Catholic Women’s Association (CWA) in the Nso Fondom of Cameroon from 1964-2013: An Historical Appraisal

Happiness Yinyuy – June 2022- Page No.: 01-08

This paper examines the activities of the CWA of the Roman Catholic Mission and its impact on the Nso community in Bui Division in the North West Region of Cameroon. From its inception, the main aim of this association was, and still is, to enable the women to study the Word of God, build their Christian faith and foster the works of evangelization in the Church and in the community. The focus of this study is to show how instrumental the women have been in carrying out activities that have an impact on the church in particular and the community at large. The spiritual growth of its members was enhanced by teaching them the doctrinal and biblical lessons contained in the work plan of the association. Home economics lessons were also taught as well as self-empowerment projects that helped to foster the economic growth of the womenfolk in particular and the community in general. The group also carried out charitable activities by providing both the spiritual, financial, and material assistance to the poor, sick, and underprivileged persons living in the community. Some spectacular activities were carried out during annual conferences and during the dedication of new members into the association. This work was carried out with the use of primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained by conducting interviews with CWA officials, members, and chaplains. Secondary sources were obtained from books and CWA magazines. Within the period under study, the CWA carried out spiritual and socio-economic activities which affected more especially the lives of women, and the entire community.

Page(s): 01-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2022

 Happiness Yinyuy
Department of History and African Civilisations, The University of Buea, Cameroon

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Happiness Yinyuy “Catholic Women’s Association (CWA) in the Nso Fondom of Cameroon from 1964-2013: An Historical Appraisal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.01-08 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/01-08.pdf

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The Effect of Workplace Spirituality to the Job Satisfaction of Higher Education Business Professors

Fe Violeta G. Baluran – June 2022- Page No.: 09-12

Workplace spirituality is one subject that has appealed to many. In the midst of challenges, people resort to spirituality. Many realize the true meaning of life through spirituality. It has meaningful work, sense of community and alignment of values as its dimensions and studies done on the subject show its positive relationship with other variables such as job satisfaction, job engagement , organizational commitment, job control, ethical climate, self-efficacy, job performance, organizational performance and so on. This study aims to validate the effect of workplace spirituality on job satisfaction among higher education professors of business subjects. A survey was deployed to 38 business professors from colleges and universities and data was analyzed by Jamovi 1.6.23 version. Data was tested for normality, reliability, multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity The result showed that workplace spirituality has a significant effect on the job satisfaction among business professors regardless of age, gender, religion, civil status or employment status. Further studies can be done by covering other professions, increasing the population, adding more variables or inserting mediating or moderating variables, or a qualitative research can be done on the subject extensively to prove that it can help address human resource challenges and will make the workplace conducive to productivity and profitability

Page(s): 09-12                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6601

 Fe Violeta G. Baluran
De La Salle University

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Fe Violeta G. Baluran, “The Effect of Workplace Spirituality to the Job Satisfaction of Higher Education Business Professors” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.09-12 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6601

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Impact of the Capital Market on the Nigerian Economic Growth

Yusau Audu Abayomi & Umoru Adejo Yakubu – June 2022- Page No.: 13-19

This study examines the impact of the capital market on the economic growth of Nigeria. Time-series of data on Gross Domestic Product, Equity, Government stock, Bond and Preference shares as well as foreign direct investment between 1985 and 2019 were collected from the CBN statistical bulletin, the SEC bulletin and the World Economic Indicators. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model was used with the aid of E-view 10. The result of the analysis reveals a long-run relationship between economic growth and the capital market. ARDL bound test shows equity, government stock has a significant positive relationship with economic growth while foreign direct investment and bonds & preference shares have an insignificant negative relationship with economic growth. The (ECM) indicates yearly convergence of approximately 44 % of short-run shock or disequilibrium is corrected. It is therefore recommended that the government through the NSE policies should be geared to encourage more private limited liability companies and informal sector operators to access the market for fresh (equity) capital and the government should curtail the spate of insecurity to boost investor confidence in the Nigerian business environment.

Page(s): 13-19                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2022

 Yusau Audu Abayomi
Department of Business Administration and Management Science, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura-Namoda., Nigeria

 Umoru Adejo Yakubu
Department of Business Administration and Management Science, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura-Namoda., Nigeria

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Yusau Audu Abayomi & Umoru Adejo Yakubu “Impact of the Capital Market on the Nigerian Economic Growth” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.13-19 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/13-19.pdf

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Efficacy of Local Peace Building Structures, Mechanisms and Practices: A Comparative analysis of Kenya and Rwanda

Susan Namaemba Kimokoti – June 2022- Page No.: 20-27

The term peace building entered the international lexicon in 1992 when UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali defined it in an Agenda for Peace “action to identify and support structures which tend to strengthen and solidify peace to avoid a relapse into conflict.” Since then, peace building has become a catchall concept, encompassing multiple (and at times contradictory) perspectives and agendas. Studies on peacebuilding detailing their successes and limitations are abundant. Indications of substantial improvements have been made over the years, however, most scholars note that there are still considerable gaps in the development of concepts, policies and practice. Currently, peacebuilding efforts, actors, and coordination in most countries are mixed. There are various multi-stakeholder peacebuilding efforts coordinated by different groups with varying levels of membership, leadership, effectiveness, and impact. There are also varying degrees of trust, suspicion, and often competition for resources amongst the various networks and groups. This paper comparatively seeks to interrogate the practicability and efficacy of local peacebuilding practices, mechanisms as opposed to the formal negotiating table between Kenya and Rwanda. It problematizes the application of western liberal peace models at grassroots level. The aim is to illustrate specific participatory local peace building mechanisms with more attention on the role and efficacy of community led peace building within post-conflict communities

Page(s): 20-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2022

 Susan Namaemba Kimokoti
Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O Box 190-50100 Kakamega, KENYA

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[20] United Nations (1992). “An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping– Report of the Secretary-General,” doc. A/47/277- S/24111

Susan Namaemba Kimokoti, “Efficacy of Local Peace Building Structures, Mechanisms and Practices: A Comparative analysis of Kenya and Rwanda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.20-27 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/20-27.pdf

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Childhood Behavioural Inhibition and Perceived Social Support as Predictors of Social Anxiety Among Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria

Elegbeleye, A. O., Akharume, R., Eyisi, M., & Agoha, B. C. E. – June 2022- Page No.: 28-31

Objectives: Social anxiety remains an issue among adolescents. This study was conducted to identify some predictors of social anxiety among adolescents. Two hypotheses were stated based on literature review.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 123 males and 172 females between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Participants were systematically recruited from 6 secondary schools in Oyo state, Nigeria. Data was collected using standardized questionnaires and subjected to SPSS (v.23).
Results: Childhood behavioural inhibition and perceived social support were significant predictors of social anxiety respectively.
Conclusion: Mental health practitioners should be cautious of the significant predictors in this study when designing intervention programs against social anxiety for adolescent population

Page(s): 28-31                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2022

 Elegbeleye, A. O.
Department of Psychology, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 Akharume, R.
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN

 Eyisi, M.
Department of Psychology, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 Agoha, B. C. E.
Department of Psychology, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

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Elegbeleye, A. O., Akharume, R., Eyisi, M., & Agoha, B. C. E. “Childhood Behavioural Inhibition and Perceived Social Support as Predictors of Social Anxiety Among Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.28-31 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/28-31.pdf

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An Analysis of Organisational Culture as A Main Identity of An Organisation

Michael Ochurub PhD, Andrew Jeremiah PhD, Victoria Hitumote Sem – June 2022- Page No.: 32-40

In many organisations across the world, organisational culture influences the way in which people act and serves as a contributing factor, which is used by management to increase employee and organisational performance. At Namibia Water Corporation Ltd, awareness was created that organisational culture should also serves as a point of reference for action to optimise operational efficiency. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the use of organisational culture as a main identity or feature of organisational performance. In order to address the purpose of this research and find answers on the research questions, a quantitative method was applied to collect data from the respondents. The population of the study was large, hence a simple random sampling method was used to sample participants to complete questionnaires for data collection. The researchers used the SPSS software and Microsoft excel to analyse the data and the statistics were converted into tables and graphs. The major findings of this study revealed that organisational culture is the main identity of an organisation and a main feature of organisational performance. Employees which belongs to an organisation with a strong culture are well acquainted with what is expected of them in terms of the values of the organisation and they are confident that they will be rewarded when they fulfil the expectations of the organisation. In order to improve and strengthen the organisational culture and to optimise operational efficiency, the leadership and the top management have to revive the existing culture of their organisations. Strong organisational culture adds value and help the employees to commit themselves and dedicate all their efforts to the organisation, which will also change and enhance the identities of many organisations in terms of performance and value-add to the service delivery.

Page(s): 32-40                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2022

 Michael Ochurub PhD
Senior Lecturer (HRM) – Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST)
Department of Management, NUST, Namibia
P.O .Box 55155, Rocky Crest, Windhoek, Namibia

 Andrew Jeremiah PhD
Senior Lecturer (HRM) – Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST)
Department of Management, NUST, Namibia
P.O .Box 55155, Rocky Crest, Windhoek, Namibia

 Victoria Hitumote Sem
Human Resources Development Practitioner – Namibia Water Corporation Limited

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Michael Ochurub PhD, Andrew Jeremiah PhD, Victoria Hitumote Sem “An Analysis of Organisational Culture as A Main Identity of An Organisation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.32-40 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/32-40.pdf

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Environmental Waste Management and Tax Compliance in Bayelsa State

Emmanuel ATAGBORO PhD, MNAA, AFAM, MNIN, ICEnt & Oyeinkorikiye Stephan ISAIAH PhD, MNIM, AFAM, ICEnt – June 2022- Page No.: 41-51

Environmental tax authorities and agents’ provision of waste management facilities’ effect on individuals’ and firms’ tax compliance was the primary focus in this study, and was guided by a survey research design. Through the use of questionnaires, the researchers were able to derive primary data and were descriptively and inferentially evaluated. 150 Bayelsa micro, small, and medium-sized businesses and people make up the sample for the study. Waste management authorities and agents supplied waste control measures; however, the taxpayers did not fully assume the costs of the measures. The study concludes that, efficient provision of waste management facilities and dump sites in conjunction with a reduced sanitation fee will encourage voluntary environmental tax payment by individuals and firms. Government agencies should endeavor to provide more waste management facilities to encourage the public to pay environmental taxes voluntarily. This is because, waste constitutes a bulk of the environmental hazard, and it will also improve the internally generated revenue base of the state.

Page(s): 41-51                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2022

 Emmanuel ATAGBORO PhD, MNAA, AFAM, MNIN, ICEnt
Lecturer 1, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Emmanuel Oyeinkorikiye Stephan ISAIAH PhD, MNIM, AFAM, ICEnt
Lecturer 1, Department of Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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Emmanuel ATAGBORO PhD, MNAA, AFAM, MNIN, ICEnt & Oyeinkorikiye Stephan ISAIAH PhD, MNIM, AFAM, ICEnt, “Environmental Waste Management and Tax Compliance in Bayelsa State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.41-51 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/41-51.pdf

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Prevalence of childhood asthma among children in Sri Lankan urban setting

Samarasinghe A.P, Arnold S.M, Pushpa Fonseka, Saravanabavan N – June 2022- Page No.: 52-55

Background: Bronchial asthma is an important cause of morbidity in both children and adults. Due to better diagnosis, a true incidence of the occurrence of the disease has been documented in most countries. With the increase of prevalence rates around the world, the Sri Lankan situation also is no different. Control of childhood asthma, especially severe type is a big challenge. Priority in management is geared toward alleviation of the often very frightening symptoms of severe form of the disease.
Methods: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Colombo Municipal Council area. A sample of 1380 children in the age group 5 – 11 years consisted the study sample. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used as the study instrument.
Results: The overall prevalence of childhood asthma in the 5 – 11 age group was 12.8 per 100 children. prevalence was 22.4% (95% CI 20.2-24.7) in ever wheezing category while the prevalence of wheezing during the period of 12 months prior to the data collection was 12.8%(95% CI 11.1-14.7). Prevalence of exercise induced childhood asthma was 7% (95% CI 6.8-7.3).
Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma was substantially high among the children in the age group 5- 11 years.

Page(s): 52-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2022

 Samarasinghe A.P
Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka

 Arnold S.M
Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka

 Pushpa Fonseka
Sri Jayawardena University, Sri Lanka

 Saravanabavan N
Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka

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Samarasinghe A.P, Arnold S.M, Pushpa Fonseka, Saravanabavan N “Prevalence of childhood asthma among children in Sri Lankan urban setting” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.52-55 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/52-55.pdf

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Physical Carrying Capacity of Selected Tourism Sites and Social Opportunity for Local Resident Tourists in the Philippines

Bernadette G. Gumba and Charlie V. Balagtas – June 2022- Page No.: 56-61

This study calculated the physical carrying capacity of selected tourism sites in the Philippines and assessed the social carrying capacity. A mix of quantitative and qualitative approaches was employed. Based on data, the sites were utilized below carrying capacity. The level of tourism development was post-infancy to growth. The destinations should be packaged well to compete with more established attractions in the province. The social carrying capacity was examined based on the usage by local resident tourists of the natural and human-made attractions. Respondents answered affirmatively about regularly visiting the sites. It may be concluded that local tourists participate actively and enjoy the natural gifts of their place. They were not deprived due to over-regulation, overcrowding, or massive rehabilitation activities. It is recommended that the local government build on the positive attitude of locales regarding their own tourism. This attitude can help significantly in the promotion of the sites.

Page(s): 56-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6602

 Bernadette G. Gumba
School of Graduate Studies, Partido State University

 Charlie V. Balagtas
School of Graduate Studies, Partido State University

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Bernadette G. Gumba and Charlie V. Balagtas, “Physical Carrying Capacity of Selected Tourism Sites and Social Opportunity for Local Resident Tourists in the Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.56-61 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6602

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The Impact of Internal Control Systems on the Financial Performance of Listed Commercial Banks in Machakos Town, Kenya

Ngeta Jacqueline, Evusa Zablon & Wahome Ndirangu – June 2022- Page No.: 62-73

Recent past has seen commercial banks placed under receivership for poor performance which signals to poor internal controls which went undetected by the regulator. Because of this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of internal control systems on financial performance of listed commercial operating in Machakos, Kenya. The study used both causal and correlation research designs. Census method was used to select the select the commercial banks since they are few. The study population comprised of all staff working all listed commercial operating in Machakos Town. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 39 respondents, three from each of the 13 listed banks operation within Machakos Town. The study used primary data obtained thorough a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed by use of correlation and descriptive statistics with aid of SPSS version 26. The findings were presented in form of tables and percentages. Reliability of the instrument was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha. All the variables had Cronbach’s alpha above 0.7 and thus were accepted as indicating that the instrument was reliable. The study findings showed that the predictor variables explained 54% of the variability in financial performance of commercial banks. The study found that risk assessment and monitoring had the highest positive and statistically significant impact on financial performance of commercial banks operating within Machakos Town. The study recommends that commercial banks should embrace internal control systems in order to enhance financial performance. Commercial banks should review their practices and policies in line with the internal control systems that significantly impact on the performance.

Page(s): 62-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 June 2022

 Ngeta Jacqueline
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University.

 Evusa Zablon
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

 Wahome Ndirangu
School of Business and Entrepreneurship, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

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Ngeta Jacqueline, Evusa Zablon & Wahome Ndirangu “The Impact of Internal Control Systems on the Financial Performance of Listed Commercial Banks in Machakos Town, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.62-73 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/62-73.pdf

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A Situation Analysis of the Additional TEVETA Content in Home Economics Hospitality in teacher training and secondary school Syllabi: A case study of the Copperbelt province, Zambia

Pansho, M., Kayumba, R., Nkhoma, P., and Mukuka, J. – June 2022- Page No.: 74-77

The study sought to investigate the implementation of the vocational career pathway through a situational of the additional TEVETA content in the curriculum. This was a descriptive study based on the data collected from teachers of Home Economics and Hospitality in selected secondary schools and colleges in Kitwe District. The study suggested that teachers have limited knowledge about the additional content. While content is perceived to be relevant to the learners’ skills, they are not adequately taught to the learners because of the challenges relating to the training of teachers, limited funding, and limited materials for the learners and the teachers. As such, the additional content cannot effectively enhance employable skills for the learners.

Page(s): 74-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2022

 Pansho, M.
Copperbelt University

 Kayumba, R.
Chalimbana University

 Nkhoma, P.
Kitwe College of Education

 Mukuka, J.
Mukuba University

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Pansho, M., Kayumba, R., Nkhoma, P., and Mukuka, J. “A Situation Analysis of the Additional TEVETA Content in Home Economics Hospitality in teacher training and secondary school Syllabi: A case study of the Copperbelt province, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.74-77 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/74-77.pdf

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An Analysis of Organisational Culture as A Main Identity of An Organisation

Michael Ochurub PhD, Andrew Jeremiah PhD, Victoria Hitumote Sem – June 2022- Page No.: 78-86

In many organisations across the world, organisational culture influences the way in which people act and serves as a contributing factor, which is used by management to increase employee and organisational performance. At Namibia Water Corporation Ltd, awareness was created that organisational culture should also serves as a point of reference for action to optimise operational efficiency. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the use of organisational culture as a main identity or feature of organisational performance. In order to address the purpose of this research and find answers on the research questions, a quantitative method was applied to collect data from the respondents. The population of the study was large, hence a simple random sampling method was used to sample participants to complete questionnaires for data collection. The researchers used the SPSS software and Microsoft excel to analyse the data and the statistics were converted into tables and graphs. The major findings of this study revealed that organisational culture is the main identity of an organisation and a main feature of organisational performance. Employees which belongs to an organisation with a strong culture are well acquainted with what is expected of them in terms of the values of the organisation and they are confident that they will be rewarded when they fulfil the expectations of the organisation. In order to improve and strengthen the organisational culture and to optimise operational efficiency, the leadership and the top management have to revive the existing culture of their organisations. Strong organisational culture adds value and help the employees to commit themselves and dedicate all their efforts to the organisation, which will also change and enhance the identities of many organisations in terms of performance and value-add to the service delivery.

Page(s): 78-86                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2022

 Emmanuel Michael Ochurub PhD
Senior Lecturer (HRM) – Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST)
Department of Management, NUST, Namibia, P.O .Box 55155, Rocky Crest, Windhoek, Namibia

 Andrew Jeremiah PhD
Senior Lecturer (HRM) – Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST)
Department of Management, NUST, Namibia, P.O .Box 55155, Rocky Crest, Windhoek, Namibia

 Victoria Hitumote Sem
Human Resources Development Practitioner – Namibia Water Corporation Limited

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Michael Ochurub PhD, Andrew Jeremiah PhD, Victoria Hitumote Sem, “An Analysis of Organisational Culture as A Main Identity of An Organisation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.78-86 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/78-86.pdf

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Abomination in politics: An Analysis on Youth’s Political Participation using Harry Frankfurt’s Concept of Bullshit

Evert M. Dela Pena, Jr., Resty Ruel V. Borjal, Jose Epimaco R. Arcega, Hercules J. Uy – June 2022- Page No.: 87-91

The development within the society is a product of dialectical process. The continued tension of thesis, antithesis and synthesis is a manifestation of an active social order. Politics is one of the expressions of dialectic where people in the society deliberates for their well-being. Apart from expression of dialectic, politics is also one of the vital activities in the society for it holds power. In this social activity, youth took their part by voicing out their sentiments believing that the voices can contribute for the welfare. In this sense, there is a tension whether this participation of the youth in politics is accommodating or not. This opus will venture to the stand where the political participation of the numerous youths is not cooperative to the integrity of politics. This effort is not devaluing the opinions of the youth but it only encourages the truthfulness and correct way of participating in the world of politics. The stand will be justified by paralleling it to Harry Frankfurt’s idea of bullshit and bullshitters where he gave meaning to bullshit as misrepresentation of truth. The parallelism between the reckless participation of numerous youths in politics and Frankfurt’s philosophy will present a constructive criticism that hopes to elevate the value of youth’s right conduct and honest activity in politics. This study tends to justify that numerous youths are bullshitters in the realm of politics and it must be suspected and suspended for it abolishes the discreteness and integrity of politics.

Page(s): 87-91                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6603

 Evert M. Dela Pena, Jr.
Department of Arts and Social Sciences, College of Arts and Social Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz Nueva Ecija Philippines

 Resty Ruel V. Borjal
Department of Arts and Social Sciences, College of Arts and Social Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz Nueva Ecija Philippines

 Jose Epimaco R. Arcega
Department of Arts and Social Sciences, College of Arts and Social Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz Nueva Ecija Philippines

 Hercules J. Uy
Department of Arts and Social Sciences, College of Arts and Social Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz Nueva Ecija Philippines

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Evert M. Dela Pena, Jr., Resty Ruel V. Borjal, Jose Epimaco R. Arcega, Hercules J. Uy “Abomination in politics: An Analysis on Youth’s Political Participation using Harry Frankfurt’s Concept of Bullshit” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.87-91 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6603

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Prevalence of childhood asthma among children in Sri Lankan urban setting

Samarasinghe A.P, Arnold S.M, Pushpa Fonseka, Saravanabavan N – June 2022- Page No.: 92-95

Background: Bronchial asthma is an important cause of morbidity in both children and adults. Due to better diagnosis, a true incidence of the occurrence of the disease has been documented in most countries. With the increase of prevalence rates around the world, the Sri Lankan situation also is no different. Control of childhood asthma, especially severe type is a big challenge. Priority in management is geared toward alleviation of the often very frightening symptoms of severe form of the disease.
Methods: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Colombo Municipal Council area. A sample of 1380 children in the age group 5 – 11 years consisted the study sample. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used as the study instrument.
Results: The overall prevalence of childhood asthma in the 5 – 11 age group was 12.8 per 100 children. prevalence was 22.4% (95% CI 20.2-24.7) in ever wheezing category while the prevalence of wheezing during the period of 12 months prior to the data collection was 12.8%(95% CI 11.1-14.7). Prevalence of exercise induced childhood asthma was 7% (95% CI 6.8-7.3).
Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma was substantially high among the children in the age group 5- 11 years.

Page(s): 92-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2022

 Samarasinghe A.P
Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka

 Arnold S.M
Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka

 Pushpa Fonseka
Sri Jayawardena University, Sri Lanka

 Saravanabavan N
Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka

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Samarasinghe A.P, Arnold S.M, Pushpa Fonseka, Saravanabavan N, “Prevalence of childhood asthma among children in Sri Lankan urban setting” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.92-95 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/92-95.pdf

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Analysis of Differentiation Strategy on Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises in Yagshid District Mogadishu Somalia

Ismail Abukar Omar, Kibe Lucy Wairimu – June 2022- Page No.: 96-99

The study was underpinned by following theories; resource-based view, dynamic capability theory and the Porters Generic Model. Explanatory survey design was adopted in the study. Population of the study was 81 Small and Medium Enterprise registered operating in Yagshid district Mogadishu, Somalia. 8 Small and Medium Enterprise were selected and used in the pilot testing and they were not included in the final inquiry. Therefore 73 Small and Medium Enterprise were sampled in the study using census sampling techniques. The researcher used quantitative methodology in analyzing the data. Explanatory research design was used. Primary data was gathered with use of the questionnaire that was tested for validity and reliability prior to actual data collection. An interview schedule was used to collect information on growth. The collected date was cleaned edited, checked, coded, and analyzed with the help of statistical package for social science. Regression analysis was used to show the extent of the relationship between variables. Results of this study were presented through figures, graphs and tables. The study established that differentiation strategy (β=.333, P<0.05) had positive and significant effect on growth of Small and Medium Enterprise in Yagshid district Somalia. The study concludes that generic strategy is a key driver of growth of the Small and Medium Enterprise. The study recommends the managers of the Small and Medium Enterprise in Yagshid district Somalia should improve on Various forms of differentiation e.g., pricing, quality, after-sale services features and functionality.

Page(s): 96-99                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2022

 Ismail Abukar Omar
Scholar, School of Business and Economics; Department of Accounting and Finance, Mount Kenya University, PO BOX 342-01000, Thika, Kenya

 Kibe Lucy Wairimu
Lecturer School of Business and Economics; Department of Accounting and Finance, Mount Kenya University, PO BOX 342-01000, Thika, Kenya

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Ismail Abukar Omar, Kibe Lucy Wairimu “Analysis of Differentiation Strategy on Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises in Yagshid District Mogadishu Somalia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.96-99 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/96-99.pdf

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Perception of Environmental Impact Assessment System and Social Impacts of Developmental Activities: A Case Study of Geregu Power Plant Phase II, Ajaokuta, Kogi State, Nigeria

Alonge, John Adesanya, Prof Ishaya Samaila and Prof Rhoda Mundi – June 2022- Page No.: 100-106

The study appraised environmental impact assessment (EIA) system perception and social impacts of developmental activities, using Geregu Power Plant Phase II, Ajaokuta, Kogi State, Nigeria as a case study. The objectives were to appraise the perception of Environmental Impact Assessment and the socio-economic impacts of the gas power plant operation on the project`s host communities. Sample population for interview was purposively selected (4 settlements) within the project area of influence and primary data was collected using questionnaire field survey. Simple random sampling was adopted for the administration of 373 questionnaires to elicit information on socio-economic implications and perception of project`s host communities on the EIA system. The result showed that on the years of experience of involvement in EIA system 17.33% of the respondent had 1-5 years, 16% had 5-10 years, 0.67% had between 11-20 years and 0.33% had greater than 20 years. On the number of EIA project’s executed 19% have no experience of executed projects, 20.7% reported less than 5 projects executed, and 1% experienced 16-30 number of EIA projects. Also, on the kind of EIA activity involvement 69.66% have not been involved in any key EIA activities, 27% have been involved as consultants, 1% has been involved at the institutional level and 0.67% at the various intermediaries’ level. Concerning the activities of EIA participation in the last three years, 16.67% have participated in EIA review meetings, 9.66% in the reviewing terms of reference and scoping, 1.33% participated in grievance redress, while 65.01% did not respond. Likewise on the key participants in EIA process, 6.67% have knowledge of project proponent, 30.33% have knowledge of project’s host community 10.33% responded on stake holder, and 3.67% responded on regulations. On the purpose and objective of the EIA system, 5.3% to 20.3% of the respondents have knowledge of purpose and objective of EIA. On the socio-economic impact on project`s host communities, the likert scale mean value of 1.93 was less than 2.05 meaning that the socio economic issues are on the high side. The socio-economic issues noticeable includes provision of resettlement for displaced persons, increase in volume and type of wastes generation, increase in community unrest and increasing pressure on existing infrastructures. It is therefore recommended that there should be EIA sensitization/awareness programme and the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) should be faithfully implemented. Conclusively, there is a need for proposed developmental activities to be conducted in an integrated manner to ensure that they are environmentally, socially sound and sustainable.

Page(s): 100-106                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 June 2022

 Alonge, John Adesanya

 Prof Ishaya Samaila

 Prof Rhoda Mundi

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[2] Chris N. (2013). Evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment in Nigeria. Greener journal of Environmental Management and public safety Vol 2(1) PP.022-031
[3] Fmenv (Federal Ministry of Environment Abuja, Nigeria) (1992). Environmental Impact Assessment Act no 86 of 1992
[4] Fmenv (Federal Ministry of Environment Abuja, Nigeria) (2004). Environmental Impact Assessment Report of Geregu Power Plant phase II in Ajaokuta Kogi state Nigeria
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[6] Fmenv ( Federal ministry of Environment Abuja Nigeria) (2019). Approved Environmental Audit Report of Geregu Power Plant phase II in Ajaokuta Kogi state Nigeria
[7] Fmenv ( Federal ministry of Environment Abuja Nigeria) (2019). Compiled data from National EIA Registry
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[9] Glasson et al (2011) Making communities safe from crime: An undervalue element ion impact assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment review, 2011, 42:25-35
[10] Umar .T. (2010) Implementation of mitigation measures resulting from Environmental Impact assessment on selected industrial project in kampala district, Master thesis makerere university uganda

Alonge, John Adesanya, Prof Ishaya Samaila and Prof Rhoda Mundi, “Perception of Environmental Impact Assessment System and Social Impacts of Developmental Activities: A Case Study of Geregu Power Plant Phase II, Ajaokuta, Kogi State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.100-106 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/100-106.pdf

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“Micro-Credit Work as a Recovery Instrument During and after Covid-19 Pandemic”: The Case of EMYOOGA SACCOs in Uganda

John Busingye – June 2022- Page No.: 107-114

This paper summarizes the data collected from SACCOs and their clients to assess the role of Micro-Credit as a Recovery Instrument during and after Covid-19 Pandemic? Emyooga SACCOs and borrowers in Mbarara city, South Western Uganda, provided a conceptual setting of the study. The results show that while the pandemic touched all entrepreneurs in Uganda, the severity of its impact was marked differently by different entrepreneurs in some businesses to almost negligible in other businesses. However, all entrepreneurs faced some form of a lockdown which affected them in one way or the other.
Nevertheless, preliminary results show that traders in Mbarara city changed business to suit the prevailing conditions. For instance, some introduced on-line and delivery service means of reaching their clients. It was also established that Emyooga SACCOs provided start -up capital to enhance the poor to continue with business during the C-19 lock down.
Other findings are that Emyooga loans have a significant effect on the borrowers’ change in income and asset acquisition. Some respondents reported to have acquired land while others had their business improved, particularly businesses dealing in food stuffs. Therefore, flexibility and diversification in business are commended, such that any problem with one line of business is saved by its sister business.
The study applauds governments intervention to extend more support to the self-employed and microentrepreneurs to allow them to sustain their business operations, and that SACCOs are in horrible need of a lender-of-last-resort funding body that can step in with emergency funding and provide financing when commercial banks are unable to do so.
The paper ends with a set of other specific recommendations for various stakeholders which would help the SACCO clients to stabilize and return to normality.

Page(s): 107-114                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2022

 John Busingye
Ibanda University, P.O. BOX 35, Ibanda, Nigeria

[1] Anke (2015). How microfinance empowers women in Co ˆte d’Ivoire: Abidjan, Ivory Coast
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[15] New vision Monday October 4, 2021, local news paper printed and published in Uganda
[16] Nuwagaba, A & Rutare. K. (2012). Tackling poverty and under development in Africa. Net media publishers, Kampala Uganda
[17] Yogendrarajah, R. (2013). Challenges faced by women in accessing credit from Micro-credit institutions in Srilanka. The international journal of Economics and business management. East Publications

John Busingye ““Micro-Credit Work as a Recovery Instrument During and after Covid-19 Pandemic”: The Case of EMYOOGA SACCOs in Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.107-114 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/107-114.pdf

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Exploring Major Stressors and Coping Dimensions of Zimbabwean University Female Students: A Qualitative Study

Moyo A. – June 2022- Page No.: 115-121

The study investigated stress and coping mechanisms amongst female university students in Zimbabwe. Many female students in universities have to handle various stressors caused by personal, academic, social, and sometimes work lives. Students with inadequate stress handling skills can face difficulties in trying to balance these responsibilities. The study was aimed at assessing stress and stressors amongst the female students, and also the coping strategies that can be used to handle stress. Female university students from the Midlands State University were interviewed as the respondents of this study, and the data received was qualitatively assessed to determine the stressors, stress levels, and coping mechanisms. Overall, the students indicated that the key stressors they experienced were disadvantaged social backgrounds, menstruation and menstrual disorders, sexual harassment, information overload, peer competition, transition from adolescence to adulthood, personal inadequacy, and lecturer-student relationships. It was observed that the students apply four main coping strategies namely venting, instrumental support, emotional support, and self-distraction. The study concluded by recommending that additional studies are warranted to look into reduction of student stress for both genders and developing coping mechanisms.

Page(s): 115-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2022

 Moyo A.
Gender Institute Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

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Moyo A., “Exploring Major Stressors and Coping Dimensions of Zimbabwean University Female Students: A Qualitative Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.115-121 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/115-121.pdf

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Bridging the Gap Between Socio-Economic Rights and Development in Africa: The Case of Zimbabwe’s 2013 Constitution

Emmaculate Tsitsi Ngwerume – June 2022- Page No.: 122-129

It is the aim of this paper to explore the inextricable link between human rights and development in Africa, using the Zimbabwean 2013 Constitution as the prime case study. Comparisons were also drawn from different selected countries regionally as well as globally. Qualitative research through extensive desk research, involving the application of critical content analysis was the adopted methodology. Despite the widespread recognition and adoption of human rights-based approaches to development, including the Right To Development (RTD) in most developing states, a huge gap exists between principle and practice. More so, the RTD in particular, is a very much contested concept, both locally and internationally. However, for sustainable development to be achieved in Africa and other developing parts of the world, there is need to make human rights, and particularly, socio-economic rights, an integral component of the development process.

Page(s): 122-129                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2022

 Emmaculate Tsitsi Ngwerume
PhD Student (Institute of Peace, Leadership and Governance, Africa University, Zimbabwe)
Lecturer (Peace and Governance Department, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe)

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Emmaculate Tsitsi Ngwerume “Bridging the Gap Between Socio-Economic Rights and Development in Africa: The Case of Zimbabwe’s 2013 Constitution” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.122-129 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/122-129.pdf

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Manufactured Export and Government Spending on Infrastructures in Nigeria (1990 – 2015)

Dr Olajire Aremu Odunlade and Prof Festus Folajinmi Adegbie – June 2022- Page No.: 130-134

Government spending in every fiscal year is aimed at impacting every sector of the economy through the provision of infrastructural facilities required for the production of goods and services; that will enhance the welfare of the citizens. However, poorly developed and decaying infrastructure has been noted to be affecting the financial and operational capabilities of manufacturing companies in Nigeria. This study examined government spending on Infrastructures which are; Roads, Power, Human Capital Development on Export of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria..
The study adopted ex-post facto research design. The population of the study was 83 listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria as at December 31, 2016, from which a sample size of 20 was purposively selected based on availability of data covering the period from 2001 to 2015. Secondary data were obtained from published financial statements of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria, publications of government and the World Bank. Validity and Reliability of the data were based on the reports of external auditors and other regulatory agencies. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods.
The study found that government spending on power, roads, security and human capital development; jointly have significant effect on MANUFACTURED EXPORTS. MANEXP F(4, 10) = 10.07, P value associated with the F-value was 0.002, this is less than 0.05 indicating that the the independent variables had significant effect on the dependent variables. R2 = 0.801, Adj R2 = 0.722. However, Government spending on Power had negative but insignificant effect on Manexp (t(26) = -1.57, p>0.05) expenditure on Roads had negative insignificant effect on Manexp (t(26)= -0.234 p>0.05).. Spending on Security had negative but insignificant effect on Manexp (t(26) = -0.490 p>0.05). HCD had positive but insignificant effect on Manexp (t(26) =1.493 p>0.05)
The study concluded that government spending on infrastructures did not influence earning from export of manufactured products in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should restructure its pattern of expenditure to make it industry specific so as to re-engineer ailing Nigerian manufacturing companies.

Page(s): 130-134                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6604

 Dr Olajire Aremu Odunlade
School of Management Sciences, Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Prof Festus Folajinmi Adegbie
School of Management Sciences, Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

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Dr Olajire Aremu Odunlade and Prof Festus Folajinmi Adegbie, “Manufactured Export and Government Spending on Infrastructures in Nigeria (1990 – 2015)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.130-134 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6604

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Impacts of Paragliding Festival on The Socio-Economic Settings of Kwahu Residents in Ghana

Aninakwah Isaac, Samuel Annan-Nunoo PhD, Aninakwah Enock, Kate Asiedua Frimpong, Okunor Thomas – June 2022- Page No.: 135-142

The paragliding festival of the Kwahu people in the Eastern Region is one of the most exciting festivities in Ghana. This is due to the fact that a multitude of people all over Ghana and abroad attends these festivities. Many socio-economic impacts are felt by the residents of the area certainly both negatives and positives. This article examined the impacts of paragliding festival on the residents of Atibie and Mpraeso in the Eastern region of Ghana. The study employed a qualitative led mixed method with 110 participants randomly and purposively selected from Atibie and Mpraeso Kwahu. Statistical Package for the Social Scientist (SPSS) version 26 was used to disaggregate and show data. To portray the data for interpretation, tables were used. The study finds socialization, entertainment, and infrastructural development as positive social impact, and positive economic impacts as employment, business linkages, and new business opportunities, income and increased land price and rent. Other negative socio-economic impacts include high crime rate, increase income disparity, increase, high price of essential commodities, and services as well as seasonality effect. The study recommended that Local cultures and native lifestyles should be preserved, and these initiatives should come from the local community itself, as they will bear the brunt of the consequences of such development. Also, Tourism Authority and other stakeholders such as the security services should be part of the event to check on all negative impacts such as crime and drug trafficking while maintaining peace, serenity and visitor interest in the event.

Page(s): 135-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2022

 Aninakwah Isaac
Department of Geography Education, University of Education Winneba, Ghana

 Samuel Annan-Nunoo PhD
Lecturer, Department of Social Science, Abetifi College of Education, Abetifi Kwahu

 Aninakwah Enock
Department of Geography Education, University of Education Winneba, Ghana

 Kate Asiedua Frimpong
Atibie Government Hospital, Atibie-Kwahu Ghana

 Okunor Thomas
Department of Geography Education, University of Education Winneba, Ghana

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Aninakwah Isaac, Samuel Annan-Nunoo PhD, Aninakwah Enock, Kate Asiedua Frimpong, Okunor Thomas “Impacts of Paragliding Festival on The Socio-Economic Settings of Kwahu Residents in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.135-142 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/135-142.pdf

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Cash Conversion Cycle and Firm Performance in Nigeria: A Sectoral Analysis

NWOKOYE, Gladys Anwuli (Ph.D) – June 2022- Page No.: 143-153

This paper sought to investigate the effect of cash conversion cycle proxied as: days inventory turnover (DIO), days payables outstanding (DPO) and days sales outstanding (DSO), on the performance of quoted firms in two sectors in Nigeria. This was done within a multivariate framework, using pooled OLS and multivariate panel regression technique and with data that covered the 2010 to 2020 reference period. The results obtained were generally well behaved in that they largely conform to presumptive expectations. The empirical evidence show, for example, that days inventory turnover (DPO) and days sales outstanding (DSO) affect movements in firm performance negatively among firms in the consumer goods sector, though only the DSO variable show significant impact. The same variables affect the sampled firms in the manufacturing sector differently. Results show that the days payable outstanding (DPO) and the days sales outstanding (DSO) variables affect performance of the sampled manufacturing firms positively but insignificant and significantly negative impact respectively. The days inventory turnover variable on the other hand, was found to show positive and significant effect on performance of firms in the consumer goods sector, whereas, it affects the sampled firms in the manufacturing sector negatively but in a significant manner. The outcomes therefore suggest the need for optimal cash conversion cycle policy such that has growth tendencies as options. Strategies recommended to abate or minimize the risk of losing sales and customer loyalty include: optimal working capital, improved liquidity, offer of trade credits, proper monitoring of inventory and repayment periods to guarantee enhanced firm performance

Page(s): 143-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2022

 NWOKOYE, Gladys Anwuli (Ph.D)
University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

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NWOKOYE, Gladys Anwuli (Ph.D) , “Cash Conversion Cycle and Firm Performance in Nigeria: A Sectoral Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.143-153 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/143-153.pdf

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A Critique of the Power-Values Dynamics

Socrates Ebo – June 2022- Page No.: 154-158

A cursory thought on power and value might view the two concepts as having nothing to do with each other. But a deeper philosophical thought on the two concepts would reveal interesting relationships between the two concepts. Could political power endure for long if it is not anchored on some values? Could a value endure in a society if it is not anchored on some sort of power, political or transcendental? This unique but puzzling relationship is the focus of this work. Power is ultimately predicated on some values for the justification of its exercise. Values require some sort of force to become widespread, effectual and duly respected in the society

Page(s): 154-158                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6605

 Socrates Ebo
Center for Continuing Education, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Federal University Otuoke, Nigeria

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Socrates Ebo “A Critique of the Power-Values Dynamics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.154-158 June 2022
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6605

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Correlation Analysis of Demographic Variables, Job Stress and Productivity of Workers in Electrical Occupations

Amenger Maashin, Ph.D, Theresa Chinyere Ogbuanya, Ph.D & Jimoh Bakare, Ph.D – June 2022- Page No.: 159-164

The study analysed the correlation between demographic variables, productivity and occupational stress of workers in electrical occupations. Two relevant research questions were answered while two hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a correlational research design and was carried out in North Central States. The population for the study was 301 workers in electrical occupations. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire titled Demographic Variables, Job Stress and Productivity Questionnaire (DVJSPQ). Three experts face- validated the instrument. The internal consistency of the questionnaire items was determined using Cronbach alpha reliability method and coefficients of 0.89 was obtained for Occupational Stress, 0.94 for Productivity of workers in electrical occupation. The overall reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.96. Out of 301 copies of DVJSPQ administered, only 295 copies were completed representing 98.01 percent return rate. Point –biserial correlation and regression analysis were employed to analyse data for answering research questions and hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that: (i) demographic variables have weak and moderate relationship (r = -.140, -.226, -.130, .659) with job stress of workers. (ii) demographic variables have strong relationship (r= 973, 812, 933. 871) with productivity of workers in electrical occupations. (iv) demographic variables influenced job stress and productivity of workers in electrical occupations. Findings on hypotheses include that: (i) age and educational qualification were a significant moderator of the relationship between occupational stress and productivity of workers in electrical occupations (ii) year of experience and marital status were not a significant moderator of the relationship between occupational stress and productivity of workers in electrical occupations. Recommendations include that workers in electrical occupations should be sensitized through workshops and seminars on how demographic variables influence their productivity and job stress in their occupations.

Page(s): 159-164                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2022

 Amenger Maashin, Ph.D
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Faculty of Education, Benue State University, Nigeria

 Theresa Chinyere Ogbuanya, Ph.D
Department of Industrial Technical Education, Faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Jimoh Bakare, Ph.D
Department of Industrial Technical Education, Faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

[1] Amenger M. (2020). Relationship between emotional intelligence, occupational stress and productivity of workers in electrical occupations in north central states. An unpublished Ph.D thesis submitted to Department of Vocational Teacher education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
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Amenger Maashin, Ph.D, Theresa Chinyere Ogbuanya, Ph.D & Jimoh Bakare, Ph.D, “Correlation Analysis of Demographic Variables, Job Stress and Productivity of Workers in Electrical Occupations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.159-164 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/159-164.pdf

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Effects of Media Advertisement Representation of Womens’ Body Image on Violence against Women in Bangladesh

Halimatus Sadia, Md. Arman Sorif Jibon, Md. Shahin Parvez – June 2022- Page No.: 165-172

In most societies, women are the victims of physical, sexual, psychological, and economic violence. Sexual abuse is the main obstacle to the achievement of their rights. Most of the advertisements on national television channels, newspapers, and magazines in Bangladesh were the depiction of a women’s body as a sexual thing. The present comprehensive study is to identify how advertisement represents women and its impact on woman’s identity construction. This research also investigates the effect of media advertisement on the young generation. This quantitative study was conducted, through 80 male and female students were randomly selected from the two reputed universities at Khulna in Bangladesh. This study found that about 80 percent of women and more than 77.5 percent of women were accordingly victims of sexual assault and faced body shaming. Women are always conscious about to be being thin-shaped body; consequently, they were dissatisfied with their body shape, which was calculated by almost about 70 percent of girls. Most of them (81.25%) men and their families looking for a bride consider girls with bright looks. This research observed that the viewpoint on women was all about the reflection of the media’s advertisement on society. This study will help to take initiatives where problems have arrived and how media advertisers promote the product more consciously which will maintain a certain cultural sentiment

Page(s): 165-172                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6606

 Halimatus Sadia
Masters of Arts in Religious Studies, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.

 Md. Arman Sorif Jibon
Lecturer, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Green University of Bangladesh.

 Md. Shahin Parvez
Lecturer, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Presidency University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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Halimatus Sadia, Md. Arman Sorif Jibon, Md. Shahin Parvez “Effects of Media Advertisement Representation of Womens’ Body Image on Violence against Women in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.165-172 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6606

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Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescent Students with reference to Siwan district, Bihar, India

Kavita Kumari, Dr. Imran Khan – June 2022- Page No.: 173-176

This study was undertaken to study the academic achievement and study habits of male and female college students of district Siwan (Bihar). The total sample comprises school students with age range l3 to 16 years from Siwan district, Bihar. The whole sample consists of total 600 school going adolescents with equal number of boys (n-300) and girls (n300). Both subgroups were made with equal number of adolescents belonging to urban & rural community. To select the sample randomized sampling technique was used in the present study. The efforts were made to select the sample as representative as possible in terms of socio-economic status and family type. Test of Study Habits and Attitudes developed by C. P. Mathur will be applied to measure study habits. Academic Achievement: In absence of availability of any standardized academic performance test, percentage of the marks obtained at the last year grade examination held on prescribed syllabus was considered as academic performance scores as these scores were found to be representative of the student’s academic achievement. The average of these percentages for each sample subject was used as measure of the academic achievement were administered for the collection of data. The result of the study highlights that the female college students have high academic achievement as compared to male college students. On the other hand, it has been found that study habits of college female students are slightly higher than the male. The two groups under study do not show any significant difference in their study habits.

Page(s): 173-176                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2022

 Kavita Kumari
Research Scholar, Jai Prakash University, Chapra, India

 Dr. Imran Khan
Head & Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, D.A.V. Post Graduate College, Siwan, India

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Kavita Kumari, Dr. Imran Khan , “Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescent Students with reference to Siwan district, Bihar, India” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.173-176 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/173-176.pdf

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Online shopping in Oman – Its influence and opportunities

Laith Al Sabahi, Majid Al Kharusi, Al Faisal Al Hinai, Waleed Al Rumhi, Mohammed Al Nasseri, Dr. Mohammed Shafiuddin – June 2022- Page No.: 177-180

This research will aim to explore the impact of online shopping on green product purchase behavior in Oman. In this research we used a primary based data one which conducts a survey amongst 50 online shoppers in the Muscat region. The respondents were selected using convenience sampling and snowballing sampling techniques. The responses were analyzed using SPSS software. We found that most of the respondents were below 25 years of age, most were male, and most had an income level of 250 to 500 Rials. Most of the respondents had disagreed with the statements showing that there was a lack of informativeness, credibility and green attitudes amongst the Omani customers and online retailers. Green product awareness needs to be overall improved in Oman and retailers need to provide a range of products to motivate the consumers to ‘Go green’.

Page(s): 177-180                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2022

 Laith Al Sabahi
Oman College of Management and Technology Marketing Research Students Research

 Majid Al Kharusi
Oman College of Management and Technology Marketing Research Students Research

 Al Faisal Al Hinai
Oman College of Management and Technology Marketing Research Students Research

 Waleed Al Rumhi
Oman College of Management and Technology Marketing Research Students Research

 Mohammed Al Nasseri
Oman College of Management and Technology Marketing Research Students Research

 Dr. Mohammed Shafiuddin
Oman College of Management and Technology Marketing Research Students Research

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[17] Sunitha, C. & Gnanadhas, M. E., 2014. Online Shopping – an overview, s.l.: ResearchGate.
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Laith Al Sabahi, Majid Al Kharusi, Al Faisal Al Hinai, Waleed Al Rumhi, Mohammed Al Nasseri, Dr. Mohammed Shafiuddin “Online shopping in Oman – Its influence and opportunities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.177-180 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/177-180.pdf

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Assessing the Possibility of Prosecuting Putin and other leaders for War Crime in Ukraine

Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo Sr. – June 2022- Page No.: 181-186

This article succinctly assessed the possibility of prosecuting Russian President Vladimir Putin and other key figures for alleged potential war crimes or crimes against humanity being committed in Ukraine. Precisely, it reviews existing literature on the ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine as the methodological approach to exploring the possibility.
As the conceptual framework, this paper assessed the possibility from the background of power dynamics, particularly in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) affecting international politics and puts Russia into context. The paper doubts not the possibility but argues that the chances are very slim due to the concept of power dynamics being exercised by Russia as one of the five permanent members of the UNSC and the political limits to what the International Criminal Court (ICC) can do in any of the crimes it investigates and prosecutes prime suspects bearing greater responsibility.

Page(s): 181-186                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2022

 Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo Sr.
.

[1] Aljazeera, (2021) Sudan says will ‘hand over’ al-Bashir to ICC for war crimes
[2] trial https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/8/12/sudan-omar-al-bashir-icc-war-crimes-darfur Accessed 24 March 2022
[3] Aljazeera (2022) Ukraine’s Zelenskyy says siege of Mariupol involved war Crimes https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/3/20/zelenskyy-says-siege-of-mariupol-involved-war-crimes Accessed 24 March 2022
[4] Amnesty International (2022) Russia/Ukraine: Invasion of Ukraine is an act of aggression and human rights catastrophe esty.org/en/latest/news/2022/03/russia-Ukraine-invasion-of-Ukraine-is-an-act-of-aggression-and-human-rights-catastrophe/Accessed 24 March 2022
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[17] News, (2020) Veto power and inequality https://mmnews.tv/veto-power-and-inequality/
[18] REDRESS, (2020) Admissibility of Gaddafi case at the ICC renews prospect of accountability for grave human rights abuses in Libya https://redress.org/news/admissibility-of-gaddafi-case-at-the-icc-renews-prospect-of-accountability-for-grave-human-rights-abuses-in-libya/ Accessed 24 March 2022
[19] Speri, Alice (2021) How the U.S. Derailed an Effort to Prosecute Its Crimes in Afghanistan. https://theintercept.com/2021/10/05/afghanistan-icc-war-crimes/
[20] The Guardian (2022) ICC prosecutor to investigate possible war crimes in Ukraine https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/feb/28/ukraine-russia-belarus-war-crimes-investigation-the-hague accessed 23 March 2022
[21] The Guardian (2022) Researchers gather evidence of possible Russian war crimes in Ukraine https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/mar/02/researchers-gather-evidence-of-possible-russian-war-crimes-in-ukraine Accessed 24 March 2022
[22] The Guardian (2022) Could the international criminal court bring Putin to justice over Ukraine? https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/mar/02/could-international-criminal-court-bring-putin-to-justice-over-ukraine Accessed 24 March 2022
[23] The Guardian (2017) Russia and China veto UN resolution to impose sanctions on Syria https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/mar/01/russia-and-china-veto-un-resolution-to-impose-sanctions-on-syria. Accessed 3 June 2022
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[25] United Nations (2014) Referral of Syria to International Criminal Court Fails as Negative Votes Prevent Security Council from Adopting Draft Resolution https://www.un.org/press/en/2014/sc11407.doc.htm
[26] Wheeler, Caleb H (2018) In the Spotlight: The Legitimacy of the International Criminal Court https://internationallaw.blog/2018/10/22/in-the-spotlight-the-legitimacy-of-the-international-criminal-court/ Accessed 24 March 2022

Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo Sr. “Assessing the Possibility of Prosecuting Putin and other leaders for War Crime in Ukraine ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.181-186 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/181-186.pdf

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Does reducing violence against women improve children’s health? The case of Cameroon

Christian T. Litchepah, Issidor. Noumba, Mohammadou. Nourou – June 2022- Page No.: 187-194

Improving child health is one of the sustainable development goals of the United Nations. It is also seen as a means of promoting their well-being. The empirical literature on the relationship between child health and domestic violence is less clear. Using quantitative data from the Cameroon Demographic Health Survey, this study explores the effect of domestic violence, as measured by physical, sexual and emotional abuse, on health indicators of birth weight, growth and occurrence of diarrhea episodes in children. Emphasis is placed on the potential endogeneity of domestic violence that could bias the relationship between child health and domestic violence. The econometric method used was either a probit with instrumental variable or a two-step least square. The results are mixed. We observe a non-significant effect of domestic violence, whatever its form, on the birth weight and growth of the child. On the other hand, a significant effect, albeit slight (10%), of physical violence on the contraction of diarrhea by the child was observed.

Page(s): 187-194                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2022

 Christian T. Litchepah
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Maroua, Cameroon

 Issidor. Noumba
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Yaounde II Soa, Cameroon

 Mohammadou. Nourou
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Maroua, Cameroon

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Christian T. Litchepah, Issidor. Noumba, Mohammadou. Nourou, “Does reducing violence against women improve children’s health? The case of Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.187-194 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/187-194.pdf

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Domestic Energy Consumption Patterns of Households in Kaniga Area, Rwanda

Celestin Niyonzima, Dr Stanislaus Peter Kashinje – June 2022- Page No.: 195-212

Most of Rwandan households depend primarily on traditional means as a source of energy. However, the consumption patterns and intensities remain poorly understood. The aim of the present study was therefore to provide a better understanding of households on renewable energy consumption. Stratified random sampling design was used in order to capture energy consumption patterns between rural, peri-urban and urban populations and across household wealth categories.
Households in each randomly selected site were stratified into poor, low, medium and high wealth categories. Data were collected using pre-tested and pilot-tested questionnaires, direct measurements, direct observations, interviews and focus group discussions as the best research method that resulted to the dependable output in this primary study.
A total of 1 000 households were sampled: rural area (768); peri-urban area (183) and urban center (49). This is a good number to represent the whole population of the study area since each category of them were fully represented to avoid missing and misrepresentation. This sample was drawn from across all wealth categories: poor-39 household (3.9%), low-392 households (39.2%); medium-400 households (40.0%) and high-169 households (16.9%).
Several hypotheses were found to be true: (1) Socio-economic and demographic factors have effects on household energy choice; (2) There is significant household preference to Kaniga as source of energy. Factors which were found to be important in influencing choice of energy are: location of household, residence ownership, dwelling/house category, household income, and education level of household head; (3) Household survey revealed the insufficient electricity in Kaniga Sector.
Household dependency on traditional and hydro-electrical power sources of energy is irresistible and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. Promotion of improved renewable energy and improved electrification, and promotion of alternative sources of energy has been proposed to alleviate the available energy related problems.

Page(s): 195-212                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2022

 Celestin Niyonzima
Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Sciences Technology and Environmental Studies, Open University of Tanzania.

 Dr Stanislaus Peter Kashinje
Lecturer and Researcher, St. Joseph University; College of Engineering and Technology; P.O. Box: 11007, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

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[2] NISR, 2014: “Fourth Population and Housing Census, Rwanda, 2014. Final Results, Main Indicators Report” Page 3-37
[3] IOB, 2014: Access to Energy in Rwanda. Impact evaluation of activities supported by the Dutch promoting Renewable Energy Programme. Page 17-69
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[14] Lusambo L.P .,2021, “Estimation of household energy consumption intensities around and within Miombo woodlands in Morogoro and Songea Districts, Tanzania” Pages 43-62
[15] Jia L and Richard E.,2018, “Modeling household energy consumption and adoption of energy efficient technology”, Pages 390-415
[16] Maniraguha E., 2013, “The Utilization of Wind Power in Rwanda” Page 1-80
[17] Sibomana G.and Nkunda F.,2014, “Wind Power Potential in Kigali and Western Province of Rwanda” Page 1-12
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[19] Van der Kroon et al.,2013, “Energy stacking model IEA,2013” Page 1
[20] Anna B, Johanna H., 2014, ‘‘Productive use of thermal energy’’ Page 9-47

Celestin Niyonzima, Dr Stanislaus Peter Kashinje “Domestic Energy Consumption Patterns of Households in Kaniga Area, Rwanda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.195-212 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/195-212.pdf

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The Power of Tradition Confucius Institutes and cultural diplomacy in the Visegrád Four countries

Viktória Laura Herczegh – June 2022- Page No.: 213-221

In the past few decades, educational and cultural institutions have become increasingly widespread and popular all over the world. The aim of non-profit public organizations such as Britain‘s British Council, Germany‘s Goethe-Institut, France‘s Alliance Française or Spain‘s Instituto Cervantes is promoting language and culture as well as facilitating teaching and cultural exchanges. Confucius Institute (孔子学院) of the People‘s Republic of China, founded in 2004, is a remarkably fast-growing example for such institutions. As of now, there are more than 700 Confucius Institutes all over six continents. The institutions named after the probably best known Chinese philosopher co-operate with local universities, sharing finances, promoting language courses, training teachers, organizing language exams and contests and hosting cultural and artistic events. The ―trademark name‖ is, unsurprisingly, often associated with China‘s projection of soft power in order to improve the country‘s international image, and, possibly, using diplomatic manipulation. Scrutinized or not, Chinese public diplomacy through Confucius Institutes has been a phenomenal success story so far. China‘s relations with the Visegrad Group countries have lately seen a significant growth within the ties of the so-called 16+1 platform and the One Belt, One Road Initiative, both established in 2013. As Chinese investment approach usually walks hand in hand with soft power projection, it is no different in case of the V4 countries. In this paper I provide a comparative overview of Confucius Institutes in the four Visegrad countries including statistical data, the institutions‘ fields and ways of operation and co-operation as well as the impact of this significant soft power push on the present and future of V4-China relations.

Page(s): 213-221                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2022

 Viktória Laura Herczegh
PhD student, Corvinus University of Budapest

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Viktória Laura Herczegh , “The Power of Tradition Confucius Institutes and cultural diplomacy in the Visegrád Four countries” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.213-221 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/213-221.pdf

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The Influence of Career Development Practices on Employee Retention in The Mining Industry in Namibia

Michael Ochurub PhD, Andrew Jeremiah PhD, Selma Iipumbu – June 2022- Page No.: 222-233

The mining industry in Namibia is currently experiencing a high employee turnover as a result of a lack of career development as employees are mostly attracted by career advancement opportunities. Career development is one of the key factors in an organisation to attract and retain key and talented employees. Therefore, this study is intended to determine the effect of career development practices on employee attraction and retention. This study is quantitative in nature and questionnaires were used to collect the data from participants. The researchers used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to analyse the data and to provide descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and graphical analyses with the use of tables and calculation of statistics for central tendency, variability, and distribution. The major findings of the study revealed that the career management plans do not align with employees’ personal career goals and that the employee commitments and performance in the mining industry are constrained due to the lack of structured career planning and management. It is also evident from the findings that career development practices would increase the profitability of the mining industry as a result of satisfied and high performing employees. Although the employees have adequate resources to carry out their duties, the lack of career advancement as well as adequate training and development is a great concern. Investors in the mining industry must place a high value on human capital, and as a result, ensure that their skilled individuals are retained as they provide an advantage over competitors. A high level of support to employees are more likely for employees to emotionally commit to their organisations, resulting in a low rate of turnover and a high level of job performance.

Page(s): 222-233                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2022

 Michael Ochurub PhD
Senior Lecturer (HRM) – Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST)
Department of Management, NUST, Namibia
P.O .Box 55155, Rocky Crest, Windhoek, Namibia

 Andrew Jeremiah PhD
Senior Lecturer (HRM) – Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST)
Department of Management, NUST, Namibia

 Selma Iipumbu
Human Resource Practitioner – Rossing Uranium Mine (Ltd)

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[18] Owusu, K. P., Abubakar, N. A., Ocloo-Koffie, D. & Sarpong, R. (2021). Career Development and Challenges of Employees in the Petroleum Industry of Ghana: The Case Study of ENI. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 9(4), 640-653.
[19] Richard Y. A. (2018). Effect of Social Support on Employee Retention in Nigerian Tertiary Health Sector. SSRG International Journal of Economics & Management Studies 5(6), 10-15.
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Michael Ochurub PhD, Andrew Jeremiah PhD, Selma Iipumbu “The Influence of Career Development Practices on Employee Retention in The Mining Industry in Namibia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.222-233 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/222-233.pdf

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Child Poverty: Poor Counterpart Funding as a Challenge to Completion Rate of Basic Education in Enugu State

Ugwoke Chikaodili Juliet (Ph.D), Onyegiri Chikodi Dympna, Okwumuo,Victoria Nkiru, Ibekwe Obinna Paul – June 2022- Page No.: 234-242

It is an indisputable fact that the development of any nation is anchored on the level of accessibility to quality education by its citizens. Over the past decade, international communities have placed much energy on contributing at least a 20 percent improvement in child school enrolment without sufficient attention on retention and completion rates. Thus, 28.6% of the total populations of children (3-14) are dropouts. Primary school completion rates decreased from 88% in 2003 to 71% in 2008 slightly increased to 73.30% in 2010 and currently declined to 75% in 2020 in Enugu state. The dropout rates increases as age goes up, thus, the completion rate declined to 68% in junior secondary school mainly in rural areas of Enugu state. Based on this backdrop, the study explores the main factors influencing dropout in basic education. The design of the study is a descriptive research design. A composite sample of 500 respondents comprises the dropouts, their parents and head teachers are drawn from the 6 education zones in the state through Purposive sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed through both quantitative and qualitative means. The study found that 62.5% of households in Enugu state are absolutely poor; this gives rise to child poverty and deprivation of their education right and others. Withdrawal of children from school to street hawking and farming are seen as the option for economic survival. It was also found that the insufficient basic facilities in the schools, overloaded class rooms and distance to school lead to dropout in schools. Promoting completion rate of basic education requires that Enugu state government should raise its counterpart fund to enable it access 2% consolidated revenue fund, commit 14% to 20% of annual budgetary allocation to education sector as recommended by UNESCO and adequate financial aid grants should be offered to students who have been admitted to schools for basic education programmes and whose families demonstrate financial need.

Page(s): 234-242                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2022

 Ugwoke Chikaodili Juliet (Ph.D)
Department of Public Administration and Local government, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 Onyegiri Chikodi Dympna
Centre for Igbo studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 Okwumuo,Victoria Nkiru
Early Childhood Care and Education, Nwafor Orizu college of Education

 Ibekwe Obinna Paul
School of General Studies, Federal College of Education (Tech), Umunze

[1] BUDGIT (2021) Education Fund: Leaving no child behind 2021 education budget analysis. https://yourbudgit.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/2021-Education-Budget-Analysis-1.pdf
[2] Compulsory, Free Universal Basic Education Act, 2004
[3] Dachi , H.A. and R.M Garrett, R,M. (2015). child labour and its impact on children’s access to and participation in primary education
[4] Enugu State Ministry of Education (2014). Enugu state, Nigeria out-of-schoolchildren survey report.
[5] Ezugwu, N. (2018, May, 26). Transforming education: The Enugu state Example. Thisday
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[8] Ginikachi, A.F and Nath M. A, (2015). Primary school completion rates in Rivers state, Nigeria (2008 -2014): implications for millennium development goals. American Journal of Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 7, 2016, pp 539-550.
[9] Guardian (2021), Public schools in throes of poor infrastructure, learning facilities
[10] Idoko, C. (2020). UBEC Un-accessed matching grants hits N73bn.
[11] Kate, P. (2013, May, 8). Rising child poverty in the UK makes us all poorer. (The Guardian) https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/may/08/rising-child-poverty-uk-poorer
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[30] World Bank and United Nations Children’s Fund (2016). Nearly 385 million children living in extreme poverty.
[31] International centre for investigative reporting (2017).33 States, FCT yet to access UBEC’s N59.7B intervention fund

Ugwoke Chikaodili Juliet (Ph.D), Onyegiri Chikodi Dympna, Okwumuo,Victoria Nkiru, Ibekwe Obinna Paul “Child Poverty: Poor Counterpart Funding as a Challenge to Completion Rate of Basic Education in Enugu State ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.234-242 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/234-242.pdf

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Factors Affecting Career Planning of Bachelor of Arts Undergraduates in Sri Lanka

H.K. Liyanage; R.M.K.G.U. Rathnayaka – June 2022- Page No.: 243-251

In a dynamic labor market where the skills and job requirements demanded constantly changes affects the graduates of undergraduates, especially those following in the arts stream, career planning is important. In order to understand the career planning process to fill the gap between demand and supply of employment, the study aimed to identify the factors influencing career planning and to build a career planning model. The study considered a sample of 136 respondents following the Bachelor of Arts (Hons) program at the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. A path analysis was conducted along with a Spearman’s rho to test the hypothesized model developed using three career development theories, namely, Gottfredson’s Circumscription and Compromise, Social Cognitive Career Theory, and Self-Determination Theory, to a four-stage career planning model. The study identified that there are influential factors that directly influence in the career planning process while factors such as prior achievement indirectly influence in the career planning process

Page(s): 243-251                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6607

 H.K. Liyanage
Department of Social Statistics, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 R.M.K.G.U. Rathnayaka
Department of Social Statistics, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

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[6] Cheung, R., & Arnold, J. (2010). Antecedents of career exploration among Hong Kong Chinese university students: Testing contextual and developmental variables. Journal of VocationalBehavior,76(1),25–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.05.006
[7] Cochran, D. B., Wang, E. W., Stevenson, S. J., Johnson, L. E., & Crews, C. (2011). Adolescent occupational aspirations: Test of Gottfredson’s theory of circumscription and compromise. The Career Development Quarterly, 59(5), 412–427.
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H.K. Liyanage; R.M.K.G.U. Rathnayaka, “Factors Affecting Career Planning of Bachelor of Arts Undergraduates in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.243-251 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6607

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A Simplified Vector Autoregressive Model Application on The Philippine Economic Performance During the Period 1965-2010

Eric J. Nasution – June 2022- Page No.: 252-260

Let this study be known to many that the economic performance of the Marcos administration during the period 1965-1986, was significantly much better than that of the post-Marcos administration. It used a co-integration analysis and a comparison between the Marcos administration and other administrations’ economic performance. The time series variables are comprised of the Philippine GDP (ppp) or GDP, GDP yearly growth or GR, level of inflation or INF, capital formation as a percentage of GDP or CAP, and industry’s share in the economy or IND. It clearly summarized a much better economic performance under the Marcos administration, which many had regarded as a culprit. In the first research question, at an optimal lag of one (1), the ADF test shows that all unit root variables are stationary at first differences on the 5% level of significance, which therefore characterizes the time series data under Marcos administration as integrated at the first difference or I (1). So, all economic indicators seemed to be good predictors. The hypothesized equilibrium model for regressing the GDP (ppp) resulted as: GDP (1.000)=GR(2634.1)+INF(23137.7)+CAP(1241.1)+IND(-5884.4), shows degree of stability. The Granger-causality test statistics were applied to answer research question two on causality. It pointed to the need of continued industrialization in the country as CAP and IND Granger-caused Philippine GDP (ppp). While research question three simply compared the Marcos and other administrations’ economic performance, which mostly indicated better economic indicators. The study concluded that the Marcos administration’s economic performance were relatively better than those subsequent administrations. Let us ask the Lord for an intellectual maturity to comprehend what President Ferdinand E. Marcos had done for the Philippines. God bless all of us.

Page(s): 252-260                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2022

 Eric J. Nasution

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Eric J. Nasution “A Simplified Vector Autoregressive Model Application on The Philippine Economic Performance During the Period 1965-2010” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.252-260 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/252-260.pdf

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Effect of Financial Risks on Financial Performance of Tier One Commercial Banks in Kenya

Gloria Dhahabu, Gitonga Doreen, Barasa Eliakim, Moses Kiarie, Ruth Kibaara, Dismas Omimi, Evusa Zablon, Ngeta Jacqueline – June 2022- Page No.: 261-270

For a given time and a specific benchmark, an investment’s risk may be expressed as an uncertainty measure of the investment’s future reward. When business initiative fails to pay off, there is the potential for capital loss to those involved. Studying how Kenya’s tier one commercial banks financial performance is affected by financial risks is the main purpose of this research. The specific objectives of this study was to establish the effect of Liquidity risk, interest rate risk, credit risk, and foreign exchange risk on the financial performance of tier one commercial banks. The independent variable in this study were interest rate risk, liquidity risk, credit risk and exchange rate risk while the dependent variable was financial performance of tier 1 commercial banks in Kenya. This research employed a variety of theories which include; the loanable fund theory, information Asymmetry theory, purchasing power parity theory and the theory of bank liquidity. The financial statements of Kenya’s nine major commercial banks were utilized in this research. A simple research design was used in this investigation. The research employed Census sampling method that is, it focused on the nine-tier 1 CBK-licensed commercial banks. The secondary data information was obtained from audited financial statements of the commercial banks under study. The study covered a period of 5 years from 2016- 2020. The data was arranged and financial ratios calculated. IBM SPSS statistics version 22 was used to construct tables, charts, correlations, and regressions. The study found out that liquidity risk and Return on Assets are positively and significantly related (β=0.348, p=0.00), credit risk and Return on Assets are positively and insignificantly related (β=0.018, p=0.667), foreign exchange risk and Return on Assets are negatively and significantly related (β= -0.028, p=0.392) and Interest rate risk and Return on Assets is negatively and insignificantly related (β= -0.281, p= 0.155). The study concluded that liquidity risk and credit risk have a positively related to Return on Assets while foreign exchange risks and interest rate risk have negatively related to Return on Assets. The study recommends that tier one commercial banks should hold more of their assets in liquid form to enhance borrowing. Bank management should carry out a rigorous due diligence before loaning out their funds to avoid default risk. The central banks should reduce its reserves to enable commercial banks to have more liquid assets and money to loan because increase in reserves puts excessive strain on banks and reduces liquid assets.

Page(s): 261-270                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2022

 Gloria Dhahabu
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

 Gitonga Doreen
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

 Barasa Eliakim
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

 Moses Kiarie
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

 Ruth Kibaara
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

 Dismas Omimi
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

 Evusa Zablon
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

 Ngeta Jacqueline
School of Business, South Eastern Kenya University

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Gloria Dhahabu, Gitonga Doreen, Barasa Eliakim, Moses Kiarie, Ruth Kibaara, Dismas Omimi, Evusa Zablon, Ngeta Jacqueline , “Effect of Financial Risks on Financial Performance of Tier One Commercial Banks in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.261-270 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/261-270.pdf

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Perceptions of headteachers and teachers on the Annual Performance Appraisal System in selected primary schools of Lusaka District

Jenipher Nyeleti – Chisefu, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Angel Kabwe Chisefu, Kaiko Mubita, Kasonde Mundende and Inonge Milupi – June 2022- Page No.: 271-285

The study explored perceptions of head teachers and teachers on the Annual Performance Appraisal System (APAS) in selected primary schools of Lusaka District. The study was exploratory in nature and located within an interpretive qualitative research design. The study objectives were threefold: (i) to explore perceptions head teachers and teachers hold concerning the Annual Performance Appraisal System (APAS); (ii) to establish ways in which APAS had motivated teachers in primary schools (iii) to ascertain levels of teacher satisfaction on the use of Annual performance Appraisal System. The sample comprised twenty participants; five head teachers and fifteen class teachers.
The study revealed that teachers lacked proper understanding of APAS which consequently led to the development of negative perceptions and attitudes towards the system. The study revealed that the majority of teachers did not see the importance of APAS in their career because the system was perceived as an academic exercise without tangible results. It was further revealed that the majority of teachers were not motivated with appraisal systems, and that head teachers were not providing appropriate guidance and initiating programme to build capacity in teachers. In addition, teachers were dissatisfied with APAS because teachers were not well inducted about the appraisal process as coaching and monitoring appeared inadequate. The study revealed that supervisors involved in appraisal process lacked necessary skills of evaluating teachers. One of the major recommendations made by this study was that the MoE should provide in-house training through workshops to ensure that supervisors involved in appraising teachers acquired requisite skills for conducting teacher appraisals.

Page(s): 271-285                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2022

 Jenipher Nyeleti – Chisefu
River of Blessing Bible College, Lusaka, Zambia

 Kalisto Kalimaposo
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education.

 Angel Kabwe Chisefu
River of Blessing Bible College, Lusaka, Zambia

 Kaiko Mubita
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Kasonde Mundende
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

 Inonge Milupi
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Science Education

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Jenipher Nyeleti – Chisefu, Kalisto Kalimaposo, Angel Kabwe Chisefu, Kaiko Mubita, Kasonde Mundende and Inonge Milupi “Perceptions of headteachers and teachers on the Annual Performance Appraisal System in selected primary schools of Lusaka District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.271-285 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/271-285.pdf

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Relationship Between the Availability of Instructional Resources and Teachers’ Attitude Towards Adoption of a Competency-Based System of Education in Lower Primary Schools in Nairobi City County

Susan Mukami Mutonya, Dr. Nyakwara Begi – June 2022- Page No.: 286-292

Competence-Based education is a system that gives more significance to acquiring competencies instead of acquiring content knowledge. Teachers are critical components in the adoption of any new system of education. Teachers’ attitude is crucial in ensuring that teachers are prepared and motivated to adopt and implement the change. Attitude can influence the adoption process, thus affecting the implementation process. This study specifically explored the relationship between the availability of instructional resources and teachers’ attitudes towards adopting a competency-based system of education in lower primary schools. The theory of educational change guided the study. A descriptive research design was adopted. The target population of this study was 206 respondents from 103 public and private schools in Langata Sub-county, Nairobi City County. The sample size was 62 respondents consisting of lower primary school teachers and the head teachers. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used. The study ensured the content validity of instruments by piloting research instruments and providing they aligned with the research objectives. Cronbach alpha coefficient was applied to measure the reliability of the instruments. To collect the data, questionnaires and interview guides were used. Data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS), descriptive statistics, and presented results using tables and figures. The results indicated that most institutions had adequate instructional resources like curriculum design and materials for lesson development. The relationship between the availability of instructional resources and teachers’ attitude toward the adoption of CBE was significant at .05 level. The study concludes that the availability of instructional resources influenced teachers’ attitudes towards adopting a competency-based education system. It is recommended that the school management ensure the full provision of instructional resources to enhance the successful adoption and implementation process of CBE. Teachers should be encouraged to attend more training on competence-based curriculum to help them learn and acquire skills on effective ways to assess the learners in competency-based assessment.

Page(s): 286-292                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2022

 Susan Mukami Mutonya
P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

 Dr. Nyakwara Begi
Senior Lecturer, Department of Early Childhood & Special Needs Education Kenyatta University P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

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Susan Mukami Mutonya, Dr. Nyakwara Begi, “Relationship Between the Availability of Instructional Resources and Teachers’ Attitude Towards Adoption of a Competency-Based System of Education in Lower Primary Schools in Nairobi City County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.286-292 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/286-292.pdf

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Female Farmer Group Empowerment by Applying Hydroponic Planting System for Mustard Greens in Cikoneng Sub-District, Ciamis District, Indonesia

Wida Pradiana, Suryo Ediyono – June 2022- Page No.: 293-298

This study investigates the empowerment of female farmer groups with the application of a hydroponic system in Cikoneng sub-district, Ciamis District. This study aims to describe the application of a hydroponic planting system, analyze the factors that influence the application of a hydroponic planting system, and formulate strategies to improve the application of the hydroponic planting system. The study was carried out for three months (March-June 2021) in three designated villages of Kujang Village, Nasol Village, and Cimari Village. Determination of the sample used the census technique with the criteria that all-female farmers in the female farmer group have farming businesses with a total of 75 people. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaire contained questions related to variables. The data analysis used was descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the factors affecting the empowerment of female farmer groups with the application of hydroponic planting systems on mustard greens cover the role of extension workers and the role of female farmer groups. Based on the results of regression and descriptive analysis, the strategy used was to provide counseling in the form of transferring knowledge and persuading female farmer groups to apply hydroponic planting systems

Page(s): 293-298                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2022

 Wida Pradiana
Doctoral Study Program of Development Extension, Health Promotion Major, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

 Suryo Ediyono
Faculty of Cultural Studies, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia

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The Effect of National Poverty on Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students: A Case Study of the Western Rural District of Freetown in Sierra Leone

Alhajie Bakar Kamara – June 2022- Page No.: 299-389

Poverty and education are inseparably connected. The present literature covers a variety of topics such as the effect of poverty on students’ literacy, numeracy skills, etc. But how poverty affects secondary students’ academic performance comprehensively is yet to be researched, especially in the countries which are the poorest in the world. This study focused on the Western Rural District of Freetown, the capital city of Sierra Leone which is one of the ten poorest countries in the world, as a case to investigate the effect of its poverty on the secondary students’ academic performance.
The study focused specifically on students in Junior Secondary School from three aspects: Home, School, and Society. The population for this study comprised of students of junior secondary schools, parents and guardians, Integrated Science teachers of Freetown in the western district area during the 2018/2019 academic year. Data was collected from 375 sample respondents in 15 schools; 30 teachers (two teachers from each school), 300 students (20 in each school), 45 parents or guardians (3 from each school), using a questionnaire, interviews, and Focus Group Discussion.
Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the prevalence of poverty in schools, homes and then the environment has greatly hindered the academic performance of school-going children. Firstly, schools’ poor facilities hinder teachers’ effective teaching and students’ learning. The school administrations cannot provide enough school materials due to a lack of funds to buy the necessary item for effective availability and accessibility. Teachers are poorly paid and not motivated for the work and their salaries and sources of income do not meet their daily needs. Many schools cannot afford to buy textbooks for the use of teachers and students in their schools, therefore some teachers stills depend on old notes that are outdated in teaching kids. Researches showed that the availability of school facilities such as school material, science laboratories, good toilets, good ventilation, spacious class, adequate teaching and learning materials, good infrastructure, the motivation of teachers, libraries, textbooks, etc., promote the academic performance of students in schools. But when such school facilities lack in the schools, teachers will experience constraints, students will lack education, and it will result in poor performance of students.
Secondly, poor families prevent students’ studying well both at home and at school. The majority of the parents cannot provide the required needs of the students such as daily meals, good home, and daily lunch for school, transport fare to and from school. The students find it too difficult to study because of hunger in the houses, hunger in school (small money for lunch or without). This affects student concentration and limits the rate of understanding the lesson the teacher teaches in class. At home also, it prevents students from concentrating on their studies. The majority of the parents are dropouts from school by have stopped at primary or secondary education. Other parents never went to school. The limited knowledge in education made some parents lack the aspirations and support in investing in education. Parents give too much housework to their children at home than assisting them to study. They expose their children to too much idling for a long time in watching films/movies and football leagues, which to some extent limits the students’ concentration in academic work at home. Most of them do not have a home on their own and living in rented rooms with others, so the children are found with a lot of influences beyond the control of the parent. They cannot pay their children’s school fees on time due to the poor state of their conditions. In most cases, their children are asked out of class when their other classmates are being taught. By the time they could settle for class, they have lost the last lesson taught, so it leads them to failure.
Thirdly, due to the poor condition of the school and social environment, there was no attraction to motivate the teacher’s teaching and the students learning. Too many ghettoes, clubs within the environment is a sign of poverty within that locality as they are centers for frustrated, dropouts, and idling persons. Students may pay homage to such places whereby their education is affected, and their academic performance hindered.
Of course, we believe that students, especially secondary students, have the agency to some degree, and can reduce themselves the influence of poverty on their academic performance. In other words, poverty is not the sole factor to affect students’ academic performance. Therefore, the study finally proposed some recommendations to lessen the influence of poverty on secondary students.

Page(s): 299-389                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2022

 Alhajie Bakar Kamara
Specialty: Curriculum and Instruction
Research Area: Curriculum and Instruction
College of Education, Central China Normal University

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Alhajie Bakar Kamara, “The Effect of National Poverty on Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students: A Case Study of the Western Rural District of Freetown in Sierra Leone” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.299-389 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/299-389.pdf

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Assessment of the Suitability of River Rutu for Irrigation purposes in Kokona, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

M.Y Adana, N.M Idris and M.K Dahiru – June 2022- Page No.: 390-393

The utilization of water high in ionic content may eventually lead to build up of substances in the soil at a level likely to affect the soil productivity and reduce in yields of crops. With this point, the suitability of River Rutu for irrigation purposes was attempted to ascertain the level of concentration of some of the parameters used in assessing water for irrigation. The study employed sampling at different points where 3 samples each were taken at the up stream, mid-stream and down stream of the river for both dry and wet seasons. The parameters analysed in the laboratory were pH, HCO3, CO3, Ca, Mg, TDS, B, EC, N, Na, NO3, SO4 and the suitability of the concentration of the parameters were determined through RSC, SAR, KI, MR. The results shows the mean values for SAR in both dry and wet seasons as 0.654meq/l and 0.6211meq/l respectively. RSC mean value for dry season is -16.85meq/l. However, the mean value for wet season was pegged at 10.9388meq/l. Based on the findings from the analysis on MR, the mean value was seen as 32.8711meq/l, for wet season and the dry season had 35.8950meq/l mean value. Kelley’s Ratio was measured at mean value of 0.073meq/l for dry season and wet season stood at 0.0542meq/l mean value. The study concluded that the results from the sampled water of River Rutu is good for irrigation regardless of seasonal variations and recommended that the water quality is good and can support all types of crops. Therefore, the Local and State Governments should provide loans and support farmers in Rutu to boost irrigation in the area in order to improve the nation’s agricultural value chain

Page(s): 390-393                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2022

 M.Y Adana
Department of Environmental Management, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

 N.M Idris
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

 M.K Dahiru
Department of Geography, Federal University of Lafia, Nigeria

References are not available

M.Y Adana, N.M Idris and M.K Dahiru “Assessment of the Suitability of River Rutu for Irrigation purposes in Kokona, Nasarawa State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.390-393 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/390-393.pdf

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Design, Extent of Use and Usefulness of Instructional Materials by Student Teachers on Teaching Practice –The Mentors’ Assessment

Peter Haruna – June 2022- Page No.: 394-398

Instructional materials (IM) play an essential role in the teaching and learning process. This study aimed at assessing Mentors’ assessment of the design and utilization of instructional materials by Student Teachers of St. Joseph’s College of Education, Bechem who were on a four months teaching practice in selected Basic Schools in the Tano North and South Municipalities of the Ahafo regions as well as the Ahafo-Ano South-East District and Ahafo-Ano North Municipality of the Ashanti region. The study adopted the survey research design. 150 mentors in 50 partner (Junior High) schools were used for the study. Three mentors were randomly selected from each school for the study. The research instrument was a five-point scale questionnaire with 9 items adopted from the PatternonPrince Edward Island Evaluation and Selection of Learning Resources survey form. The instrument had three domains; Instructional Design, Extent of Use and Usefulness. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation and simple percentages. The analysis indicated that instructional materials prepared by the Student Teachers were Very Useful (Mean = 3.73), effective, engaging and well designed. They strongly agreed that the Student Teachers Very Often (Mean = 3.77) used instructional materials in their lesson delivery.

Page(s): 394-398                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6608

 Peter Haruna
St. Joseph’s College of Education, Bechem, Ghana

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[8] Ayerteye, E. A., Kpeyibor, P. F., & Boye-Laryea, J. L. (2019). Examining the use of Teaching and Learning Materials (TLM) methods in Basic School Level by Socials Studies teachers in Ghana: A tracer study . Journal of African Studies and Ethnographic Research, 1(1), 54-65. Retrieved from https://royalliteglobal.com/african studies/article/view/28
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[12] Enaigbe, A.P. (2009). Strategies for improving supervisory skills for effective primary education in Nigeria. Journal of counseling, 2 (2) 235-244.
[13] Funcion, D.G. D. (2019). Student Perception on the Extent Use of Instructional Material in Teaching Computer Organization Course. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 3(4), 364-370
[14] Gene, S. K. & Acquah E. O. (2020). Instructional materials and resources for teaching Performing Arts in Wa Municipality, Ghana. British Journal of Education, Learning and Development Psychology 4(2), 43-63. www.abjournals.org
[15] Igbo, J. N. & Omeje, J. C. (2014). Perceived Efficacy of Teacher-Made Instructional Materials in Promoting Learning among Mathematics-Disabled Children. SAGE open
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[17] Mbaegbu, N. O., Unamma, A. O., Ede, A. O., Okorie, I. D., Ohuakanwa, O. S., Odupute, C. N., Zubair, A. I., Chima, O. C., Ihunda, M., Mbagwu, G. C., Opara, E. C. & Akpelu, A. U. (2021a). Availability and Utilization of Instructional Materials in Teaching and Learning of Basic Science in Secondary Schools in Owerri Municipal Council, Imo State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Research and Method in Education (IOSR-JRME). 11(4 Ser. IV), 45-50. www.iosrjournals.org.
[18] Mbaegbu, N. O., Unamma, A. O., Okorie, I. D., Ohuakanwa, O. S., Odupute, C. N., Zubair, A. I., Chima, Onyekachi, C., Ihunda, M., Mbagwu G. C., Opara, E. C. & Akpelu, A. U. (2021b). Factors affecting the selection of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of basic science in secondary schools, Imo State Nigeria. World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 2021, 11(03), 399–404 https://doi.org/10.30574/wjarr.2021.11.3.0449
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Peter Haruna, “Design, Extent of Use and Usefulness of Instructional Materials by Student Teachers on Teaching Practice –The Mentors’ Assessment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.394-398 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6608

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An Exploratory Study on Information Security Vulnerabilities in Higher Education: Case of University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

H. A. Seneviratne, M. Thenabadu, W.M.G.K. Wijerathne – June 2022- Page No.: 399-403

The study investigates the University of Vocational Technology’s Information System’s (IS) security vulnerabilities. Aim of the study is to investigate general system security vulnerabilities, staff opinion on potential vulnerabilities of the system in relation to the CIA Triad and to identify measures to address vulnerability issues. Multiple data collection methods, such as questionnaire, observation, and focus group discussion, are used in case-study approach. According to the findings, hardware and software vulnerabilities indicated the highest possible occurrence (22%) and the occurrence of emanation vulnerabilities indicated the least (2 %) under identified general vulnerabilities. Findings of staff opinion on the IS security implemented in the University information system in terms of CIA triad, revealed that, majority were dissatisfied with the confidentiality, integrity and availability factors Hence, overall IS security satisfaction among university staff was found to be inadequate.
According to the results of the observations and focus group discussions the University of Vocational Technology’s information system was discovered to be highly vulnerable. The system performed poorly in all aspects of the CIA Triad, indicating that the system’s overall vulnerability is high. A number of recommendations are made based on focus group discussions to mitigate IS security vulnerabilities in the studied environment. The major recommendations are, improve information security awareness of staff, develop operator guidelines and develop and implement a successful vulnerability management programme for the University. Further, the study’s findings add to the body of knowledge of empirical studies relevant to the CIA Triad.

Page(s): 399-403                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2022

 H. A. Seneviratne
Department of Multimedia and Web Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

 M. Thenabadu
Department of Agriculture and Food Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka

 W.M.G.K. Wijerathne
TECH- CERT, Pvt Ltd.,1 st Floor Bernard Business Park, N0106, Dutugemunu St, Dehiwala Sri Lanka

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H. A. Seneviratne, M. Thenabadu, W.M.G.K. Wijerathne “An Exploratory Study on Information Security Vulnerabilities in Higher Education: Case of University of Vocational Technology, Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.399-403 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/399-403.pdf

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Effects of Funeral Celebration on Church Activities: A Study of Selected Branches of The Church of Pentecost Among the Birifor Ethnic Group of Ghana

Emmanuel Foster Asamoah, Jones Dwomoh Amankwah – June 2022- Page No.: 404-410

The study assessed the effects of funeral celebrations on church activities with reference to The Church of Pentecost. Data was sourced through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The study focused on the Birifor ethnic group in the Savanna Region of Ghana. The findings underscore the likelihood that people belonging to the Birifor ethnic group over rate funerals. For instance, they would put everything on hold if a family member, distant or nuclear, kicks the bucket. This tends to impact negatively on church activities; church attendance is always low during funerals. Members do not participate fully in church activities; they tend to have divided attention even at church. The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study: there is the need for the church to piggy-back on funerals to engage in active evangelism. There is the need for the church to accept the culture of the people and tailor their programmes to suit it by adopting and contextualizing their funeral celebrations to eliminate inherent practices that contradict Christian values. In addition, the church might want to intensify education on cultural issues in such a way that members become aware of where they ought to stand as Christians.

Page(s): 404-410                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6609

 Emmanuel Foster Asamoah
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Religious Studies

 Jones Dwomoh Amankwah
Pentecost University, School of Theology, Mission and Leadership (STML), Department of Theology Student

Primary
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Emmanuel Foster Asamoah, Jones Dwomoh Amankwah , “Effects of Funeral Celebration on Church Activities: A Study of Selected Branches of The Church of Pentecost Among the Birifor Ethnic Group of Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.404-410 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6609

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Paternalistic dominance: a system of social relations that controls women in Tanzania

Ludovick Myumbo – June 2022- Page No.: 411-419

Participatory narrative inquiry (PNI) was used to a group of six young women to create a space to recount their lived experiences. This was import given that women in some societies in Tanzania are socialized to accept a lesser status than their counterparts in exchange for protection and privilege, forming a relationship that is likened to paternalistic dominance. Regrettably, such gendered relations dominate and diminish women’s opportunities for self-actualization and wellbeing. At the end, a call is made to effectively challenge and dismantle a system that controls and dominates women and nature.

Page(s): 411-419                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2022

 Ludovick Myumbo
St. Augustine University of Tanzania

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Ludovick Myumbo “Paternalistic dominance: a system of social relations that controls women in Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.411-419 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/411-419.pdf

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Factors of Competitiveness, Organizational Performance and Financial Performance in Asean Integration Among Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Davao Del Sur

Michelle A. Alcebar – June 2022- Page No.: 420-423

30 MSMEs assisted by DOST under SETUP in Davao del Sur is presented. Innovation advantage and customer value advantage were the essential factors of competitiveness. Entrepreneurial orientation, strategic marketing, and strategic finance were the essential factors of organizational performance. Satisfaction growth, return on investment, and improving living standards were the essential factors of financial performance. Innovation advantage and entrepreneurial orientation were significant factors that affect satisfaction growth. Innovation advantage and strategic finance were significant factors that affect the return on investment (ROI) and entrepreneurial orientation, strategic marketing, and customer value advantage were significant factors that affect the improved life standard of MSMEs in Davao del Sur.

Page(s): 420-423                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2022

 Michelle A. Alcebar
Institute of Business Education and Governance
DSSC, Digos City, Philippines

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Michelle A. Alcebar, “Factors of Competitiveness, Organizational Performance and Financial Performance in Asean Integration Among Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Davao Del Sur” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.420-423 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/420-423.pdf

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The Adolescents, the Vulnerable Group: A Case Study of the Informal and Formal Settlements in Epworth

Kenneth T. Mashonganyika – June 2022- Page No.: 424-432

Adolescence is a fascinating, interesting and challenging period of human growth and development. This is a period of great physical, social, emotional, physiological and psychological change. The adolescent is neither a child nor an adult but is on the threshold of adulthood. The adolescence period is characterised by the search for and consolidation of identity. In different cultures, it is a period of initiation characterised by circumcision (boys) and with girls, it is a time they experience their growth spurt (menarche). It should be noted, however, that this is not a chance phenomenon: it occurs as a result of the fact that girls are born with more mature skeletons and nervous systems, Mwamwenda (2003). This article concentrates on vulnerability and child abuse, especially the girl child because girls are the most vulnerable group in all cultures and societies of the world. It is estimated that 25-50% of adolescents are exposed to risk behaviours with negative health and behavioural outcomes such as drug abuse, crime, unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). Topics covered in this article are:
1. Child maltreatment
2. Substance abuse
3. Delinquency
4. Sexuality
5. Suicide ideations
Due to the paucity of literature regarding parent attitudes toward adolescent problems, the subject is covered only in a limited fashion. However, there is a growing concern that young people need to be aware of the interventions available to them regardless of the little knowledge of adolescent perceptions of these problems. Although education can teach the young people what support is available, they will not seek help if they, themselves, do not perceive the existence of a problem. Therefore more research is needed to survey adolescent attitudes toward the various high at-risk behaviours as well as determine how to promote help-seeking behaviours and positive youth development, WHO (2016).

Page(s): 424-432                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2022

 Kenneth T. Mashonganyika
Adventist University of Africa

[1] An extraction (article) from the proposed project (2018-2020): A Skills Acquisition Programme to Empower Young Girls in the Satellite Town of Epworth in Harare.
[2] General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventist Church, (2018) Youth Alive Handbook.www.youthaliveportal.org Accessed September 2019.
[3] T. Seifert, et al (2018 revised edition) Skill transfer, Expertise and Talent Development (Cork, Ireland: Cork Institute of Technology Pvt Ltd).
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[8] Aisha Mehnaz (2013), Child Neglect: Wider Dimensions JP Medical Ltd ISBN 9350904497.Accessed February 23, 2017.
[9] Glenn Myers Blair et al (2011), Dynamic Jomography with a Prior Information (New York: McMillan Publishing Co. Inc.).
[10] Ibid.,15-20.
[11] Ibid.,20-25.
[12] Inhelder and Piaget (2022), Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development (updated)(Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
[13] Ibid.,10.
[14] John W. Creswell (2014), Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches(Los Angeles: Sage Publications Ltd).
[15] William S. Hancock et al (2011), Contemporary Research – Language of Psychopaths (Los Angeles, Sage Publications Ltd).
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[17] Sal Chaman(2011-2018), Sensing Research in India (Research Gate GmbH Kuvempu University).
[18] Peter Birmingham and David Wilkinson(2003), Using Research Instruments: A Guide for Researchers (Routledge Taylor and Francis Group).
[19] World Health Organisation, (2016), Child Abuse and Neglect by Parents/Caregivers. Accessed March 4, 2016.
[20] Alice Miller (2015) Child Abuse and Mistreatment. Accessed March 5, 2015.
[21] J. Martin et al (2010), Child Abuse and Neglect. Accessed March 8, 2015.
[22] Ibid.,p10.
[23] General Conference of the Seventh–Day Adventist (2018), Youth Alive Handbook, American Psychological Association. Accessed December 17, 2017.
[24] D. Theokliton et al (2012), Physical and Emotional Abuse of Adolescents by Teachers. Accessed March 20, 2012.
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Kenneth T. Mashonganyika “The Adolescents, the Vulnerable Group: A Case Study of the Informal and Formal Settlements in Epworth ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.424-432 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/424-432.pdf

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Determining the relationship between restructuring and organisational effectiveness in Igara Growers Tea Factory in Uganda

Asuman Bateyo, Prof. Emuron Lydia., Dr. Tumwesigye George, Dr. Aluonzi Buran, Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire – June 2022- Page No.: 433-439

This study aimed at determining the relationship between restructuring and organisational effectiveness in Igara Growers Tea Factory in Bushenyi District. The study used a pragmatic philosophy, mixed methods approach using cross sectional and correlation designs for quantitative and phenomenological design for qualitative approacheswith a sample size of 224 respondents. Data were collected using non-standardised instruments and in-depth interviews. The parametric tests were performed and all passed the linearity requirements. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient, regression analysis and thematic content analysis. The findings revealed that there was no significant relationship between restructuring and organisational effectiveness.It was concluded that restructuringif well applied can lead to improved organisational effectiveness in the Igara Growers Tea Factory Bushenyi district in Uganda.Thus, the study recommended that there is need for the factory to review implementation of restructuring programs inform of creation of economic models, redesigning work architecture and aligning physical infrastructure to reverse its negative effect on organisational effectiveness

Page(s): 433-439                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 July 2022

 Asuman Bateyo
Kampala International University Uganda

 Prof. Emuron Lydia
Kampala International University Uganda

 Dr. Tumwesigye George
Kampala International University Uganda

 Dr. Aluonzi Buran
Kampala International University Uganda

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire
Kampala International University Uganda

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Asuman Bateyo, Prof. Emuron Lydia., Dr. Tumwesigye George, Dr. Aluonzi Buran, Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire, “Determining the relationship between restructuring and organisational effectiveness in Igara Growers Tea Factory in Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.433-439 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/433-439.pdf

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English Language Teachers’ Attitude towards Fante – English Code-Switching and Its Pedagogic Functions in Ghanaian Primary Schools

Stephen Acquah – June 2022- Page No.: 440-449

In as much as some experts advocate the sole use of target language as the medium of instruction, others advocate a bilingual mode of classroom instruction such as code-switching, making code-switching in the language classroom a debatable issue of concern. This study therefore investigated English Language teachers’ attitude towards the socio-linguistic phenomenon of code-switching and its pedagogic relevance resulting from the types of code-switching utilized in the language classroom. In order to provide an in-depth information on code-switching during classroom discourse, case study research design was adopted. Nine upper primary English Language teachers and their respective learners were purposively sampled from 3 public basic schools in Yamoransa within the Mfantseman Municipality. Qualitative data in the form of interview and observation were collected and analysed using discourse analysis method. The study revealed that teachers have predominantly positive attitude towards code-switching and they use intersentential, intrasentential and tag switching during English language lessons as an integral pedagogic resource to enhance learners’ understanding and vocabulary acquisition. In view of this, it is recommended that both teacher trainees and practicing English language teachers should be educated on the existing types of code-switching and how to use them strategically to induce learning and enhance acquisition of the English language

Page(s): 440-449                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2022

 Stephen Acquah
University of Cape Coast, Ghana

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Stephen Acquah “English Language Teachers’ Attitude towards Fante – English Code-Switching and Its Pedagogic Functions in Ghanaian Primary Schools” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.440-449 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/440-449.pdf

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Determining the relationship between transformational style of leadership and retention of teachers in private secondary schools in Bushenyi district, Uganda

Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire, Mubehamwe Janan – June 2022- Page No.: 450-459

This study determined the relationship between transformational leadership styles and retention of teachers in Bushenyi district, Uganda. The study adopted the correlational and cross-sectional designs and data was collected using a self-administered questionnaires as well as interview guides on a sample of 107 secondary school teachers. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential analyses. Descriptive results revealed that there was moderate use transactional leadership and it had a positive significant relationship with retention of teachers. Therefore, it was concluded that transformational leadership is imperative for retention of teachers though is not the most probable leadership style for retention of teachers. The recommendation of the study was that head teachers should make it a priority to be transformational in their leadership and should limit their use it.

Page(s): 450-459                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2022

 Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire
Valley University of Science and Technology

 Mubehamwe Janan
Valley University of Science and Technology

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Dr. Benard Nuwatuhaire, Mubehamwe Janan, “Determining the relationship between transformational style of leadership and retention of teachers in private secondary schools in Bushenyi district, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.450-459 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/450-459.pdf

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Undergraduates’ Knowledge and Practice of Covid 19 Preventive Measures in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State

Abanobi, C. C. (Ph.D), Nwaozor, Christopher Zenoyi, Okonye, Clementina Obiageri – June 2022- Page No.: 460-468

This study investigated undergraduates’ knowledge and practice of COVID 19 preventive measures in tertiary institutions in Delta State. Three research questions and six null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. 1,460 undergraduates in various tertiary institutions in Delta State comprised the study sample. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled ‘Knowledge and Practice of COVID 19 Preventive Measures among Undergraduates Questionnaire (KPCPMUQ)’. The KPCPMUQ was validated by measurement and evaluation experts. The reliability coefficient of KPCPMUQ was 0.81. Mean and standard deviation statistics were used to answer the research questions. T-t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that undergraduates in tertiary institutions in Delta State to a high extent have knowledge of COVID 19, and the extent of undergraduates’ knowledge of COVID 19 in tertiary institutions in Delta State did not differ significantly based on gender and school type. Undergraduates in tertiary institutions in Delta State to a high extent have knowledge of COVID-19 preventive measures, and, the extent of undergraduates’ knowledge of preventive measures of COVID 19 in tertiary institutions in Delta State based on gender and school type did not differ significantly. Undergraduates in various institutions in Delta State to a low extent practice COVID-19 preventive measures, and, the extent of undergraduates’ practice of COVID 19 preventive measures in tertiary institutions in Delta State did not differ significantly based on gender and school type. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that the Federal and State governments should make health policies and enforce same to ensure strict compliance to COVID-19 preventive measures in the society. Authorities of tertiary institutions should assist government agencies to ensure that undergraduates strictly comply with NCDC COVID-19 regulations for educational institutions in Nigeria.

Page(s): 460-468                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2022

 Abanobi, C. C. (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Psychology, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Nigeria

 Nwaozor, Christopher Zenoyi
Department of Educational Psychology, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Nigeria

 Okonye, Clementina Obiageri
Department of Educational Psychology, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Nigeria

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Abanobi, C. C. (Ph.D), Nwaozor, Christopher Zenoyi, Okonye, Clementina Obiageri “Undergraduates’ Knowledge and Practice of Covid 19 Preventive Measures in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-6, pp.460-468 June 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-6/460-468.pdf

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Critical Appraisal of the Central Bank of Nigeria (Amendment) Act, 2007: A Panacea for Stronger Central Banking in Africa

Dr. Onwudinjo Louis Ejike – June 2022- Page No.: 469-476

This study critically appraised the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (Amendment) Act of 2007 with a view of preferring suggestions for stronger central banking in Africa. The Act was critically reviewed and compared with major central banks in the World. Findings revealed amongst others that independence of the CBN is the greatest innovation brought about by the Act, but the independency has not influenced the development of the country’s economy. Secondly, the Act did not incl