The Impact of Parental Involvement on the Self-esteem of Adolescents with Hearing Impairment in Cameroon

Blasius Agha-ah Chiatoh & Mfontem Bertha Ebangha – August 2022- Page No.: 01-06

The study sought to investigate the impact of parental involvement (PI) on the self-esteem of adolescents with hearing impairment (HI) in Cameroon by examining how parenting, as a form of PI affects the self-esteem of adolescents with HI. The research design used was the explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Quantitative data based on the dependent and independent variables were collected from the adolescents with HI using a questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire testing PI was prepared using the Likert scale, while the second part was done by adapting the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to measure self-esteem in adolescents with HI. The population constituted two groups of respondents; parents of adolescents with HI and adolescents with HI found in 4 selected regions of Cameroon. The purposive sampling and Snow-ball sampling techniques were used to select the sample size. Theoretical underpinnings to inform and support the issues relating to the named variables were offered by the Theories of Attachment by John Bowlby (1907 – 1990) and Mediated Mutual Reciprocity by Tchombe (2017). The data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed quantitatively using The Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were analyzed descriptively. The findings from the analyses revealed that, as PI in parenting increases, the development of self-esteem of adolescents with HI also increases. From the findings, we conclude that parenting significantly affects the self-esteem enhancement of adolescents with HI in Cameroon. We recommend among other things, that education stakeholders and policy makers should inform policy on the discoveries relating to the parenting challenges faced by adolescents with HI.

Page(s): 01-06                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 August 2022

 Blasius Agha-ah Chiatoh
University of Buea, Cameroon

  Mfontem Bertha Ebangha
University of Buea, Cameroon

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Blasius Agha-ah Chiatoh & Mfontem Bertha Ebangha “The Impact of Parental Involvement on the Self-esteem of Adolescents with Hearing Impairment in Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.01-06 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/01-06.pdf

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A Path Analysis of the Relationships among Parenting Styles, Emotional Intelligence and Resilience

Mary Rachelle Reyes-Wapano – August 2022- Page No.: 07-13

This study examined the relationships between perceived parenting styles, emotional intelligence, and resilience in adolescents. The hypothesized predictive correlations among variables were investigated using path analysis, a multiple regression technique. Direct and indirect effects of perceived parenting styles, emotional intelligence, and resilience were found in causal evaluations. This study has shown that parenting is important for the development of emotional intelligence, and that emotional intelligence predicts adolescent resilience. The data also supported the idea that emotionally intelligent people are more likely to adapt to new situations and demonstrating emotional intelligence’s adaptive value

Page(s): 07-13                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6801

 Mary Rachelle Reyes-Wapano
Associate Professor, Associate Dean, Office Graduate Studies
Xavier University Ateneo Cagayan, Philippines

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Mary Rachelle Reyes-Wapano “A Path Analysis of the Relationships among Parenting Styles, Emotional Intelligence and Resilience” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.07-13 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6801

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Literature Review on the Relationship between Identity Formation and Meaning in Life Among Emerging Adults

Mary Rachelle R Wapano, PhD, Loressa De Claro Paguta, MA – August 2022- Page No.: 14-22

The present research on the relationship between meaning in life and identity orientation is examined in this literature review. Existing literature defines meaning in life as a variety of things that makes one’s life meaningful, such as a sense of direction, order, purpose, coherence, or goal pursuit. Identity is a well-studied construct in psychological study that refers to a person’s understanding of themselves as a distinct and unique entity. Although developing one’s identity is seen as one path to finding meaning in life, the relationship between identity orientation and meaning in life is not well studied in the current literature. Several research in this review demonstrates the relationship between identity orientation and life meaning. This review of the literature demonstrates that such a relationship is possible because identity orientation can help a person make sense of the world (comprehension), clarify one’s future goals (purpose), and see the value and significance of one’s life (mattering), all of which are dimensions of the meaning in life construct. The researches referenced also examined various meaning in life outcomes, especially for emerging adults. Implications of the findings from reviewed studies and future directions are also discussed.

Page(s): 14-22                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6802

 Mary Rachelle R Wapano, PhD
Psychology Department, Xavier University, Philippines

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Mary Rachelle R Wapano, PhD, Loressa De Claro Paguta, MA , “Literature Review on the Relationship between Identity Formation and Meaning in Life Among Emerging Adults” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.14-22 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6802

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A Critical Look at the Rehabilitation and Empowerment of the Growing Number of at-Risk Youth (Zogos) in Liberia

Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo – August 2022- Page No.: 23-29

Bearing some elements of scientific research, this paper takes a critical examination at the rehabilitation and empowerment of the growing wave of disadvantaged youths turning into “Zogos” that poses potential security threats to the fragile peace of Liberia. As a form of qualitative approach, the paper adopts a literature review method with emphasis on content analysis to explore the phenomenon defined as one of the contemporary social problems in Liberia.
Through the lens of the social control theory viewed as the theoretical framework that guided the study, the paper attributes the growing wave of “Zogos” to the formal social control considered as a sub-set of the theory. Under this sub-set, the paper argues that the weak drugs law, and the lack of logistical and financial support to relevant law enforcement agencies exacerbated by the porosity of Liberia’s border points making it easier for narcotics and illicit drugs to be brought into the Liberia be the main contributing factors.
Against the main contributing factors that explain cause and effects concept, the paper also argued that though the rehabilitation and empowerment program is commendable but not the root cause (s) of the imminent security threat that it seeks to address. As such, it cannot be a viable option or remedy for neutralizing the very perceived threat looming over Liberia.
Conclusively, the paper argued that ignoring the main contributing factors will lead to more stress and strain on the program that has serious financial implications for sustainability.
The paper recommends that to neutralize the perceived imminent security threat looming over Liberia, the rehabilitation and empowerment of “Zogos”, increase budgetary support to empower relevant law enforcement agencies, and the amended drugs law before the Liberian Senate for concurrence must be done concomitantly.

Page(s): 23-29                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2022

 Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo
African Methodist Episcopal University and University of Liberia

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[17] VOA (2022) Stampede at Liberia Church Gathering Kills 29 https://www.voanews.com/a/stampede-at-liberia-church-gathering-kills-29-/6404849.html
[18] Wadpn (2021) Liberia House Passes Act To Control Drug, Substance Abuse https://www.wadpn.org/chapternews/liberia-house-passes-act-to-control-drug%2C-substance-abuse

Dr. Ambrues Monboe Nebo “A Critical Look at the Rehabilitation and Empowerment of the Growing Number of at-Risk Youth (Zogos) in Liberia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.23-29 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/23-29.pdf

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Influence of Principals’ Leadership Styles on Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Gombi Educational Zone, Admawa State

Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO – August 2022- Page No.: 30-35

The study examined teachers’ perception on influence of principal’s leadership styles on senior secondary school students’ academic achievement in Gombi Educational Zone, Adamawa State. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study; it was a survey research design. The sample size consisted of 400 teachers from five schools within the study area. The questionnaire titled “Teachers’ perception on the influence of principals’ leadership styles on students’ academic achievement Questionnaire (TPIPLSSAA)” was used to collect data. The face, content and construct validity of the instrument was established by an expert in Guidance and Counselling in the Department of Educational Foundations, Adamawa State University Mubi. The test-retest reliability method was adopted and the reliability co-efficient of 0.84 was obtained. Data were analysed using mean, Standard Deviation, Pearson Moment Correlation and t-test. The study revealed that there was no significant relationship between years of experience and principal leadership styles. Also, no significant relationship was found between teachers’ age and principal leadership styles. However, a significant relationship was depicted between principal leadership styles and academic achievement. There was a significant relationship between principal leadership styles and the academic performance of students. The study therefore recommended among other things that non-Governmental organizations should help organize workshops enlightening and upscaling principals’ leadership skills at different levels. Also, government should provide a suitable environment for principals to grow their leadership skills by providing the necessary equipment and resources to effectively lead their teachers towards attaining organizational goals.

Page(s): 30-35                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2022

 Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO
Department of Educational Foundations,
Adamawa State University, Nigeria

[1] Abiden, V. M. (2018). From instructional leadership to leadership capabilities: Empirical findings and methodological challenges. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 9(1), 1-26.
[2] Akomolafe O. C. (2018). Principals’ Leadership capacities as perceived by teachers in secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal. 8(22).
[3] Awiti, O. J. (2019). The Head teacher and the Mechanics of Management. A Resourceful Manual for Schools and College Managers. Nairobi: Shred Publishers Ltd.
[4] Grissom, J. A. & Loeb, S. (2019). Triangulating principal effectiveness: How perspectives of parents, teachers, and assistant principals. Identify the central importance of managerial skills (School Leadership Research Report). Stanford, C. A: Stanford University, Institute for Research on Education Policy &Practice.
[5] Hallinger, P. (2013). Leading Educational Change. Reflections on the Practice of instructional and Transformational Leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33( 3), 329-351.
[6] Madumere-Obike, C. U., Ukala, C. C. & Nwabueze, A. I. (2015). Institutions and development: Mixture of political and economic mechanism for the actualization of educational goals in universities in South-East, Nigeria, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Educational Administration and Planning (NJEAP), 15(2); 397-417.
[7] Murphy,J. (2018). Methodological, measurement, and conceptual problems in the study of instructional leadership. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 10(2), 117-139. Nwabueze, A. I. & Onyenandu, N. A. (2015). The influence of staff professional development programmes on university delivery system in Abia State. Journal of Education in Developing Area (JEDA), 23(1), 289-302.
[8] Mwangi (2019). The Role of School Leadership in Student Achievement in Kenya. Unpublished PhD Degree Thesis. Case Western Reserve University.
[9] Nwabueze, A. I. (2011). School facilities utilization and maintenance: Enhancing the quality of education delivery. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
[10] Nwabueze, A. I. & Onyenandu, N. A. (2015). The influence of staff professional development programmes on university delivery system in Abia State. Journal of Education in Developing Area (JEDA), 23(1), 289-302.
[11] Nwabueze, A. I., Chukwuji, C. E. & Ugwoezuonu, A. U. (2017). Perceived impact of principals’ leadership skills on teachers’ functional performance and students’ study habits in secondary schools in Enugu State. Nigerian Journal of Educational Administration and Planning (NJEAP), 17(1); 48-66.
[12] Obanya, P. A. 1, (2011). Education and sustainable governance. Fafunwa Foundation First Memorial Lecture Delivered in University of Lagos. Lagos.
[13] Ogundele, M. D. (2015). Principals’ administrative skills for secondary schools in Plateau State. Asia Pacific Journal of Arts and science, 2(1), 25-26.
[14] Olawolu, O. E. & Madunmere-Obike C. U. (2011). Introduction to educational management practices. Port Harcourt: Info media Graphics.
[15] Sailesh S.. (2010). Direction-setting school leadership practices: a meta-analytical review of evidence about their influence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, (ahead-of-print), 1-25.
[16] Sebring, P. B., & Bryk, A. S. (2010). School leadership and the bottom line in Chicago. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(6), 440-443.
[17] Syed B. (2016). White Paper: Turning around low-performing schools stand for children. Leadership Center. All rights reserved

Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO, “Influence of Principals’ Leadership Styles on Senior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Gombi Educational Zone, Admawa State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.30-35 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/30-35.pdf

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Road Infrastructure and Matatu Crew Character on Customer Satisfaction in VUCA Public Road Transport Sector in Kenya; A Case Study of Nairobi County

Prof. Peter Paul Kithae – August 2022- Page No.: 36-45

Rapid innovation is an important tool to maintain leadership in a volatile environment. VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous) world examples have shown how challengers within an organization must be developed and encouraged to create disruptive services and products that can replace existing ones. In road transport sector, customer satisfaction has been recognized as the most powerful competitive weapon that many leading service organizations possess .While this is so many public transport companies have not addressed the factors that affect customer satisfaction in the VUCA public transport sector.The study objectives were to determine how road infrastructure and matatu crew character affect customer satisfaction in the ever changing public road transport sector in Kenya with reference to Nairobi County. The study employed a descriptive research design. A sample size of 148 respondents were selected out of the target population of 344 that included the County Transport Department Staff, the Traffic Officers and the Matatu Owners Association and Matatu Crew that operate at various city stations and dropping and picking points. Data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis were used to analyze the collected data and were presented through charts, frequency tables and graphs. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the findings.The findings of the study showed that road infrastructure and matatu crew character all affected customer satisfaction in road transport sector in Kenya.The study recommended that there is need for improved road connectivity across the city especially in areas that are under serviced and connectivity is poor; and that it is necessary to enhance existing disciplinary procedures for offenders as this is appropriate in achieving high levels of customer satisfaction. Also, there is need to improve personal conduct of the sector players as some Matatu Crew behave in a manner that does not appeal to customers and that where the SACOOs do not have an existing code of conduct for matatu crew, there is need to develop one in order to provide guidelines on the matatu crew conduct. The study recommended further research on effect of training on matatu crew conduct in the Public Transport in Kenya

Page(s): 36-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 August 2022

 Prof. Peter Paul Kithae
The Management University of Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6803

[1] Al-Sayaad, J., Rabea, A. and Samrah, A. (2018). Transport and economic development Studies, Dar Hafez, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
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[3] Asum,K (2015) The impact on Kenyans of the cashless mode of payment being rolled out in the Matatu Industry, Department of mathematics, statistics and Actuarial Science, School of pure and applied science, Karatina University
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[5] Busienei ,F.J , Bor,G and Osodo,P (2019) conducted a study on the strategies adopted by matatu savings and credit co-operative organizations on service quality in public passenger transport in Eldoret, Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management,5(2),548-566
[6] Budiono,O,A (2019) Customer Satisfaction In Public Bus Transport, A study of travelers’ perception in Indonesia, Master Thesis, Service Science Program, Karlstad University.
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[8] Eboli, L. & Mazzulla, G. (2017). Service quality attributes affecting Customer Satisfaction for Bus Transit in Tanzania. Journal of Public Transport, 10 (3), 21-34.
[9] Ellaway, A., and Kearns, A. (2019). In the driving seat: Psychosocial benefits from private motor vehicle transport compared to public transport. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, 6 , 217-231.
[10] Fellesson, M.F., Margareta (2018). Perceived Satisfaction with Public Transport Service in Nine European Cities. Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, 47 (3), 93-103.
[11] Friman, M., Edvardsson, B. & Gärling, T. (2020). Frequency of negative critical incidents and satisfaction with public transport services. International Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8 (2), 95-104.
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[13] Jamal A. and Naser, K. (2018) Customer satisfaction and retail banking an assessment of some of the key antecedents of customer satisfaction in retail banking, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 20, (4) 146-160.
[14] Kizigwe Z (2019) Effect of public transport crew character on competition in the public transport sector in Uganda, Makerere University, Kampala Uganda
[15] Kizito,J (2020) The role of training in enhancing public transport conduct in Tanzania, University of Dar es salam, Tanzania
[16] Kiage,P (2019) A competitive environment in the public road transport in Kenya, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[17] Karts, B (2018) Redefining urban and surburban infrastructure, Journal of infrastructural Development,2(40,78-92
[18] Lang, R,T (2003) Edgeless Cities , Journal of Public Transport, 4 (5), 102-114.
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[21] Magwala,P(2018) Factor influencing customers’ satisfaction in urban transportation at Kinondoni municipal specifically at Makumbusho bus stand, University of Dar es salam, Tanzania.
[22] Olakunori, O. K. (2017). Transportation Management, Grovani Publishers, Enugu
[23] Obondi,E,M (2015) Competitive Strategies and The Performance of Matatus in The Public Service Transport Sector in Nairobi City County, Kenya, Kenyatta University,Kiambu,Kenya.
[24] Smith, M.J. & Clarke, R.V. (2020). Crime and Public Transport. Crime and Justice : A review of research, 27(2),45-67

Prof. Peter Paul Kithae “Road Infrastructure and Matatu Crew Character on Customer Satisfaction in VUCA Public Road Transport Sector in Kenya; A Case Study of Nairobi County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.36-45 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6803

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Desert Seasonal Affective Disorder Exist? Environmental factors associated with anxiety, depression, and their comorbid symptoms among women in Northern Kenya

Gladys K. Mwangi Ph.D – August 2022- Page No.: 46-50

This paper examines the symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), that exist in harsh and desert like conditions in Northern Kenya. These symptoms were identified and discussed during thematic, narrative group discussions that were conducted for a dissertation study with women living in Northern Kenya. The symptoms seemed to align well with those of SAD, which are characteristic of a recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months in countries in the Northern hemisphere that are further away from the equator. Previous research has shown that SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer, which the symptoms include sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk of this disorder are younger females, living far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. During the narrative sessions, symptoms like SAD were noted during drought seasons. However, the criteria for diagnosis of those at risk of this disorder excludes the women or people living closer or at the equator.
Keywords: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), women, Northern Kenya, comorbid anxiety, and depression.

Page(s): 46-50                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Gladys K. Mwangi Ph.D
Department of Psychology, Johnson County Community College, Kansas, USA.

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[4] Blaszczak, J. (2013) Things You Didn’t Know About Seasonal Affective Disorder. [Fact sheet], Psych Central http://psychcentral.com/lib/10-things-you-dont-know-about-seasonal-affective-disorder/.
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[15] Mwangi, G. K. (2018). The Impact of Psychoeducation on Women with Anxiety Disorders in Resource Poor Settings in Laikipia County, Northern Kenya. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), |2 (7), 428|ISSN 2454-6186.
[16] Mwangi, G. K. (2017). The effect of psychoeducation on the quality of life of women with comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety in resource poor settings. African Journal of Clinical Psychology, School of Human & Social Sciences, 1(1), 36-50. Daystar University, 44400-00100.
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[19] Lewy, A. J., Lefler, B. J., Emens, J. S., Bauer, V. K. (2006). The circadian basis of winter depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006 ;103(19):7414–7419. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0602425103.
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Gladys K. Mwangi Ph.D “Desert Seasonal Affective Disorder Exist? Environmental factors associated with anxiety, depression, and their comorbid symptoms among women in Northern Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.46-50 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/46-50.pdf

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Care of Elderly Among Health Workers in Tertiary Health Facilities in Uyo Metropolis

Helen Ime Udo, Nsikan-Abasi Monday Udofia, and Ini Nka Jona- August 2022- Page No.: 51-57

Elderly care emphasizes the social and personal requirements of senior citizens who need some assistance with daily activities and health care, but who desire to age with dignity. With increasing rate of elderly in the society, there have been insufficient healthcare services for the elderly. Most health workers have very poor knowledge of health conditions which are common with the elderly and this lack of adequate knowledge triggers negative attitude towards the care of the elderly likely to result in serious problems in our society in the near future. This study was conducted to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of care of elderly among health workers in tertiary health facilities in Uyo Metropolis. Three specific objectives, three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive research design. The population of study consisted of 394 health workers. The sample of 241 health workers comprising of 27 doctors, 190 nurses, 10dentists and 14 Physiotherapist was determined using Taro Yamane and selected for the study using stratified sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire titled “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Care of Elderly Questionnaire (KAPCEQ)”. The instrument yielded the reliability coefficient of 0.84. The data were collected by the researcher and four trained research assistants. Frequency and percentage were used for the answering of the research questions while chi-square was used for testing of null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. Findings of the study indicated that health workers had adequate knowledge of care of elderly, exhibit good attitude toward care of elderly and sometimes practice care of the elderly in tertiary health facilities in Uyo Metropolis. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended among others that Hospital Management Board should develop a system of periodical health workers evaluation to determine strategies of upgrading health workers knowledge and enhancing practice of care of the elderly. Furthermore, Professional bodies in the health sectors should develop a follow up courses and in-service training programmes to maintain efficient performance of individuals previously trained in the care of the elderly.
Key Words: Attitude, Care, Elderly, Knowledge, Practice Health

Page(s): 51-57                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6804

 Helen Ime Udo
Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Uyo, Uyo
Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

 Nsikan-Abasi Monday Udofia
Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Uyo, Uyo
Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

 Ini Nka Jona
Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Uyo, Uyo
Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

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[2] Donatelle J. R. (2018). The Basic-Health and Fitness : Pearson Education, Limited Reviewed shttp//books:google.com
[3] Efiong, M. B. (2015). Knowledge, attitude and practice of care of the elderly patients among health workers in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. A M.SC Dissertation of the Department of Nursing Sciences Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus.
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[9] Okoye U.O and Asa S.S (2011). Caregiver and Stress: Experience of people Taking care of the Elderly Relations in South Eastern Nigeria. Arts and Social Sciences Journal, 1(2):45-55.
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[14] Topaz, M. and Doran, I. (2013) Nurses’ attitudes toward older patients in acute care in Israel. Online J Issues Nursing 18: 9.

Helen Ime Udo, Nsikan-Abasi Monday Udofia, and Ini Nka Jona”Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Care of Elderly Among Health Workers in Tertiary Health Facilities in Uyo Metropolis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.51-57 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6804

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Religious Orthodoxy and Attitude towards the Same Gender Relationships among University Students in Nairobi County, Kenya

Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD) – August 2022- Page No.: 58-62

Globally, studies have shown negative attitude towards the same gender relationships among the university students. However, there is lack of similar studies among University students in Kenya and therefore, the objective this study was to establish the relationship between religious orthodoxy and attitude towards the same gender relationships among University students in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study employed a correlational research design. Through simple random sampling the study utilized a sample size of 294 participants. The data was collected using the Religious Orthodoxy Scale and Attitude towards Homosexuality Scale. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The study found out that religious Orthodoxy had insignificant predictive relationship with the general attitude towards homosexuality (β=-.246, p≤.05).

Page(s): 58-62                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD)
Institute of Youth Studies, School of Arts and Social Sciences
Tangaza University College, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

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Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD) “Religious Orthodoxy and Attitude towards the Same Gender Relationships among University Students in Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.58-62 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/58-62.pdf

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Level of College Readiness and Challenges Encountered in The Online Distance Learning of Grade 12 Senior High School Students of Divine Word College of Legazpi, School Year 2020-2021: A Correlational Study

Emma T. Alcantara, MIE, Ricky U. Domanais Jr., Jahnna Mae Litana – August 2022- Page No.: 63-70

The purpose of this study was to know the implications of ODL to college readiness of Grade 12 senior high school students and the relationship between the encountered challenges and the college preparedness of the students. This study will also enable the department to guide and prepare the students for higher education. This study sought to answer the following research questions: (1) What are the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following: [a] Sex, [b] Device used during online distance learning and [c] Internet Provider. (2) What are the challenges encountered by Grade 12 Senior High School students in their Online Distance Learning in terms of: [a] Academic Performance, [b] Technology and Internet Connectivity, [c] Teacher-Related and [d] Personal-Related. (3) What is the level of College Readiness of Grade 12 Senior High School students? (4) Is there a significant relationship between the challenges encountered by Grade 12 Senior High School students in their Online Distance Learning to their College Readiness? (5) What strategic interventions can be done to improve the implementation of Online Distance Learning? The researchers chose the entire population of the Grade 12 Senior High School students of Divine Word College of Legazpi, the School Year 2020-2021 as the respondents of the study. The total respondents are three hundred twenty-three (323). The retrieval rate of the response is 78.63% for the survey in the challenges encountered by the students while the retrieval rate of the students took the aptitude test is 86.15%. This study made use of the correlational research design to measure two variables and assess the statistical relationship (i.e., the correlation) between them with little or no effort to control extraneous variables. In addition, the researchers used survey questionnaire to identify the challenges encountered by Grade 12 Senior High School students in their Online Distance Learning. The challenges are presented into four groups: Academic Performance, Internet and Connectivity, Teacher-related, and Personal-related challenges. Moreover, to measure the level of readiness of students in Higher Education, the researchers will use the data of the Aptitude Test administered by Asian Psychological Services and Assessment Inc (APSA). There was a total of two hundred fifty-four (254) grade 12 respondents, one hundred twenty-five (125) of them were male and one hundred twenty-nine (129) of them were female. Majority of the respondents (59.1%) use both Laptop/Desktop and Smartphone as their gadgets for online distance learning. In addition, the majority of the respondents (35.8%) uses DCTV as their internet service provider. The Top 5 challenges encountered by the students: (1) I am having a hard time studying online. (2) I have trouble concentrating when doing my activities at home. (3) My area is always affected by power service interruptions. (4) I experience mental fatigue after online classes. (5) I do house chores while I am attending my classes. Half of the respondents meet the standards based on the standardized test administered by APSA. Only 1.1% of the respondents had a descriptive rating of “excellent/highly proficient” while 4.3% of the respondents had a descriptive rating of “does not meet standard”. Furthermore, 44.6% of the respondents had a descriptive rating of “progressing towards standards”. The researchers used Pearson r Correlation to know if there is a relationship between the college readiness and the challenges encountered by the students during ODL. The Pearson r Correlation value is -0.02069 which indicates that it has a negative relationship. Although it has a negative relationship it is a negligible correlation based on literature.
Keywords: College Readiness, Online Distance Learning

Page(s): 63-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Emma T. Alcantara, MIE
Senior High School Faculty, Divine Word College of Legazpi, Philippines

  Ricky U. Domanais Jr.
Senior High School Faculty, Divine Word College of Legazpi, Philippines

  Jahnna Mae Litana
Senior High School Faculty, Divine Word College of Legazpi, Philippines

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Emma T. Alcantara, MIE, Ricky U. Domanais Jr., Jahnna Mae Litana “Level of College Readiness and Challenges Encountered in The Online Distance Learning of Grade 12 Senior High School Students of Divine Word College of Legazpi, School Year 2020-2021: A Correlational Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.63-70 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/63-70.pdf

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The Relationship of Age, Income, and Mental Workload of Nurses with Work Stress in General Hospital

Riski Dian Ardianti, Hajjul Kamil, Marthoenis – August 2022- Page No.: 71-73

Workplace stress is a harmful reaction that people have when they are under a lot of pressure and have a lot work to do. Night shifts, multiple role conflicts, a lack of social support, conflict between work and family, diverse task demands that are not in accordance with compensation, excessive workload, unpleasant working conditions, job uncertainty, the absence of awards, excessive promotions or under-promotions, and an imbalance in the number of nurses to the number of patients are all factors that can cause work stress for nurses. The goal of this study was to see if there was a link between nurse qualities and mental workload and work stress. This is a descriptive analytic study that uses a cross-sectional strategy. A convenience sample of 126 nurses was used to create the research sample. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) Questionnaire and the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ) instrument were used to collect data. Chi Square was utilized to analyze the data. The statistical test results revealed a link between nurse work stress, income (p = 0.015) and mental workload (p = 0.001). To decrease stress, this study proposes striking a balance between demands and restricted abilities to offer nursing care

Page(s): 71-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Riski Dian Ardianti
Master Program of Nursing Science, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

 Hajjul Kamil
Master of Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Syiah Kuala

 Marthoenis
Master of Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Syiah Kuala

[1] Alligood, MR (2014). Nursing Theories And Their Work. In Paper Knowledge . Toward a Media History of Documents (Eighth). Elsevier.
[2] Angelina, L., Busairi, A., & Tumanggor, AHU (2020). The Relationship between Work Stress and Workload and Nurse Performance in the Emergency Room (IGD) and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Hospital : A LITERATUR REVIEW. Health Dynamics: Journal of Midwifery And Nursing, 11(1), 129–139. https://doi.org/10.33859/dksm.v11i1.575.
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[6] Fitriani, RD, Theresa, RM, & Aprilia, CA (2020). The Effect of Coping Strategy on Stress Levels in Informal Caregivers Caring for Schizophrenia Patients in the Outpatient Outpatient Clinic of the Mental Hospital DR. Suharto Heerdjan, West Jakarta. 7(September), 128–133.
[7] Ilyas, LA (2020). Factors Associated with Work Stress on Nurses at the Sayang Rakyat Makassar Regional General Hospital in 2020.
[8] Martina, A. (2012). Description of Work Stress Levels for Nurses in the Inpatient Room RSPG Cisarua Bogor. Thesis of the Faculty of Nursing, University of Indonesia.
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Riski Dian Ardianti, Hajjul Kamil, Marthoenis , “The Relationship of Age, Income, and Mental Workload of Nurses with Work Stress in General Hospital” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.71-73 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/71-73.pdf

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Influence of Sustainable Shipping on Organizational Effectiveness of Shipping Companies in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Odiegwu, Chinwendu Laurentia & Enyioko, Newman Chintuwa (PhD) – August 2022- Page No.: 74-92

The study examined the relationship between sustainable shipping and organizational effectiveness of shipping companies in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The independent variable is sustainable shipping. Also, the dependent variable – organizational effectiveness was measured with customer orientation and operational efficiency. The population of the study consisted of forty-five (45) shipping companies in Port Harcourt. The study selected ten (10) staff from each of the 41 shipping companies and that resulted to the sampling of four hundred and ten (410) staff and 374 copies of questionnaire were retrieved from them. After editing them, 354 copies of questionnaire representing 86.34% response rate were validly used for the study. The study used descriptive and inferential statistical tools to analyse the data. Specifically, Pearson Products Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) was used to test the hypotheses with the aid of SPSS 25.0. The study found that shipping companies have a formal Management Information System Department and employ managers whose main duties include the management of information technology to achieve organizational effectiveness. The study concluded that: Sustainable shipping has positive and significant relationship with customer orientation and operational efficiency of shipping companies. Technology moderates the relationship between maritime transport and organisational effectiveness of shipping companies. The study, therefore, recommends that: Government should create and encourage conducive maritime transport environment so that shipping companies can benefit from the economic and social gains arising from sustainable shipping practices. Shipping firms in Nigeria should adapt technology in various forms so that their maritime transport activities could be effectively and efficiently operated for optimal performance.

Page(s): 74-92                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Odiegwu, Chinwendu Laurentia
PhD Scholar in Maritime Transport, Post Graduate School, Department of Maritime Science,
Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Enyioko, Newman Chintuwa (PhD)
Medonice Consulting and Research Institute, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Odiegwu, Chinwendu Laurentia & Enyioko, Newman Chintuwa (PhD) “Influence of Sustainable Shipping on Organizational Effectiveness of Shipping Companies in Port Harcourt, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.74-92 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/74-92.pdf

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Towards A More Perfect Union in Nigeria: Examining the Role of The 1999 Constitution of The Federal Republic of Nigeria (As Amended)

D.O Okanyi, Ugochukwu Charles Kanu, Leonard Ibekwe Ugwu – August 2022- Page No.: 93-100

The history of the Federal Republic of Nigeria can be said to be replete with the search for effective and efficient models of governance to aid harmonious co-existence among the federating units. This has unfortunately led to an unending discussion on constitutional restructuring. The Legal framework and the institutions charged with the responsibilities of developing these models is and are established by the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended). Nigeria is increasingly becoming a theatre of war and terrorism centre where human life is not valued. Nigeria is stressed and distressed, with ‘revolutionary pressures’ everywhere. How did we get to this gridlock? How do we get out of it? And where do we go from here? Why is a country that was once ranked with India, Malaysia, Singapore, and South Korea still moving in circles instead of moving up? Why are we still a country in transition, more than a century after the Amalgamation? Are we fated to be a banana republic? This paper is to examine, cross-examine and re-examine these and other questions. It is the view of the researchers that all though the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended) is not a perfect document, the major problem is that those saddled with the responsibility of implementing the provisions of the constitution are allowing the primordial sentiments of ethnicity and religious inclinations to becloud their sense of patriotism and nationhood, hence the constitution is implemented more in breach and default. There is therefore the need for a mental re-orientation and national re-birth to forge a greater sense of unity among the diverse ethnic groups that make up the Nigerian nation. The paper concludes by suggesting for the rapid mental renovation of political office holders and all citizens to embrace the rule of law where justice, fairness, and equity will regulate human conduct. This will ultimately metamorphosed into building a strong institution rather than strong personalities in Nigeria. The researchers ultimately advocates for sincere implementation of the provisions of the constitution as it is, pending constitutional amendment. The research methodology utilized by the researchers is the Qualitative Research methodology.

Page(s): 93-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 D.O Okanyi
Department Criminal Litigation, Nigerian Law School, Nigeria

 Ugochukwu Charles Kanu
Department Criminal Litigation, Nigerian Law School, Nigeria

 Leonard Ibekwe Ugwu
Department Criminal Litigation, Nigerian Law School, Nigeria

References are not available

D.O Okanyi, Ugochukwu Charles Kanu, Leonard Ibekwe Ugwu “Towards A More Perfect Union in Nigeria: Examining the Role of The 1999 Constitution of The Federal Republic of Nigeria (As Amended)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.93-100 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/93-100.pdf

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Language as Evidence: The Use of Voice Note in the Judicial Process of the Fake News of the Seven Voted Ballot Containers in Indonesia

Supardi – August 2022- Page No.: 101-107

In the case of fake news, language has an important role as evidence to determine whether a person has made fake news. This article provides a brief exploration and description of language as evidence in the case of fake news viewed from Indonesian legal cotext. It looks at the voice note concerning the fake news of the seven voted ballots containers written and spread by Bagus Bawana Putra (BBP) through social media on 1 January 2019, approaching the general election on 17 April 2019 in Indonesia. Adopting Miles and Huberman’s data analysis model, the voice note is analysed to find which words of BBP are claimed as evidence in determining whether BBP has violated Indonesian legal provisions. The result of the analysis shows that BBP was found guilty of violating Article 14 paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 and Article 15 of Law No. 1/1946 concerning Criminal Law Regulation.

Page(s): 101-107                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Supardi
University of Jember, Indonesia

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Supardi “Language as Evidence: The Use of Voice Note in the Judicial Process of the Fake News of the Seven Voted Ballot Containers in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.101-107 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/101-107.pdf

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Multicultural Awareness among the Consecrated Religious Women within Regina Caeli Parish Karen, Nairobi, Kenya

Geneveva Nduku Mwongela, Dr. Elijah Macharia Ndung’u, Dr. Maria Ntarangwe – August2022- Page No.: 108-115

Consecrated religious women are missionaries by nature and are meant to live in communities made up of religious women from different nationalities, ethnicities and backgrounds. This living together as a family at times may be marked by challenges and difficulties caused by their cultural diversities. The main objective of this study is to assess multicultural awareness among the consecrated religious women. The study was guided by Social Integration Theory and Salad Bowl Theory. The study adopted a convergent parallel mixed methods research approach design. The target population was 86 participants that was sampled using census method. The study employed purposive sampling, to select 5 participants for qualitative data and 81 participants for quantitative data and only 71 questionnaires validly returned. The research instruments that were used were questionnaires given to 81 participants to collect quantitative data and 5 participants purposely chosen for interview to collect qualitative data. The study revealed that awareness of multiculturalism enabled many women religious to live harmoniously with each other from diverse cultures. The study established that religious women’s exposure to diverse cultures has immensely impacted their lives mostly in a positive way. The study also revealed that most of the respondent feel obliged to respect other cultures while acknowledging the existence of many similarities between one’s culture and other cultures. The study recommends that the General and Local superiors to consider organizing workshops and seminars to enlighten the consecrated religious women more about the challenges that arise as a result of multicultural differences.

Page(s): 108-115                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Geneveva Nduku Mwongela
Psycho-Spiritual Institute of Lux Terra Leadership Foundation, Marist International University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Elijah Macharia Ndung’u
Lecturer, Department of counseling psychology, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

 Dr. Maria Ntarangwe
Lecturer, Department of counseling psychology Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

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Geneveva Nduku Mwongela, Dr. Elijah Macharia Ndung’u, Dr. Maria Ntarangwe “Multicultural Awareness among the Consecrated Religious Women within Regina Caeli Parish Karen, Nairobi, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.108-115 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/108-115.pdf

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Parental Participation in Children’s Educational Activities: Experiences of Parents and Teachers in Cameroon

Amshetu Melo Forchu Nkemleke – August 2022- Page No.: 116-125

The encouragement of children’s education requires several factors with parental involvement as a main factor in the educational experience. A large number of parents’ participation in their children’s education has been found to be less as compared to effective participation principles. This has led to the loss of the positive effects attributed to parent’s participation in their children’s educational activities. A qualitative research was conducted with parents and the school authorities to know the factors that motivate and hinder parents’ participation in their children’s education in secondary schools. Participants were purposively sampled due to their experience and knowledge in issues related to parental participation in the education of their children. Findings revealed that parents’ belief that their participation in their children’s education is part of the training they are supposed to give them and it has motivated them to participate. To comply with the system of integrated support for their children’s, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for children’s success in the educational system. Thus, an increase and encouragement emanate to a positive impact to a successful educational system of Cameroon. The results of the study show a significant positive relationship between parental participation in their children’s education and their academic performance. It is recommended from this study that parents should be sensitized of their crucial role in supporting their children’s education like exposing them to the social and academic world.

Page(s): 116-125                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2022

 Amshetu Melo Forchu Nkemleke
University of Yaounde1, Faculty of Education
Department of Foundation of Education, Cameroon

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Amshetu Melo Forchu Nkemleke “Parental Participation in Children’s Educational Activities: Experiences of Parents and Teachers in Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.116-125 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/116-125.pdf

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Corporate Fiscal Reconciliation from the Perspective of Justice

Alvin Hamzah Nasution – August 2022- Page No.: 126-130

Since the tax reform that began in 2002, there have been many changes or reforms in tax administration in Indonesia. The basis for this change is the implementation of a transparent and accountable tax administration system by using information technology. The problems in this research are: What causes corporate fiscal reconciliation? How is the technique of fiscal reconciliation viewed from the perspective of justice? The research is normative legal research which is discusses the legal aspects by conducting library research in terms of comparative law or legal history that is oriented to applicable laws and regulations. The normative legal research uses a legal approach that is relevant to the problems in this research. The causes of differences in commercial financial statements and fiscal financial statements are due to differences in accounting principles, differences in accounting methods and procedures, differences in the recognition of income and expenses, and differences in the treatment of income and expenses. According to the national point of view, the fiscal reconciliation technique is able to optimize state revenues from corporate taxes, and considering that tax is collected for the development of the country and the greatest prosperity of the people, the current fiscal reconciliation technique reflects the values of justice.

Page(s): 126-130                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6805

 Alvin Hamzah Nasution
Faculty of Law, Universitas Medan Area, Indonesia

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Alvin Hamzah Nasution “Corporate Fiscal Reconciliation from the Perspective of Justice” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.126-130 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6805

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A Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Interlanguage of Kiswahili Speaking Learners of English

Oyiengo Selinah Nebokhi, Dr. Lucy Wathika, Dr. Phylis Bartoo – August 2022- Page No.: 131-143

This morphosyntactic study focused on analyzing the interlanguage of Kiswahili speaking learners of English at secondary school level. Guided by Corder’s Error Analysis theory and Selinker’s Theory of Interlanguage, the study analyzed the non-target-like syntactic sequences and morphological forms in the interlanguage of the learners in order to determine the strategies they use to navigate in English. The data was collected using a Grammatical Task covering a variety of grammatical concepts appropriate for the learners. Students’ essays, written independent of this study, were also analyzed to corroborate the findings from the grammatical task. The population sample consisted of 173 form 1, 2 and 3 students from six secondary schools in Malindi Town of Kilifi County, Kenya. The data collected was qualitatively analyzed according to Error Analysis and the Theory of Interlanguage frameworks by Corder and Selinker respectively. The non-target-like syntactic sequences and morphological forms in the sentences of the learners revealed deviations in word order, negation, interrogatives, tense and aspect, auxiliaries, clause linkages, word derivations, singularization, pluralization, and prepositional phrases. The non-target-like syntactic sequences and morphological forms came about as a result of strategies such as communication, overgeneralization, transfer of training and language transfer which learners employed to navigate in the English language. The findings of this study contribute to the field of knowledge with regards to Second Language Acquisition.

Page(s): 131-143                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2022

 Oyiengo Selinah Nebokhi
Department of Literature, Languages and Linguistics
Egerton University, Kenya

  Dr. Lucy Wathika
Department of Literature, Languages and Linguistics
Egerton University, Kenya

  Dr. Phylis Bartoo
Department of Literature, Languages and Linguistics
Egerton University, Kenya

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Oyiengo Selinah Nebokhi, Dr. Lucy Wathika, Dr. Phylis Bartoo “A Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Interlanguage of Kiswahili Speaking Learners of English” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.131-143 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/131-143.pdf

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The Impact of Gender to Small Business Growth

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi – August 2022- Page No.: 144-148

This paper indicated gender differences found in small business growth. The results of a pilot study indicate that owner-managers from middle-class families reveal high growth motivations and have been able to perform well in their businesses compared to those owner-managers from lower-class families. In terms of gender differences in relation to perceived business performance, we found that, female owner-managers have different perception of business growth. They measured business performance in terms of meeting personal goals they had set when they started their businesses.

Page(s): 144-148                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2022

 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi
Department of Scientific Research Affairs, Can Tho University, Viet Nam

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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi “The Impact of Gender to Small Business Growth” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.144-148 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/144-148.pdf

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Formation of Cyber Forces for Encounter Modern Warfare and Cyber Warfare

Luthfi Bia Susilo Putra, Rudy Sutanto – August 2022- Page No.: 149-152

As technology develops, human life will also be supported by technology. Positive impacts can be felt with this progress, but the threats also come with benefits. One of the threats that is quite serious is the threat of cyber war, it is a wars carried out in cyberspace, not in the physical world. This also has an impact on Indonesia’s defense and security, given the increasing number of cyber crimes, so that additional strength is needed for the TNI to maintain Indonesia’s defense and security. This study uses a literature study method by taking references from various reliable information. The results of the study show that at this time cyber war is in sight, in every country, of course, must be prepared for this. The example of espionage carried out by Australia against Indonesia is certainly very threatening to Indonesia’s security. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a fourth dimension, namely the cyber army or the Cyber Force TNI for the creation of maximum and equitable national defense and security. As with various countries that already have a special force or unit for cyber, Indonesia must also immediately make implementation on it.

Page(s): 149-152                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 August 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6806

 Luthfi Bia Susilo Putra
Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia

 Rudy Sutanto
Indonesia Defense University, Indonesia

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Luthfi Bia Susilo Putra, Rudy Sutanto “Formation of Cyber Forces for Encounter Modern Warfare and Cyber Warfare” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.149-152 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6806

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The Employees Perception on Generation Stereotypes in Workplaces among Selected BPO Companies in Quezon City

Sophia Claire Flores, Giselle Algarne, Mary Leen Bondal, Abigail Campos, Ricamie Marticio, Kristine Paula San Juan, and Sheryl Morales – August 2022- Page No.: 153-158

The study sought to know the perception of employees about generational stereotyping from different generations in a BPO company. The study used qualitative research to investigate participants’ perceptions through their real-life experiences. The data was obtained through guided questions and interviews consisting of employees from each generation: Baby Boomer, Generation X, Millennials, and Generation Z. Some of the participants said that they are uncomfortable and felt awkward interacting with other generations because they share different views on life. The study’s results indicate that the word “stereotyping” refers to the behavior in which a person takes a negative perception and acts on it, whether the person does this on purpose or by accident. According to the results of this study, most of the participants had various understandings of generation stereotypes. The researchers concluded that; (1) stereotypes often occur in older generations. (2) the younger generation tends to avoid asking for help due to the belief that they already know everything. (3) give and take; where seniors shared their experiences while the younger generation shared their technical knowledge. Studies show different perceptions that deal with every generation. As a result, the company performs activities that help employees boost their confidence. Employees of different generations can have better interactions with their co-workers.

Page(s): 153-158                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6807

 Sophia Claire Flores
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Giselle Algarne
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Mary Leen Bondal
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Abigail Campos
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Ricamie Marticio
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Kristine Paula San Juan
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Sheryl Morales
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

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Sophia Claire Flores, Giselle Algarne, Mary Leen Bondal, Abigail Campos, Ricamie Marticio, Kristine Paula San Juan, and Sheryl Morales , “The Employees Perception on Generation Stereotypes in Workplaces among Selected BPO Companies in Quezon City” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.153-158 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6807

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Managing Millennials: A Qualitative Study of Millennials Job-Hopping in the BPO Industry

Anna Nicole L. Binolac, Kate S. Venancio, Hillary C. Mendoza, Angelica M. Caruyan, Aira Mechaela B. Nietes, Jacklyn C. Fernandez, and Prof. Sheryl Morales – August 2022- Page No.: 159-165

The study sought to investigate the experiences of millennial employees that led to poor retention rates. Qualitative research was conducted to get an understanding of the variables influencing millennial employee retention rates as well as how firms respond. There has been a lot of research over the last decade that explains why an employee changes jobs. Preceding research about millennials states the reasons behind millennial job-hopping: (1) the impact of job dissatisfaction; (2) the impact of job satisfaction; and (3) the impact of effective leadership and management. According to the findings of this study, in order to retain millennial employees, companies must improve their management and conduct a monthly evaluation of their employees’ performance. It is also proven that a salary increase can help the management retain their employees, and healthy communication with the employees can help to keep not only millennial employees but other generations of employees as well

Page(s): 159-165                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6808

 Anna Nicole L. Binolac
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Kate S. Venancio
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Hillary C. Mendoza
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Angelica M. Caruyan
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Aira Mechaela B. Nietes
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Jacklyn C. Fernandez
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Prof. Sheryl Morales
Research Management Office, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines (Thesis Adviser)

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Anna Nicole L. Binolac, Kate S. Venancio, Hillary C. Mendoza, Angelica M. Caruyan, Aira Mechaela B. Nietes, Jacklyn C. Fernandez, and Prof. Sheryl Morales “Managing Millennials: A Qualitative Study of Millennials Job-Hopping in the BPO Industry” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.159-165 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6808

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Factors Militating Against the Performance of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in Nigeria, 2003-2020

Gonee, Barile Jonathan, Prof. Fidelis Allen – August 2022- Page No.: 166-171

The EFCC was established by the Obasanjo civilian administration in 2003 to tackle the wide spread corruption in the system. Since its inception, the Commission has been in the trench, taking on the monster call corruption. But as the saying goes;” Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown”. The commission is faced with myriad of challenges some are internal while others are external. The aim of this article is to highlight some of the challenges that the EFCC faces as it carries out the arduous task of riding the nation of corruption. The paper made use of secondary data and uses the Institutional Corruption Theory as the theoretical framework for its analyses. It was discovered in course of our investigation that the EFCC is not resting on its oars in spite of the stupendous challenges that it faces. We have listed some of the challenges of the commission and have also made some vital recommendations that if implemented, would help the Commission to overcome those challenges. After all said and done, the political will to implement the recommendations still rest with the government of the day.

Page(s): 166-171                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 September 2022

 Gonee, Barile Jonathan
Department of Political and Administrative Studies
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Prof. Fidelis Allen
Department of Political and Administrative Studies
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[33] Wikileaks, (2009). Nigeria: Ambassador and House Speaker discuss electoral reform, EFCC, Yar’ adua, Ekiti politics. May, 6.

Gonee, Barile Jonathan, Prof. Fidelis Allen, “Factors Militating Against the Performance of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in Nigeria, 2003-2020” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.166-171 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/166-171.pdf

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Evaluation of Residential Land Use Right Certificates’ Issuance in Thanh Ha District, Hai Duong Province, Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Hue, Pham Phuong Nam – August 2022- Page No.: 172-178

The study aimed to point out the advantages, limitations, their causes and propose solutions to make the issuance of residential land certificates faster and more convenient for households in Thanh Ha district, Hai Duong province in Vietnam. The study investigated 100 households that had declared documents for the issuance of residential land certificates and 55 officials handling the certification procedures. In the 2016-2020 period in Thanh Ha district, 492.19 ha of residential land were issued with certificates, accounting for 81.1% of the total residential land area to be granted, the remaining 93.24 ha were not issued with certificates, accounting for 18.9% of the total residential land need to be issued with certificates. The backlog of 363 applications for certificates was resolved. According to 81.8% of officials, there is work pressure when dealing with the certification process due to lack of manpower, the big amount of work to be resolved, the time limit for processing is short, and the procedure for the case of land use rights recognition is complex; the land database is not linked and has errors; complex determination of land use fees when recognizing land use rights; The facilities and equipment are still limited. Proposed solutions include ensuring sufficient human resources; completing certification and land database regulations, equipment, and implementation.

Page(s): 172-178                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 1 September 2022

 Nguyen Thi Hue
Faculty of Land Administration, Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam

 Pham Phuong Nam
Faculty of Natural Resources And Environment, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Vietnam

[1] Hai Duong Provincial People’s Committee (2021). Report on land management in Hai Duong province in the 2016-2020 period.
[2] Le, T., D., Hoang, V., H. & Do, V., H. (2018). Evaluation of the current situation and propose solutions to improve the efficiency of registration and issuance of land use right certificates in Nhu Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province. The Journal of Science and Technology, Thai Nguyen University, 193(17): 129 – 134.
[3] Nguyen, M., D., Ta, V., T. & Pham, Q., H. (2019). Evaluation of the implementation of the policy of land allocation and issuance of forest land use right certificates in Da Bac district, Hoa Binh province. Vietnam Journal of Agricultural Science, 17(9): 780-786.
[4] Nguyen, T., B., L. & Chu, T., H. (2019). Evaluation of the issuance of Certificates of Residential Land Use Rights and Ownership of House and other land-attached assets in Cam Pha city, Quang Ninh province in the period of 2015 – 2019. The Journal of Science and Technology, Thai Nguyen University, 209(16): 151 – 156.
[5] Nguyen, T., N., Nguyen, V., B., Tran, V., S. & Nguyen, X., V. (2020). Evaluation of the actual situation of granting land use right certificates in Phong Dien district, Thua Thien Hue province. The Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, 3, 2170-2178.
[6] Nguyen, V., B., Tran, T., A., T. & Ho, V., H. (2021). Evaluation of the status of registration and issuance of Certificates of Residential Land Use Rights and Ownership of House and other land-attached assets to the households and individuals in Long Thanh district, Dong Nai province. The Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, 5, 2189–2197.
[7] Thanh Ha District People’s Committee (2020a). Report on some contents in the state management of natural resources and environment in Thanh Ha district.
[8] Thanh Ha District People’s Committee (2020b). Report on the results of the socio-economic situation in 2020, orientation, and tasks in 2021 in Thanh Ha district.
[9] Thanh Ha District Land Use Rights Registration Office (2021). Report on the issuance of land use right certificates in Thanh Ha district, Hai Duong province in the years from 2016 to 2020.
[10] The Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment (2017). Summary report of enforcing the Land Law 2013 in 3 years (2015 – 2017).
[11] The National Assembly (2013). The Land Law.
[12] Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Edition, New York: Harper and Row.

Nguyen Thi Hue, Pham Phuong Nam “Evaluation of Residential Land Use Right Certificates’ Issuance in Thanh Ha District, Hai Duong Province, Vietnam ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.172-178 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/172-178.pdf

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The Status of Married Women into the Process of Household Decision Making: A Study in Khulna City

Sabrina Mostafiz, and Hasan Jamil – August 2022- Page No.: 179-185

This study aims to determine the women’s role in household decision making in relation to their gender status. This study also explores the links between women’s status and their participation in household decision making process. This study revealed that 64.2 percent women are the housewives who are giving labour in household for free and hardly recognized. The findings of the study explicated that 41.6 percent women’s title belongs to their father before their marriage while 61.7 percent women’s title belongs to their husband after their marriage and 45 percent women got married based on the decision taken by their parents. The study found that over 38 percent of the women provided dowry at the time of their marriage and about 48 percent of the women’s had to forcefully pay dowry. It was also found that half (50.8%) of the women faced forced sex with husband. This is the common scenario in our patriarchal society because the woman is not regarded here as a distinct entity. The patriarchal society regarded them as an entity who obeys their decision. In this study woman’s decision about their maternal health care followed by 1st place in the rank order by obtained the mean value 3.80. This study concluded that marriageable age, marriage length, education, economic self sufficiency along with gender awareness, traditional socio-cultural practices, exposure to mass media and access to information can enhance women’s status in household decision making. Through this, it is possible to achieve gender equality at all levels in the society of Bangladesh.

Page(s): 179-185                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 1 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6814

 Sabrina Mostafiz
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur

 Hasan Jamil
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur

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[31] White, S.C. 1992. Arguing with the Crocodile-Gender and Class in Bangladesh, the University Press Limited, Dhaka
[32] Yunus, M. 1991. ‘Grameen Bank: Experiences and Reflections’ presented at the Consultation on the Economic Advancement of Rural Women in Asia and the Pacific, held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 15-21 September, 1991.

Sabrina Mostafiz, and Hasan Jamil “The Status of Married Women into the Process of Household Decision Making: A Study in Khulna City” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.179-185 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6814

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Resilient mobility and logistics systems for future: Bangladesh Perspective

Asif Mahmud Arnob, and Sunanda Majumdar – August 2022- Page No.: 186-193

Resilient mobility and logistics (RML) system is now an emerging concept in the transportation system worldwide. Developing a transportation system is now a global challenge to support the economic development of any country. RML system is now a must to satisfy the mobility needs of its people, and participate in the global economy. This paper is based on secondary data analysis. It investigates how Bangladesh can handle the challenges it is facing now in becoming a developed country by implementing a more resilient mobility and logistics system in the future. It shows the impact of the transport and storage sector on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and economic development of Bangladesh. Besides, it tries to find out the barriers and limitations of the activities implemented till now or accepted and might be implemented in the future. It presents the current scenario of the transportation system of Bangladesh and proposes ways forward to overcome some of these challenges and promote sustainable development in Bangladesh. Under this backdrop, the study also aims to provide some possible solutions which includes implementing smart mobility, zero-emission, smart transport, development of robust modelling for resilience and response to the impacts of COVID-19 on the transportation system of Bangladesh.

Page(s): 186-193                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 1 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6840

 Asif Mahmud Arnob
Department of Port & Shipping Management, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Maritime University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

 Sunanda Majumdar
Department of Port & Shipping Management, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Maritime University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

[1] Rear Admiral M Khaled Iqbal, NBP, BSP, ndc, psc (retd); “Charting a Course for Blue Economy in Post Covid-19 Scenario”; BMJ Vol 5 Issue 1 ISSN 2519-5972, January 2021; Pages 11-22
[2] Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; “Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Bangladesh 2019-20(p)”; available at: http://bbs.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/bbs.portal.gov.bd/page/ 057b0f3b_ a9e8_4fde_b3a6_6daec3853586/2020-08-10-14-49-94b60708240f454c1036d64090cf38ec.pdf
[3] L Lane, C G Tanner; “3 lessons in logistics for a more resilient global trading system”; World Economic Forum; September 2020; available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/09/3-lessons-in-logistics-for-a-more-resilient-global-trading-system/
[4] S Ahmed, K Dey; “Resilience modeling concepts in transportation systems: a comprehensive review based on mode, and modeling techniques”; Publisher: Journal of Infrastructure Preservation and Resilience; June 2020; available at: https://jipr.springeropen.com/articles/ 10.1186/s43065-020-00008-9
[5] C Ho, N Lee; “The future of transport resilience”; The Resilience Shift; July 2020; available at: https://www.resilienceshift.org/the-future-of-transport-resilience/
[6] S Arora, W Bohm, et al.; “Resilience in transport and logistics”; McKinsey Insight; February 2020; available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/operations/our-insights/resilience-in-transport-and-logistics#
[7] M Mazzarino, L Rubini; “Smart Urban Planning: Evaluating Urban Logistics Performance of Innovative Solutions and Sustainable Policies in the Venice Lagoon—the Results of a Case Study”; Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, Sustainability Vol 11 Issue 17; August 2019 11(17), 4580; doi: 10.3390/su11174580
[8] European Commission Press Corner; “A fundamental transport transformation: Commission presents its plan for green, smart and affordable mobility”; December 2020; available at: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2329
[9] F J V Audenhove, G Rominger, et al.; “The Future of Mobility post-COVID”; Arthur D. Little Global; July 2020; available at: https://www.adlittle.com/en/insights/report/future-mobility-post-covid
[10] J Kass; “Smart Mobility: Shaping the Future of Logistics”; Supply Chain 247; April 2017; available at: https://www.supplychain247.com/article/ smart_mobility_shaping_the_ future_ of_logistics
[11] J P Rodrigue; “The Geography of Transport Systems”;1-456; New York: Routledge; 2020; available at: https://transportgeography.org/contents/chapter9/
[12] Knoema; “Bangladesh – Air transport freight”; February 2021; available at: https://knoema.com/ atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Transportation/Air-transport/Air-transport-freight
[13] Knoema; “Bangladesh – Passengers carried by air transport”; February 2021; available at: https://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Transportation/Air-transport/Passengers-carried-by-air-transport
[14] Knoema; “Bangladesh – Air transport registered carrier departures worldwide”; February 2021; available at: https://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Transportation/Air-transport/Air-transport-registered-carrier-departures
[15] Knoema; “Bangladesh – Passengers carried by railways”; February 2021; available at: https://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Transportation/Rail-transport/Passengers-carried-by-railways
[16] Knoema; “Bangladesh – Goods transported by railways”; February 2021; available at: https://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Transportation/Rail-transport/Goods-transported-by-railways
[17] Knoema; “Bangladesh – CO2 emissions from transport”; February 2021; available at: https://knoema .com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Transportation/CO2-Emissions-from-transport/CO2-emissions-from-transport
[18] Wikipedia; “List of airports in Bangladesh”; Accessed March 26, 2021; available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_airports_in_Bangladesh
[19] Wikipedia; “Transport in Bangladesh”; Accessed March 26, 2021; available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_in_Bangladesh

Asif Mahmud Arnob, and Sunanda Majumdar “Resilient mobility and logistics systems for future: Bangladesh Perspective” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.186-193 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6840

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The Effects of Hiring Person with Disabilities to the Overall Performance of Restaurant

Andrea Grace Laguna (Laguna), John Michael Binauhan (Binauhan), Kaye Erlano (Erlano), Kayla Reigne Nichole Alfonso (Alfonso), Khyla Mae Domingo (Domingo), (Sgd) Assoc. Prof. Sheryl Morales (Morales) – August 2022- Page No.: 194-199

In accordance with Republic Act 7277 (Magna Carta for Disabled Persons) and Republic Act 10524, it was stated that at the minimum one per cent of the positions in government agencies, offices, and businesses must be reserved for individuals with impairments. Despite the law’s full recognition, uninvited obstacles still affect the hiring of the disabled. Some workplaces are still hesitant to hire them as a negative stigma that they may adversely affect the company’s overall performance is rampant.
The narrative and phenomenology methods were used to examine the perspectives of restaurant managers who supervise disabled employees and customers’ responses to the services of disabled individuals. The investigators conducted both online and in-person interviews. The responses were organized into themes using thematic analysis.
Based on the study, the negative impression of hiring persons with impairments has hindered assessing the potential of disabled persons. Due to that, the researchers conducted a series of interviews to measure the effectivity rate of persons with disability in a restaurant setting. The study showed positive feedback on the overall performance from the managers and the customers. Thus, allowing the disabled person to be justified and treated in accordance with the present laws of employing PWDs.

Page(s): 194-199                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 1 September 2022

 Andrea Grace Laguna (Laguna)
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

  John Michael Binauhan (Binauhan)
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

  Kaye Erlano (Erlano)
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

  Kayla Reigne Nichole Alfonso (Alfonso)
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

  Khyla Mae Domingo (Domingo)
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 (Sgd) Assoc. Prof. Sheryl Morales (Morales)
Research Management Office, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines (Thesis Adviser)

[1] A. Houtenville, & V. Kalargyrou, Employers’ Perspectives about Employing People with Disabilities. (2014)
[2] C. Golsteijn, S. Wright, Using Narrative Research and Portraiture to Inform Design Research. (2013)
[3] C.Mina, Employment of Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) in the Philippines: The Case of Metro Manila and Rosario, Batangas (2013)
[4] D. Horizons, Employment and disability: advantages of being disabled. Disability Horizons. (2018)
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[7] E. M., J, B.Gatchalian, F. G. Boyayao, M. Cataina, J. Cumilang, J. Dulnuan, & P. Salaguban, Dimensions of Filipino Employers’ Attitudes in Hiring Persons with Disability. (2014)
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[12] J. Ruthstein, Top 5 Benefits of Hiring People with Disabilities. The Chicago Lighthouse. (2016)
[13] K. Hindle, A. David, & B. Gibson, Optimising employee ability in small firms: Employing people with a disability. (2010)
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[17] J. P. Himor, These 7 Admirable Establishments Hire PWD Employees. When In Manila. (2022)
[18] R. T. Fraser, N. Johnson, J. Hebert, I. Ajzen, J. Copeland, P. Brown, & F. Chan, Understanding employers’ hiring intentions in relation to qualified workers with disabilities: preliminary findings. (2010)
[19] S. Lindsay, Employers’ perspectives of including young people with disabilities in the workforce, disability disclosure and providing accommodations (2019)
[20] S. Lyn,Literature Review of Hiring Person with Disability (2013)
[21] Manila and Rosario, Batangas (2013)
[22] S. Mori, C. Reyes, & T. Yamagata, Poverty reduction for the disabled in the Philippines: Livelihood analysis from the data of PWDs in Metro Manila. (2009)
[23] S. Narayanan, A Study on Challenges faced by Disabled People at Workplace in Malaysia (2018
[24] TESDA, Enabling the Disabled. (2020)
[25] T., Why Hiring Persons with Disability (PWD) Can Benefit Companies. Truelogic Careers. (2018)
[26] UNDESA Voice, Building disability-inclusive societies in the COVID context and beyond. (2022)
[27] V. Kalargyrou, The impact of disability on guests’ perceptions of service quality delivery in the hospitality industry (2018)

Andrea Grace Laguna (Laguna), John Michael Binauhan (Binauhan), Kaye Erlano (Erlano), Kayla Reigne Nichole Alfonso (Alfonso), Khyla Mae Domingo (Domingo), (Sgd) Assoc. Prof. Sheryl Morales (Morales) “The Effects of Hiring Person with Disabilities to the Overall Performance of Restaurant” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.194-199 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/194-199.pdf

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Financial Market Long-Tenured Debt Instruments and Economic Growth in Developing Nations: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

ELEJE, Edward Ogbonnia (PhD), NWANI, Christopher Onyemaechi & EZUEM, Daniel Moyotole – August 2022- Page No.: 200-207

Extant studies have attempted to establish the possible connection between financial market long tenured debt instruments and economic growth of nations especially, the developing countries. Results so far have appeared inconclusive and in some cases contradictory due to data set, timing, and even country peculiarities; hence, the continued need for further research in this dimension. The present study is therefore a contribution in this regard. The study basically evaluates the impact of bond, a major financial market long-tenured debt instrument on economic growth of a prototype developing nation, Nigeria. Specifically, it investigates the possible effect of federal, state, and corporate bonds on economic growth within a period (2003-2020). A computer based regression and correlation analysis aided by the Special Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 was employed to test three formulated hypotheses. The findings from the empirical evaluation reveal that federal government bonds have strong positive impact on economic growth whereas both state government and corporate bonds have weak but positive effect on economic growth in Nigeria. Consequently, the paper recommends among others that federal government should continue to explore domestic bond market financing option for capital projects while investors should invest on the FGN bond instruments due to their riskless characteristics. Besides, state and local governments as well as corporate entities should intensify more efforts at exploring the financing potentials of the bond market to boost local level growth and contribute meaningfully to economic growth and development of Nigeria.

Page(s): 200-207                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 1 September 2022

 ELEJE, Edward Ogbonnia (PhD)
Department of Banking and Finance, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

  NWANI, Christopher Onyemaechi
Department of Banking and Finance, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

 EZUEM, Daniel Moyotole
Department of Banking and Finance, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

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[2] Afolabi, A. S.(2014). Trends in the Nigerian Capital Market, cited in Hawkins, J. (2002). Retrieved on 30th October, 2014 from www.iiste.org
[3] Afrinvest (2010). Nigeria Bond Market Report, Retrieved Online via www.afrinvest.com/article
[4] CBN (2013), Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, Abuja, Nigeria: Government Printer
[5] Chidi-Okeke, C.N., Ogbonna, K. S. & Okeke, I. C. (2020). Bond Market And Economic Development In Nigeria, International Journal Of Maritime And Interdisciplinary Research (Ijmir) 1(1),77-187
[6] Chukwuemeka, N. (2018). Impact of Capital Market on the Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Empirical Analysis, IOSR Journal of Economics and Finance, 9(5), 44-59.
[7] Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000),Research Methods in Education (5thed.). London: Routledge Falmer
[8] DMO (2013), Debt Management Office, Annual Report, Government Printer
[9] Echekoba, F. N., Ezu, G. K. & Egbunike, C.F. (2013). the impact of capital market on the growth of the nigerian economy under democratic rule, Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(2), 53-62.
[10] Eleje, E. O., Agha, E. O., & Oyavuru, C. E. (2020), “Debt Finance and Corporate Performance: Firm Level Empirical Evaluation” Archives of Business Research, 8(1), 94-106
[11] Eleje, E. O., Ani, W., & Ezeudu, I (2013), “External Borrowings and Economic Performance in Developing Nations: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria” Open Research Journal of Economics and Finance 1(1),01 – 12
[12] Eleje, E. O. & Osayi, V. I. (2017), “Fiscal Deficit Financing: Spice or Stop to Prevailing Inflationary Pressure in Nigeria?”, Nyayi-Wukari Journal of Humanities, Management and Social Sciences 3(1) Pg. 164-178
[13] Ezeabasili, V.N., Tsegba, I.N., & Ezi, H, W. (2012).“Economic Growth and Fiscal Deficits: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria”,Economics and Financial Review, 2(6), 85-96.
[14] Fasoranti, M.M.& Amasoma, D. (2013).“Analysis of the Relationship betweenFiscal Deficits and External Sector Performance in Nigeria, Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4(11), 80-87
[15] Gerhard, S., Peter, H. & Sirma, H. (2003), Bond Market and economic growth. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1-27. Available Online via www.researchgate.net/publication/46269225
[16] Isah, I. P. (2012), “Deficit Financing and its Implication on Private Sector Investment: The Nigerian Experience” Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 1, (9), 45-62
[17] Jang, J. Y. & Atukeren, E. (2019). Sustainable Local Currency Debt: An analysis of foreigners Korea treasury bonds investment using a LA-VARX Model, MDPI Sustainability Journal, 11(3603), 1-23
[18] Kapingura, F.M., & Makhetha-Kosi, P.(2014). The Causal Relationship between the Bond Market Development and Economic Growth in Africa: Case Study of South Africa, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(3), 126-131.
[19] McKinnon, R. (1973), Money and Capital in Economic Development, Washington D. C: Brookings Institution
[20] Mishkin, F. S. & Eakins, S. G. (2000), “Financial Markets and Institution” Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesley Publisher
[21] Mu, Y., Phelps, P.,& Stotsky, J. G. (2013). Bond Markets in Africa, IMF Working Paper, 13(2): 1-52.
[22] Nkwede, F. E., Uguru, L. C. & Nkwegu, L. C. (2016). Corporate Bond Market Development in Nigeria: Does Macroeconomic Factors Matter? Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review 6(2), 25-45
[23] Ogilo, F.O. (2014). The Effect of Selected Macro-economic Variable on Bond Market Development in Kenya, DBA African Management Review, 4 (2), 54-62
[24] Oke, M. O., Dada, O. & Aremo, N. O. (2021). Impact of Bond Market Development on the Growth of the Nigerian Economy, Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia, 21(1) 60-75
[25] Onaolapo, A. A. & Adebayo, E. O. (2010). Effective Development of the bond Market and the Nigeria Economy, Journal of Management and Society, 1 (2), 38-43
[26] Pandey, I. M. (2010), Financial Management, 10th Edition, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House
[27] Said, R. M. (2013). East Asian Bond Markets and Economic Growth, Jurnal Pengurusan, 39,65-72
[28] SEC (2020) Securities and Exchange Commission, Annual Report Available Online via www.sec.gov.ng
[29] SEC, (2010). Nigerian Capital Market Bulletin, 2. Securities and Exchange Commission, Government Printer
[30] SEC (2019). “States and Local Government Bonds Issued (1978 to Date)” Retrieved Online 12/02/2022 via www.sec.gov.ng
[31] Shaw, E. (1973). Financial Deepening in Economic Development. Newyork; Oxford University Press
[32] Simon, M.K. & Goes, J. (2013),Dissertation and Scholarly Research: Recipes for Success. Seattle, WA: Dissertation Success LLC
[33] Ubesie M. C., Nwanekpe C. E., & Ejilibe C. (2020). Impact of Capital Market on Economic Growth in Nigeria, Business and Management Research, 9 (2) 49-57
[34] Umaru, A.D., Gatawa, A.U. (2014), Fiscal Deficit and Economic Growth in Nigeria (1970-2011): A Disaggregated Approach. Journal of Research in National Development (JORIND), 12(1), 1-9.

ELEJE, Edward Ogbonnia (PhD), NWANI, Christopher Onyemaechi & EZUEM, Daniel Moyotole “Financial Market Long-Tenured Debt Instruments and Economic Growth in Developing Nations: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.200-207 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/200-207.pdf

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Analysis of Rural Agriculture and Economic Development in Cingkes Village Through The Integration of Chillies and Chickens

Annisa Ilmi Faried, Rahmad Sembiring, Uswatun Hasanah – August 2022- Page No.: 208-213

Convergence of the farmer’s farming system’s chili and chicken crop outputs. Both fresh and preserved chili waste can be utilized as poultry feed, while livestock excrement can be used as fertilizer for chili plants. A major focus of North Sumatra Province’s agricultural development strategy is the use of simple innovations to turn livestock dung into organic fertilizer, boosting the nutritional value of agricultural land and repurposing agricultural waste as animal feed. It aims to create an integrated system that benefits both breeders and farmers by increasing and preserving income. The development association between these two factors could lead to increased household incomes and higher agricultural and plantation yields. Creating a plan that integrates the slaughter chicken business with optimal food crops is meant to improve the financial well-being of farmer and breeder households.

Page(s): 208-213                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 1 September 2022

 Annisa Ilmi Faried
Program Studi Ekonomi Pembangunan, Universitas Pembangunan Panca Budi, Indonesia

 Rahmad Sembiring
Program Studi Ekonomi Pembangunan, Universitas Pembangunan Panca Budi, Indonesia

 Uswatun Hasanah
Program Studi Ekonomi Pembangunan, Universitas Pembangunan Panca Budi, Indonesia

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[3] Faried Annisa Ilmi [et al.] Sosiologi Ekonomi [Book] / ed. Simarmata Janner. – Medan : Yayasan Kita Menulis, 2021. – p. 1.
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[5] Marit Elisabeth Lenny [et al.] Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi [Book]. – Medan : Yayasan Kita Menulis, 2021. – p. 2.
[6] Purba Bonaraja [et al.] Ekonomi Pembangunan [Book] / ed. Watrianthos Ronal. – Medan : Yayasan Kita Menulis, 2021. – p. 1.
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[8] Simarmata Marulam MT [et al.] Ekonomi Sumber Daya Alam Dan Lingkungan [Book] / ed. Karim Abdul. – Medan : Yayasan Kita menulis, 2021. – p. 82.
[9] Sunarti and Khomsan Ali Kesejahteraan Keluarga Petani Mengapa Sulit? [Book]. – Bogor : Institut Pertanian Bogor, 2012.
[10] Thornton Philip K Livestock Production: Recent Trends, Future Prospects [Journal] // Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. – 2010. – 1554 : Vol. 365. – pp. 2853–2867.
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[14] Veldhuizen Linda JL. [et al.] The Missing Middle: Connected action on agriculture and nutrition across global, national and local levels to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2 [Journal]. – 2020. – Vol. 24. – p. 100336.

Annisa Ilmi Faried, Rahmad Sembiring, Uswatun Hasanah “Analysis of Rural Agriculture and Economic Development in Cingkes Village Through The Integration of Chillies and Chickens” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.208-213 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/208-213.pdf

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Reliability of Homeownership Through Self-Build Approach in The Suburban Area of Nigeria Cities

Fagbohun, P. O., Shotunde, T. O., Oladiboye, E. O. and Ajaegbo, G. A. – August 2022- Page No.: 214-220

To be a homeowner has become what people desire, while different approaches have been adopted. The most common one in Nigeria is self-build housing method. The main focus of this paper is the assessment of self-build method, with a view to identifying the reliability of the method, towards increasing homeownerships and builds a sustainable living environment. The study made use of the existing literatures that were recently conducted empirically on Nigeria cities to make its findings. The paper discovered that self-build approach is a veritable instrument to increase the number of homeowners in Nigeria cities. The residents in Nigeria urban areas, particularly in the suburbs have been utilising the approach to become homeowners. The approach has not been helpful in building a sustainable urban environment, where all needed facilities will be provided to create a good living environment. This is because of some deficiencies in the application of the approach, which includes lack of compliance to rules and regulations that guide development control, poor land use planning, and inadequate involvement of professionals in the construction process and inadequate provision of the basic public services, among others. Based on these findings, the paper recommended that since self-build has become a tradition in housing provision, government should assume effective control of the process, by improving on the level of development control supervision. This will ensure strict compliance to land use planning and housing construction, through the involvement of relevant professionals in the built environment, at all stages of land use process and construction.

Page(s): 214-220                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 1 September 2022

 Fagbohun, P. O.
Department Urban and Regional Planning, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

  Shotunde, T. O.
Department Urban and Regional Planning, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

 Oladiboye, E. O.
Department Urban and Regional Planning, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

 Ajaegbo, G. A.
Department Urban and Regional Planning, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

[1] Abd-Elkawy, A. A. M. (2017). Mechanisms of application organised self-help housing program in new Egyptian cities for achieving low-cost housing (Case study: Ebny Betak project – Six October city). International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 6(11)1653-1674
[2] Agboola, O. P. and Zango, M.S. (2014). Development of Traditional Architecture in Nigeria: A Case Study of Hausa House Form. International Journal of African Society Cultures and Traditions, 1(1), 61-74. www.ea-journals.org. Accessed date: December 14, 2019.
[3] Akinsola, B. N., Oladokun, T. T. and Adegunle, T. O. (2014). Effective sites and services scheme as a means of solving low-income housing in Nigeria. Journal of Economics and International Business Management, 2(3), 50-58
[4] Akinyemi, A.P., Gambo, M. D., Ankeli, I. A.(2016). ‘Building collapse in Nigeria: Issues and challenges. International Journal of Arts and Sciences.CD-ROM.ISSN:1943-6114: 09-108.
[5] Alagbe, O. O., and Opoko, A. P. (2013). Housing Nigeria urban poor through self-build housing concept using compressed stabilised laterite bricks. International Journal Of Social Sciences, 2(4), 13-18.
[6] Allen, J. Scott (2019) Land redevelopment and the built environment in third-wave cities: review and synthesis. Journal of Urban Technology, 26:1, 57-81, DOI: 10.1080/10630732.2018.1537050: https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2018.1537050
[7] Bangdome-Dery, A. Afram, S. O. and Eghan, G. E. (2014). Overview of self-help/self-build housing provision in Ghana, policies challenges. Developing Countries Studies, 4(6), 77-89.
[8] Benson, M., and Hamiduddin, I. (2017). Eds. Self-build homes social discourse, experience and direction. London. UCL Plress.
[9] Brkanić, I. (2017). Housing quality assessment criteria. Scientific Paper, (14), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.13167/2017.14.5
[10] Emankhu, S. E. and Ubangari, A. Y. (2017). Analysis of housing quality in the peripheral area of Lafia, town. International Journal of Geography and Regional Planning Research. 2, (1), 36-44.
[11] Fagbohun, P. O. (2021). City of uncertainty: A traumatised living environment. 12th Inaugural Lecture Yaba College of Technology, Lagos. Department of Printing Technology.
[12] Fagbohun, P. O., Oladiboye, O. E., Ajaegbo, G. A. (2020). Self-build housing development process and the implications on urban development in the suburban area of Lagos. Yabatech Journal of Environmental Research, 6(1). 1-16.
[13] Fagbohun, P.O. and Oke, G. O. (2011). Urban planning and design. Lagos. Concept Publications
[14] Hannu Ruonavaara (2018) Theory of Housing, From Housing, About Housing. Housing, Theory and Society, 35:2, 178-192, DOI: 10.1080/14036096.2017.1347103. https://doi.org/10.1080/14036096.2017.1347103
[15] Ilesanmi, A.O. (2010). Urban sustainability in the context of Lagos megacity. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning: 3(10), 240-252, October.
[16] Keivani, R., and Werna, E. ( 2013). Refocusing the housing debate in developing countries from a pluralistic perspective. HABITAT International, 25(1), 191-208.
[17] Lea, L.H.; Ta, A.D.; Dang, H.Q. 2016: Building up a system of indicators to measure social housing quality in Vietnam, Procedia Engineering, 142, 115-122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.02.021
[18] McNelis, S. (2016). Researching housing in a global context: New directions in some critical issues. Housing, Theory and Society 33 (4): 403–423. doi:10.1080/14036096.2016.1167121.
[19] National Bureau of Statistics). (2016). Annual abstract of statistics. Federal Republic of Nigeria: www.nigerianstat.gov.ng
[20] Nwogu, E.C. and Iwueze, I.S. (2006).Rural and urban differential in housing characteristics in Nigeria: Empirical evidence. Global Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2), 83-89.
[21] Oduwaye, L. and Fagbohun, P. O. (2013). The socio-economic and physical development challenges of Ijoko town in Ogun State. In Fadare, S. O., Nwokoro, I., Lawanson, T., Onifade, V. Eds. (2013). Emerging issues in urban planning and development.
[22] Oke, J. O. and Fagbohun, P. O. (2010). Physical planning implications of the redevelopment process in Oshodi-Lagos. Journal of Sustainable Development (2010)113-125
[23] Olotuah, A.O., Olotuah, A.A., and Olotuah, A.M. (2018). Acculturation and traditional house forms in Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology. 7(12), 275-280. http: // www.ijesrt.com. Accessed date: January 6, 2020.
[24] Olotuah. A.O. and Taiwo, A. A. (2013). Housing the urban poor in Nigeria through low-cost housing schemes. International Journal of Physical and Human Geography, (European Centre for Research, Training and Development, U.K.) 1 (3), 1 – 8.
[25] Oshodi, L. (2010). Housing situation in Lagos, Nigeria. Oshlookman.wordpress.com2010/11/24
[26] Pattison, B., Strutt, J., and Vine, J. (2011). Self-help housing: Supporting locally driving housing solution. London, Building and Social Foundation.
[27] Shotunde, T. O., Fagbohun, P. O. and Oladiboye, E. O. (2020). Characteristics of informal settlement and socio-economic challenges: A Case Study of Ijoko-Ota Ogun State. Yabatech Journal of Environmental Research, 5(1), 1-19.
[28] Tibesigwa, B. M.; Hao, L.; Karumuna, B. V. 2017: The concept of spatial quality and its challenges on exercised affordable housing design typology in Dar es Salaam – Tanzania, Habitat International, 59, 44-59, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2016.11.010

Fagbohun, P. O., Shotunde, T. O., Oladiboye, E. O. and Ajaegbo, G. A. “Reliability of Homeownership Through Self-Build Approach in The Suburban Area of Nigeria Cities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.214-220 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/214-220.pdf

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Customer Satisfaction Towards Micro Finance Bank Services Rendered to Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria

EMERAH Ajevata. Apollos PhD – August 2022- Page No.: 221-225

This study examined the level of satisfaction of small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) with the services of micro finance banks in Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to choose two states, namely Lagos and Oyo that had the largest percentage of registered SMEs in Southwestern Nigeria while Slovin’s formula was used to select 374 SMEs. The relevant data was obtained through the administration of structured questionnaire to SME’s operators. Descriptive tools such as percentages and mean as well as inferential statistical tools such as ANOVA were used for analysis. The result showed that small and medium scale enterprises were satisfied with the services of microfinance banks especially in the area of responsiveness, reliability and assurance.

Page(s): 221-225                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 2 September 2022

 EMERAH Ajevata. Apollos PhD
Dept. of Business Studies,
Edwin Clark University, Kiagbodo P.M.B.101.Ughelli. Delta State, Nigeria.

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[6] Howard, J.A. and Sheth, J.N. (1969) The Theory of Buyer Behavior, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
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[8] Irobi,N.C(2008)Microfinance and poverty alleviation.A case study of Obazu Progressive Association,Mberi,Nigeria.Uppsala:Department of Economics.
[9] Kanyurhi,E.B(2013) Evaluation of customer satisfaction with services of a micro- finance institution: Empirical evidence from Women Association for Social and Economic Gain customers’ in Togo. African Journal of Marketing Management,5(2),26-37
[10] Murray (2001). What do MFI customers Value? A comparative analysis from three continents”. The IVth Interamerican Conference on Microenterprise, Dominican Republic, November 14th to 16th, pp.1-33.
[11] Ndukwe. E (2008) The Place of the Consumer in the Nigerian Telecoms Industry – Being a keynote address presented at the Third Stakeholders Forum organised y IT &Telecom Digest at Golden Gate Restaureant Ikoyi, Lagos, on Monday 9th June,2008.
[12] Parasuraman, A., Berry, L.L. and Zeithaml, V. (1990), An Empirical Test of the Extended Gaps Model of Service Quality, Marketing Science Institute,Working Paper .pp 90-122.
[13] Van Duong Ha (2020) Measuring Customer Satisfaction Towards Microfinance Services Provided in Vietnam Journal of Social Sciences Research. (6) 3, pp: 325-334.
[14] Yunus, M. (1999) Banker to the poor, Micro-lending and the battle against world poverty. Public affairs, USA. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/yunus-lecture-en.html.

EMERAH Ajevata. Apollos PhD “Customer Satisfaction Towards Micro Finance Bank Services Rendered to Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.221-225 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/221-225.pdf

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Assessing Electronic Health Service of Bangladesh Government during COVID 19: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Method Survey

Md. Robiul Islam, Abdur Rahman – August 2022- Page No.: 226-233

The influx of COVID 19 has exposed the vulnerability of the health sector in both developing and developed countries. So, it has been crucial to assess the e-health service of the Bangladesh government during COVID 19. A cross-sectional mixed method survey was conducted where 150 participants took part in a closed-ended questionnaire survey and 10 participants were involved in a semi-structured interview. Participants are selected from urban (72%) and rural (28%) areas purposively who availed of e-health services during COVID 19. The study used SPSS version 25 to analyze quantitative data using descriptive statistics, frequency, mean, standard deviation, and variance. The result of the study exposed that the existing status of electronic health services in Bangladesh is not satisfactory yet. Most of the people (91.3%) accessed online vaccine registration services only. Due to the lack of information, participants are not availing rest of the e-health services of the government like telemedicine, COVID test report download, live corona test, and use of corona tracer app/ surokkha app. As a result, only 5.76% of participants are highly satisfied with the government e-health service during the pandemic. 56.88% responded that government had high-level challenges to promote electronic health services during COVID 19. The major challenges are lack of available e-health service information, awareness raising, and low level of internet speed. So, the study recommends bridging the digital divide between urban & rural areas along with ensuing more IT facilities in government health services.

Page(s): 226-233                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 2 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6809

 Md. Robiul Islam
Lecturer, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (FASS), Bangladesh University of Professionals (BUP), Mirpur Cantonment, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh

 Abdur Rahman
Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Administration, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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[2] Ahmed, T., Lucas, H., Khan, A. S., Islam, R., Bhuiya, A., & Iqbal, M. (2014). eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: a scoping study. BMC Health Services Research, 14(1), 1-9.
[3] Alvarez, R. C. (2002). The promise of e-Health–a Canadian perspective. eHealth International, 1(1), 1-6.
[4] Al-Zaman, M. S. (2020). Healthcare Crisis in Bangladesh during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103(4), 1357.
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[11] Hoque, M. R., Mazmum, M. F. A., & Bao, Y. (2014). e-Health in Bangladesh: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Direction. The International Technology Management Review, 4(2), 87-96.
[12] Hossain, C. A., Mohamed, M. A., Zishan, M., Rahman, S., Ahasan, R., & Sharun, S. M. (2022). Enhancing the security of E-Health services in Bangladesh using blockchain technology. International Journal of Information Technology, 14(3), 1179-1185.
[13] Hossain, M. B., Alam, M. Z., Islam, M. S., Sultan, S., Faysal, M. M., Rima, S., Hossain, M. A., & Mamun, A. A. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among the adult population in Bangladesh: A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Plos One, 16(12), e0260821.
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[15] Islam, M.S., Siddique, A. B., Akter, R., Tasnim, R., Sujan, M. S. H., Ward, P. R., & Sikder, M. T. (2021). Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards COVID-19 vaccinations: a cross-sectional community survey in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1-11.
[16] Julqarnine, M., Akter, M., Akter, T., & Khoda, M. (2020). The Challenges of Good Governance to Combat COVID-19. Transparency International Bangladesh. https://www.ti-bangladesh.org/beta3/images/2020/report/covid-19/Covid-Resp-Track-Full-BN-15062020.pdf
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[18] Mahmud, S., Mohsin, M., Khan, I. A., Mian, A. U., & Zaman, M. A. (2021). Knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and perceived risk about COVID-19 vaccine and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Bangladesh. Plos one, 16(9), e0257096.
[19] Ministry of Health & Family Welfare & World Bank. (2003). Health and Population Sector Programme 1998-2003, Bangladesh: Status of Performance Indicators 2002. Center for Health & Population Research. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290036932_Health_and_Population_Sector_Programme_1998-2003_Bangladesh_Status_of_Performance_Indicators_2002
[20] Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. (2012). National Health Policy-2011. http://www.mohfw.gov.bd/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=74&Itemid=92
[21] Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. (2016). Health, Nutrition and Population Strategic Investment Plan (HNPSIP) 2016 – 2021. http://hospitaldghs.gov.bd/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/HNP-SIP-Draft-3.0_Master-Doc_27.02.2015-min.pdf
[22] Mohiuddin, A. K. (2019). Diabetes Fact: Bangladesh Perspective. International Journal of Diabetes Research, 2(1), 14-20.
[23] New Age. (2020). People leave Dhaka with high coronavirus risk. New Age, March 25. Available at: https://www.newagebd.net/article/103184/people-leave-dhaka-with-high-coronavirus-risk
[24] Pattanaik, S. S. (2020). Covid-19 and Bangladesh: Looming Crisis in the Horizon. Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi. Available online: https://idsa.in/idsacomments/covid19-bangladesh-smruti-090420 (accessed on April 6, 2020).
[25] Pervez, S., Naher, S., Pranta, M. U. R., Banik, R., & Rahman, Q. M. (2021). Perception and experiences regarding COVID-19 pandemic among urban young adults in Bangladesh: a mixed-method study. Journal of Public Health, 1-11.
[26] Planning Commission. (2020). 8th Five Year Plan. Bangladesh Five Year Plan. Dhaka. p. 583-586. https://oldweb.lged.gov.bd/UploadedDocument/UnitPublication/1/1166/8FYP.pdf
[27] Rahman, M.M., Chisty, M.A., Alam, M.A., Sakib, M.S., Quader, M.A., Shobuj, I.A., Halim, M.A. and Rahman, F. (2022). Knowledge, attitude, and hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccine among university students of Bangladesh. Plos One, 17(6), e0270684.
[28] Sadrul, S. S. M., & Noushin, N. (2021). Alternative Mode of Health Service Delivery. Sustainable Futures, 3, 100055.
[29] Sattar, D. M. P. (2021). Health Sector Governance: An Overview of the Legal and Institutional Framework in Bangladesh. Health Sector Governance: An Overview of the Legal and Institutional Framework in Bangladesh (August 28, 2021).\
[30] Sharifi, M., Ayat, M., Jahanbakhsh, M., Tavakoli, N., Mokhtari, H., & Wan Ismail, W. K. (2013). E-Health Implementation Challenges in Iranian Medical Centers: A Qualitative Study in Iran. Telemedicine and e-Health, 19(2), 122-128.
[31] Tagoe, E. T., Sheikh, N., Morton, A., Nonvignon, J., Sarker, A. R., Williams, L., & Megiddo, I. (2021). COVID-19 Vaccination in Lower-Middle Income Countries: National Stakeholder Views on Challenges, Barriers, and Potential Solutions. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, 709127.
[32] The Government of Bangladesh (2020). Government of Bangladesh cabinet fighting with coronavirus: press briefing of cabinet Secretary. Dhaka. https://cabinet.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/cabinet.portal.gov.bd/notices/9abbd38f_f012_401c_a172_4654fc2ffada/corona%20press%20briefing.pdf
[33] United Nations. (2022). Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/health/
[34] Webber, E. C., McMillen, B. D., & Willis, D. R. (2022). Health Care Disparities and Access to Video Visits Before and After the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from A Patient Survey in Primary Care. Telemedicine and e-Health, 28(5), 712-719.
[35] WHO. (2020). COVID-19 Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) Global research and innovation forum. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/covid-19-public-health-emergency-of-international-concern-(pheic)-global-research-and-innovation-forum
[36] WHO. (2021). Advancing Digital Health strategy in Bangladesh. https://www.who.int/bangladesh/news/detail/03-01-2021-advancing-digital-health-strategy-in-bangladesh%20/

Md. Robiul Islam, Abdur Rahman “Assessing Electronic Health Service of Bangladesh Government during COVID 19: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Method Survey ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.226-233 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6809

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Prevalence on Witchcraft Beliefs and The Psychological Well-Being of Elderly People in Masaba South Sub-County Kisii County Kenya

George Mayaka Nyakweba, Vincent Munywoki, phD, Maria Ntarangwe, PhD – August 2022- Page No.: 234-242

Witchcraft is a world phenomenon. Some people do belief in it on their daily life and this has brought a lot of anxiety, fear from the threats given to the victims. This study investigated the prevalence on witchcraft beliefs and psychological well-being of elderly people in Nyakumbati Sub-location in Masaba South Sub-count, Kisii County Kenya. The study adopted a mixed method approach; a convergent parallel design was employed to enable the researcher investigate the relationship between prevalence on witchcraft beliefs and the psychological well-being of elderly people. Simple random sampling was employed to select a sample of 164 respondents from the 280 elderly people receiving cash transfer from the Kenyan Government in Nyakumbati Sub-location. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using statistical Software Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient was used to ensure reliability of research instruments. The findings indicate that majority of the elderly People belief in witchcraft (56.3%). Many elderly people (48.3%) agreed that beliefs in witchcraft have interfered with relationships in the community. Also majority of the elderly people (60.3%) agreed that Witchcraft practices are dangerous in the community. Witchcraft practices are feared within the community this was taken by 61.6% of the respondents. At the same time majority of the elderly people (62.3%) agreed that Witchcraft practices are carried in hidden manners and finally 41.7% of the elderly stated that they are vulnerable to witchcraft activities. The findings on the relationship between psychological well-being and witchcraft beliefs show that there was: a weak relationship of 0.061 on self-acceptance, a moderate relationship of 0.331 on positive relations and a moderate relationship of 0.530 on purpose in life. The final findings show that there is a weak relationship between prevalence on witchcraft beliefs and the psychological well-being of elderly people. The study recommends and appeals to government leaders, educators and church stakeholders to strive further towards addressing witchcraft related issues. Additionally, social workers, counselors and psychologists should be assigned through the cooperation of church and government to cater for the psychological well-being of the elderly people in the community.

Page(s): 234-242                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6810

 George Mayaka Nyakweba
Department of Counseling Psychology
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

  Vincent Munywoki, phD
Department of Counseling Psychology
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

  Maria Ntarangwe, PhD
Department of Counseling Psychology
The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Angi Stone M & Butera G. (2010). Cultural Beliefs and Attitudes about Disability in East Africa. Education for All. 1-19. Dakar: Senegal.
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[3] Ashforth, A. (2015). Witchcraft justice and human rights in Africa: Cases from Malawi. African Studies Review. 58,(1) 5-38. doi:10.1017/asr.2015.2.
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[17] Mbogo, R. W. (2017). The Effects of Witchcraft on the well-being of high school students in Nairobi, Kenya and their implications for educational leadership . Journal of Culture, Society and Development. 32. 1-11.
[18] Miencha, K.I. (2014). Gender Discrimination against Women in the Punishing of Witches among the Abagusii of South-Western Kenya( Doctoral Dissertation the University of Nairobi Kenya).
[19] Muriithi. J.K. (2019). Relationship between Parental Conflict and Social Adjustment of Adolescent Students in Secondary Schools in Murang’a County, Kenya ( Doctoral Dissertation Kenyatta University , Kenya).
[20] Omare, S. (n.d). The Role of Abagusii Religious Beliefs and Practices in Violence to Witch Suspects in Kisii County. Eldoret, Kenya: Moi University.1-27.
[21] Onyancha, B. K. (2014). The impact of beliefs in witchcraft and magic on attitudes towards sustainable agricultural productivity in Gucha District, Kenya. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities. 3 (4) 267-278.
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[23] Saunders, T. (2003). Reconsidering Witchcraft: Postcolonial Africa and Analytic (Un) Certainties. American Anthropology, 105, 338– 352. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.2003.105.2.338
[24] Wyk, I.W.C.V. (2012). African witchcraft in theological perspective. HTS 60(4) 2004. 1201-1228.

George Mayaka Nyakweba, Vincent Munywoki, phD, Maria Ntarangwe, PhD “Prevalence on Witchcraft Beliefs and The Psychological Well-Being of Elderly People in Masaba South Sub-County Kisii County Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.234-242 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6810

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The Nature of Communication in Secondary Schools in Makindye Division, Kampala District, Uganda

Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Nakiyingi Sarah – August 2022- Page No.: 243-248

Carried out in all the 16 secondary schools found in the eight parishes of Makindye division, Kampala district Uganda, this study explored, among other things, the nature of communication in secondary schools in Makindye division, between school managers and classroom teachers, between school managers and the learners, as well as between teachers and learners/students. The idea was to find out whether it was very good, good, poor or very poor. Communication in schools was conceptualized in terms of verbal and nonverbal, written and electronic communication between school administrators and teachers, between school administrators and students as well as between teachers and students. Since secondary schools in Makindye are few, only 16, and since at the time of data collection only two classes were at school, S.4 and S.6, there was no sampling of the teachers. Thus, all the 16 schools and 198 teachers of S4 and S6 participated in the study. Out of the198 questionnaires which are distributed to all the teachers using five research assistants, 150 usable questionnaires were returned, hence the response rate of 79.4%. Ten out of the very teachers who filled the questionnaires were also subjected to oral intervals. In addition, twenty students were interviewed to supply information about their teachers’ productivity and communication in their schools. Using arithmetic means to analyze data, the findings revealed that communication in schools was generally poor (mean). The researcher recommended for the need of a more effective communication system in schools.

Page(s): 243-248                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 September 2022

 Dr. Kayindu Vincent
Kampala International University, Uganda

 Nakiyingi Sarah
Kampala International University, Uganda

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[9] Tibenderana, P.K.(1994). Education system still colonial. January 17. Kampala; the New Vision Publishing Co.
[10] Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in organization (Eds). NY: Prentice Hall.

Dr. Kayindu Vincent, Nakiyingi Sarah “The Nature of Communication in Secondary Schools in Makindye Division, Kampala District, Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.243-248 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/243-248.pdf

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Contextualizing Poverty along with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) 3, 6 and 9 as non-income indicators in Ocampo, Camarines Sur Philippines: Evidences from CBMS 2019

Michael P. Vale – August 2022- Page No.: 249-259

Measuring poverty using non-income indicators enable countries to target and develop programs for poverty alleviation and understand its performance towards the sustainable development goals (SDG’s). This paper which seeks to evaluate the performance of the municipality of Ocampo in Camarines Sur, Philippines towards the SDG’s via the Community-based Management System (CBMS) would enable policymakers to target recipients of government programs and interventions in the municipality. This paper looked into the responsiveness of the municipality of Ocampo, Camarines Sur to the SDGs by identifying the household poverty index; poverty gap index and poverty severity index as well as estimating the probability of households in Ocampo, Camarines Sur to becoming poor using non-income indicators which are connected with the SDG’s. Employing the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty measures, and logistic regression, the researcher found that around 64.5% of the households in the municipality of Ocampo, Camarines Sur are poor. Likewise, majority of the poor households in the municipality don’t have access to clean and safe water, toilet facilities and internet and electric connectivity. However, despite them being poor, the residents of Ocampo visits medical facilities and received medical treatments if they are sick. The municipality does well in SDG 3, good health and well-being. To further strengthen the municipality’s responsiveness to the SDG’s, there is a need to strengthen barangay health units, develop local water sources and further access to internet connectivity.

Page(s): 249-259                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6811

 Michael P. Vale
De La Salle University School of Economics
Partido State University College of Education, Philippines

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Michael P. Vale “Contextualizing Poverty along with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) 3, 6 and 9 as non-income indicators in Ocampo, Camarines Sur Philippines: Evidences from CBMS 2019” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.249-259 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6811

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Assessment of Gaps in Higher Education Financing in Ghana

Richard Amoah – August 2022- Page No.: 260-264

Despite rising educational costs, governmental financing for higher education has decreased, especially in the developing world. This is attributable to a number of factors, including competition for public funds among various economic sectors, competition between higher education institutions and other sub-divisions of education, and the innovative rationale of modern public administrastion. These developments necessitate the pursuit of novel ways to financing higher education. This involves an examination of the financing of higher learning in various countries. To that end, the goal of this study was to evaluate current education finance in Ghana in order to point out the existing gaps in practice. The study used a comparative research methodology to compare and contrast developing worldwide best practices in higher education finance with present practices in Ghana. The findings of the study show that present means of higher learning finance are narrowly targeted. According to the findings, current financing mechanisms have problems that the funding model do not address. The paper concludes with policy and practical recommendations. Among other policy choices, governments and educational institutions should search for new potential funding sources for university education and align funding with country’s development needs and targets.

Page(s): 260-264                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 September 2022

 Richard Amoah
Finance Directorate, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana

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Richard Amoah “Assessment of Gaps in Higher Education Financing in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.260-264 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/260-264.pdf

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The Effect of Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, Work Life Balance, Motivation, Social Conditions on the Soldiers Performance of Main Naval Base Navy VII/Kupang, Indonesia

Frans Gana, Mintje Ratoe Oedjoe, Pius Bumi Kellen, Togar Tua Amiruddin Pangaribuan – August 2022- Page No.: 265-272

This research aims to: (1) analyze the effect of transformational leadership on the soldiers performance; (2) analyze the effect of organizational commitment on the soldiers performance; (3) analyzing the effect of work life balance on the soldiers performance; (4) analyzing the effect of transformational leadership on the soldiers motivation; (5) analyzing the effect of organizational commitment on the soldiers motivation; (6) analyze the effect of work life balance on the soldiers motivation; (7) analyze the effect of motivation on the soldiers performance; and (8) analyzing social conditions strengthens the relationship of motivation to the soldiers performance. Quantitative study using the application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The sample was determined using purposive sampling technique with the number of research respondents as many as 200 soldiers with officer, non-commissioned and enlisted strata at the Main Naval Base VII/Kupang, Indonesia and the Naval Base of its ranks. The results of the research prove that the soldiers performance is positively and significantly influenced by transformational leadership, organizational commitment, work life balance, social conditions and motivation; social conditions strengthen the relationship of motivation to the soldiers performance. It is recommended for further researchers to examine other variables that affect performance such as servant leadership, job insecurity, and job training in military organizations or private organizations using a mix method approach.

Page(s): 265-272                                                                                                                   Date of Publication:05 September 2022

 Frans Gana
Lecturer of Postgraduate Program at the Faculty of Social and Political Science Nusa Cendana University, Indonesia

  Mintje Ratoe Oedjoe
Lecturer of Postgraduate Program at the Faculty of Social and Political Science Nusa Cendana University, Indonesia

  Pius Bumi Kellen
Lecturer of Postgraduate Program at the Faculty of Social and Political Science Nusa Cendana University, Indonesia

 Togar Tua Amiruddin Pangaribuan
Doctoral Candidate in Administrative Sciences at the Faculty of Social and Political Science Nusa Cendana University, Indonesia. Intermediate Officer of the Indonesian Navy

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Frans Gana, Mintje Ratoe Oedjoe, Pius Bumi Kellen, Togar Tua Amiruddin Pangaribuan “The Effect of Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, Work Life Balance, Motivation, Social Conditions on the Soldiers Performance of Main Naval Base Navy VII/Kupang, Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.265-272 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/265-272.pdf

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Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth. The Case of Mogadishu, Somalia

Ali Adan Hassan – August 2022- Page No.: 273-280

With the failure of the centralized military regime and the subsequent transitional governments, Somalia adopted decentralized federal governance following the approval of a provisional federal constitution by 825 constituent assemblies representing different clans. However, the Fiscal decentralization in Somalia is in its infancy stage, and the allocation of functional assignments among the federal and state governments is yet to materialize. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study is to examine the effect of fiscal decentralization on economic growth in Mogadishu, Somalia, emphasizing the current practice and challenges.
The study employed descriptive case study research that collected qualitative and quantitative primary data through an online mixed questionnaire and structured interview guide with the target population and analysed with due process. The study findings reveal that adequate revenue and expenditure responsibilities with some degree of fiscal autonomy to subnational governments are critical to properly implementing fiscal decentralization and improving citizens’ living standards. In addition, the research found that political stalemate, weak national government, poor cooperation among different levels of government, security-related challenges, limited technical, administrative or fiscal capacities, and economic disparity are among the obstacles that hinder effective fiscal decentralization in Somalia.
Finally, the study recommends strengthening intergovernmental fiscal relations, finalizing the provisional constitution review to address financial matters, developing a revenue-sharing formula that guides fiscal transfer arrangements, enhancing the institutional capacity of subnational governments, and allocating the considered budget to the social and economic services as they are necessary economic growth.

Page(s): 273-280                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6812

 Ali Adan Hassan
Africa Regional Programme
United Nation’s University for Peace, Somalia

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Ali Adan Hassan “Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth. The Case of Mogadishu, Somalia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.273-280 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6812

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Experiences of Managers Upon Handling Neurodiverse Employees

Charmaine Gie B. Galeza, Icey Caxandra L. Quiseo, Mikaela Dominique A. Salabit, John Iverson B. Trinidad, Glenn Ian M. Vetonio, Sheryl R. Morales – August 2022- Page No.: 281-287

The intent of this research is to unfold managers’ experiences in handling neurodiverse employees. Managers who help their employees succeed in the organization have tremendous accomplishments, but among all the tasks that manager must perform, managing people is by far the most challenging as each employee is different, unforeseen, and driven by the own set of forces. Proponents used a qualitative research method specifically narrative inquiry and conducted an in-depth interview with semi-structured questions. The following themes revealed in this study are (1) manager’s knowledge and involvement in neurodivergent employees at work, (2) acknowledging the challenges faced by the managers in handling neurodiverse employees, (3) strategies of managers in dealing with neurodivergent employees, and (4) the influence of manager’s positive approach in the welfare of neurodiverse employees. Therefore, it is concluded that managers have little to no challenges in handling neurodiverse employees. Moreover, these types of employees are above average people in terms of performance but lack emotional control that leads to anger and frustration. In the perspective of the following participants, there is no perfect strategy in handling neurodiverse employees. Managers must be diversified and versatile in handling these types of employees and use strategies that fit in with their needs. This study was assessed and completed that allows managers, especially the human resource management, to get an informative approach in neurodiverse employees.

Page(s): 281-287                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 05 September 2022

 Charmaine Gie B. Galeza
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management & Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines

 Icey Caxandra L. Quiseo
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management & Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines

 Mikaela Dominique A. Salabit
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management & Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines

 John Iverson B. Trinidad
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management & Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines

 Glenn Ian M. Vetonio
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Major in Human Resource Management & Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines

 Sheryl R. Morales
Research Management Office, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines – (Thesis Adviser)

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Charmaine Gie B. Galeza, Icey Caxandra L. Quiseo, Mikaela Dominique A. Salabit, John Iverson B. Trinidad, Glenn Ian M. Vetonio, Sheryl R. Morales “Experiences of Managers Upon Handling Neurodiverse Employees” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.281-287 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/281-287.pdf

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Litigation or Adr: Which Benefits International Relations

Nana Amma Adjovu – August 2022- Page No.: 288-293

I. INTRODUCTION
The concept of international relations operates on various theories, both realism and liberalism. In realism, states use military force to relate to the international community. Even though leaders of these states may be moral, such attributes do not influence their foreign policy decisions. The realists recognize that law and international organizations have no force or power; hence, their existence depends on how other states recognize and accept them. To them, states must always seek power to protect themselves for self-preservation

Page(s): 288-293                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6813

 Nana Amma Adjovu
Department Consultancy, DrewGees Consult, Ghana

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Nana Amma Adjovu “Litigation or Adr: Which Benefits International Relations” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.288-293 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6813

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A Normative Approach to Exploring Political Settings for Constitution Capture

Sandun Yapa, Prof. Baishun Yuan – August 2022- Page No.: 294-307

Although the body of literature on the phenomenon of state capture has been growing more prominent since 1999, some academics have still struggled to determine even the apparent manifestation of state-capture political settings at a definitional and operational level. The main reason for this is that they seem to have unwarrantedly confined to economic explanations, or Hellman and his colleagues’ original definition and conditions of exploring the phenomenon in which the outside business actors of the state with monetary interests are only recognized as the main active captors of the state, among other conditions. Therefore, it is theoretically necessary to develop an analytical framework for an understanding of state capture, which helps us examine how the inside political actors of the state can also involve themselves in capturing the state for their political interests. In discussing definitional and operational issues on the original and current understanding of the phenomenon, we attempt to identify some key factors and normative elements in the nurturing of such an analytical framework. It is reasonable to conclude that to enhance our ability to fully explore state-capture political settings in the established elements of a constitution or legislation, the occurrence of shaping ‘the formation of the basic rules of the game’ should conceptually and empirically be recognized as a typology of the phenomenon of state capture, namely ‘constitution capture’ while shifting our research focus from the activity-politics (the political life) of the state to the sphere-politics (the idea) of the state in a way that the locus of the phenomenon and its profound consequences are to be explained in terms of the sphere-politics.

Page(s): 294-307                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 September 2022

 Sandun Yapa
Department Political Science, University of Hunan, China, Sri Lanka

 , Prof. Baishun Yuan
Department Political Science, University of Hunan, China, Sri Lanka

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Sandun Yapa, Prof. Baishun Yuan “A Normative Approach to Exploring Political Settings for Constitution Capture” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-7, pp.294-307 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-7/294-307.pdf

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Educational Curricula Design and Developmenti in the African States, in the Digital Age

Vincent Chukwukadibia Onwughalu – August 2022- Page No.: 308-314

This paper examines the relevance of the educational curricula of African states in the digital age. Education is strategic in the formation and development of human capacity, as it is a prerequisite for self-discovery and development of society. Relying on the analysis of secondary data, the paper examines the mismatch between skills acquired in most African schools and the set of skills needed to function optimally in the digital age. It traces this to the curricula in use which contribute to the non-development and underdevelopment of learners’ii capacity, and therefore an increase in the rate of unemployment, amongst other challenges. The revolution driven by information communications technologies has impacted virtually all walks of life and redefined how things are done in the digital age. We advocate an overhaul of the educational system of African states and subsequent reviewing and revising of their curricula to facilitate inculcating in learners a set of skills needed to function optimally for their development and for society.

Page(s): 308-314                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 September 2022

 Vincent Chukwukadibia Onwughalu
Department of Public Administration, Federal Polytechnic, Oko Anambra State, Nigeria

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Vincent Chukwukadibia Onwughalu “Educational Curricula Design and Developmenti in the African States, in the Digital Age” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.308-314 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/308-314.pdf

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Job Satisfaction an Intervening in Employee Retention Empirical Study on Logistics Company

Ratih Komala Sari, Emmanuel Michael Bayudhirgantara – August 2022- Page No.: 315-323

Objective: Improve the previous research, namely analyzing the influence of Organizational Culture (X1), Compensation (X2), and Employer Branding (X3), on Employee Retention (Y2) through the intervening variable Job Satisfaction (Y1)
Design / Methodology / Approach: This study is based on a quantifiable approach with associative analysis by collecting data through observation, and questionnaire answers conducted on 99 YI Logistic Company employees with employee status who have worked for more than 5 years. The data analysis technique uses a supported method using the SmartPLS application version 3.2.9 for Windows.
Findings: This study proves that Organizational Culture (X1), Compensation (X2), and Employer Branding (X3) have a significant effect on Employee Retention (Y2) with intervening media through Job Satisfaction (Y1). Simultaneously the variables of job satisfaction and employee retention become the strongest correlation, with this describing high job satisfaction will make employee retention even higher.
Originality/ Values: This study proves that the relationship between Organizational Culture, compensation, employer branding through job satisfaction as an intervening variable can have a significant effect on employee retention. This becomes empirical information as an improvement and development for the company.

Page(s): 315-323                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2022

 Ratih Komala Sari
Universita Mercubuana Jakarta, Indonesia

 Emmanuel Michael Bayudhirgantara
Universita Mercubuana Jakarta, Indonesia

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[64] Widayati, K. D. (2019). Kompensasi Terhadap Kinerja Guru Pada Sekolah Dasar Negeri Jatiwaringin X Bekasi. Widya Cipta: Jurnal Sekretari dan Manajemen, 3(1), 17-24.
[65] Zakiah, Z. Alisis Hubungan Antara Skema Kompensasi Dan Retensi Karyawan Pada Pt Galang Media Utama Yogyakarta Dan Ugm Press Yogyakarta. Accounting And Business Information Systems Journal, 5(2).
[66] Zuraida, Z. (2020). Kepuasan Kerja Ditinjau Dari Beban Kerja Karyawan Yang Berlatarbelakang Pendidikan Tidak Sesuai Dengan Pekerjaan. Jurnal Ilmiah Psyche, 14(2), 71-82.

Ratih Komala Sari, Emmanuel Michael Bayudhirgantara “Job Satisfaction an Intervening in Employee Retention Empirical Study on Logistics Company” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.315-323 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/315-323.pdf

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The evolution of Islamic Education in Northern Ghana

Imoro Fatawu and Abubakari Yushawu – August 2022- Page No.: 324-336

This study examined the evolution of Islamic Education in Northern Ghana. It traced the history of Islamic Education through missionaries responsible for the introduction of Islamic Education, the methodology of instruction, the organisation of content and funding among others. It further looked at the rejection of western style of secular education by parents and early Islamic converts and their teachers. The study adopted qualitative methodology and used historical research design. A sample of 24 participants were purposively selected and interviewed. Data was also obtained from documentary analysis of articles, journals, archival records, books, letters and minutes from education commissioners of the northern territories. It was found that the Hausa, the Wangara, the Larbanga, etcetera who were mostly traders were those who introduced Islam and Islamic education in Northern Ghana, the kind of education introduced were neither organised nor formal and funding was done by the local people while the chiefs provided land to support the educational efforts of the missionaries. It was recommended that Ghanaian traders both men and women should emulate the example of the earlier traders by funding Islamic education not only in Northern Ghana but also the entire country.

Page(s): 324-336                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2022

 Imoro Fatawu
Department Social Sciences E.P. College of Education, Bimbilla, Ghana

 Abubakari Yushawu
Department Social Sciences E.P. College of Education, Bimbilla, Ghana

[1] Abdul-Hamid, M. (2017). Islam and gender in Dagbon. Unpublished doctoral theses. University of Cape Coast. Cape coast. Ghana.
[2] Adam, I. I. (2019). The Madrasah and Muslim Child Upbringing in Accra: A Study of Institute of Islamic Studies, Nima-Accra (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana).
[3] Arunthari, S. (2005). Information technology adoption by companies in Thailand: a study of enterprise resource planning system usage.
[4] Asare-Danso, S. (2017). Effects of Governments’ Educational Policies on Islamic Education in Ghana. A Historical Study. The international journal of humanities & social studies 5(9)72-76.
[5] Berg, B. (2001). Historiography and oral traditions. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences, 210-224.
[6] Byron G., M., & Samir A., J. (1983). Education in the Arab World. New York: Praeger Publishers.
[7] Cooper, F. (2019). Africa since 1940: the past of the present (Vol. 13). Cambridge University Press.
[8] Dr. Tamim, a teacher and principal of Anbarriya Arabic College of Education, Tamale, 20th December, 2020.
[9] Dupuis, J., (1874). [1966], Journal of a Residence in Ashantee. London: Henry Colburn; Frank Cass Second Edition.
[10] Emre, Y. (2017, February, 18th) Ghanaian Muslims, the Insamer. Main page. Retrieved from: https://insamer.com/en/ghanaian-muslims_1118.html
[11] Gin, O. K. (Ed.). (2015). Brunei-History, Islam, Society and Contemporary Issues. Routledge.
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[20] Merriam, S. B. (2002). Introduction to qualitative research. Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis, 1(1), 1-17
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[22] Mumuni, S. (2004). The relevance of Arabic and Islamic Education in the upbringing of the Ghanaian Muslim Child, Nigeria Social Science Review (6) 1. 82-103.
[23] Mumuni, S., H. (2003). Islamic Literacy Tradition in Ghana. Maghreb Review, 28(2-3), 170-185.
[24] Nortey, E. (2015). National Analytical Report: 2010 population and housing census. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/27469 6661.
[25] Nyumba, T. O., Wilson, K., Derrick, C. J., & Mukherjee, N. (2018). The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation. Methods in Ecology and evolution, 9(1), 20-32.
[26] Owusu-Ansah, D. (2017). Secular education for Muslim students at government assisted Christian schools in Ghana: Joining the debate on students’ rights at Religious Schools in Ghana. Journal of Islamic Studies and Culture, 8(2), 1.
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Imoro Fatawu and Abubakari Yushawu “The evolution of Islamic Education in Northern Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.324-336 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/324-336.pdf

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A study on medical students’ perspective regarding online learning from a selected government medical school

Wettasinghe I, Weerakkody DSI, Elvitigala KN, Sandakumari G.V.N. – August 2022- Page No.: 337-341

Background: During the Covid Pandemic, online lectures played a crucial role in medical education. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating online teaching in medical curriculum.
Methods: Data was collected via a self-administered online questionnaire from 360 Medical Students of a selected Medical Faculty in Sri Lanka.
Results: Among our study population 63% (213/338) were females aged between 20 to 29 with a mean of 23.4 years (Standard deviation 2.09). Before the pandemic only 3.6% had used online lectures during their medical curriculum.
At the time of data collection 56% of the students had attended more than 50 online lectures. Majority (65.6%) of the study population stated that their knowledge had improved during the pandemic.
Among them, 44% had stated that they read more books during the pandemic while 24% had reduced reading during the pandemic. Majority preferred online lectures (59%) over traditional lectures and the main reasons given were the minimum time consumption for travelling (92.3%). Majority of the students (62.4%) stated that they felt less sleepy during online lectures and 60.1% stated that they retained more facts with online lectures. 83% of the participants who stated that they felt sleepy during the online lectures still wished to continue online lectures even after the Covid Pandemic and it was statistically significant. (P =0.00)
Students preferred online lectures to be more interactive and wanted a lecture note or pdf to be given prior to the lecture. Majority of the students used a smart phone and all the students zoom as their portal to online lectures.
Even though 77.2% of the study population had connection interruptions during online lectures, majority of the students (67.2%) wish to have online lectures even after the COVID-19 pandemic instead of the lectures in the hall.
Conclusion: Online lectures should be continued as a key part of the medical education even after social distancing restrictions are lifted and traditional lectures are resumed. Infrastructure should be improved to minimize connection interruptions.

Page(s): 337-341                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2022

 Wettasinghe I, Weerakkody DSI, Elvitigala KN, Sandakumari G.V.N.
Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Kalubowila, Sri Lanka

 Wettasinghe I, Weerakkody DSI, Elvitigala KN, Sandakumari G.V.N.
Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Kalubowila, Sri Lanka

 Wettasinghe I, Weerakkody DSI, Elvitigala KN, Sandakumari G.V.N.
Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Kalubowila, Sri Lanka

 Wettasinghe I, Weerakkody DSI, Elvitigala KN, Sandakumari G.V.N.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

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[2] Wayne, D. B., Green, M., & Neilson, E. G. (2020). Medical education in the time of COVID-19. Science Advances. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc7110
[3] Kommalage, M. (2009). Use of the internet by patients attending specialist clinics in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-9-12
[4] Dumford, A. D., & Miller, A. L. (2018). Online learning in higher education: exploring advantages and disadvantages for engagement. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 30(3), 452–465. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-018-9179-z
[5] Mukhtar, K., Javed, K., Arooj, M., & Sethi, A. (2020). Advantages, Limitations and Recommendations for online learning during COVID-19 pandemic era. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.covid19-s4.2785
[6] Agarwal, S., & Kaushik, J. S. (2020). Student’s Perception of Online Learning during COVID Pandemic. In Indian Journal of Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020- 03327-7
[7] James, G. (2002). Advantages and disadvantages of online learning. Retrieved July.
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[9] Hussein E, Daoud S, Alrabaiah H, Badawi R. Exploring undergraduate students’ attitudes towards emergency online learning during COVID-19: A case from the UAE. Child Youth Serv ice Review. 2020;119:105699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105699
[10] N. Elfaki, Itedal Abdulraheem, R. Abdulrahim. Impact of E-Learning vs Traditional Learning on Student’s Performance and Attitude. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences, v08 p76-82 2019. https://www.ijmrhs.com/medical-research/impact-of-elearning-vs-traditional-learning-on-students-performance-and-attitude.pdf

Wettasinghe I, Weerakkody DSI, Elvitigala KN, Sandakumari G.V.N. “A study on medical students’ perspective regarding online learning from a selected government medical school” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.337-341 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/337-341.pdf

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Influence of Instructional Materials’ Procurement and Involvement of Teachers and Students in Decision Making on Academic Performance of Secondary Schools Students in Gboko Local Government Area of Benue State

Dyege Clement Akpenpuun, Agbe, J.I, (PhD), & Kajo, D.T, (PhD) – August 2022- Page No.: 342-347

This study x-rays influence of instructional materials procurement and involvement of teachers/ students in decision making on student’s academic performance in secondary school in Gboko LGA, of Benue State. Two specific objectives with corresponding research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 3035 teachers in 35 secondary schools in Gboko LGA of Benue State. The sample size for the study was 400 Teachers who were drawn using purposive, proportionate stratified and convenience sampling techniques. Instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled “Influence of Instructional Materials Procurement and Involvement of Teachers/Students in Decision Making on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students (IIMPITSDMAPSSS)”. The Questionnaire was validated by experts and reliability was established using Cranach Coefficient Alpha Method which yield a coefficient of 0.77. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for answering the research questions and chi square for testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings arrived at was that instructional materials procurement and involvement of teachers/students in decision making has significant influence on the student’s academic performance in secondary schools in Gboko LGA of Benue State. Based on the findingsresearcher recommended that, principals and other relevant authorities should ensure instructional materials procurement to easy teachers and students teaching and learning process. And that principals should ensure involvement of staff and students in decision making on regularly bases this will motivate all of them feels involved and contribute or use their maximum experience to achieve school objective.

Page(s): 342-347                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2022

 Dyege Clement Akpenpuun
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph SarwuanTarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Agbe, J.I, (PhD)
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph SarwuanTarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Kajo, D.T, (PhD)
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies, Joseph SarwuanTarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria

[1] Abdu-Raheem, B. O. (2011). Availability, adequacy and utilisation of social studies instructional materials in EkitiState secondary schools.Journal of Current Discourse and Research, 3, 242-255.
[2] Abdu-Raheem, B. O. (2014). Improvisation of instructional materials for teaching and learning in secondary schools as predictor of high academic standard.Nigerian Journal of Social Studies, XVII(1), 131-143.
[3] Abdu-Raheem, B.O., &Oluwagbohunmi, M.F. (2015). Pre-service teachers’ problems of improvisation of instructional materials in social studies in Ekiti State University.Journal of Education and Practice, 6(3),160-163.
[4] Adeogum, A. A. (2001). The principal and the financial management of public secondary schools in Osu State. Journal of Educational System and Development. 5(1): 1 – 10.
[5] Afolabi, S.S. (2009). Teaching method and textual material variables as correlate of students’ learning outcomes in senior secondary school mathematics. Ph.D. Post-field Seminar Department of Teacher Education, University
[6] Afolabi, S.S., &Adeleke, J.O. (2010).Assessment of resources and instructional materials status in the teaching of mathematics in south western Nigeria.European Journal of Scientific Research, 43(1), 406-410.
[7] Akpakwu, S.O (2012). Educational Management theory and practice.Makurdi: Destiny Ventures
[8] Alimi, P., Olatunji, S. &Akinforlarin, C.A. (2012). Impact of Selected Models of Instructional Supervision Activities on Student’s Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. Department of Education Management, AdekunleAjasin University, Akungba- Akoko
[9] Babalola, J.B., &Isuku, E.T. (2008). Reducing poverty incidence in Nigeria: the interplay of educational attainment and effective social support.Nigerian Journal of Educational Administration and planning, 8(1), 215 – 230.
[10] Chonjo, P. N. (1994). The quality of Education in Tanzania primary schools: an assessment of physical facilities and teaching learning materials. UTAFITI (new series) l(1), 36 – 47.
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[12] Jekayinfa, A.A., &Kolawole, D.O. (2008). Conceptual background to the history of education in Nigeria; Perspectives on the history of education in Nigeria.Retrieved from http://www.history of education.org/resource.htm
[13] Jekayinfa, A.A. (2012). Fundamentals of instructional methods. Ilorin, Kwara State, Olives Production Ltd.
[14] Kochhar, S. K. (2012). The teaching of social studies.New Delhi, India.Sterling Publishers Private Limied.
[15] Ofuani, F.N. (2014). Learning environment for literacy development.Journal of the Reading Association of Nigeria(RAN), 15(2), 301-307.
[16] Okwori, A., & Ede, S. (2012). Management issues in education. Makurdi.Aboki publishers.
[17] Olumorin, C. O., Yusuf, A., Ajidagba, U. A., &Jekayinfa, A. A. (2010).Development of Instructional materials from local resources for art-based courses.Asian Journal of Information Technology, 9(2), 107-110.http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ajit.2010.107.110
[18] Onasanya, S.A. and Omosewo E.O. (2011). Effect of Improvised and Standard Instructional Materials on secondary school students’ Academic performance in Physics in lllorin,Nigeria. Singapore. Journal of Scientific Research, 1:68-76.
[19] Peretomode, N. (2006). Assessing the Instructional Management Behaviour of Principals.The Elementary School Journal, 86(2), 217 –247.
[20] Ukeje, B.O. Akaboyu, G.C and Alice ndu. (1992). Education administration: Enugu forth dimension Publishing co. ltd.
[21] Wilkinson, A(1999), Empowerment Issues and debates, QWL News and Abstracts, ACAS.

Dyege Clement Akpenpuun, Agbe, J.I, (PhD), & Kajo, D.T, (PhD) “Influence of Instructional Materials’ Procurement and Involvement of Teachers and Students in Decision Making on Academic Performance of Secondary Schools Students in Gboko Local Government Area of Benue State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.342-347 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/342-347.pdf

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Effect of Mobile Phone Based Health Education Reminder on Neonatal Cord Care among Postnatal Mothers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

M. A. Oluwayemi, J. A. Adegun, and J. A. Adegboyega – August 2022- Page No.: 348-352

This study investigated the effect of mobile phone based health education reminder on neonatal cord care among postnatal mothers in Ekiti state. The study adopted quasi-experimental of pretest- posttest control group research design. The population for the study comprised of postnatal mothers attending health facilities in Ekiti State. A total of 364 postnatal mothers consented to be part of the study. Baseline information was collected using a self-developed questionnaire. The questionnaire was subjected to face and content validity. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha reliability to obtain a coefficient of 0.82. Intervention package consisted of carefully prepared text messages designed to remind mothers of important aspects of neonatal cord care were sent to the mobile phones of the selected mothers for four weeks. Post intervention data were collected at the sixth week of the study. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages and inferential statistics of paired sample t-test.
The findings of the study revealed that the participants had fair knowledge of neonatal care. However, the study showed that mobile phone health education reminder significantly improves knowledge of neonatal care among postnatal mothers. It was concluded that mobile phone based health education reminder was effective in improving knowledge and practice of neonatal cord care. The study recommends the use of mobile phone health education reminder for postnatal mothers attending health facilities.

Page(s): 348-352                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 September 2022

 M. A. Oluwayemi
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, BamideleOlomilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

 J. A. Adegun
BamideleOlomilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

 J. A. Adegboyega
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

[1] Adejuyigbe, E. A., Bee, M. H., Amare, Y., Babatunji, A. O,, Iganus, R. B., Manzi, F., Shamba, D. D.,Skordis-Worrall, J., Odebiyi, A., &Hlll, Z. E. (2015). Why Not Bathe the Baby Today? A Qualitative Study of Thermal Care Beliefs and Practices in Four African Sites.Biomedical Central Paediatrics. 15:156- 160
[2] Adelaja L. M. (2011). A survey of home delivery and newborn care practices among women in suburban area of western Nigeria. Obstetrics and Gynecology.98: 35-42
[3] Adibi, (2015). Mobile Health: A Technology Road Map Springer Series in Bio-Neuroinformatics 5 (1). Doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12817.7
[4] Afolaranmi, T.O., Hazzan, Z., Ofakunrin, A. &Sule, S. S., (2018): Cord care practices: A perspective of contemporary African Setting. Frontiers in Public Health.10: 33-39
[5] Akinwaare, M. O., Oyebode, A. O., Brown, V, B., Ogunniran, A. A., &Adeleye, K. K.,(2021).Content of antenatal education and modality of delivery among nurses in Oyo State, Nigeria. European Journal of medical and Health Sciences.3 (2) DOI https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.2.502
[6] Akinyemi, J. O.,Bamgboye, E. A., &Ayeni, O. (2015).Trends in neonatal mortality in Nigeria and effects of bio-demographic and maternal characteristics. Paediatrics.15;36. Retrieved on March 10 2020 from https://doi.org/10.1186//s12887-015-0349
[7] Amare, Y. (2014). Umbilical cord care in Ethiopia and implication for behavioural change; a Qualitative study. Journal of International Health and Human Rights, 14; 12.Available at https:// doi.10.1186/1472-698X-14-12.
[8] Berhan, D. &Guleman, H. (2018).Level of knowledge and associated factors of postnatal mothers towards newborn care practices at governmental health center in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Retrieved on May 5 2020, from; http//www.hinda/doi.org/10,1155/2018/8921818.
[9] Daba, W., Alemu, T., Simbre,S. M.,&Tsegaye, B. (2019). Knowledge and practice of essential newborn care among postnatal mothers in Ethiopia. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 11(8) 170-179
[10] Inter-Agency for Child Mortality Estimation, (IGME, 2012).Level and Trend in Child Mortality. 2012 http://www.who.int/maternal child adolescent/documents/leves trends child mortality.
[11] Kaoje, A. U. Okaforagu, N. J. Raji, M. O. Adamu, Y. H. Nasir, M. A. Bello, M &Ango, U. M. (2018). Home delivery, umbilical cord care practices and post natal care utilization among mothers in a rural community in Sokoto state Nigeria, Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 30 (2) 36-48
[12] Kumar, A. A., De Costa, A., Das, A., Srinivassa, G. A., D’Souza, G. & Rodrigues,R., (2019). Mobile health for tuberculosis management in South India: is video-based directly observed treatment an acceptable alternative?Journal of Medical Internet Research 3;7 (4):e 11687.doi:102196/11687
[13] Ndikom, C. M &Oluwatosin O. A. (2020) Umbilical cord care knowledge and practices of mothers attending selected primary health care centres in Ibadan Nigeria.International Journal of Caring Sciences, 13 (1) 143- 151
[14] Nyang”echi, E. &Osero, J., (2021). Effects of mobile health technologies uptake of routine growth monitoring among caregivers of children aged 9 to 18 months in Kenya. Journal of Primary Care and Community Health. Find in PubMed http://doi.org/10.1177/21501327211010995
[15] Odetola, T. Ayamolowo, L. &Ayamolowo, S., (2018). Childbearing women perception about the use of mHealthfo maternal health information in rural communities, ile-ife, Nigeria.Journal of the International Society for Telemedicine and E Health.6 (1).e9 (1-6). Retrieved from https://journal.ukzn.ac.za/index.php/JISFTeH/article/view/531
[16] Opara P. I., Jaja T., Dotimi D. A. & Alex-Hart B. A., (2012). Newborn cord care practices among mothers in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Clinical Medicine 3 (1) 22-27
[17] Zhuang R., Xang Y., Han T., Yang G. A. and Zhuang Y., (2016). Cell phone based health messaging improves health literacy. African Health Science 16 (1) 311-318.

M. A. Oluwayemi, J. A. Adegun, and J. A. Adegboyega “Effect of Mobile Phone Based Health Education Reminder on Neonatal Cord Care among Postnatal Mothers in Ekiti State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.348-352 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/348-352.pdf

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Social Institutions’ Influence on Effective Utilization of Youth Enterprise Development Fund in Isiolo County, Kenya

Joram Kiarie Njuguna, Prof. Nelson Jagero (PhD) – August 2022- Page No.: 353-358

The objectives of the study were to; investigate the social institutions influencing effective utilization, investigate social networks influencing effective utilization, establish how work place values influence effective utilization and to determine cultural values that influence effective utilization of YEDF in Isiolo County, Kenya. The study adopted correlational research and descriptive survey designs. The total study population was 9,602 people. This included a target population of 1,919 youths who have benefitted from YEDF and obtained from the 288 youth groups in Isiolo County. The population also included 7 YEDF officials and 7,676 community members. A sample of 384 respondents was obtained both proportionately and purposively. All the 7 YEDF officials participated in the study. Data collection was done using questionnaires and interviews. Reliability of the instruments was estimated using Cronbach Alpha Coefficients. Questionnaire for youths had a reliability coefficient index of 0.916 while questionnaire for community members had a reliability coefficient of 0.805 which were deemed reliable basing on the threshold set at 0.7 Cronbach Alpha Coefficient Index. Both questionnaires were self-administered. An interview schedule for the key informants was also used and filled by the respondents. Research assistants were hired to assist in the process. The respondents were given time to respond to the questionnaires and those who were not able to read or write were be assisted. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used in the study was mean, standard deviation, percentages and frequencies while the inferential statistics used was linear regression. The study findings indicated that social institutions had significant influence on effective utilization of youth enterprise development fund. The study recommended incorporation of the YEDF beneficiaries’ family members, peers and religious institutions in planned sensitization trainings for the fund to reduce the barriers caused by such institutions on effective utilization of the fund.

Page(s): 353-358                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 September 2022

 Joram Kiarie Njuguna
Chuka University, kenya

 Prof. Nelson Jagero (PhD)
Chuka University, kenya

[1] Akwalu, M. (2014). Factors Influencing Performance of Youth owned Small and Medium Enterprises, A Case of Maara Sub-County, Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya (Unpublished Master of Art Dissertation). Nairobi: University of Nairobi.
[2] Alveredo, F., & Gasparihi, L. (2013). Recent Trends in Inequality and Poverty in Developing Countries, Working Paper No.151, Centre for Distributive, Labor and Social Studies (Universidad National de la plata, la plata).
[3] Amenya, S., Onsongo, C., & Guyo, H. (2013). An Analysis of the Challenges Facing Youth Enterprise Development Fund: A Case Study of Nyaribari Chache Constituency, Paper presented at the African Institute of Business and Management Conference, University of Nairobi, Kenya
[4] Carswell, P., & Rollad, D. (2014). The role of religion in entrepreneurships participation and perception. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, vol 1. No.3/4/ pp.280-286.
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[11] Isiolo County Development Plan (2018-2022). Nairobi: Government Printers.
[12] Isiolo County Youth, Women, and Persons with Disabilities Enterprise Development Fund Act (2019). Nairobi: Government Printers.
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[15] Kinyua, B. (2015). Access to Credit Facilities as A Major Factor Hindering Access to Public Procurement Contracts by Youth Entrepreneurs in Government Ministries in OLKalou Sub-County, Kenya, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 7064, 2319.
[16] Kiraka, R., & Kobia, M. (2013). Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise growth and innovation. ICBE-RF Research Report No. 47/13. Nairobi, Kenya
[17] Kisunza, R., & Theuri, F. (2014). Determinants of Effective Utilization of Youth Enterprise Development Fund. A case of Kisauni Constituency, Mombasa County in Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1(13), 93-110.
[18] Kiyana, M. (2018) Determinants of the Performance of YEDF Projects in Isiolo Central Sub-County (Unpublished Master’s Thesis), Nairobi: University of Nairobi.
[19] KNBS. (2015). Empowering the Community for a Healthy and Gender Sensitive Approach to Social Participation. Vihiga County: Western Kenya.
[20] Maisiba, F., & Gongera, E. (2013). The Role of Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF) in Job Creation: A Case of Dagoreti Constituency, Nairobi County, Kenya, Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, Vol.4, No.12
[21] Mano, Y., Al Hassan I., Yutaka Y., & Sonobe, T. (2012). How Can Micro and Small Enterprises in Sub-Saharan Africa Become More Productive? The Impacts of Experimental Basic Managerial Training, World Development, Vol.4 (3)
[22] MIDP (2018). Policy Challenges for Economic Empowerment of the Marginalized Groups in Isiolo County, Kenya, Nairobi, Government Printers.
[23] Odhiambo, A., & Rafey, A. (2013). Challenges Facing Youth Entrepreneurs in Slums in Kenya: A case of Kisumu Ndogo Slums in Eldoret Municipality Kenya, European Open Business & Management Journal, 1 (1), 1-10.
[24] Pathak, P. (2011). Accelerating Financial Capability among Youth. Nudging New Thinking. Washington DC: New America Foundation.
[25] Quaye, D. (2011). The effect of micro Finance Institutions on the Growth of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMES): A Case Study of Selected SMEs in Kumasi Metropolis (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. 89
[26] Siegel, D., Leyden D., & Link, A. (2013). A theoretical analysis of the role of social networks in entrepreneurship. Department of Economics the University of North Carolina Working Paper Series 13-22.
[27] Storm, L. (2010). Emerging Guidelines for linking Youth to Financial services. Enterprise Development and Microfinance vol.21 No. 4, December 2010
[28] UIS. (2016). Youth entrepreneurship: Closing the gap. Unemployment and Underemployment of Urban Youth in Kenya, Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 3 (5), 730-736.
[29] United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). (2016). UNESCO SHS Strategy on African Youth: Towards and Enabling Policy Environment for Youth Development and Civic Engagement in Africa (2015-2018). Executive Board Report 184th session in Paris.
[30] Wanja, N. (2014). Influence of Youth Enterprise Development Fund on Youth Empowerment in Ruiru Constituency, Kiambu County, Kenya. Unpublished Thesis: Nairobi, University of Nairobi.
[31] Wanjala, J. (2014). Access and utilization of the Youth Enterprise Development Fund in Tongare constituency, Bungoma county, Kenya (Unpublished master thesis) Eldoret: Moi University.

Joram Kiarie Njuguna, Prof. Nelson Jagero (PhD) “Social Institutions’ Influence on Effective Utilization of Youth Enterprise Development Fund in Isiolo County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.353-358 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/353-358.pdf

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The Reward System of Selected BPO Companies Related to Their Experiences in Achieving Company Objectives

Jamaica Zeah Poblete, Marc Steven Rey, Ervyn James C. Sampang, Guenhana Sarque, Sheryl Morales – August 2022- Page No.: 359-362

During this time of the pandemic, the business process outsourcing (BPO) Industry became more evident and the most applied job for the Filipino people, most especially those youths who stopped studying due to the struggles during Covid-19. But because of different problems brought by the pandemic, the stress of the BPO employees weighs more than before, which could affect their work performance toward achieving company objectives.
This study aims to know how the reward system in BPO companies can affect both call center agents and the company’s Human Resource Manager, based on their experiences. Guide questionnaires were used and one-on-one interviews were conducted to gather necessary information and their experiences about the said topic.
From the analysis, it is found that implementing a rewards system in a BPO company can boost employees’ morale, reduce attrition rate, and has negative and positive effects on the employees.
The study will be significant, primarily for both call center agents and the human resource managers of every BPO company, because this will help them to know different perspectives of both stated positions, about how reward systems and/or incentives affect their performance toward achieving company objectives, most specially this time of the pandemic.

Page(s): 359-362                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 September 2022

 Jamaica Zeah Poblete
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

  Marc Steven Rey
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Ervyn James C. Sampang
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Guenhana Sarque
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Major in Human Resource Management, Polytechnic
University of the Philippines – Quezon City Branch, Philippines

 Sheryl Morales
Research Management Office, Polytechnic University of the Philippines – Quezon City, Philippines (Thesis adviser)

[1] Alida, (2017). Reinforcement Theory in the Workplace: Definition & Examples. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/reinforcement-theory-in-the-workplace-definition-examples-quiz.htmlASEAN Briefing, Business Process Outsourcing in The Philippines.
[2] Wellness, B. (2019, April 16). Intrinsic vs. extrinsic rewards to improve employee engagement. Retrieved from https://www.bravowell.com/resources/intrinsic-vs.-extrinsic-rewards-to-improve-employee-engagement
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[21] The Economic Times. (2021). Definition of ‘Extrinsic Rewards’. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/extrinsic-rewards

Jamaica Zeah Poblete, Marc Steven Rey, Ervyn James C. Sampang, Guenhana Sarque, Sheryl Morales “The Reward System of Selected BPO Companies Related to Their Experiences in Achieving Company Objectives” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.359-362 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/359-362.pdf

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Difference In Teacher Supervision by Principal Before and After Principal Delocalization in Public Secondary Schools in Counties in Eastern Region, Kenya

Lydia Njeri Kamau, Prof. Nelson Jagero, PhD – August 2022- Page No.: 363-368

The objective of the study was to establish whether there is a difference in teacher supervision by principals before and after delocalization in public secondary schools in Eastern region Kenya. The research adopted causal comparative and descriptive survey design. Chi-square was used to test the statistical hypothesis at significance level of α = 0.05. The target population was 4,062 subjects comprising of 4,055 public secondary school teachers employed by Teacher Service Commission (TSC) one TSC RQASO and six CQASO. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to obtain the respondents of the sample resulting to a total of 162 respondents comprising of 158 teachers, one Teacher Service Commission Regional Quality Assurance and Standards Officer (TSC RQASO) and 3 County Quality Assurance and Standards Officer CQASO. A Questionnaire and interview schedule was employed for data collection. Analysis of quantitative data collected was aided by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme Version 26.0. The findings of the study established that there was a statistically significant difference between principals’ teacher supervision before and after delocalization in public secondary schools in counties in eastern region, Kenya. The study recommended that delocalization of principals should continue because it has a positive influence on principals’ teacher supervision.

Page(s): 363-368                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 September 2022

 Lydia Njeri Kamau
Department of Education, Chuka University. Kenya

 Prof. Nelson Jagero, PhD
Department of Education, Chuka University. Kenya

[1] Al Hafiz, M., Yusof, M., Ghazali, M., & Sawari, S. (2016). Descriptive Qualitative Teaching Method of Memorization in The Institution of Tahfiz Al-Quran Wal Qiraat Pulai Condong and the Students’ Level of Academic Excellence. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(1 S1), 79
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Lydia Njeri Kamau, Prof. Nelson Jagero, PhD “Difference In Teacher Supervision by Principal Before and After Principal Delocalization in Public Secondary Schools in Counties in Eastern Region, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.363-368 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/363-368.pdf

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Quota System and Catchment Area Policies as Determinants of Students’ Admission Processes in Public Universities in North Central Nigeria

Cletus I. Tyokyaa Phd and Mahmud Pinga Phd – August 2022- Page No.: 369-374

The study investigated the influence of quota system and catchment area policy on students’ admission processes in public universities in North Central Nigeria. Two research questions guided the study and two hypotheses were tested. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised 17,240 respondents from thirteen public universities. A total of 862 respondents from six public universities were sampled using a multi-stage sampling procedure (purposive and proportionate stratified random sampling techniques). A 4-point structured 10-item rating scale questionnaire titled Quota System and Catchment Area Policy and Admission Questionnaire (QSCAPAQ) was developed by the researchers and used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions, while Regression Analysis was used to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that quota system and catchment area policies have significant influence on students’ admission processes in public universities in North Central Nigeria. The study concluded that these policies provide citizens and groups with a sense of equal representation and participation. However, in achieving excellence, the universities should encourage universality that will foster respect and integrity; promote equity and justice; as well as provide fertile ground for the federal character principle and other national policies. It was recommended among other things that, to enhance access to university education, the quota system and catchment area policies or locality discrimination should be reviewed to liberalize the admission process and encourage hard work among students.

Page(s): 369-374                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 September 2022

 Cletus I. Tyokyaa Phd
Department of Educational Foundations and General Studies,
University of Agriculture, Makurdi – Nigeria

 Mahmud Pinga Phd
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education,
Benue State University, Makurdi – Nigeria

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Cletus I. Tyokyaa Phd and Mahmud Pinga Phd “Quota System and Catchment Area Policies as Determinants of Students’ Admission Processes in Public Universities in North Central Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.369-374 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/369-374.pdf

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Website-Based Infographic Dental Health Educational Media to Improve Oral and Dental Health Behavior Elementary School Students

Ratna Dwi Handayani, Masrifan Djamil, Bedjo Santoso, Diyah Fatmasari, Quroti Aýun – August 2022- Page No.: 375-379

Dental and oral health problems in elementary school students belong to the high category. Website-based infographic media is an educational media packaged on a website that contains information about maintaining oral and dental health that aimed to make it easier for children to receive and understand information clearly and can be solved independently so that it can change behavior. The purpose of this study was to produce a website-based infographic dental and oral health education media that is feasible and effective against changes in brushing behavior in elementary school students. This study used R&D methods and product/model trials (study true experimental control group pretest and posttest design). The subjects of this study were elementary school students aged 10-11 years divided into 2 groups, namely website-based infographics as an intervention group and animated videos as a control group, and the duration of treatment for 21 days. The data were tested using the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. The results of the website-based infographic expert validation research averaged 87.17 (very feasible) as a medium for promoting dental health in elementary school students were shown with a p-value of 0.000. This medium was effective in increasing knowledge p=0.000, attitude p=0.000, action p=0.000, and debris index score p=0.000 compared to the control group. This study concluded that the application of a website-based infographic conducted for 21 days was effective in improving dental and oral health behaviors in elementary school students compared to the control group.

Page(s): 375-379                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 September 2022

 Ratna Dwi Handayani
Postgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapists, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Masrifan Djamil
Postgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapists, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Bedjo Santoso
Postgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapists, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Diyah Fatmasari
Postgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapists, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Quroti Aýun
Department of Dental Health, Yogyakarta Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

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Ratna Dwi Handayani, Masrifan Djamil, Bedjo Santoso, Diyah Fatmasari, Quroti Aýun “Website-Based Infographic Dental Health Educational Media to Improve Oral and Dental Health Behavior Elementary School Students ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.375-379 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/375-379.pdf

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Motives, Problems, and Reforms in Transnational Higher Education: A Case Study of SUCs in The Philippines

Medardo B. Bombita – August 2022- Page No.: 380-391

This study examines the transnational higher education in the Philippines using sequential exploratory mixed design based on document analysis, and tools to conduct cross-sectional survey. The survey was developed and standardized interview was adopted where results were transcribed and coded for emerging themes. Four research questions guided this study: 1) What are the motives of international mobility of students? 2) What are the problems met by Filipino international students; 3) What actions taken by SUCs to address concerns of mobile students; and 4) What recommendations can be offered to better enhance the transnational higher education in the Philippines.
The results exhibited challenges still persist that hinder transnational higher education programs, notwithstanding the long-term consequences of COVID-19. Most SUCs included internationalization in institution’s policies and plans to be compliant with the SUC levelling, quality assurance assessments and responding to the ASEAN regional integration. Adoption of open and distance learning (ODL) as part, or an alternative modality of internationalization of higher education under RA 11448 is timely and pragmatic.

Page(s): 380-391                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 September 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6815

 Medardo B. Bombita
DPA, PgD (ASEAN), Post Doc (TQM) University of Rizal System, Philippines

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Medardo B. Bombita “Motives, Problems, and Reforms in Transnational Higher Education: A Case Study of Sucs in The Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.380-391 August 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.6815

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Work-Life Balance of Collegiate Professors: A Mixed Methods Study

Divina Grace Salucop Honorario, Gloria Pacifico.Gempes – August 2022- Page No.: 392-399

The primary purpose of this convergent mixed-methods study was to find out the work-life balance of collegiate professors in Region XI through survey, interview and focus group discussion. For the quantitative phase, a total of 405 respondents participated in the survey and a total of 17 informants were interviewed for the qualitative phase within the same time frame. The 17 informants were not part of the 405 respondents in conformity with the research approach for convergent mixed methods study. In analyzing the data, descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used for the quantitative aspect and thematic analysis for the qualitative aspect. Empirical findings showed that the level of work-life balance of collegiate professors was high. The non-significant difference in the work-life balance of collegiate professors was apparent when analyzed by age, gender, and marital status. The qualitative analysis made use of the indicators of the quantitative survey as a priori themes: family-work conflict, work-family conflict, family satisfaction, and work satisfaction. The results obtained from the in-depth interview and focus group discussion in the qualitative aspect of the study confirmed the findings in the quantitative phase, hence the nature of integration is merging – confirmation showing that the collegiate professors involved in the study have favorable work-life balance.

Page(s): 392-399                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 September 2022

 Divina Grace Salucop Honorario1
Professional Schools, Researcher, University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines

  Gloria Pacifico.Gempes
Professional Schools, Faculty, University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines

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Divina Grace Salucop Honorario, Gloria Pacifico.Gempes “Work-Life Balance of Collegiate Professors: A Mixed Methods Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-8, pp.392-399 August 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-8/392-399.pdf

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Language Anxiety Variables and Their Negative Effects on SLA: A Psychosocial Reality in Bangladesh

Souvik Barua – August 2022- Page No.: 400-408

The study aimed to explore the psychological and socio-cultural factors that contribute to sit