: meeting new challenges. Boulder, CO
[25] Johnson, Obadiah (2020) Liberia’s State of Emergency: Police Fires Tear-gas to Force Citizens in Door in Central Monrovia https://frontpageafricaonline.com/front-slider/liberias-state-of-emergency-police-fires-tear-gas-to-force-citizens-in-door-in-central-monrovia/
[26] Koinyeneh, Gerald C. (2021) Citizens Demand Justice for Truck Driver Allegedly Brutalized to Death by Police
[27] Mondaye Emmanuel, &. Parley, Winston W. (2020) Liberia: Police Officer Kills Fiancée’s Friend
[28] Mitchell, Roger. (2000). The Student National Medical Association Police Brutality Position Statement http://www.snma.org/_files/live/snma_policy_brutality.pdf
[29] Messick, Richard (2015) The Challenge of Police Reform in Developing Nations https://globalanticorruptionblog.com/2015/11/20/the-challenge-of-police-reform-in-developing-nations/
[30] MBA Skool Team, (2021) Political Environment Meaning, Importance, Factors & Example https://www.mbaskool.com/business-concepts/marketing-and-strategy-terms/2515-political-environment.html
[31] Newberg-Dundee Police Department Policy Manual, (2010), Professional Ethics and Standards https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/field_document/29891-29898%20Ethics%20and%20Standards.pdf
[32] OHCHR, (2022) New UN Human Rights office continues work in Liberia https://www.ohchr.org/en/stories/2018/05/new-un-human-rights-office-continues-work-liberia
[33] O’Neill, William (2005) Police Reform in Post-Conflict Societies: What We Know And What We Still Need to Know https://www.ipinst.org/wp-content/uploads/publications/polreferpt.pdf
[34] Ottawa Police Service, (2022) Peel’s Principles of Law Enforcement 1829 https://www.ottawapolice.ca/en/about-us/Peel-s-Principles-.aspx
[35] Peters, Lincoln G. (2022) Liberia: Wicked Police Officers Disrobed The New Dawn. https://allafrica.com/stories/202203310530.html
[36] Penpoin (2020) Political Environment: Meaning, Examples https://penpoin.com/political-environment/
[37] Parry J. (2009). Torture Nation, Torture Law. Georgetown Law Journal 97: 1001-1056
[38] Reliefweb (2005) Liberia: 21 new LNP trainees to join new women and children protection section https://reliefweb.int/report/liberia/liberia-21-new-lnp-trainees-join-new-women-and-children-protection-section
[39] Robinhood, (2021) What is Fiduciary Duty? https://learn.robinhood