The Role of Sorghum Legume Intercroping System in Improving Soil Productivity on Small Holder Farmers in Western Kenya

Josephine Barasa, Julius Ochuodho, Syphyline Kebeney, Augustine Wafula Barasa – July 2022- Page No.: 01-08

Declining crops yield in the smallholder farmers cropping systems of sub-Saharan African (SSA) present the need to develop more sustainable production systems. Depletion of essential plant nutrients from the soils have been cited as the main contributing factors due to continues cultivation of cereal crops without application of organic/ inorganic fertilizers. Field experiments to evaluate effect of phosphorus (P) fertilizers, organic and integration of legumes in sorghum cropping systems on soil, available nitrogen (N) and P, were conducted in Busia County of Kenya during the short (SRS) and long rain seasons (LRS) of 2016 and LRS of 2017 respectively. The experiments comprised either soybean, common bean groundnut or sesame grown with sorghum. The design was a split plot in a randomized complete block design. Main plots were fertilizer inputs; Mavuno, FYM or their combination. Subplots comprised of the legume intercrops mentioned above. Application of Mavuno, FYM or their combination resulted in significantly higher legume, sesame crop yields above the control in the second season. Legume crops due to their N-fixation, litter fall and mineralization made availability of P and N. possible. Application of Mavuno, FYM or their combination gave comparable results with respect to the intercrop yields. Since FYM and (Mavuno+FYM) is cheaper than Mavuno, growing either soybean, common bean groundnut or sesame intercropping system with sorghum with application of the above is recommended for improved legume grain yields and soil fertility improvement.

Page(s): 01-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6701

 Josephine Barasa
University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Soil Science

 Dr. Boludola Gbemisola OWOLABI
University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Soil Science

 Syphyline Kebeney
University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Soil Science

 Augustine Wafula Barasa
University of Eldoret, School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development

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Josephine Barasa, Julius Ochuodho, Syphyline Kebeney, Augustine Wafula Barasa “The Role of Sorghum Legume Intercroping System in Improving Soil Productivity on Small Holder Farmers in Western Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.01-08 July 2022 DOI:

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Music Administration in Ghana: Examining the Implications and Parameters for Delegating Authority

Gayheart Mawuli Mesiotso – July 2022- Page No.: 09-16

Contextually, this paper employed the principle of line and staff administrative structure by Henri Fayol and the bureaucratic management theory by Max Weber to critically examine communication flow in the administration of Cultural Education in the Ghana Education Service. Attention is also drawn to the parameters and implications for delegation of authority in the service. Discussions were by extension centered on: the organizational structure for Music Administration in the Ghana Education Service as well as the duties and responsibilities of the officers. An interview section with regional and district coordinators produced data for analysis. The study found that; 1. The Cultural Unit across the continuum is hierarchically structured with specific rules governing the exercising of authority at each level, and appointments to positions are grounded in absolute technical competence. 2. Power is vested in the official positions and not in the personalities in charge of these posts. 3. The activities of the Cultural Coordinators extend beyond the organization of cultural festivals for pre-tertiary schools to the monitoring of pedagogical practices in the first and second cycle schools. Culture solidarizes nations with diverse ethnic groups, it is an economic asset, and by extension offers a sense of responsibility that makes people feel connected to their communities. It is, therefore, necessary to have adequate attention paid to its generational transfer to ensure continuity

Page(s): 09-16                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6702

 Gayheart Mawuli Mesiotso
University of Cape Coast, Ghana

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Gayheart Mawuli Mesiotso , “Music Administration in Ghana: Examining the Implications and Parameters for Delegating Authority” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.09-16 July 2022 DOI:

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Experience of Single Motherhood in Interpersonal Growth: A Case of Umoja Embakasi West Sub-County Nairobi, Kenya

Veronicah Njeri Njuguna, Dr. Elizabeth Ngozi Okpalaenwe, Dr. Elijah Macharia Ndung’u – July 2022- Page No.: 17-25

This study focused on the experience of single motherhood in interpersonal growth among single mothers of Umoja Embakasi West Sub-county Nairobi, Kenya. The resilience theory informed the study by Norman Garmezy and the self-determination theory of psychologists Edward Deci and Richard Ryan. The study objective was to establish the attitude of the general population toward single motherhood by single mothers at Umoja Embakasi West Sub-county Nairobi. The researcher adopted a phenomenological design to capture the meaning the single mothers at Umoja give to the phenomena of single motherhood and interpersonal growth. The study used a homogenous population of Christian women at Umoja Embakasi West Sub-County Nairobi with a target population of single mothers. A snowball sampling method was adopted to get a sample size of 27 single mothers currently bringing up a biological or adopted child/ren. The researcher adopted a semi-structured interview guide for data collection through face-to-face interviews for 19 single mothers and a focused group discussion guide for eight single mothers. The collected data were transcribed, coded for themes and analysed thematically through content analysis based on the research objectives. The results revealed that single mothers are misunderstood, stigmatized, and rejected by the general population in Umoja Embakasi West Sub-county Nairobi, Kenya.

Page(s): 17-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2022

 Veronicah Njeri Njuguna
Psychospiritual Institute Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Dr. Elizabeth Ngozi Okpalaenwe
Psychospiritual Institute Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Dr. Elijah Macharia Ndung’u
Psycho Spiritual Institute of lux Terra Leadership Foundation, An Affiliate of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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Veronicah Njeri Njuguna, Dr. Elizabeth Ngozi Okpalaenwe, Dr. Elijah Macharia Ndung’u “Experience of Single Motherhood in Interpersonal Growth: A Case of Umoja Embakasi West Sub-County Nairobi, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.17-25 July 2022 URL:

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The Influence of Educational Mobile Apps Use on Teaching Effectiveness of Lecturers in Public Polytechnics in Ekiti and Ondo states, Nigeria

William, Kayode, Soyemi, O. D., Ajagunna, Adedayo E., Isaruk, Ikpoko-Ore-Ebirien Dike – July 2022- Page No.: 26-33

The quality of teaching being imparted to students is supposed to be of high quality and effective in this information superhighway age. Teaching effectiveness typified with teaching methodologies, classroom management, assessment procedures and content knowledge is of great unease to any tertiary education institution since it furthers the productivity of the institution. In tertiary institutions, like public polytechnics in Ekiti and Ondo states, teaching effectiveness seems to be of poor quality because of students’ low capacity to analytically think, poor lecturers proficiency. Educational mobile apps use can further the teaching effectiveness in any institution of higher learning. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of educational mobile apps use on teaching effectiveness of lecturers in public polytechnics in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria.
The study used survey research design. The population of the study consisted of 116 lecturers and 1,978 students in the three public polytechnics in Ekiti and Ondo states. The lecturers were all enumerated to participate, while Taro Yamane was used to select 333 students’ participants and multistage sampling was used to select the participants from the various faculties, departments and levels. A self-structured validated, and reliable questionnaire was used to gather data. The data collected were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics, and linear regression.
Findings showed that the most used educational mobile apps was Google Apps for education (GAFE) with a mean score of (x̅=1.64).The result also indicated that there was a weak positive but not significant influence of educational mobile apps use on the teaching effectiveness in public polytechnics in Ekiti and Ondo State, (β=0.027, t = 0.270, p-value>0.05).
The study concluded that educational mobile apps use contributes to teaching effectiveness of lecturers in public polytechnics in Ekiti and Ondo states, Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that the government of Nigeria, through the ministry in charge of education, and National Board for Technical Examinations (NBTE) should carry out continuous awareness program and training for lecturers in public polytechnics on the use of educational mobile apps.

Page(s): 26-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6703

 William, Kayode, BSc.
Department of Information Resources Management, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 Soyemi, O. D., Ph.D.
Department of Information Resources Management, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 Ajagunna, Adedayo E. BSc.
Department of Information Resources Management, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 Isaruk, Ikpoko-Ore-Ebirien Dike
Lecturer, School of Health Information Management, Rivers State College of Health Science and Management Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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William, Kayode, Soyemi, O. D., Ajagunna, Adedayo E., Isaruk, Ikpoko-Ore-Ebirien Dike, “The Influence of Educational Mobile Apps Use on Teaching Effectiveness of Lecturers in Public Polytechnics in Ekiti and Ondo states, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.26-33 July 2022 DOI:

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Competitive Advantage Ritel 212 Mart to Increase Company Reputation

Arik Farzeli, Derriawan , Zulkifli – July 2022- Page No.: 34-44

The purpose of this study was to determine the Competitive Advantage of 212 Mart to Increase the Company’s Reputation. This research uses quantitative and qualitative research methods. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. Data collection has used a questionnaire. The data analysis technique uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis which is processed with Smart PLS 3.0 for quantitative analysis, while for qualitative analysis using IE, CPM, TOWS, and QSPM. The results of quantitative research prove that Brand Image, Service Quality, and Innovation each have an effect on Competitive Advantage and on the company’s reputation. As for the results of the strategy analysis research through the input stage strategy with CPM, the matching stage with TOWS and the decision stage with QSPM, the strategy used from the QSPM results is market penetration. The implication of this study for 212 Mart has to pay attention to brand image, service quality, and innovation to improve its corporate reputation.

Page(s): 34-44                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2022

 Arik Farzeli
Postgraduate Directorate, Magister of Management, Pancasila University, Jakarta, Indonesia


Postgraduate Directorate, Magister of Management, Pancasila University, Jakarta, Indonesia


Postgraduate Directorate, Magister of Management, Pancasila University, Jakarta, Indonesia


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Arik Farzeli, Derriawan , Zulkifli “Competitive Advantage Ritel 212 Mart to Increase Company Reputation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.34-44 July 2022 URL:

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Effects of Principals’ Monitoring of Students’ Academic Progress on Pedagogic Practices of Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Bauchi State

Saleh Garba (PhD), Bushira Abdullahi (Mrs) – July 2022- Page No.: 45-51

The study investigated the extent to which principals monitor students’ progress and also established the effect of principals’ monitoring of students’ progress on teachers’ pedagogical practices in public secondary schools in Bauchi state. Descriptive survey and causal research designs were employed for the study. The target population consisted all the principals and teachers in public secondary schools of Bauchi state. The samples comprised 29 principals and 384 teachers were drawn using random sampling technique. The study has one research question and a hypothesis. Questionnaire was the main tool for data collection. Cronbach’s alpha reliability of the instruments stood at 0.87. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Simple linear regression was used to test the null hypothesis at .05 significance levels. The study revealed that principals’ monitoring of students’ progress has significant effects on pedagogical practices of teachers (R2=.099, p<.05). It was also established that majority of principals did not review students’ class work and assessment records in determining students’ progress. The study concluded that effective monitoring of students’ progress by principals will significantly enhance teachers’ pedagogical practices in public secondary schools. It was recommended that State Ministries of Education should be organizing training workshop for principals to improve their skills of monitoring the academic progress of students. It was also suggested that principals should intensify supervision of class work and assessment records

Page(s): 45-51                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6704

 Saleh Garba (PhD)
Department of Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

 Bushira Abdullahi (Mrs)
Department of Education, School of Vocational and Technical Education, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

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Saleh Garba (PhD), Bushira Abdullahi (Mrs) “Effects of Principals’ Monitoring of Students’ Academic Progress on Pedagogic Practices of Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Bauchi State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.45-51 July 2022 DOI:

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The Urgency of Training for Peacekeepers and Family Resilience in Reducing Conflict during Peacekeeping Operations

Andi Muhammad Arief Malleleang, I Gede Sumertha KY, Puguh Santoso, Herlina Juni Risma Saragih – July 2022- Page No.: 52-60

Cultural awareness in peacekeeping operations is gaining traction, particularly among academics, to eradicate the resulting conflict through ideas, points of view, or policies. These policies can identify specific strategies to help each operation succeed. Culture awareness applies not only to peacekeepers but also to their families. This study employs a qualitative approach with data and literature sources on The Importance of Peacekeeper Training and Family Resilience in Conflict Resolution. Peacekeepers use a variety of strategies to reduce the likelihood of cultural clashes. The author approaches pre-deployment training with tolerance and objectivity in all decisions, inter-group coordination, inter-group communication, and inter-group planning. These materials can help people understand UN peacekeeping operations’ fundamental principles, values, and protocols. These principles can guide peacekeepers and their families as they assist countries in transitioning from war to peace. The impact of culture on the success or failure of conflict resolution processes utilized in peacekeeping deployments has been substantial. To preserve their effectiveness as a tool for resolving modern conflicts, peacekeeping operations must make extraordinary efforts to address cultural challenges at all levels of interpersonal interaction and throughout the implementation process

Page(s): 52-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6705

 Andi Muhammad Arief Malleleang
National Security Faculty, Republic Indonesia Defence University

 I Gede Sumertha KY
National Security Faculty, Republic Indonesia Defence University

 Puguh Santoso
National Security Faculty, Republic Indonesia Defence University

 PHerlina Juni Risma Saragih
National Security Faculty, Republic Indonesia Defence University

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[16] Rubinstein, R. A. (1989). Culture, International Affairs and Peacekeeping: Confusing Process and Pattern. Cultural Dynamics, 2(1), 41–61.
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Andi Muhammad Arief Malleleang, I Gede Sumertha KY, Puguh Santoso, Herlina Juni Risma Saragih , “The Urgency of Training for Peacekeepers and Family Resilience in Reducing Conflict during Peacekeeping Operations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.52-60 July 2022 DOI:

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Assessing the correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Pressure (BP) of commercial drivers; a case of Madina lorry station

Monica Anane, Asenso Kennedy, Shalom Adu –Bediako, Endurance Serwaa Asare – July 2022- Page No.: 61-68

The ravages caused by blood pressure on humanity are alarming, especially in Ghana, where voluntary medical check-ups are not a priority for many. This study was a cross-sectional survey with the goal of determining the relationship between commercial drivers’ Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Pressure (BP) at the Madina lorry station. Using the purposive sampling technique, 150 male commercial drivers from the Madina main lorry station were chosen for the study. It emerged from the study that there is positive correlation between BMIs and BP measurements among commercial drivers at Madina lorry station and a statistically significant relationship between age and blood pressure of respondents. The study therefore, recommend that GPRTU could organize weekly programs to engage drivers in some physical activities.

Page(s): 61-68                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6706

 Monica Anane
S.D.A College of Education, Asokore-Koforidua, Ghana

 Asenso Kennedy
S.D.A College of Education, Asokore-Koforidua, Ghana

 Shalom Adu –Bediako
S.D.A College of Education, Asokore-Koforidua, Ghana

 Endurance Serwaa Asare
S.D.A College of Education, Asokore-Koforidua, Ghana

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Monica Anane, Asenso Kennedy, Shalom Adu –Bediako, Endurance Serwaa Asare “Assessing the correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and Blood Pressure (BP) of commercial drivers; a case of Madina lorry station” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.61-68 July 2022 DOI:

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Reversal of Gains: The State of Co-Operatives Movement in Eastern Province of Zamba After Liberalisation, 1992-2002

Martin Chabu, Kasebula Francis – July 2022- Page No.: 69-76

The study attempts to discuss the performance and effects of farming co-operatives after liberalisation in Eastern Province of Zambia, 1992-2002. The study also discusses the impact of liberalisation policy on farming co-operatives in Eastern Province. The data collection method was remark favorably on by information from written materials, which includes published and unpublished sources such as articles in journals, books, thesis and dissertations from University of Zambia Repository. Oral interviews were conducted from notable figures who once worked with the co-operatives. The liberalisation of agricultural co-operatives and marketing was expected to provide incentives for the participation of the private sector, with consequences of competitive marketing benefiting smallholder farmers through better marketing arrangements and higher prices. The study determines that liberalization of agriculture co-operatives in Eastern Province had been positive for consumer and private traders. However, there have been a deleterious experience for many farmers and this mistreated agricultural progress during a period 1991-2002, as compared to the UNIP government when co-operatives were fully funded and controlled by government. The findings also suggest that peasant, particularly, the poor were the main losers through unfair trading practices and influence of private traders, and lack of reliable markets for agricultural produce and inputs.

Page(s): 69-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 July 2022

 Martin Chabu
Senior Lecturer-Social Science Department, David Livingstone College of Education, Livingstone, Zambia

 Kasebula Francis
Senior Lecturer- Special Education/Guidance and Counseling, David Livingstone College of Education, Livingstone, Zambia

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Martin Chabu, Kasebula Francis, “Reversal of Gains: The State of Co-Operatives Movement in Eastern Province of Zamba After Liberalisation, 1992-2002” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.69-76 July 2022 URL:

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Use of Social Media in Cosmetology Services in Tanzania: A case of Kinondoni Municipal

Lilian D. Kaswamila and Julius T. Tweve – July 2022- Page No.: 77-83

Indeed, information professionals have confirmed that social media has emerged as one of the main tools of engagement among people of different age groups from different locations. However the engagement has not only affected the personal relationship rather it went further in changing even the businesses way of communicating to customers, whereas most businesses nowadays use social to communicate with their customers. The study aimed at assessing the use of social media in promotion of cosmetology services in Tanzania, particularly in Kinondoni municipal. Specific objectives were first, to examine the extent to which social media are used to promote cosmetology services, second, to determine the benefits of social media use in cosmetology services and third to identify the challenges of using social media in cosmetology services. To beef up the study, literature review has been structured itself based on social media, and cosmetology services as well as previous studies relating to use of social media in promotion of cosmetology services. The study used a descriptive survey design, data was collected through a structured questionnaire to customers of cosmetology services and 133 respondents submitted their questionnaire. Also, an interview was conducted to 12 service providers.
The findings show that, social media have brought many positive impacts on cosmetology businesses whereas with the use of social media businesses can easily market their services and reach out to a lot of potential customers. With the use of social media cosmetology service providers may incur less cost in marketing while covering a wide range of customers. The use of social media in cosmetology business have greatly reduced the operational costs due to the fact that service providers can now communicate with their customers all over the world without incurring the costs of traveling. The use of social media has enabled the service providers to easily reach out to their customers without the need of physically meeting with them. Due to the fact that social media enhanced cosmetology businesses to reach a wide variety of customers the sales have drastically increased. The service providers who are actively engaging on social media to communicate with customer automatically has increased their visibility and in turn improved their sales

Page(s): 77-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

 Lilian D. Kaswamila
Tumaini University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

 Julius T. Tweve
Tumaini University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

[1] Anderson, T. (2015). Business Survival and Success of Young Small Businesses Owners. Independent company Economics 21: 1-17.
[2] Aruwa, H. (2017). Do all cosmetology service Practice Same Kind of Marketing? Diary of Small Business and Enterprise Development 17(2): 279
[3] Chan, J. O. (2015). Toward a unified view of Customer Relationship Management. Journal of American Academy of Business, 6(1): 32-38.
[4] Chanaron, J. J. (2015). Managing Innovation in European Small and Medium-Sized. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
[5] Chua, A. P. H., Deans, K. R., & Parker, C. M. (2016). Exploring the Types of cosmetology service Which Could use Blogs as a Marketing Tool: A Proposed Future Research Agenda. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 16(1).University of Otago
[6] Danes, M., Bonner, K., Hart, M., & Mason, C. (2015). Measuring Business Growth: High-growth Firms and their Contribution to Employment in the UK. National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts.UK
[7] Evans, D., & McKee, J. (2016). Social Media Marketing: The Next Generation of Business Engagement. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indiana
[8] Hatibu, S. (2018) The impact of Social media on cosmetology service growth. Research report, Mzumbe University
[9] Hill, J. (2015). A Multidimensional Study of the Key Determinants of Effective cosmetology service Marketing Activity: Part 1. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviors & Research 7(5): 171-204
[10] Kaplan, A. M., &Haenlein, M. (2014). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media, Kenya Vision 2030.Business Horizons 53: 59–68.
[11] Kothari, C. R. (2012). Research Methodology; Methods & Techniques. New Age International (P) Publishers, New Delhi, India
[12] Mangold, W. G., &Faulds, D. J. (2015). Social media: The New Hybrid Element of the Promotion Mix. Business Horizons 52(4): 357-365.
[13] Miller, H., & Lama, H. (2010). Do Small Businesses need to Practice Marketing to Survive and Grow? Promoting Intelligence& Planning 14(1): 6-18.
[14] Mungogo, P. (2017). Social media usage on continuance intentions: Business strategy series vol 11 No, 227-243
[15] Praag, C., & Van, M. (2015). Business Survival and Success of Young Small Businesses Owners. Small Business Economics 21: 1-17.
[16] Reijonen, H. (2010).”Do all cosmetology service practice same kind of marketing?”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 279-293
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[18] Safko, L. (2016) The Social Media Bible: Tactics, Tools & Strategies for Business Success. NJ: Prentice Hall
[19] Storey, D. J. (2015). Understanding the Small Business Sector. Routledge: London
[20] Yao, D. J. (2012). Social media: The New Hybrid Element of the Promotion Mix. Business Horizons 52(4): 357-365

Lilian D. Kaswamila and Julius T. Tweve “Use of Social Media in Cosmetology Services in Tanzania: A case of Kinondoni Municipal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.77-83 July 2022 URL:

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Trade Openness and Economic Growth (A Comparative Study Between Nigeria and Ghana)

Ehoda, Samuel Ngbede, Onoja, Deborah Enecheojo, Adefioye, Edumaretola Gabriel, Bisong, Anthony Ekpang – July 2022- Page No.: 84-93

This study examines the impact of trade openness on economic growth in Nigeria and Ghana covering the period of SAP and POST-SAP from 1986-2016. The study made use of the following theories; Comparative Cost Advantage Theory and Endogenous Growth Model (New Growth Theory). Secondary data were sourced from OECD/World Bank Statistical Publications, CBN Statistical Bulletin, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics and other research publications on the following variables; RGDP which is the dependent variable is used as a proxy for economic growth while TOP, GFCF, FDI and EXR are the explanatory variables. Both descriptive and econometrical techniques such as Unit Root Test and ARDL Bounds Test were employed. The Unit root test reveals that all variables were stationary at first difference while ARDL Bounds test indicated a long-run relationship among the variables. From the findings of this study, trade openness has an insignificant positive relationship on economic growth in Nigeria and Ghana under the period of study. This research work therefore recommends that policies of exchange rate stability and structural trade oriented policies should be adopted in Nigeria and Ghana in order to boost output growth in the economy. In addition, the Ghanaian government needs to invest heavily on infrastructural development and transport related cost. Finally, the government of both economies should create an investment friendly environment and also restructure its financial market so as to propel FDI in the economy.

Page(s): 84-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

 Ehoda, Samuel Ngbede
Department of Economics, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Onoja, Deborah Enecheojo
Department of Economics, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State

 Adefioye, Edumaretola Gabriel
Department of Economics, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Bisong, Anthony Ekpang
Department of Economics, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

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Ehoda, Samuel Ngbede, Onoja, Deborah Enecheojo, Adefioye, Edumaretola Gabriel, Bisong, Anthony Ekpang , “Trade Openness and Economic Growth (A Comparative Study Between Nigeria and Ghana)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.84-93 July 2022 URL:

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Perceptions of Teachers Towards Inclusive Education: The Case of Early Childhood Centres in Sissala East District

Ali Yaaku Sumani Mohammed, Seth Badu – July 2022- Page No.: 94-101

The study investigated teacher perception towards inclusive education in Early Childhood Centres in Sissala East District in Upper West Region, Ghana. The study adopted a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design. A sample of 150 teachers in the Early Childhood Education centres were selected using census and homogeneous sampling techniques. Questionnaires and interviews were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the quantitative data while qualitative data were analysed in themes. The study found that: most early childhood teachers in the Sissala East District had a positive perception of inclusive education. It was also evident that most early childhood teachers in the Sissala East District believe that factors such as lack of teacher training; insufficient resources; limited administrative support; teachers’ attitudes; large class sizes and poor building infrastructure influence their perception of inclusive education. The study concluded that teachers in early childhood centres within the Sissala East District have a positive view of inclusive education. However, variables such as a lack of teacher training, insufficient resources, limited administrative support, teachers’ attitudes, large class numbers, and inadequate building infrastructure impact their perspective of inclusive education. Based on the key findings, the study recommended that teachers in early childhood centres in Sissala East District should be motivated by early childhood coordinators and headteachers to have positive perceptions of inclusive education. Again, the ministry of education should offer enough and consistent teacher support services, such as teaching assistants, and continuous professional development programmes to improve the efficacy of inclusion and minimise teacher stress.

Page(s): 94-101                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6707

 Ali Yaaku Sumani Mohammed
Department of Education, Tumu College of Education, PO Box 19, Tumu, Upper West Region

 Seth Badu
Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Education, Winneba, PO Box 25, Winneba

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[2] Ainscow, M., & Booth, T. (2015). From them to us: An international study of inclusion in education. London: Routledge.
[3] Arbeiter, S., &Hartley, S. (2012). Teachers’ and Pupils’ Experiences of Integrated Education in Uganda. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 49, 61-78.
[4] Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
[5] Avramidis, E. (2015). Developing inclusive schools: Changing teachers’ attitudes and practice through critical professional development. Paper presented at the International Special Education Conference, Glasgow, Scotland.
[6] Berlach, R. G., & Chambers, D. J. (2011). Inclusivity imperatives and the Australian national curriculum.The Educational Forum, 75, 52-65.
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[9] Creswell, J. W. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). London: Sage.
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[11] de Boer, A., Pijl, S. J., & Minnaert, A. (2011). Regular primary schoolteachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(3), 331-353. doi: 10.1080/13603110903030089
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[15] Emam, M. M., & Mohamed, M. (2011). Preschool and primary school teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education in Egypt: The role of experience and self-efficacy. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, 29, 976-985.
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[17] Garcia–Huidobro, S. (2015). Developmental expectations, personality stereotypes, and attitudes towards inclusive education: Community and teacher views of Down syndrome. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 50(1), 65-76.
[18] Hall, R., Campher, E., Smit, A. G., Oswald, M., &Engelbrecht, P., (2016). Formal support in inclusion. Pretoria: J. L. Van Schaik.
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Ali Yaaku Sumani Mohammed, Seth Badu “Perceptions of Teachers Towards Inclusive Education: The Case of Early Childhood Centres in Sissala East District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.94-101 July 2022 DOI:

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The determinants of household insurance product in Zimbabwe

Chitombo Ezekiel and Kosmas Njanike – July 2022- Page No.: 102-109

Noticeable challenges experienced by house owners to restore their property and belongings to original position in the event of theft and fire outbreaks results in the need to have household insurance cover. Household insurance relieves stress and brings peace of mind to the house owner as the fear of risk of future uncertainty is reduced. The study investigates the determinants of household insurance uptake in Zimbabwe.The study used data from finscope Survey 2014 to explore the determinants of household insurance in Zimbabwe. The logit model was used to estimate the determinants of household insurance. The study found out that education, income .financial advice, age and location positively affects the uptake of household insurance. Marital status and social media have a negative relationship. Household insurance can be at the same level of uptake with motor vehicle insurance if the public are advised on the importance to safe guard their homes. Government and insurers must provide a conducive environment and campaign programmes to increase the awareness of household insurance. This untapped potential market will boost the revenue base for the insurance sector. There is need to consider household insurance pricing in the future

Page(s): 102-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6708

 Chitombo Ezekiel
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

 Kosmas Njanike
Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

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Chitombo Ezekiel and Kosmas Njanike, “The determinants of household insurance product in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.102-109 July 2022 DOI:

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External Economic Shocks and Monetary Policy Tools in Nigeria

Terungwa Paul Joseph Jato, Ph.D, Joyce Mbakosun Ayaga. – July 2022- Page No.: 110-119

The study investigated the effect of external economic shocks on monetary policy tools in Nigeria for a period of 1990 to 2020. External economic shocks were measured though their passthrough variables of exchange rate (EXR), foreign direct investment (FDI), external debt (ED), and trade openness (TO); while monetary policy tools were considered in terms of broad money supply (M2), monetary policy rate (MPR) and cash reserve ratio (CRR). The Zivot and Andrews test and the Bayer and Hanck combined cointegration tests were employed to to check for stationarity (with structural breaks) and cointegration among the variables. We then applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) test to determine the effect of the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The results of the structural indicated that there are structural breaks accounting for the existence of shocks, while the cointegration test showed that the variables are cointegrated. The ARDL test disclosed that external economic shocks (through EXR, FDI, ED, and TO) have significant effect on monetary policy variables. This study therefore recommends that the monetary authorities should safeguard the monetary operations in Nigeria from external economic mishaps that have spillover to the country by making allowance for the external economic shocks in setting these tools and putting in place mechanisms that can make these tools resilient and resistant to the shocks

Page(s): 110-119                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6709

 Terungwa Paul Joseph Jato, Ph.D
Department of Business Administration, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.


 Joyce Mbakosun Ayaga
Department of Economics and Development Studies, Federal University of Keshere, Gombe.


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Terungwa Paul Joseph Jato, Ph.D, Joyce Mbakosun Ayaga. “External Economic Shocks and Monetary Policy Tools in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.110-119 July 2022 DOI:

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Influence of Citizens’ Participation on Communitiy Development in Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers State

WAMI, Chinweikpe Kevin Ph.D – July 2022- Page No.: 120-125

The study investigated Influence of citizens’ participation on community development in Bonny local government area, Rivers State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design, two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The population of the study comprised forty (40) leaders and three hundred and seventy (370) members in 4 communities in Bonny local government area, Rivers State. The sample size for the study comprised four hundred and ten (40 leaders, and 370 members) respondents. The entire population was used as a census due to its manageable size. The instrument titled “Influence of Citizens Participation on Community Development Questionnaire “(ICPCDQ)” was used for data collection. The ICPCDQ questionnaire was structured using the four point Likert rating scale response pattern of Strongly Agree (SA) = 4points, Agreed (A)= 3points, Disagree (D) = 2points, and Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1point. The researcher employed the face and content validity methods and established a reliability of the instrument through the test-retest technique. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Statistics was used to arrive at a reliability index of 0.80. Mean and standard deviation statistics were used to answer the research questions, while Z-test statistics was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The study found among others, that leaders and members agreed that citizens’ participation in planning school building projects influence community development in Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers State; there is no significant difference in the mean responses of leaders and members of community-based organization on ways citizens’ participation in monitoring and evaluation of rural road projects influences community development in Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers State. It was concluded that the participation of citizens in community development such as school buildings and road construction influenced community development. It was recommended among others that government and development agencies engaged in building schools in rural community should engage citizens actively in the projects as this will build their capacities and confidence to engage in other community development programme/projects themselves

Page(s): 120-125                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

 WAMI, Chinweikpe Kevin Ph.D
Department of Adult Education & Community Development, Faculty of Education, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

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[14] Wami, K. C., Deekor, H. L., & Nwafor, N. H. A (2021). Influence of Adult Education Programmes on Political Development of Rivers State. Rivers State University Journal of Education (RSUJOE, Vol 22 (1&2): 165-176.

WAMI, Chinweikpe Kevin Ph.D, “Influence of Citizens’ Participation on Communitiy Development in Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.120-125 July 2022 URL:

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Phenomenological Research on the Values Systems of the Indonesian Traditional Herb Consumer

Sandi Lenandi Soetrisno Lasmono – July 2022- Page No.: 126-132

Healthy life patterns are essential for human beings. Some Indonesians maintain a healthy life pattern by consuming Indonesian traditional herbs called jamu. The research aims to investigate and explore the attitudes of Indonesian traditional herbal consumers. It is qualitative research with an interpretive paradigm using the phenomenological research design. The informants were chosen purposively with the main criteria: Javanese consumers who regularly consume jamu. The data collection uses in-depth interviews. Then, the collected data is analyzed with an inductive thematic analysis model. The data was validated communicatively, argumentatively, and ecologically. Results of the research stated that the behavior of consuming jamu has been constructed from the habit inherited from generation to generation, from the culture tightly attached to consumers’ self-concept, and from the product characteristics consisting of the product design, product composition, and safety in consuming such product. The values attached to a culture are essential in forming the consumer attitude. Social norms have a significant influence on the formation of behavior. Parents and colleagues become the individuals introducing jamu through the provision of information, knowledge, and advice. The parents’ knowledge of the efficacy of Indonesian traditional herbs plays an essential role in understanding the next generation of Indonesian traditional herbs.

Page(s): 126-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

 Sandi Lenandi Soetrisno Lasmono
Entrepreneurship, Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University

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Sandi Lenandi Soetrisno Lasmono “Phenomenological Research on the Values Systems of the Indonesian Traditional Herb Consumer” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.126-132 July 2022 URL:

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Correlation of Smartphone Usage and Academic Interest among College Students in St Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc.

Ludevina F. Quibuen, Ericka Del Rosario, Jovanne Tapia, Julz Michael Escobar, Sandy Genovia, Jhon Brian Cantil – July 2022- Page No.: 133-141

There has been a lot of research done on smartphone use among college students. Although various research have been conducted to investigate the links between mobile phone use and academic ability, the results have been varied. As a result, the primary purpose of this study was to completely synthesize existing research to evaluate the relationship between smartphone usage and Academic Interest among college students at St. Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc. During the data collection phase of this investigation, two adapted questionnaires were used. The survey was digitally conducted to 100 college students in five different SMCBI courses, namely BSIT, BSHM, BSBA, BSED, and BEED, using the Google Forms program. A statistician analyzed and interpreted the acquired data. The interpreted data were presented and discussed further by the researchers in a concise manner.
The survey results showed that the level of Smartphone usage is high and that the level academic interest is also high. There is no
significant difference on the level of both of Smartphone Usage and Academic Interest when grouped according to Gender, Age Group, Year Level and Program.That the relationship between variables, Smartphone Usage and Academic Interest has an r=523, which implies that it has Moderate Positive Relationship

Page(s): 133-141                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6710

 Ludevina F. Quibuen
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, St. Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc.

 Ericka Del Rosario
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, St. Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc.

 Jovanne Tapia
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, St. Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc.

 Julz Michael Escobar
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, St. Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc.

 Sandy Genovia
Student, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, St. Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc.

 Jhon Brian Cantil
Program Head, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, St. Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc

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Ludevina F. Quibuen, Ericka Del Rosario, Jovanne Tapia, Julz Michael Escobar, Sandy Genovia, Jhon Brian Cantil , “Correlation of Smartphone Usage and Academic Interest among College Students in St Mary’s College of Bansalan Inc.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.133-141 July 2022 DOI:

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Traffic congestion and demand management measures in Port Harcourt metropolis

Agaviezor, D.T., Emenike*, G.C. and Eludoyin O.S. – July 2022- Page No.: 142-151

Traffic congestion has been a hard bone to chew in our major cities in Nigeria today. Port Harcourt metropolis has its own share of traffic congestion. This study investigated traffic congestion and demand management measures in Port Harcourt metropolis. Data were collected using both primary and secondary sources. 400 structured questionnaires were distributed among all road users comprising driver (private and commercial) passengers, pedestrians, traffic officers in the six traffic zones in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. A traffic count at peak periods of the day was employed to obtain estimated population figures for all road users in the selected route for the study. The sample size of 400 was distributed in four selected route traffic zone 1, 4. 5 and 6, while 66 were distributed among the remaining delineated route traffic 2 and 3. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the study. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 24.0. The result from the study showed that 36.8% of the respondents made very early trips between 6-7am. Also, 53.7% of the respondents usually engage in private trips, while the remaining 46.3% uses public vehicles. The major causes of traffic congestion were non-functional traffic light (35.5%), vehicle accidents – especially trailer accidents that impedes traffic flow (15%), overcrowding- use of too many cars on the road (14.7%), road capacity (11.3%), bad roads (1.3%), drivers’ attitude (3.2%) and lack of alternative route (18.9%). Major challenges of transport management in Port Harcourt were poor town planning (58.7%), inefficient enforcement of planning policies (70.8%), inefficient transport management system (62.9%), lack of maintenance of traffic light (69.5%), poor training of drivers (52.6%) and poorly built roads (46.6%). It is therefore recommended that measures to avert or ameliorate the constraints are provision of adequate feeder routes, improved traffic light system, training of prospective drivers, extension of roads and putting in place adequate transport management measures.

Page(s): 142-151                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 July 2022

 Agaviezor, D.T.
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Emenike, G.C.
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Eludoyin O.S.
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Agaviezor, D.T., Emenike*, G.C. and Eludoyin O.S. “Traffic congestion and demand management measures in Port Harcourt metropolis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.142-151 July 2022 URL:

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Assessing Exchange Rate Volatility and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Garch Model Approach

Okosu, Napoleon David – July 2022- Page No.: 152-163

This study has examined the impact of exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Nigeria from the year 1981 to the year 2020. The study adopted secondary data (i.e. time series) obtained from World Bank National Account data and Central Bank of Nigeria Annual Statistical Bulletins, subjecting them to statistical analysis for relevant inferences to be made. Five variables were used in the study which were Growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GRGDP), Exchange Rate Volatility (EXRV), Balance of Trade (BOT), Oil Price (OILP) and Inflation (INF) Rate. The variables were subjected to unit root test and they were stationary at different order of I(0) and I(1). Since the Variables were not all stationary at level but a mixed series, the ARDL bound test of cointegration was used to test for cointegration among them. Using the bound test, the variables were found to be cointegrated at 1% level of significance. The ARDL result indicated that; Exchange rate volatility has a significant impact on economic growth, with the impact being negative. In addition, other economic variables such as inflation has a negative and significant impact on economic growth while oil price have a positive and significant impact on economic growth. On the other hand, BOT has a positive effect on growth but the impact was significant at the 10 percent level. From the findings the study recommended that foreign exchange market should be well monitored with a view to ensuring that only ventures that would engender value added production in the real sector and export-oriented businesses should have more access. This will help to increase the value of the naira against major world currencies.

Page(s): 152-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6711

 Okosu, Napoleon David
Department of Economics, Veritas University, Abuja FCT- Nigeria

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Okosu, Napoleon David, “Assessing Exchange Rate Volatility and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Garch Model Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.152-163 July 2022 DOI:

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When The Pasture Is Greenless: Nigeria, Libya and the Return of Slave Trade in Africa

Akpan, Nse Etim, Ph.D, Nnorom, Kingsley, Ph.D – July 2022- Page No.: 164-173

There has been a serious apprehension about Nigerian youths leaving the country in search of the proverbial greener pastures. Similarly, a fundamental shift in migration patterns occurred when the routes through Libya, long used by economic migrants making their way to Europe, became formalized as highway for modern slave trade. This paper adopts a qualitative research design with reliance on secondary sources of data and argues that Nigerians have been trafficked into slavery either in the transit country as Libya or the country of destination mostly in Europe. It observed that there seem to be a failure of expectations from Nigerians who on arrival in these countries realize that the pasture is no longer green as they are sold out as slaves, used for sex labor or thrown into torture chambers on accusation of irregular migration. The paper discovers that there are syndicates and cartels responsible for this illicit trade while a lot of money is made through the conduits used to lure these youths into the illegal business. It equally uncovers that a mere securitization of migration through fences and push-backs will not stop the flow of Nigerians as the Libyan economy seems to benefit from the money made from irregular migrants. The paper concludes that there is need for proper collaboration and intensification of action by the Nigerian and Libyan governments to arrest this ugly trend.

Page(s): 164-173                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2022

 Akpan, Nse Etim, Ph.D
Department of Political Science, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

 Nnorom, Kingsley, Ph.D
Department of Political Science, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

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Akpan, Nse Etim, Ph.D, Nnorom, Kingsley, Ph.D “When The Pasture Is Greenless: Nigeria, Libya and the Return of Slave Trade in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.164-173 July 2022 URL:

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Introduction to The Influence of Warm Data on Risk Leadership

Apanisile Samuel Temitope and Prof Olalekan Asikhia – July 2022- Page No.: 174-176

This paper would establish that organizations as a complex adaptive system are made up of interacting parts. The interaction generates data which is known as warm data. This type of data is nonlinear in nature and easily contextualize or map the interdependent variables and tail- risks that leaders and decision makers face on a day-to-day basis in a system. Up until now, there has been no computing way to deliver holistic signals and patterns that enable leaders and their teams to gain insight and foresight during interactions and conversations which help in uncovering and resolving their biases and blind spots. Warm data would assist leaders in cutting through the risk and fuzziness of complex internal and external environment in order to gain agility during ambiguity, clarity during complexity, understanding during uncertainty, optionality during instability, vision during volatility and certainty during chaos.

Page(s): 174-176                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6712

 Apanisile Samuel Temitope
Babcock University, Nigeria

 Prof Olalekan Asikhia
Babcock University, Nigeria

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Apanisile Samuel Temitope and Prof Olalekan Asikhia , “Introduction to The Influence of Warm Data on Risk Leadership” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.174-176 July 2022 DOI:

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Impact of Using Social Media on Social and Academic Life: A Study on University Students

Umme Kulsum, Dr. Md. Nazrul Islam – July 2022- Page No.: 177-188

This study is conducted to investigate the impacts of social media on social and academic performance of graduate and undergraduate students in public universities. Because of widespread adoption of social media among university students, there is a growing interest on how social media is affected their social and academic performance. The impact of social networking sites on academic performance may extend to the major concern related health, economic and other crises. Therefore the study was undertaken among 180 respondents selected by simple random sampling from different universities. The study found that respondents faces some problems using SM such as-spending money(68.9%),eye problem(57.2%),but they got some facilities also from it-knowing exam schedule (95.5%)),collecting academic document (84.4%),attending virtual classes(83.9%). Exploratory factor analysis about the impact of social media on academic life and The KMO measure of the indicators has been found as .708 and significance level of 0.000, Initial Eigenvalues are 69.281% and Cronbach’s alpha was equal to .789, p<.0001.

Page(s): 177-188                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2022

 Umme Kulsum
Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur, Bangladesh

 Dr. Md. Nazrul Islam
Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur, Bangladesh

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Umme Kulsum, Dr. Md. Nazrul Islam “Impact of Using Social Media on Social and Academic Life: A Study on University Students” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.177-188 July 2022 URL:

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Farmers-Herders’ Conflict and Agricultural Development in Benue State

Ogbe, Juliana Ekonyohe, Ogali, Mathew Dayi (Dr.) – July 2022- Page No.: 189-197

Political leaders often introduce agricultural strategies and policies with the aim of boosting agricultural development in Benue State and other States in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the conflict that occurs between farmers and herders has constituted a major threat to the development of the agricultural sector in Benue State. This study examined the phenomenon of farmers-herders’ conflict and agricultural development in Benue State, 2010-2022. An objective of this study was to examine the effect of the farmers-herders’ conflict on agricultural development in Benue State. The theory of eco-violence which focuses on the competition over scarce ecological resources guided this study. Also, qualitative research design which relied on data sourced from secondary sources such as archival materials, textbooks and journals were employed for this study. Data were content analysed. This paper showed that over the years, being that Benue is an agrarian State, many agricultural policies and programmes have been introduced by successive governments in the State to boost agriculture and possibly grow the economy. Unfortunately however, the farmers-herders conflicts amidst many challenges have posed as obstacles to the actualisation of substantial agricultural development in Benue State. The anti-social actions of herders have made some analysts to refer to them as “social misfits”. As a matter of fact, this paper argued that despite the existence of a law to guide and regulate pastoralists-farmers relationship in Benue State, herders–farmers’ conflicts and related killings have continued to persist. The resultant effect of this is the gradual erosion of agro-investors’ confidence, growing fear of farmers to venture into farming and a decline in agricultural development in the State. This study therefore, recommends a collaborative and holistic approach in curbing the pastoral-farmers’ conflicts as well as the robust formulation and implementation of agricultural policies and programmes that will trigger agricultural development in Benue State

Page(s): 189-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2022

 Ogbe, Juliana Ekonyohe
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Ogali, Mathew Dayi (Dr.)
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[19] Udosen, N.M. (2021). Farmers-herders crisis and food security in Nigeria: Causes and implications. European Journal of Political Science Studies, 5(1), 24-44.

Ogbe, Juliana Ekonyohe, Ogali, Mathew Dayi (Dr.) , “Farmers-Herders’ Conflict and Agricultural Development in Benue State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.189-197 July 2022 URL:

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Destination Image Development in Tourism: Literature Review

Pande Gde Bagus Naya Primananda, Ni Nyoman Kerti Yasa, I Putu Gde Sukaatmadja, Putu Yudi Setiawan – July 2022- Page No.: 198-202

The development of the image of the destination continues to grow so that research is needed that can determine future research gaps. This rapid development inspired us to conduct a recent literature review on destination image. In this study we update the literature review introduced in previous studies (Li et al., 2015) and define research gaps to be conducted. To achieve the objectives of this study, the researcher details the image research of selected destinations from 2012-2019 which was carried out to review the latest findings. The result is a brief summary of the destination image research based on the attributes used, analysis, number of samples and type of sample.

Page(s): 198-202                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6713

 Pande Gde Bagus Naya Primananda
Economics and Business Faculty, Udayana University, Bali – Indonesia

 Ni Nyoman Kerti Yasa
Economics and Business Faculty, Udayana University, Bali – Indonesia

 I Putu Gde Sukaatmadja
Economics and Business Faculty, Udayana University, Bali – Indonesia

 Putu Yudi Setiawan
Economics and Business Faculty, Udayana University, Bali – Indonesia

[1] Agapito D., Valle, P and Mendes, J. 2013. The cognitive-affective-conative model of destination image: A confirmatory analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing Vol. 30 No.5, pp 471-481.
[2] Akroush, M. N., Jraisat, L. E., Kurdieh, D. J., AL-Faouri, R. N and Qatu, L T. 2016. Tourism service quality and destination loyalty–the mediating role of destination image from international tourists’ perspectives. Tourism Review Vol. 71 No.1, pp 18-44.
[3] Artuger, S., and Cetinsoz, B. C. 2017. The impact of destination image and the intention to Revisit: A study Regarding Arab Tourists. European Scientific Journal Vol. 13 No.5, pp 82-98.
[4] Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. 1999. A model of destination image formation. Annals of tourism research, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp 868-897.
[5] Beerli, A., and Martin, J. D. 2004. Factors influencing destination image. Annals of tourism research, 31(3), pp 657-681.
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[7] Chaulagain, S., Wiitala, J and Fu, X. 2019. The impact of country image and destination image on US tourists’ travel intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management Vol 12, pp 1-11.
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[9] Chen, C. F., and Tsai, D. 2007. How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?. Tourism management, 28(4), pp 1115-1122.
[10] Chen, C. C., Lai, Y. H. R., Petrick, J. F and Lin, Y. H. 2016. Tourism between divided nations: An examination of stereotyping on destination image. Tourism Management Vol. 55, pp 25-36.
[11] Chiu, W., Zeng, S and Cheng, P. S. T. 2016. The influence of destination image and tourist satisfaction on tourist loyalty: a case study of Chinese tourists in Korea. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol. 10 No. 2, pp 223-234.
[12] Crompton, J. L. 1979. An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of travel research, 17(4), pp 18-23.
[13] Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. 1991. The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of tourism studies, 2(2), pp 2-12.
[14] Foroudi, P., Akarsu, T. N., Ageeva, E., Foroudi, M. M., Dennis, C and Melewar, T. C. 2018. Promising the dream: Changing destination image of London through the effect of website place. Journal of Business Research Vol. 83, pp 97-110
[15] Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I. G., & Garcı́a, H. C. 2002. Destination image: Towards a conceptual framework. Annals of tourism research, 29(1), pp 56-78.
[16] Hallmann, K., Zehrer, A and Müller, S. 2015. Perceived destination image: An image model for a winter sports destination and its effect on intention to revisit. Journal of Travel Research Vol. 54 No. 1, pp 94-106.
[17] Huang, W. J., Chen, C. C and Lin, Y. H. 2013. Cultural proximity and intention to visit: Destination image of Taiwan as perceived by Mainland Chinese visitors. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management Vol. 2 No. 3, pp 176-184.
[18] Isa, S. M., and Ramli, L. 2014. Factors influencing tourist visitation in marine tourism: lessons learned from FRI Aquarium Penang, Malaysia. International journal of culture, tourism and hospitality research.
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[20] Kim, H., and Richardson, S. L. 2003. Motion picture impacts on destination images. Annals of tourism research, 30(1), pp 216-237.
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[22] Lubbe, B. 1998. Primary image as a dimension of destination image: an empirical assessment. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing Vol. 7 No. 4, pp 21-43.
[23] Madden, K., Rashid, B and Zainol, N. A. 2016. Beyond the motivation theory of destination image. Tourism and hospitality management Vol. 22 No. 2, pp 247-264
[24] Mano, A., and da Costa, R. A. 2015. A conceptual model of the antecedents and consequences of tourist destination image. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, pp 15-22.
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[26] Prayag, G and Ryan, C. 2012. Antecedents of tourists’ loyalty to Mauritius: The role and influence of destination image, place attachment, personal involvement, and satisfaction. Journal of travel research Vol. 51 No. 3, pp 342-356.
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Pande Gde Bagus Naya Primananda, Ni Nyoman Kerti Yasa, I Putu Gde Sukaatmadja, Putu Yudi Setiawan “Destination Image Development in Tourism: Literature Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.198-202 July 2022 DOI:

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The Policy Process of the Philippines’ Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Analysis of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)

Ella Joy A. Ponce – July 2022- Page No.: 203-209

The Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program in the Philippines popularly known as the 4Ps or the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program aimed to improve the lives of poor Filipinos and promote better health and social status. This paper discussed the policy process of the 4Ps starting from problem identification to the agenda setting, then policy formulation/legitimation up to the implementation and evaluation. Through a review of related literature, public policy theories and frameworks such as the Black Box, Kingdon’s Streams Metaphor, etc. were used in explaining the various stages of the program. Data from the World Bank, NEDA, and DSWD were also presented in order to provide evidence for the different stages of the policy process of the program. Originally, the 4Ps targeted children 0-14 years old, however, it was changed to 0-18 years so as to address the need of the beneficiaries’ children to at least finish high school so as to have a relatively good job. Moreover, the 4Ps started with 284 thousand beneficiaries since its inception in 2008. In 2016, the program covers 79% of the poor households in the country which demands more budgets for the program. The formulation and legitimation of the 4Ps can be deduced from the discussion of Curry, et. al. (2013) of whether the 4Ps was truly an adoption of the Bolsa Familia or just an imitation of it. The cost-benefit evaluation of the 4Ps from the vantage point of a transnational actor has rendered it feasible to still be implemented and continued.

Page(s): 203-209                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6714

 Ella Joy A. Ponce
Central Luzon State University, Philippines

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Ella Joy A. Ponce, “The Policy Process of the Philippines’ Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Analysis of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.203-209 July 2022 DOI:

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City Diplomacy amid Regional Integration: A Philippine Perspective on the ASEAN Smart Cities Network

Jovito Jose P. Katigbak, Jeremie P. Credo – July 2022- Page No.: 210-215

The significance of local actors in regional integration was reaffirmed in November 2018 upon the adoption of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Smart Cities Network (ASCN) Framework. The ASCN is envisaged as a collaborative platform where member cities can discuss and resolve the challenges brought about by rapid urbanization. It can thus be said that it fundamentally espouses the role of city diplomacy as an important means and end in the successful realization of sustainable urbanization. In the Philippines’ case, the involvement of Manila, Cebu, and Davao as pilot cities is mainly catalyzed by two factors, namely, the need to address the interests of their communities and as an expression of solidarity with other ASEAN cities. Further, the participation of these local government units (LGUs) in diplomatic activities at the regional level primarily focus on economic, cultural, cooperative, and representative dimensions. To effectively address enforcement-related challenges, LGUs may undertake capacity-building activities, advance a whole-of-society approach, tap new financing schemes, ensure project continuity, and expand the ASCN to include other cities.

Page(s): 210-215                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6715

 Jovito Jose P. Katigbak
International Studies Department, Far Eastern University

 Jeremie P. Credo
School of Diplomacy and Governance, De La Salle – College of Saint Benilde

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Jovito Jose P. Katigbak, Jeremie P. Credo “City Diplomacy amid Regional Integration: A Philippine Perspective on the ASEAN Smart Cities Network” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.210-215 July 2022 DOI:

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Mobile Phones Dependency and Psychological Wellbeing of Students in Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County- Kenya

Cyprien Nkoma, Elijah Macharia Ndungú, PhD, Maria Ntarangwe, PhD – July 2022- Page No.: 216-225

The use of mobile phones among secondary school students is of concern when looking at the increase of violent behaviors in schools. The mobile phone use and the psychological wellbeing of secondary school students has become an issue of interest for research. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the time spent on mobile phone use and the psychological wellbeing of secondary school students in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study used an embedded mixed method research design. A Multistage sampling method was employed in selecting the 7 schools, and the sample size of 357 respondents. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficients was used for data analysis. The main findings of this study showed a strong positive correlation between time spent on the use of mobile phones and the psychological wellbeing of secondary school students (0.885). The study also found out that there was a strong positive correlation between time spent on the mobile phones and the aspect of personal growth (0.985) and the self-acceptance (0.980). There was a moderate positive correlation between time spent on the use of mobile phones and the environmental mastery (0.60), the purpose in life (0.528) and the positive relations with others (0.457). There was a weak positive correlation between time spent on the use of mobile phones and the autonomy (0.004). The study recommends that the school administration should establish counselling facilities which can address the issues related to mobile phones use among secondary school students.

Page(s): 216-225                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6716

 Cyprien Nkoma
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

 Elijah Macharia Ndungú, PhD
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

 Maria Ntarangwe, PhD
Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

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Cyprien Nkoma, Elijah Macharia Ndungú, PhD, Maria Ntarangwe, PhD , “Mobile Phones Dependency and Psychological Wellbeing of Students in Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County- Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.216-225 July 2022 DOI:

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Appropriation of Micropolitics by the Neoliberal States: A Theoretical Intervention

Mohammad Raihan Sharif – July 2022- Page No.: 226-232

The article focuses on the reception of micropolitics by the neoliberal nation states. It argues that the neoliberal states in recent times have combined strategies and tactics to maintain their grip on their citizens. It is a theoretical intervention in the sense that while Scott (2008) and Certeau (2011) identify micropolitics in the everyday life of the poor and the weak, the present chapter argues that even the neoliberal states apply micropolitics and tactics. In fact, only within this combination, within dialectical relations between strategies and tactics, any tactic is worth pursuing—an issue this paper foregrounds. Drawing upon Mbembe’s ideas, this chapter focuses on the contexts of necrocapitalism within which the neoliberal states deploy tactics. This chapter also identifies differentiation—how the neoliberal state keeps its citizens divided and separated

Page(s): 226-232                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

 Mohammad Raihan Sharif
Department of English, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

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Mohammad Raihan Sharif “Appropriation of Micropolitics by the Neoliberal States: A Theoretical Intervention” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.226-232 July 2022 URL:

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Use of Google Classroom as Participation and Performance Enhancer Among Basic Science Postgraduates in Some Universities in Nigeria

Julius Olugbenga ADEDAYO & Lois Folasayo AJAYI – July 2022- Page No.: 233-237

The study is an empirical survey of the influence of Google classroom on the participation level and academic performance of Postgraduates in Nigerian Universities. It adopted quasi-experimental research. The targeted population was the Basic Science students at master’s level in Nigeria Universities. The sample consisted of 42 postgraduates of Science Education drawn from three Universities in the South Western part of Nigeria through the multistage sampling technique. Out of these, 26 students formed the experimental group while 16 constituted the control group. One research question was raised while five hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. There were two research instruments for the study namely the Students’ Participation Scale (SPS) and Students’ Performance Test (SPT) and there was a package for the Google Classroom Lecture Note designed by the researchers. The instruments were validated by experts in Test, Measurement and Evaluation (TME) and Science Education, all from the Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti. The reliability of the instruments was done through test re-test reliability test which yielded correlation coefficients of 0.72 and 0.84 respectively at 0.05 level of significance. The administration of the study lasted six weeks in three stages (pretest, treatment and post-test stages). The result of the study revealed that those taught with Google classroom have higher participation mean scores than those in the control group. It also showed that there was a significant difference in the performance mean scores of experimental and control groups. However, no significant difference was noticed in the participation and performance mean scores of male and female postgraduate students in the experimental group.

Page(s): 233-237                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6717

 Julius Olugbenga ADEDAYO
Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Lois Folasayo AJAYI
Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1] Abraham, R. (2021). Introduction to Google classroom. Retrieved online
Wikipedia (2022). Google Classroom. Retrieved from › wiki › Google Classroom
[2] Gutpa, A. (2021). To study the impact of Google Classroom as a platform of learning and collaboration at the teacher education level. Education and Information Technologies, 26(2). DOI:10.1007/s10639-020-10294-1
The Tech Edvocate ( 2018). 10 Benefits of Google Classroom Integration. Retrieved from › 10-benefits-of-google-
[4] University Business (2014).The Benefits of Google for Education in Higher Education. Retrieved from › the-benefits-of-google-fo…
[5] Wikipedia (2015). Google Classroom Review: Pros And Cons Of Using- eLearning Industry. › google-classroom-review-…

Julius Olugbenga ADEDAYO & Lois Folasayo AJAYI, “Use of Google Classroom as Participation and Performance Enhancer Among Basic Science Postgraduates in Some Universities in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.233-237 July 2022 DOI:

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Strategic Health Purchasing and Health System Performance in Nigeria

Saheed O. Olayiwola, Francis O. Adeyemi – July 2022- Page No.: 238-245

Purchasing has been adopted by many countries as a mechanism to achieve greater efficiency and improved responsiveness of services to patient demands. This study examined the effects of strategic health purchasing on health system performance in Nigeria. The data for the study was collected using a purposive sampling survey in the Akure metropolis. The results indicated a positive relationship between health system performance and purchasing strategy, payment mechanism and service utilisers with the regression coefficients of 0.30, 0.16 and 0.33. This implied that purchasing strategy, payment mechanism and service utilisers are likely to improve health system performance. The results also revealed a positive relationship between each of the health system performance measurement dimensions (life expectancy, the performance of different areas of health services, distribution of access to health facilities, fairness of health financing, prompt attention to medical needs and purchasing strategy, providers payment mechanism and service utilisers. It was concluded that health system performance can be improved by the implementation of strategic health purchasing. Therefore, paying for health care services should be made strategic and rules relating to auditing and accountability should be made more effective

Page(s): 238-245                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6718

 Saheed O. Olayiwola
Department of Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria


 Francis O. Adeyemi
Department of Economics, Precious Cornerstone University, Ibadan, Nigeria


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[19] Olusoji, A. (2016). Health System in Nigeria: From Underperformance to Measured Optimism. Health Systems & Reform, 2(4), 285-289.
[20] Patcharanarumol, W., Panichkriangkrai, W., Sommanuttaweechai, A., Hanson, K., Wanwong, Y., & Tangcharoensathien, V. (2018). Strategic purchasing and health system efficiency: A comparison of two financing schemes in Thailand. PLOS one, 1-13.
[21] Preker, A., & Harding, A. (2007). Political economy of Strategic Purchasing. In A. Preker, X. Lui, E. Velenyi, & E. Barris, Public ends, private means: strategic purchasing of health services.World Bank.
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Saheed O. Olayiwola, Francis O. Adeyemi “Strategic Health Purchasing and Health System Performance in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.238-245 July 2022 DOI:

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Effect of Metacognitive Learning Approach on Students’ Motivation to Learn Mathematics in Public Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya

Kithinji Rugendo Wairambu, Prof Nelson Jagero (PhD) – July 2022- Page No.: 246-252

The present study investigated the effect of the Metacognitive learning approach on students’ motivation to learn mathematics based on the topic Formulae and Variation in mathematics. A Quasi-experimental design and in particular Solomon Four Design was employed for the study. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select four boys’ and four girls’extra county participating secondary schools. Assignment of groups to either experimental or control group was done through simple random sampling. A sample size of 360 form three students was used in the study. Students in the experimental groups were taught Formulae and Variations using Metacognitive Learning Approach (MLA) while control groups were taught the same topic using Conventional Teaching Approach (CTA). The research instrument for data collection was Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Data analysis was undertaken with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 software. The study showed that Metacognitive Learning Approach (MLA) resulted to higher levels of students’ scores in motivation towards learning of mathematics. The study recommends that teacher training institutions, Kenya Curriculum (KICD) and mathematics teachers should enact MLA approach as a preferred mathematics learning approach in Kenyan secondary schools. The findings of the study form basis for future research on innovative teaching approaches in mathematics education

Page(s): 246-252                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

 Kithinji Rugendo Wairambu
Chuka University, Kenya

 Prof Nelson Jagero (PhD)
Chuka University, Kenya

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[3] Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M., & Ahmad, Z (2010). Does quality affect students performance? Evidence from institute of Higher Learning. Journal of Business Management, 4, 2527 – 2533.
[4] Amrai, K., Motlagh, E., Azizi, S., & Parhoon, H. (2011). The Relationship between Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement Students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15: 399 – 402.
[5] Anderson, N. (2012). The Role Metacognition in Second/Foreign Language Teaching and Learning. Eric Digest. Psychology for Language Learning. Insights from Research, Theory, and Practice. 169- 187.
[6] Ayub, N. (2010). Effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on academic performance. Journal of Education and Social Sciences Pakistan Business Review, 8, 363–372.
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[8] Cruickshank, D., Jenkins, D., & Metcalf, K. (2009). The act of teaching (5th Ed). Boston:
[9] D’ Martino, P., & Zan, R. (2010). Me and Maths’’ Towards a Definition of Attitude Grounded on Students Narrratives. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education 13 (1), 27 – 48.
[10] DePasque, S., & Tricomi. E. (2015). Effects of Intrinsic Motivation on Feedback Processing during Learning. Neuroimaging, 119, 175- 182.
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[12] George, O. (2012). Academic motivation, self-concept and academic achievement in English and Mathematics at O level (Unpublished master’s thesis). Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
[13] Hanin, V. & Nieuwenhoven, C . (2020). An Exploration of the Cognitive, Motivational, Emotional and Regulatory Behaviours of Elementary – School Novice and Expert Problem Solvers. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 1- 30.
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[16] Hunus, M. & Fox, J., (2015). Assessing The Effects of Gamification in the Classroom; A Longitudinal Study on Intrinsic Motivation, Social Comparison, Satisfaction, Effort, and Academic Performance. Compute and Educ. 80, 152- 161.
[17] Kasuni, J. (2014). Human Resource Factors Affecting the Performance of Mathematics in Secondary School Students in Kenya.A case of Mbitini, Division, Makueni County, Kenya.
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Kithinji Rugendo Wairambu, Prof Nelson Jagero (PhD), “Effect of Metacognitive Learning Approach on Students’ Motivation to Learn Mathematics in Public Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.246-252 July 2022 URL:

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Effects of sanctions on Zimbabwe (2000-2020)

Tapfuiwa James Katsinde (Dr) – July 2022- Page No.: 253-259

The study evaluated the imposition and effects of sanctions on Zimbabwe. The study is guided by exchange theory. This was a desk research which used the internet and secondary sources. The study revealed that the imposition of sanctions is regarded differently by those who imposed them and by those on whom the sanctions were imposed. Each side explains the imposition of sanctions on the basis of their own interests. For the Zimbabwean government and the ruling party sanctions were imposed as a result of the land reform carried out by the government to solve the uneven distribution of land in the country. On the other hand, the western countries who imposed sanctions explain the sanctions as being caused by the Zimbabwean government’s failure to respect human rights and lack of rule of law. The study also reveals that there is divergent interpretation of whether the sanctions were legal or illegal. The Zimbabwean government believe that the sanctions were illegal as they did not have the blessing of the United Nations but those who imposed the sanctions believe they were legal as they passed through their parliamentary institutions. Sanctions imposed on Zimbabwe had a negative impact on the economy to a certain extent as they are other factors for the economic instability in the country. It is recommended that the Zimbabwean government should try to improve the political environment in the country to influence those who imposed sanctions to remove them

Page(s): 253-259                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

 Tapfuiwa James Katsinde (Dr)
Department of Peace and Governance, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe

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Tapfuiwa James Katsinde (Dr) “Effects of sanctions on Zimbabwe (2000-2020)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.253-259 July 2022 URL:

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Skill-based Intervention Programme for Children in Conflict with Law: An Innovative Approach from University of Calcutta

Sanjukta Das, Saranya Banerjee, Saptak Chatterjee, Sanchari Roy – July 2022- Page No.: 260-266

A major population of youth is increasingly engaging in law violation activities which has become a matter of concern all over the world. The need of the hour calls for a rehabilitation programme designed to cater to the needs and deficits of conflict with law. Keeping this view in mind, a Skill Based Intervention Programme (SBIP) has been developed for CCL. The SBIP consisted of two sets of modules of group sessions: Direct Application of Psychological Principles and Application of Psychological Principles using Music and there was also another module for Individual Psychological sessions. Post the development of the Intervention Programme, the SBIP was conducted on 93 males within the age range 12-17 years. Pre-post intervention data was collected using the Adaptive Behaviour Checklist for CCL, specially developed to meet the requirements of the module. Data for Pre-intervention assessment was collected from 93 males. However, data for post assessment intervention could be collected only from 59 adolescents who participated in the entire Intervention programme. Results indicated significant differences between the pre-intervention and the post-intervention scores, the post-intervention scores significantly higher than the pre-intervention score. Change processes have been enumerated in the discussion

Page(s): 260-266                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6719

 Sanjukta Das
Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, India

 Saranya Banerjee
Clinical Psychologist in a project of CPEPA, University of Calcutta with Directorate of Child Rights and Trafficking, Govt. of West Bengal, India

 Saptak Chatterjee
Indian Classical Vocalist, Music composer and Educator

 Sanchari Roy
Clinical Psychologist in a project of CPEPA, University of Calcutta with Directorate of Child Rights and Trafficking, Govt. of West Bengal, India

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Sanjukta Das, Saranya Banerjee, Saptak Chatterjee, Sanchari Roy , “Skill-based Intervention Programme for Children in Conflict with Law: An Innovative Approach from University of Calcutta” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.260-266 July 2022 DOI:

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Effects of Speech and Language Disorders in Early Childhood

Dr Stephen M. Nzoka – July 2022- Page No.: 267-269

This paper is developed on the philosophy that disabilities, be they congenital or adventitious, should not necessarily be handicaps if timely medical, educational and technological interventions have been put in place, (Barraga 1986). This augment remains true and valid whether the child is in a monolingual or multilingual context. The theme before us puts emphasis on child’s developmental disorders in a ‘multilingual context’ implying the sort of consequences or effects that would follow such a child with a defective speech and language disorders. Such effects encompass isolation, labeling, child abuse, segregation, stigma, nicknaming to name but a few. To worsen the matter, such dehumanizing practices take place at home, school, church/mosque, village and community affecting a child of 2 years to 8 years.
Undoubtedly, the above social barriers apply to all categories of children. In this paper, however, special attention will be given to pre-primary and primary school going children (2 years to 8 years) with speech and language disorders, (Nzoka 2021). Speech and language are here taken to be one and complementary. In fact, there would be no language without speech. Defective speech organs often lead to language disorders, (Hallahan and Kauffman, 1991). Children with hearing impairment, autism spectrum, children with emotional and behavioral disorders, children with physical impairment and children with multiple disorders are examples. It is these disorders that lead to disabilities unless timely intervened

Page(s): 267-269                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 August 2022

 Dr Stephen M. Nzoka
Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Dr Stephen M. Nzoka “Effects of Speech and Language Disorders in Early Childhood” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.267-269 July 2022 URL:

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Influence of Demographic Variables on the Attitude towards the Same Gender Relationships among University Students in Nairobi County, Kenya

Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD) – July 2022- Page No.: 270-274

In Africa, homosexuality has been considered morally wrong and against the African culture. Globally, studies have shown negative attitude towards the same gender relationship among the university students. However, there is lack of similar studies with among university students in Kenya and therefore, the objective this study was to establish the influence of demographic variables of age, gender, and level of education on the attitude towards the same gender relationship among university students in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study employed correlational design. Through simple random sampling the study utilized a sample size of 294 participants. The data was collected using the demographic details of the participants and attitude towards homosexuality scale. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and one WAY ANOVA. The results showed that all the demographic variables (age, gender and education level) had insignificant predictive relationship with attitude towards homosexuality, p≤ 0.05.

Page(s): 270-274                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

 Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD)
Institute of Youth Studies, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Tangaza University College, Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD), “Influence of Demographic Variables on the Attitude towards the Same Gender Relationships among University Students in Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.270-274 July 2022 URL:

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Assessment of Awareness of Climate Change Among Subsistent Farmers in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja

EKPO, C. G. and HARUNA, I. O. – July 2022- Page No.: 275-282

This study assessed awareness about climate change among subsistent farmers in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja. The descriptive survey design was employed. From a population of subsistent farmers across the Area Council, a sample size of 180 was selected from six communities using the simple random sampling technique. Climate Change Awareness Assessment Scale (CCAAS), a questionnaire design on a 4-point Likert scale format was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics including frequency counts, percentage, and mean (x) were used for data analysis. Results of the study revealed that lack of awareness about climate change among subsistent farmers in Gwagwalda Area Council has impact on their adaptation mechanisms to climate change. It was recommended among others that environmental education either in formal or informal setting be employed in effective creation of awareness about climate change to subsistent farmers to boost agricultural production in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja

Page(s): 275-282                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 July 2022

 EKPO, C. G. and HARUNA, I. O.
Department of Science and Environmental Education, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

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EKPO, C. G. and HARUNA, I. O. “Assessment of Awareness of Climate Change Among Subsistent Farmers in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.275-282 July 2022 URL:

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Influence of Network actors on Entrepreneurship Development among Uwezo Funded Youth Groups in Kitui County, Kenya

Kirk Mutua, Dr Stephen Ntuara Kiriinya – July 2022- Page No.: 283-287

The Kenyan government, in line with the Medium-Term Plan (MTP) of Vision 2030, chose to support start-ups and growth of youth enterprises by providing an enabling environment and facilitating support programmes that develop the business sector. This study examines the influence of business network actors on entrepreneurship development among Uwezo funded youth groups in Kitui County, Kenya. The findings are useful to the government of Kenya, agencies involved in the management of youth funds as they can be guided on what to capture while reviewing or developing policies related to the role of business networking factors on entrepreneurship development. This study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was 336 youth group leaders from the Uwezo Funded youth-owned SMEs in Kitui County. Stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample size of 102 respondents. The study used both primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires; the questionnaires included structured and unstructured questions. The questionnaires were administered by use of a drop off and pick up later method while secondary data was obtained from Uwezo Fund reports and group financial statements. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the quantitative data. Further, quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data was analyzed using textual analysis and the results were presented using narrations (in prose form). The study found out that, network actors influenced entrepreneurship development of Uwezo funded youth groups. From the findings, it was recommended that Uwezo fund management should consider organizing sensitization meetings for group leaders on how to identify and work with network actors. Further research should be undertaken to examine other contributors to entrepreneurship development and in other Kenya Counties as well

Page(s): 283-287                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2022

 Kirk Mutua
School of Business, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr Stephen Ntuara Kiriinya
Senior Lecturer, Department of Business Administration and Entrepreneurship, The Technical University of Kenya

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Kirk Mutua, Dr Stephen Ntuara Kiriinya , “Influence of Network actors on Entrepreneurship Development among Uwezo Funded Youth Groups in Kitui County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.283-287 July 2022 URL:

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Domination of Colonial Law in The Middle of Indonesian Moslem Society

Muhammad Nur Islami – July 2022- Page No.: 288-295


This short article intends to explain the major problems faced by Indonesia since been colonized by a foreign nation (in this case mainly the Netherlands) for three and a half centuries with all its consequences, namely the existence of foreign law until now in Indonesia, including the influence of European culture in the life of people who are predominantly muslim with the traditions and culture of course different from the tradition and culture of the colonial. Circumstances should be terminated immediately it can certainly be felt by everyone that upholds and respects the religious laws adopted by the muslim majority of Indonesia’s population. After 70 years of Indonesian independent, largely of colonial law is still exist in the entire territory of Indonesia. Indonesian people seemed no longer care about these issues, or at least only a small part of Indonesian society are seriously thinking about it. And for a great nation like Indonesia should the laws of society are in accordance with the community’s culture, and culture is a culture that is supposed to be created/built on the majority religion in this country embraced the religion of Islam. So, it can be said that the law should be the law of Indonesia are built on the teachings and culture of Islam, but the reality showed that the laws of the Dutch Law such as ‘Wetboek van Straftrecht’, ‘Burgerlijk Wetboek’ and ‘Wetboek van Koophandel’ are still apply today

Page(s): 288-295                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6720

 Muhammad Nur Islami
Faculty of Law Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

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Muhammad Nur Islami “Domination of Colonial Law in The Middle of Indonesian Moslem Society” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.288-295 July 2022 DOI:

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The Mediating Effect of Academic Motivation on the Relationship between Metacognitive Skills, Students Attitudes and Beliefs toward Mathematics

Albert G. Camacho – July 2022- Page No.: 296-308

This study determined the mediating effect of academic motivation on the relationship between metacognitive skills, student attitudes and beliefs toward mathematics in selected colleges, particularly Davao del Norte. The study adopted a quantitative non-experimental correlational descriptive survey design with a sample of 339 first-year college students. Sets of adapted survey questionnaires were used in this study to obtain data from the respondents subjected for content validity and reliability analysis. The data were analyzed using the Mean, Pearson-r, Multiple Regression Analysis, and Medgraph using the Sobel z-test. The results revealed that in first-year college students; levels of academic motivation, metacognitive skills, attitude and beliefs are evident most of the time. Moreover, a significant relationship existed between these variables. The mediation of academic motivation on the relationship between metacognitive skills, students’ attitudes and beliefs towards the mathematics of first-year college in a selected institution was proven in the study

Page(s): 296-308                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6721

 Albert G. Camacho
Associate Professor, University of Mindanao Panabo College, Pedro N. Arguelles St., Brgy San Francisco, Panabo City, Philippines

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Albert G. Camacho, “The Mediating Effect of Academic Motivation on the Relationship between Metacognitive Skills, Students Attitudes and Beliefs toward Mathematics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.296-308 July 2022 DOI:

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Investigating and Addressing Oil Related Conflicts in Niger Delta: A Case Study of Warri

Falode I.A and Egunjobi, L – July 2022- Page No.: 309-314

The Niger Delta area of Nigeria has the largest reserves of oil and gas in West Africa yet is the most polluted in the world. Sequel to oil exploration and development, the land, water and air environment used to be green. However, the increasing petroleum pollution of the Niger Delta environment since oil exploitation began in Oloibiri in 1956 has resulted into alarming rise in poverty levels birthing violent conflicts and fatalities among the major stakeholders including oil companies, government and the people of Niger Delta. The ongoing conflict in the Niger Delta started in the early 1990s with Warri becoming the epicenter of regional violence. Recent efforts towards ending conflict and insecurity such as declaration of amnesty and 13% derivation principle has not yielded much success. The objective of this study is to investigate the root cause of oil related conflicts and examine different traditional approaches such as elder’s intervention, inter-marriage, oath-taking in view of adopting the best method in proffering lasting solutions to the lingering crisis in Warri. The study area is Warri Township in Delta State, Nigeria. It is located on latitudes 50 27′ N and 50 36′ N and longitudes 50 40’E and 50 48′ E. It is one of the largest and oldest towns in Delta State and located on the banks of the lower Niger Delta. The study employed the tool of survey questionnaire to acquire data relating to conflict and conflict resolution methods in Warri Township. Two hundred (200) copies of questionnaire were administered to the residents of Warri community using random sampling technique in 5 selected communities among the Ijaw, Urhobo and Itsekiri tribes of Warri where conflict is preponderant which gives room for equal chance of any resident to be chosen in the study area. Descriptive statistics was used to explain the frequencies of the variables in terms of their percentage. Results of the analysis show that the management of conflict in this town must embrace the use of negotiation, mediation, public participation as well as the traditional methods of peaceful coexistence such as, intervention of elders, oath-taking and inter-tribal marriage. It is recommended that Stakeholders must ensure that conflicting parties understand each other’s culture, weaken stereotype they have of each other, ultimately to enhance effective intercultural communication.

Page(s): 309-314                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 August 2022

 Falode I.A
Department of English, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 Egunjobi, L
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

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Falode I.A and Egunjobi, L “Investigating and Addressing Oil Related Conflicts in Niger Delta: A Case Study of Warri” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.309-314 July 2022 URL:

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Revisiting the Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited ASCL as Development Driver in Nigeria: The Policy Alternative

Shidali Nasiru Ph.D., Maiye B. Olusegun – July 2022- Page No.: 315-321

This paper has revisited the Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited as development driver in Nigeria with a view to presenting pragmatic policy alternatives. It sought to find out the socio-economic contributions of the solid minerals sector to Nigeria’s economic development and look into how corruption has hampered the contributions of the Ajaokuta Steel Company limited to Nigeria’s economic emancipation. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources with structured questionnaire administered to both staff of the company and members of the host communities while structural-functionalism served as the theoretical framework. Findings showed that there are inadequate and holistic development policies in the country and that one of the reasons that can explain that is the neglect of the solid mineral sector in general which has the capacity to industrialize the country. Also, it was discovered that majority of Nigerians have realized the urgent need for economic diversification if Nigeria must attain the much desired national economic development through industrialization. Ajaokuta iron and steel company has the capacity to increase the country’s GDP, reduce social inequality, unemployment and poverty rate which have widened in the country. The paper recommends that there is need for definite revamping efforts for steel plants by the government through the Federal Ministry of Mines and Solid Minerals. This will provide the legal framework for mining as well as miners in Nigeria. Also, the government should carry out a comprehensive inventory of the country’s mineral resource potentials and actively promote the development of these resources for both local and foreign consumptions as this will encourage the development of local sources of raw materials for the nation’s industries.

Page(s): 315-321                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 August 2022

 Shidali Nasiru Ph.D.
Department of Political Science & International Relations, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

 Maiye B. Olusegun
Department of Political Science & International Relations, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

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Shidali Nasiru Ph.D., Maiye B. Olusegun , “Revisiting the Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited ASCL as Development Driver in Nigeria: The Policy Alternative” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.315-321 July 2022 URL:

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Influence of Single Parenting on the Education of Junior High School Students of Effiduase in the New Juaben North Municipality

Derrick Nii Quarcoopome Sackey, Albert Bekoe Mensah, Paul Williams Obeng – July 2022- Page No.: 322-328

This study was conducted to investigate the influence of single parenting on the education of junior high school students of Effiduase in the New Juaben North Municipality of the Eastern Region of Ghana. The stratified random sampling technique was used to sample one hundred and eighty students from three junior high schools for the study. A close-ended questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents sampled for the study. Data were analysed using frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that the causes of single parenting at Effiduase in the New Juaben North Municipality include death of parent, and separation. Also, the study concluded that the challenges students from single parenting families encounter include students do not easily socialize in the classroom and they exhibit signs of low self-esteem. In addition, the study concluded that the effect of single parenting on the education of junior high school students include students were frequently absent from school and hence, they scored low marks in class exercises. The study recommends that stakeholders of education including teachers, parents, and opinion leaders at Effiduase in the New Juaben North Municipality need to put in place appropriate mechanisms to reduce separation, desertion, and unplanned pregnancy which are rampant in the Effiduase Community. Also, teachers and parents should solicit the assistance of philanthropists in the Effiduase Community to come to the aid of brilliant but needy students from single parent families.

Page(s): 322-328                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 August 2022

 Derrick Nii Quarcoopome Sackey
Department of Social Sciences, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

 Albert Bekoe Mensah
Department of Languages, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

 Paul Williams Obeng
Department of Social Sciences, SDA College of Education, Koforidua, Ghana

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Derrick Nii Quarcoopome Sackey, Albert Bekoe Mensah, Paul Williams Obeng “Influence of Single Parenting on the Education of Junior High School Students of Effiduase in the New Juaben North Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.322-328 July 2022 URL:

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Fatek (Tattoo): An Ethnic Bontoc Marker in the Northern Philippines

Arnel M. Kisofen – July 2022- Page No.: 329-334

The Bontok Igorots of Mountain Province, in the Cordillera Region, are one of the Philippine tribes that practiced traditional tattooing. The reasons and meanings of their tattoos could be better understood through the traditional context of Bontoc culture. To determine the cultural significance of tattoos to the Bontoks, the descriptive survey investigation was used to explore the tribe’s physical and socio-cultural practice of tattooing (fatek); discover the changes in the practice and perceptions of tattoo as well as its implication in the traditional and contemporary Bontoc society. The study’s primary informants included Bontoc elders with first-hand experiences and knowledge in the practice of traditional tattooing and young people with tattoos.
The findings of the study showed that the traditional tattoo in traditional Bontoc society conveyed symbolic meanings, especially among the male members of the tribe. The chaklag is a symbol of status and at the same time a part of the rite of passage. On the other hand, women’s tattoos in Bontoc had no significant meaning but purely for decorative purposes and social acceptance. This study unfolds many unique and indigenous tattoo symbols which contribute to the development of local art. The changing attitudes and perceptions toward tattoos by the contemporary Bontoc community is a tug of war between the older and younger generation. The advancement of technology made tattooing more convenient thus, attracting many young people in Bontoc to have tattoos. Further, tattooing has become part of the health and beauty industry and many young professionals and teenagers are having positive attitudes and perceptions toward tattoos. Today, the impact of tattoos in the Bontoc society is closely felt in the loss of their cultural and symbolic meanings and thus ceased to be an ethnic marker for the Bontoc tribe. In the area of economy, it is beginning to draw clients from young professionals and teenagers. It has likewise become an established career and business causing the development of innovated creative art.

Page(s): 329-334                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6722

 Arnel M. Kisofen
Principal, Sadanga National Technical-Vocational & Skills Training High School

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Arnel M. Kisofen, “Fatek (Tattoo): An Ethnic Bontoc Marker in the Northern Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.329-334 July 2022 DOI:

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Empirical Study of The Effect of Quality Environmental Information Disclosure on Firm’s Performance of Listed Brewery Firms in Nigeria

Agu, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ani, Michael Uchenna & Jideofor, Ngozi Annastacia – July 2022- Page No.: 335-341

This study ascertained the effect of quality environmental information disclosure on firm’s performance of listed Brewers in Nigeria. The main motivation was on the need to show the effect of environmental disclosure in aggregated variable on performance of Brewery firms in Nigeria. The main objective was to ascertain the effect of quality environmental information disclosure on firm’s performance of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. An ex-post facto research design was adopted for this study. Secondary data were carefully sourced from the annual reports of the Brewery firms quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Content and Disclosure Index were used to analyze environmental information disclosure. The data span from 2008 to 2019. Panel least square regression test by aid of E-views 10.0 software was used to test the effect of Environmental disclosure index on return on asset, return on equity and on net profit margin. The results showed that Environmental information disclosures significantly affect return on asset of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. The findings further revealed that Environmental information disclosures do not significantly affect return on equity of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. Finally, the result established also that Environmental information disclosures significantly affect net profit margin of listed Brewery firms in Nigeria. Consequent upon the findings, the study recommends need for Mandatory disclosure practices by Brewery firms, enforced by government to enable them take responsibility on disclosure of environmental performance data in annual report.

Page(s): 335-341                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 August 2022

 Agu, Stephen Ikechukwu (Ph.D)
Department of Accountancy, Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria


 Ani, Michael Uchenna (ACA)
Department of Accountancy, Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria


 Jideofor, Ngozi Annastacia(M.Sc)
Department of Accountancy, Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria


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[18] Uwalomwa, U. &Jafaru, J. (2012). Corporate environmental disclosure in the Nigerian manufacturing industry. case study of selected firm. An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia.Pp 71-83.
[19] Yahaya, O.A. (2018). Environmental Reporting Practices and Financial Performance of Listed Environmentally-Sensitive Firms in Nigeria. A Journal of Environmental and Social Sciences, 24(2), 403-412

Agu, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ani, Michael Uchenna & Jideofor, Ngozi Annastacia “Empirical Study of The Effect of Quality Environmental Information Disclosure on Firm’s Performance of Listed Brewery Firms in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.335-341 July 2022 URL:

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A Review on the Psychological Reactions after a Presidential Election

Almyrah Anudin, Mary Gacrama, Paulo Natividad, Miko Miguel, Charlene Mane Sulit, Mary Rachelle Wapano – July 2022- Page No.: 342-349

This paper is a review of the psychological reactions of young adults to any presidential turnout from 2006-2022. The studies generally revealed the occurrence of numerous psychological reactions and coping strategies after the election turnout. The existing literature is scarce in explaining the psychological reactions among voters, their coping strategies after the loss of their preferred candidate, their sense of fulfillment and life satisfaction after the victory of their preferred candidates, as well as their interpersonal and social relationships among family and friends. This review of literature then attempts to capture from existing studies the positive and negative psychological reactions of young adults following a Presidential election turnout and their coping reactions to the loss of their preferred candidates, and the possible impact on their well-being, their sense of fulfillment, and the sense of satisfaction when their preferred candidates won the election cycle. The review shows that voters of the losing candidate show signs of stress among other factors from the result of the elections with those who have maladaptive coping mechanisms showing higher overall levels; voters of winning candidates show signs of elation.

Page(s): 342-349                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6723

 Almyrah Anudin
Xavier University and Ateneo de Zamboanga University, Philippines

 Mary Gacrama
Xavier University and Ateneo de Zamboanga University, Philippines

 Paulo Natividad
Xavier University and Ateneo de Zamboanga University, Philippines

 Miko Miguel
Xavier University and Ateneo de Zamboanga University, Philippines

 Charlene Mane Sulit
Xavier University and Ateneo de Zamboanga University, Philippines

 Mary Rachelle Wapano
Xavier University and Ateneo de Zamboanga University, Philippines

[1] Batara, E., Labadan, A. K., & Roa, M. (2021). Factors Affecting Youth Voting Preferences in the Philippine Senatorial Election: A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Analysis. Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan, 12(3), 242-264.
[2] Cabo, W. L. (2018). Youth and political participation in the Philippines: Voices and themes from a Democracy Project. Journal of Politics and Governance, 8(1), 259-271.
[3] DeJonckheere, M., Fisher, A., & Chang, T. (2018). How has the presidential election affected young Americans?. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 12(1), 1-4.
[4] Fowler, J. H. (2006). Altruism and turnout. The Journal of Politics, 68(3), 674-683.
[5] Garner, L. E., Mckay, D., Cepeda, S. L., & Storch, E. A. (2021). The Impact of Conservatism and Elected Party Representation on Mental Health Outcomes During Major Elections. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 40(3), 221-248.
[6] Gagné, T., Schoon, I., & Sacker, A. (2020). Health and voting over the course of adulthood: evidence from two British birth cohorts. SSM-population health, 10, 100531.
[7] Gray, D., Pickard, H., & Munford, L. (2018). Election Outcomes and Individual Well-being: Evidence from British Panel Data (No. 2018018).
[8] Hall, H. (2019). Voting behavior among young adults: An analysis of youth voters and how behavioral economic concepts can be applied to increase young voter turnout.
[9] Hedman, E. L. E. (2010). The politics of “public opinion” in the Philippines. Journal of current Southeast Asian affairs, 29(4), 97-118.
[10] Huber, G, & Malhotra, N. (2018) Political Homophily in Social Relationships: Evidence from Online Dating Behavior.
[11] Jorge, C. (2022, February 15). Understanding the youth vote. Retrieved June 6, 2022, from
[12] Ledesma, J., (2022). Families and friendships over politics;
[13] Levinsen, K., & Yndigegn, C. (2015). Political discussions with family and friends: exploring the impact of political distance. The Sociological Review, 63, 72-91.
[14] Maas, A. S., & Lu, L. (2020). “Elections have Consequences”: Partisan Politics are Literally Killing Us.
[15] Madarang, C., Lusterio, M., Manguerra, A. (2022). Post-Election hopes, and Aspirations: Why youth volunteerism matters. Interaksyon
[16] Pablo, Z. C., Oco, N., Roldan, M. D. G., Cheng, C., & Roxas, R. E. (2014). Toward an enriched understanding of factors influencing Filipino behavior during elections through the analysis of Twitter data. Philippine Political Science Journal, 35(2), 203-224.
[17] Ojeda, C (2020). Post-election grief is real and here are five coping strategies. The conversation Academic rigor, Journalistic flairPablo, Z. C., Oco, N., Roldan, M. D. G., Cheng, C., & Roxas, R. E. (2014). Toward an enriched
[18] Ronquillo, A (2022). Turning grief into strength. The Manila Times
[19] Santos, A (2022). I will continue to choose hope. Thought leaders 2022 Philippine Election
[20] Sharlamanov, K., & Jovanoski, A. (2014). Models of voting. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 5(1), 16-24.
[21] Smith, K.B., (2022) Politics is making us sick: The negative impact of political engagement on public health during the Trump administration. PLoS ONE 17(1): e0262022. 10.1371/journal.pone.0262022
[22] Spicer, A. (2019). Why political parties find it hard to learn from defeat. Cognitive and structural biases make it hard for party members to analyse what went wrong and plan their next

Almyrah Anudin, Mary Gacrama, Paulo Natividad, Miko Miguel, Charlene Mane Sulit, Mary Rachelle Wapano, “A Review on the Psychological Reactions after a Presidential Election” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.342-349 July 2022 DOI:

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Entrepreneurial Experiences of BS Entrepreneurship Graduates Batches 2015-2020 of St. Paul University Manila in the New Environment

Arsenio T. Bignotia, PhD; Sharon Candy Manguerra-Mahusay, PhD; Jeetendra Vaswani, DBA – July 2022- Page No.: 350-361

The Philippine government has long been advocating for the development and advancement of the Business and Entrepreneurship disciplines in higher education. Its inclusion in the priority programs for scholarship grants is a testimony of the government acknowledgement of the entrepreneurs as among the driving forces that steer the country’s economy. The research study intended to ascertain the business involvement of individuals who completed their degree in BS Entrepreneurship from St. Paul University Manila (SPU Manila), for years 2015 to 2020, particularly amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Likewise, its main consideration was to discover entrepreneurial competencies appropriate to the new environment. It also determined the entrepreneurial challenges and opportunities brought about by the dramatic changes in the said landscape. The study employed mixed design in analyzing the data while utilizing the descriptive method to illustrate not only the encounters of the selected participants, but also the skills and competencies required to take on the changes in the new business setting. With this, the study revealed that enhancements in the BS Entrepreneurship Program curriculum is needed to equip its graduates with more know-how and proficiency to minimize the challenges they are facing. Such enhancements should also aid them in understanding and navigating industry trends, employment opportunities, and collaboration with industries

Page(s): 350-361                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 August 2022

 Arsenio T. Bignotia, PhD
St. Paul Univeristy Manila, Philippines

 Sharon Candy Manguerra-Mahusay, PhD
St. Paul Univeristy Manila, Philippines

 Jeetendra Vaswani, DBA
St. Paul Univeristy Manila, Philippines

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[7] Bignotia, A. (2012). Entrepreneurial Engagement of Entrepreneurship Graduates Batches 2008-2012 of St. Paul University Manila.
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[10] Co, M. (2011). Philippine Culture, Entrepreneurship and Development. In U.P. Institute for Small-Scale Industries. Introduction to Entrepreneurship (pp. 5-6).Quezon City, Small Enterprises Research and Development Foundation Inc.
[11] Cooke, F.L. & Kim, S. (2017). Routledge Handbook of Human Resource Management in Asia. Routledge.
[12] Davidsson P, Delmar F, Wiklund J. (2006) Entrepreneurship and the growth of firms. Edward Elgar,Cheltenham.
[13] Desiderio, L (2013) Philippine Urged to invest in education, foster entrepreneurship, Nov. 11, 2013 pp D-1.
[14] Greene, C. ( 2013). Entrepreneurship. Cengage Learning Learning Asia Pte Ltd. Pasig City, Philippines.
[15] Grilo I, Thurik AR (2005) Entrepreneurial Engagemsent levels in the European Union. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 3(2):143-168.
[16] Hessels, Jolanda, Isabel Grilo, Roy Thurik, Peter van der Zawn. Entrepreneurial Exit and Entrepreneurial Engagement (2009) October 3, 2013.
[17] Hisrich, R.D., Peters M. P. , Shepherd D.A. Entrepreneurship, 6th Edition. Mc-Graw-Hill Irwin. New York, USA December 2013.
[18] Kariv, D. (2011). Entrepreneurship An International Introduction. Routledge, New York,USA
[19] Kuratko, D. F. (2014). Introduction to Entrepreneurship, International Edition. South-Western Cengage Learning. Canada.
[20] Malolos, C (2017). Level of Perceived Entrepreneurial Skills of Students at the Western Philippines University, Puerto Princesa City. Palawan. Retrieved from:
[21] Montevirgen, A. (2003). A Tracer Study of DLSU-D, Graduate School of Education, Arts and Sciences Alumni: Basis for Program Enrichment, De La Salle University-Dasmarinas, Cavite City.
[22] OECD Report (2018) Developing Entrepreneurship Competencies. Retrieved from:
[23] The Philippine Labor and Employment Plan 2011-2016:Inclusive Growth Through Decent and Productive Work. ( January 28, 2014.
[24] Tandon, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India.
[25] Tang, G., Park, K., Agarwal, A. & Liu, F. (2020). Impact of Innovation Culture, Organization Size and Technological Capability on the Performance of SMEs: The Case of China. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1355; doi:10.3390/su12041355
[26] UNICEF MENA Report (2017). 12 Core Life Skills. Retrieved from:,resilience%2C%20communication%2C%20respect%20for%20diversity%2C%20empathy%20and%20participation.

Arsenio T. Bignotia, PhD; Sharon Candy Manguerra-Mahusay, PhD; Jeetendra Vaswani, DBA “Entrepreneurial Experiences of BS Entrepreneurship Graduates Batches 2015-2020 of St. Paul University Manila in the New Environment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.350-361 July 2022 URL:

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Unraveling the Efficacy of Differentiated Based Instruction on Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Quadratic Equation

Ukwueze Timothy Chinedu, Ugwuanyi Chika. C. & Ogbu Sunday – July 2022- Page No.: 362-367

The study investigated the efficacy of differentiated dased instruction (DBI) on students’ achievement in quadratic equation in Obollo-Afor Education Zone of Enugu State. To achieve the purpose of the study, two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi-experimental; specifically non-equivalent control group design. The population of the study comprised four thousand eight hundred and twenty (4,820) SSS 2 students found in the forty-eight (48) public secondary schools in Obollo-Afor Education zone of Enugu state. The sample of the study consists of 162 students from four (4) intact classes from four schools. The sample of four (4) schools were drawn using proportionate Stratified random sampling techniques in which two (2) schools were assigned to experimental group and the other two (2) schools were assigned to control group. Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) was the instrument used for the study. The instrument was validated by three experts and the reliability index obtained was 0.89 using Kuder Richardson 20 formula. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS and mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study revealed that differentiated based instruction improved students’ achievement in quadratic equation than conventional based instruction of teaching quadratic equation. Also, gender has no significant influence on the achievement of students in quadratic equation. Based on the findings, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should use the differentiated based instruction while teaching the subject. Moreover, ministry of education should organize workshops, seminars, conferences etc and make the attendance to it compulsory to the mathematics teachers on the use of differentiated based instruction in their classroom instruction

Page(s): 362-367                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 August 2022

 Ukwueze Timothy Chinedu
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Ugwuanyi Chika. C.
Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Ogbu Sunday
Department of Mathematics, Enugu State College of Education (Technical), Enugu, Nigeria

[1] Agwagah, U.N.V. (2001). Teaching number bases in junior secondary school mathematics : The use of Based board. Abacus: The Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria (MAN) 26(1), 1-7
[2] Agwagah, U.N.V. (2004). Strategies for facilitating the learning of number and numeration. Journal of Issues on Mathematics, 14 1-13
[3] Agwagah, U.N.V. (2017). It is all about figuring it out: Agenda for change in mathematics education. The 118th Inaugural Lecture University of Nigeria, Nsukka 25th May 2017
[4] Alio, B.C., & Harbbor-Peters, V.F. (2000). The effect of polya’s problem solving technique on secondary school students’ achievement in mathematics. Abacus: Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria, 25(1),26-38.
[5] Amatobi, V.E. (2013). The influence of gender and attitude differences on students’ achievement in mathematics in Nigeria secondary schools: A case study of of comprehensive secondary school Amurie-Omanze in south eastern Nigeria. American Journal of Mathematics , Science and Technology Education. 3(1), 71-81
[6] Ayotola, W., & Adedeji, O.S.(2009). Critical Race Theory and Education : History, Theory and Implication in M. Apple (Ed.). Review of Research in Education (22). Washington D.C: American Educational Research Association.
[7] Eze, C.C. (2010). Effect of Concept Mapping on achievement and interest on Organic chemistry. An unpublished M.Ed, Thesis University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[8] Ezeh, D.N. (2015). Writing Research Proposal and Report Without Tears. Enugu ; Timex Enterprise
[9] Geary, D.C. (2000). Numerical and Arithmetical cognition: A longitudinal study of process and concept Deficits in children learning disability. Journal of experimental child psychology, 77,236-263.
[10] Ifeanacho, A.O. (2012). Effect of Kumon teaching strategy on JSS students’ achievement, interest and retention in statistics. An Unpublished Ph.D Thesis University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[11] Imoko,B.I., & Agwagah, U.N.V. (2006). Improving students’ interest in mathematics through the concept mapping techniques: A focus on gender. Journal of Research in curriculum and teaching, 1(1) 30-38. Intervention and gender equity in secondary school mathematics; Implication for National development and integration. Enugu, John Best Enterprises..
[12] Merchant, S. (2010). Method of teaching mathematics: Hambard University, Karachi, HIESS 1-13 Retrieved on 10th Dec, 2010 mathematics.
[13] Muthomi, M.W., & Mbugua, Z.K. (2014). Effectiveness of differentiated instruction on secondary school students achievement in mathematics in Kenya. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. Vol. 4. No. 1, Jan.2014.
[14] National Examination Council (NECO :2009, 2014, and 2020). Chief Examiner’s Report Nigeria SSCE, May/June examination.
[15] Odo, J.A., & Ugwuda, A.O. (2014). Effect of Mathematics Games on Students’ Achievement and Interest in Mathematics. Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria vol.12,No; 3, pp 151-157.
[16] Okeke, O. J. (2011). Effect of mind mapping teaching Strategy on students’ interest, retention and achievement in senior secondary school Chemistry; An Unpublished Ph.D Thesis University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[17] Okigbo, E.C. (2010). Comparative Effectiveness of mathematical games and instructional analogy as advance organizer on students’ achievement and interest in mathematics. An Unpublished Ph.D Thesis Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
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[19] Tomlinson, C.A. (2003). Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom strategies and tools for the responsive teaching. Alexandra V.A: Association for supervision and curriculum Development.
[20] Ugwuanyi, C.C. (2016). Effect of using Algebraic Factorization Game Instructional Strategy on students’ retention in Algebra in Enugu State Nigeria. Abacus : Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria, 14 No 1, pp 169-177
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[22] Ukwueze, T.C. (2017). Improving Students Achievement and Interest in Number Bases using Number Bases Game (NBG). An unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[23] Umaru, I.J., Onuigbo, L.N., & Eze, U.N.(2013). Effect of Metacognitive skills on mathematics self –efficacy beliefs of low achieving students in senior secondary schools. Institute of Education Journal, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[24] Voyer, H.D. (2014). Gender Differences in Achievement Test scores. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education (New Orleans, April 5-7, 1994)
[25] West Africa Examination Council (2008, 2013, 2014, 2016 and 2020). Mathematics Chief Examiners’ Report. Yaba: Lagos

Ukwueze Timothy Chinedu, Ugwuanyi Chika. C. & Ogbu Sunday “Unraveling the Efficacy of Differentiated Based Instruction on Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Quadratic Equation” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.362-367 July 2022 URL:

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The Impact of Financial Inclusion on Economic Growth and Social Development in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Dina Azzam Alshanty – July 2022- Page No.: 368-375

Purpose: Based on available detailed data, the primary objective of this study is to assess the relationship between financial inclusion and economic growth & social development in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, then accord relevant recommendations to prompt economic growth and social development.
Methodology: This study’s methodological approach is based on data analysis from 2007 to 2020, which was performed using a descriptive statistical approach, regression, and correlation analysis (i.e. the Pearson correlation).
Findings: Findings reveal a significant relationship between financial inclusion and both economic growth and social development, implying that increasing financial inclusion may lead to an increase in economic growth and social development. In addition, that the Central Bank of Jordan and financial institutions have to continue their work on developing appropriate financial products and services for all segments of society, as well as on enhancing financial literacy, which can benefit in two ways: making more informed financial decisions and using the financial products and services responsibly.
Practical implications: According to the findings of the study, encouraging more people to use financial products and services and expanding formal financial access can boost Jordan’s economic growth and social development. The Jordanian policy makers should continue down the same path of prioritizing financial inclusion because they have already engaged all key stakeholders in the financial system.
Originality/value: The study demonstrates the link between financial inclusion and financial development in Jordan and emphasizes the importance of policymakers and financial institutions in designing and implementing projects and initiatives to increase access to financial services.

Page(s): 368-375                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6724

 Dina Azzam Alshanty
Financial Consumer Protection Department, Central Bank of Jordan

[1] Demirguc-Kunt, A., Klapper, L., Singer, D. and Van Oudheusden, (2015). “The global findex database 2014: Measuring financial inclusion around the world”. Policy Research Working Papers.
[2] Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli, Leora Klapper, and Dorothe Singer. (2017). The Global Findex Database 2017 “Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution.” World Bank, Washington, DC
[3] UNCDF. Financial Inclusion and the SDGs.
[4] Royal House of Netherlands. (2019).Opening remarks of Her Majesty Queen Máxima at the Financial Inclusion for Development: Building on 10 Year of Progress Event, New York.
[5] GPFI. (2016). Global Standard-Setting Bodies and Financial Inclusion. The Evolving Landscape.
[6] World Bank. (2014). Global Financial Development Report 2014: Financial Inclusion. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO
[7] Sahay R., Cihak M, N‟Diaye P, Barajas A, Mitra S, Kyobe A, et al. (2015). Financial inclusion: can it meet multiple macroeconomic goals. IMF Staff Discussion Note 15/17.
[8] Kim J. (2016). A study on the effect of financial inclusion on the relationship between income inequality and economic growth. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 52(2): 498–512.
[9] Kim DW, Yu JS, Hassan MK. (2017). Financial inclusion and economic growth in OIC countries. Research in International Business and Finance 43(Jan): 1–14.
[10] Emara N, Mohieldin M .(2020). financial inclusion and extreme poverty in the MENA region: a gap analysis approach. Review of Economics and Political Science 5(3): 207–230.
[11] Khan I, Khan I, Sayal AU, Khan MZ .(2021) .Doe’s financial inclusion induce poverty, income inequality, and financial stability: empirical evidence from the 54 African countries. Journal of Economic Studies (Mar).
[12] Claessens S., Feijen E. World Bank Publications. (2007). Financial Sector Development and the Millennium Development Goals (No. 89)
[13] (2016). Central bank announces national strategy for financial inclusion. The Jordan Times.

Further readings

[1] Financial Inclusion Diagnostic Study in Jordan (2017). Synthesis Report Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and Central Bank of Jordan.
[2] Sarma, M. (2008), Index of Financial Inclusion, Working Paper, No. 215, Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER), New Delhi. 176233
[3] Abedalfattah Zuhair Al-abedallat.(2017) ,The Role of the Jordanian Banking Sector in Economic Development, International Business Research; Vol. 10, No. 4; 2017 ISSN 1913-9004 E-ISSN 1913-9012 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
[4] Dinara Seijaparova ,Jack W. van Holst Pellekaan. (2004) The World Bank Washington, D.C, An Evaluation of World Bank Assistance for Poverty Reduction, Health and Education, A Country Assistance Evaluation in Jordan.

Dina Azzam Alshanty , “The Impact of Financial Inclusion on Economic Growth and Social Development in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.368-375 July 2022 DOI:

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Potential Pollution of Mahakam Cascade Lake Water Pollution (Semayang Lake, Melintang Lake and Jempang Lake) From Garbage and Household Waste

Lariman, Mislan – July 2022- Page No.: 376-382

Mahakam Kaskade Lake (Semayang Lake, Melintang Lake and Jempang Lake) is the largest flood exposure lake in East Kalimantan. The villages in Semayang Lake, Melintang Lake and Jempang Lake are settlements that are regularly flooded every year, while for generations the people in the research area have used lake water as a source of bathing, washing and latrine (MCK) water. Sources of lake water pollution are domestic waste in the form of organic and inorganic materials from residential areas in water catchment areas and lake borders. The existence of other activities in the form of agriculture, animal husbandry, home industry and tourism will add to the waste of organic and inorganic materials that enter the lake waters, therefore it is necessary to investigate the potential for lake water pollution. This study aims to determine how big the potential for water pollution of Mahakam Kaskade Lake from garbage and household waste. The research was conducted using a survey method, namely conducting interviews and direct observations in the field. The data collected in the form of primary data and secondary data that are relevant to the research objectives. Based on the survey results, it can be seen that Jempang Lake has the potential to be polluted by household organic waste 1.4 – 2.7 tons/day, Melintang Lake has the potential to be contaminated with household organic waste 0.9 – 1.4 tons/day, while Semayang Lake has the potential to be polluted. household organic waste is around 1.7 – 2.7 tons/day, while Jempang Lake has the potential to be polluted by inorganic waste (plastic) about 1.2 tons/day, Melintang Lake has the potential to be polluted by inorganic waste (plastic) about 0, 7 Tons/Day and Semayang Lake has the potential to be polluted by inorganic waste (plastic) of around 1.2 Tons/Day. Therefore, the relevant agencies must immediately try to overcome this pollution problem so that the Mahakan Cascade Lake is not further damaged

Page(s): 376-382                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6725

 Lariman, Mislan
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mulawarman University
Jl. Barong Tongkok No.4 Kampus Gunung Kelua Samarinda, East Kalimantan

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Lariman, Mislan “Potential Pollution of Mahakam Cascade Lake Water Pollution (Semayang Lake, Melintang Lake and Jempang Lake) From Garbage and Household Waste” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.376-382 July 2022 DOI:

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Structure and Content of Sports Training Curriculum and its Association with Athletes’ Achievement in Sports Academies in Kenya

David Okoti, Dr. Robert O. Kati, Dr. Rose Mutende – July 2022- Page No.: 383-390

Sports academies are specialized training institutions for identifying and nurturing and honing sports talent. Governments and private agencies are increasingly investing in establishment of sports academies to promote sports training. However, there is a paucity of research examining the nature of sports training curricula in these sports academies and its implication for athletes’ achievement. This study, therefore, examined the structure and content of the sports training curriculum and its association with athletes’ achievement in sports academies in Kenya. It targeted 19 sports academies with 1261 participants, comprising 19 sports academy administrators, 102 sports academy coaches, and 1140 athletes. The study employed a cross-sectional mixed-methods design to generate both qualitative and quantitative data. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the findings on the structure and content of sports training curriculum and its relationship with athletes’ achievement in sports academies in Kenya. It was hypothesized that there is no significant relationship between the nature of sports curriculum content and athletes’ achievement in sports academies in Kenya. The study found that some sports academies lacked a curriculum document; each sports academy had its own way of training its athletes; training involved both theory and practical (drills), though most did not have a clear sequence; and there was a strong, positive correlation between the nature of sports training content and athletes’ achievement, which was statistically significant (γ = 0.815, p ˂ 0.05) at α = 0.05. The study recommended that the government through the Ministry of Sports should establish and enforce a framework for standardization and uniformity of curriculum in sports academies; sports academy administrators need to have a formal, written sports curriculum to guide the provision of structured sports skills training. Streamlining sports curriculum implementation policy and practice can augment athletes’ achievement in sports academies in Kenya as well as inform the operationalization of sports pedagogy as enshrined in Kenya’s Competency-Based Curriculum.

Page(s): 383-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6726

 David Okoti
Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy, Kibabii University, P.O Box 1699-50200, Bungoma, Kenya

 Dr. Robert O. Kati
Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy, Kibabii University, P.O Box 1699-50200, Bungoma, Kenya

 Dr. Rose Mutende
Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy, Kibabii University, P.O Box 1699-50200, Bungoma, Kenya

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David Okoti, Dr. Robert O. Kati, Dr. Rose Mutende, “Structure and Content of Sports Training Curriculum and its Association with Athletes’ Achievement in Sports Academies in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.383-390 July 2022 DOI:

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Teaching Biomass Energy in Secondary School Chemistry: A Stimulus for Achieving Sustainable Energy

N. M. Eya, Attah F. O. & Umate, B. A. – July 2022- Page No.: 391-395

The continuous increase of energy consumption has generally improved the standard of living but it has also caused serious environmental problems. There is therefore the need for sustainable energy sources. Sustainable energy involves increasing production of renewable energy, making safe energy universally available, and energy conservation. Sustainable energy is of great importance in Nigeria considering the broad and growing nature of energy use. Burning of fossil fuels to generate energy has resulted to many negative environmental problems on the climate, natural environment and the society at large. There is the need o change to other renewable and environmental free sources of energy. Biomass is a renewable energy source used to reduce our overdependence on fossil fuels and to help reduce air pollution. Secondary school chemistry students need to be taught about this biomass and biomass energy at the early stage of their educational pursuit even as they are the future scientists. When the students are best informed about these concepts at the early stage of their education and they develop interest in learning them, they will be in a better position to enhance their utilization as good sources of renewable energy in future as they are the hope of the nation as future scientists The paper therefore examined the concept of biomass and biomass energy, conversion of biomass to energy, advantages of biomass energy over fossil fuels and the implication of teaching biomass and biomass energy to secondary school chemistry students.

Page(s): 391-395                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 August 2022

 N. M. Eya
Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


 Attah F. O.
Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


 Umate, B. A.
Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


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N. M. Eya, Attah F. O. & Umate, B. A. “Teaching Biomass Energy in Secondary School Chemistry: A Stimulus for Achieving Sustainable Energy” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.391-395 July 2022 URL:

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Correlation Between Self-esteem and Depression Among Poorly Performing Students of Africa Nazarene University, Kenya

Innocent Elum Afen, Pinto Hubert, Ph.D. Aloys Otieno Ojore, Ph.D. – July 2022- Page No.: 396-400

Education enhances edification of human knowledge and societal development. Good academic performance becomes very crucial for university students to attain knowledge that can be used for oneself and for the good of the human society. This research investigated the correlation between self-esteem and depression among poorly performing students of Africa Nazarene University, Kenya. It addressed the following questions: What are the levels of self-esteem among poorly performing students of African Nazarene University, Kenya? What are the levels of depression among poorly performing students of Africa Nazarene University, Kenya? Is there correlation between self-esteem and depression among poorly performing students of Africa Nazarene University, Kenya? The participants of the study were 335 undergraduate male and female students. The study employed Systematic Random sampling, using Rosenberg self-esteem scale and BDI-II for data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS and presented in summary tables. Pearson’s (r) coefficient was used to examine the relationship between self-esteem and depression. Findings show that 49.5% of the participants were average in their self-esteem, 43.2% came under high self-esteem, and 7.8% were in low self-esteem. Gender revealed that females had high self-esteem, and the males had average self-esteem. On depression, 52.8% were in mild mood disturbance (no depression), 10.5% had borderline clinical depression, 15.6% had moderate depression, 8.1% had severe depression, and 13.5% showed extreme depression. Gender revealed females had borderline clinical depression, the males had mild mood disturbance (no depression). The study established that there was a significant positive relationship (r = .420**; p = .000, at 0.01 level of significance) between self-esteem and depression among poorly performing students of Africa Nazarene University, Kenya

Page(s): 396-400                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 August 2022

 Innocent Elum Afen
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, A Constituents College of The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Pinto Hubert, Ph.D.
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, A Constituents College of The Catholic University of Eastern Africa

 Aloys Otieno Ojore, Ph.D.
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, A Constituents College of The Catholic University of Eastern Africa.

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Innocent Elum Afen, Pinto Hubert, Ph.D. Aloys Otieno Ojore, Ph.D. “Correlation Between Self-esteem and Depression Among Poorly Performing Students of Africa Nazarene University, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.396-400 July 2022 URL:

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Gender Sensitivity of Nueva Ecija, Philippines Cradle Songs

Matilde Melicent Santos-Recto, Fernando P. Ferrer, Jr. and Marjorie N. Manlulu – July 2022- Page No.: 401-409

Gender is recently becoming a significant area of research in the field of popular music studies. As most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need to research on the content of traditional songs, particularly, that which focuses on gender sensitivity. The idea that have appeared in most literatures that music phenomena are gendered, and that these phenomena are present in the musical “messages” with its gendered qualities imposed by the listener in the process of perception were the focal points of the study.
The conclusion of the research provided information about the contents of lullaby in consideration of gender sensitivity. Data collection was through personal interviews and focus group discussions with elderly citizens groups of selected Nueva Ecija municipalities. The respondents were considered based on their age and initial claims that they have sung lullabies to their children. The more important results indicated that, most of the lyrics of cradle songs of Nueva Ecija are stereotypical with messages implying that mothers are usually left at home to take care of the children and fathers go work to provide the needs of the family. The backstories of the songs are connected to farm activities, market undertakings and advices for the child to grow worthy of their parents. Some songs deal with the merits of being a good and obedient child. It appeared that the cradle songs of Nueva Ecija are not highly gender-biased because most of the lyrics pertained to a child that for the time being is yet insensitive to gender roles.

Page(s): 401-409                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6727

 Matilde Melicent Santos-Recto
College of Business Administration and Accountancy. Central Luzon State University

 Fernando P. Ferrer, Jr.
Reserach Office, Central Luzon State University

 Marjorie N. Manlulu
College of Arts and Social Science, Central Luzon State University

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Matilde Melicent Santos-Recto, Fernando P. Ferrer, Jr. and Marjorie N. Manlulu , “Gender Sensitivity of Nueva Ecija, Philippines Cradle Songs” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.401-409 July 2022 DOI:

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Assessment of Recruitment Methods and Employees’ Performance in local Governments, Karamoja Sub Region, Uganda

Abura Samuel Pirir, Ongodia Ekomolot, Kiweewa Emmanuel, Tukundane Benson – July 2022- Page No.: 410-427

Leadership is a pertinent organizational consideration which provides direction, strategies and motivation of employee towards the attainment of the desired organizational objectives. The purpose of the study was to assess the assessment of Recruitment Methods and Employees’ Performance in local Governments, Karamoja district Sub Region, Uganda. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. Data was analyzed at both uni-variate and bi-variate levels using frequency counts means, standard and PLCC which were supplemented by narrative analysis of qualitative data. The objective was to examine the recruitment methods and the leadership styles used in local governments in Karamoja Sub Region. Anchored on Fieldler’s leadership theory and Barney’s Resource Based View, the study hypothesized that H01: there is no significant relationship between recruitment methods and employee performance in local governments in Karamoja sub-region. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey design. The regression results show (R2 = 0.2695) indicating that a unit change in recruitment attracts 27% change in performance. This means that the variance in work performance of employees in local governments can be predicted from recruitment. This study indicated that recruitment significantly predicts the level of performance of employees in local governments. The null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between recruitment and employee performance in local governments in Karamoja sub-region of Uganda was thus rejected. The study recommended that the Ministry of local government, in collaboration with the Local public service commission should continuously update and widen the guidelines for recruitment and to enable attracting of a large pool from which the best can be selected; and for ministry to monitor the DSC to ensure effectiveness of recruitment where there are no external influences.

Page(s): 410-427                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 August 2022

 Abura Samuel Pirir
Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

 Ongodia Ekomolot
Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

 Kiweewa Emmanuel
Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

 Tukundane Benson
Kampala International University, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, P. O. Box 20000, Kampala, Uganda

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