Information Technology and Public Sector Fraud in Nigeria

Olajire Aremu Odunlade, Folajimi Festus Adegbie, Oluwatoyosi Tolulope Olurin – October 2022- Page No.: 01-04

Information technology has transformed significantly financial transactions across the globe. This coupled with globalization has made it easy to transfer money to any account in different parts of the world. The study focused on Information Technology and Fraud in the public sector in Nigeria. The study adopted survey design research method for the purpose of achieving its objective. A sample size of 420 respondents was purposively selected from both the private and public sectors in Nigeria. The study made use of primary data collected through the use of questionnaire. A Cronbach alpha of 0.834 was obtained for the validity and reliability of the questionnaire used to collect the primary data. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods.
The results obtained showed that Information technology had a significant effect on Fraud in the public sector in Nigeria. PUBFRAUD (F1,304) = 105.720. The P-value associated with the F-value as shown in the significant column is 0.000, this is less than 0.05 indicating that there was a significant relationship between the Information technology and Public Sector Fraud in Nigeria. Adj R2 = 0.256.The Coefficient of the independent variable β = 0.574, shows that information technology had a positive and significant effect on Public Sector Fraud. PUBFRAUD (t(10.282) = 000, p<0.05). The study, therefore concluded that, there exists a significant relationship between fraud in the public sector in Nigeria and information technology

Page(s): 01-04                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2022

 Olajire Aremu Odunlade
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Folajimi Festus Adegbie
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Oluwatoyosi Tolulope Olurin
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

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Olajire Aremu Odunlade, Folajimi Festus Adegbie, Oluwatoyosi Tolulope Olurin “Information Technology and Public Sector Fraud in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.01-04 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/01-04.pdf

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Online Learning Self-Efficacy of Undergraduates: Evidence from A University in Sri Lanka

WDH De Mel, WWDP Fernando, IKJP Kumara – October 2022- Page No.: 05-11

Online learning started to gain popularity across the world along with the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of online learning self-efficacy of undergraduates on self-efficacy to complete a module online. The study predominantly focusses on the Online Learning Self Efficacy Scale (OLSS). The study was carried out based on a Sri Lankan University and data were collected from undergraduates via structured questionnaire. The study employs quantitative research methodology. The sample for the study was selected based on non-probability sampling technique using convenient sampling method. Accordingly, the final sample size consisted of 203 respondents after removing the missing data and outliers. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were carried out validate the OLSS scale in the Sri Lankan context. Moreover, path analysis was undertaken in order to test the hypotheses of the study. Accordingly, results revealed that technology use self-efficacy has an insignificant relationship with self-efficacy to complete a module online. The other three independent variables in terms of, online learning task self-efficacy, instructor and peer interaction and communication self-efficacy and thirdly self-regulation and motivation efficacy proven to have a significant impact on the dependent variable of the study.

Page(s): 05-11                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61001

 WDH De Mel
Department of Management and Finance, Faculty of Management, Social Sciences and Humanities, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka

 WWDP Fernando
Department of Management and Finance, Faculty of Management, Social Sciences and Humanities, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka

 IKJP Kumara
Department of Languages, Faculty of Management, Social Sciences and Humanities, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka

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WDH De Mel, WWDP Fernando, IKJP Kumara, “Online Learning Self-Efficacy of Undergraduates: Evidence from A University in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.05-11 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61001
Online Learning Self-Efficacy of Undergraduates: Evidence from A University in Sri Lanka

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The Phenomenon of Strong Rootted Negative Sentiments Against Chinese Ethnics in Indonesia

Yuswari O. Djemat, Prasetia Anugrah Pratama – October 2022- Page No.: 12-20

Despite the fact that ethnic Chinese have lived in Indonesia for a very long period, particularly from the time of Dutch colonialism there, they have continued to experience discrimination and bad attitudes in their daily lives. This study aims to describe the phenomenon of prejudice against people of Chinese ancestry in Indonesia, explain the traits of Indonesians that contribute to prejudice against people of Chinese ancestry, and identify the social and political effects of the strong prejudice against people of Chinese ancestry that exists in Indonesia. The findings of this study, which used a constructivist methodology from international relations and qualitative research techniques, suggest that the failure of Indonesians to forge a strong collective identity is what leads to the escalation of prejudice against ethnic Chinese in that country. The outcome also demonstrates that the gradual treatment of Chinese ethnic minorities as equals after Indonesian independence highlights the urgent necessity for the government to act as an agent capable of altering social structures and fostering a sense of unity

Page(s): 12-20                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61002

 Yuswari O. Djemat International Relations Department, Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Cimahi, Indonesia.

 Prasetia Anugrah Pratama
Public Graduate School of Diplomacy, Universitas Paramadina, South Jakarta, Indonesia.

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Yuswari O. Djemat, Prasetia Anugrah Pratama “The Phenomenon of Strong Rootted Negative Sentiments Against Chinese Ethnics in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.12-20 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61002

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Christian Response to Terrorism in Kenya: A Case of The Gospel of Luke 6:27-31

Rev. Dr. Manya Stephen – October 2022- Page No.: 21-25

Terrorism is an Anxiety inspiring Method of repeated violent action, employed by (Semi-) clandestine individual, group, or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby – in contrast to assassination – the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. This paper explores if non-resistance, Christian pacifism or non-violence on the part of the victim should be or is a viable option in the face of terror. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen at random and include Christians who are ostensibly guided by the teachings found in the biblical Sermon on the Plain. In this teaching found in the Gospel of Luke (6:27-31), as part of his command to “love your enemies”’ Jesus Says:… but I say to unto you which hear, love your enemies, do good to them who hate you, Bless them that curse you, and pray for them who despitefully use you. And unto him that smitteth thee on one cheek offer also the other…The Gospel of Mathew 5: 39 is more descriptive of the expected Christian response…but I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek turn to them the other check also… To respond to the challenges highlighted by the listed options, the paper has largely applied the use of desk research methodologies comprising of the examination of available literature on terrorism as well as existing, potential Christian responses to help situate this current study within the context of existing evidence. It is hoped that the discussions generated by this paper will benefit practitioners in the areas of governance, public policy formulators and comparative religion

Page(s): 21-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2022

 Rev. Dr. Manya Stephen
Alupe University, Busia, Kenya

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Rev. Dr. Manya Stephen “Christian Response to Terrorism in Kenya: A Case of The Gospel of Luke 6:27-31” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.21-25 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/21-25.pdf

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An Analysis of Early Childhood Education (ECE) Lecturers’ Competencies and Skills for Inclusion in 2 Selected Teachers’ Colleges of Zimbabwe; A Contextual Approach

Dr Sikhangezile Nkomo – October 2022- Page No.: 26-33

The concept ‘Education for All ‘calls for all children to be afforded the chance to go to school, with an emphasis on ECD as their main driver of diverse elementary and formative learning experiences in the classroom. This inclusion movement concept was passed at the Jomtien Conference in 1990 and reaffirmed by the Salamanca statement in 1994.The Salamanca statement. Many governments, including Zimbabwe have developed interest in embracing inclusive education. There has not been emboldened research to establish the extent to which transformation in lecturer’s competencies and skills been matched by a paradigm shift in their preparation of ECD teachers for diverse ECD settings. This qualitative case-study therefore was conducted in order to establish the knowledge, skills and competencies that ECD lecturers possess in the context of inclusivity in education. The study was informed by both the transformative paradigm and Mezirow’s transformative learning theory. Ten (n=10) lecturers who train pre-service ECD teachers were purposively sampled from two teacher education colleges to participate in this study. Data was collected through interviews and analysis of documents and narratively presented to address the main research questions that were used for the study. Major findings of the study were that ECD lecturers were not competent enough to adequately prepare their products for inclusive teaching and were experiencing challenges during the training process. Thus, both andragogic and pedagogic issues of inclusivity and ICT skills were a major cause for concern. The study findings showed that the lecturers have a limited understanding of the concept of inclusion. Furthermore the findings indicated that most lecturers lack competencies, skills and confidence in imparting relevant knowledge. Research findings also highlighted that there are still challenges in the execution of the pre-service ECD teacher training hence the trainee teachers are not given quality time, which compromises the quality. Finally the study highlighted a need for a holistic approach encompassing all the relevant stakeholders. Hence the study recommended that inclusion should form the core of the teacher education curriculum with specialist professionals roped in to assist teach content/bodies of knowledge and inform practice on inclusive education. Serving ECD lecturers should be upgraded and equipped with inclusive teaching strategies through workshops and in-service training. Inclusive education practices should be practiced in colleges for transformation of both lecturers

Page(s): 26-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61003

 Dr Sikhangezile Nkomo
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

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Dr Sikhangezile Nkomo “An Analysis of Early Childhood Education (ECE) Lecturers’ Competencies and Skills for Inclusion in 2 Selected Teachers’ Colleges of Zimbabwe; A Contextual Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.26-33 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61003

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Compatibility of Problem Solving Theory and Activity Theory

Evaristo Kangwa – October 2022- Page No.: 34-41

The paper reviews problem solving theory and activity theory in order to determine whether or not the two theories are compatibility. Both problem solving and activity theory have been extensively studies since their inception over 8 decades ago. While problem solving has been studied as a cognitive domain as well as a pedagogical domain, activity theory has been extensively studied as a theoretical framework to understand the relationship between subject and object in relation with other players within the system. Vygotsky observed that through mediating artifacts, humans have moved from lower to higher cognitive function. In this sense, activity theory may be used as a framework for studying the cognitive development of the subject. Having compared the two theories, a number of relations are identified that seem to exist on the conceptual level between the two theories. Among the relations identified include the following: Both problem-solving theory and activity theory seem to agree with the notion of solver or subject first identifying the existence of a problem or a need that requires changing or transforming; Both theories seem to suggest that tools or instruments, either physical or psychological, shape the activity and that the tools are used to accomplish the activity. It is therefore, important for future research to focus on the empirical evidence to confirm the compatibility of problem solving theory and activity theory.

Page(s): 34-41                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2022

 Evaristo Kangwa
Mukuba University, P.O Box 20382, Kitwe, Zambia

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Evaristo Kangwa “Compatibility of Problem Solving Theory and Activity Theory” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.34-41 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/34-41.pdf

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Effect of Psychological Counselling on Self-Acceptance Among Persons Living with HIV and AIDS in Mathare Constituency, Nairobi County

Mary Wambui Mwaura, Dr. Henry Tucholski, Dr. Cosmas Kagwe, Dr. Rose Gichuki – October 2022- Page No.: 42-49

The study sought to establish the effect of psychological counselling on self-acceptance among persons living with HIV & AIDs in Mathare constituency, Nairobi County. A descriptive research design was used in this study. Approximately, 16,600 people living with HIV & AIDS were targeted in Mathare Constituency, Nairobi County. This study sampled 278 PLWH. The sample size was determined using simple random sampling and stratified sampling techniques. A response rate of 91.4% was recorded in the study. Lux and Petosa’s attitude scale, Genberg’s discrimination scale, and Dunn’s self-acceptance scale were the instruments of measure used to collect data. SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data. It was found that PLWH in the Mathare constituency had the same right to quality care as any other patient 24.9% (n=63). Additionally, 20.0% or 51 respondents reported that advice given during counselling helped them accept themselves. Also, all three demographic factors (age, gender, and education level) are significant predictors of self-acceptance among people living with HIV/AIDS. Persons living with HIV & AIDS must find strategies to maintain a positive attitude in order to live a healthy life by embracing their current circumstance and learning to live with it. To improve self-acceptance, the approach and drivers for positivity should be developed so that all people living with HIV & AIDS embrace a positive attitude toward their circumstance. The study finds that counsellors who work with people living with HIV & AIDS in Nairobi County’s Mathare constituency should engage in psychological counselling intervention methods.

Page(s): 42-49                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2022

 Mary Wambui Mwaura
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa,Kenya

  Dr. Henry Tucholski
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa,Kenya

  Dr. Cosmas Kagwe
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa,Kenya

 Dr. Rose Gichuki
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa,Kenya

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Mary Wambui Mwaura, Dr. Henry Tucholski, Dr. Cosmas Kagwe, Dr. Rose Gichuki “Effect of Psychological Counselling on Self-Acceptance Among Persons Living with HIV and AIDS in Mathare Constituency, Nairobi County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.42-49 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/42-49.pdf

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Mobile Banking Services and Performance of Informal Businesses in Nairobi, Kenya

Rahab Wanjiru Waihenya & Prof. Peter Kithae – October 2022- Page No.: 50-58

The paper purposed to examine the effect of mobile banking savings mobilization and credit accessibility on performance of informal businesses in Nairobi. The study was anchored on two major theories; namely; financial intermediation theory and modern economic theory which guided research objectives examined in the study. Descriptive research design was used. The population of interest consisted of 11,000 participants of informal businesses in Nairobi County. The sample size for the study was 386 participants drawn from the business categories. The method of data collection instruments involved the use of primary and secondary data. The primary data was obtained from the questionnaire and the secondary data was obtained from desk review. The researcher obtained authorization letter from the University to carry out the data collection. Data was collected using questionnaire. The study employed cross – sectional descriptive design analysis and inferential statistics. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 24) was used for data analysis. Multiple regression model was used to establish the relative significance of each of the variables on the effect of savings mobilization, and credit accessibility on performance of informal businesses in Kenya. The study found out that mobile banking savings mobilization enhanced performance of their businesses to a very great extent. Credit accessibility was also found to affect informal businesses performance to a very great extent. The study concluded that saving mobilization, credit accessibility, have a positive and significant effect on performance of informal businesses in Kenya. The study recommended enhanced security and safety of data and banking transactions to safeguard the informal business owners from cybercrimes which had become rampant worldwide. Financial Institutions should ensure first grade mobile banking infrastructure to support faster transactions and enhanced security.

Page(s): 50-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2022

 Rahab Wanjiru Waihenya
Post Graduate Student, Management University of Africa, Kenya

 Prof. Peter Kithae
Associate Professor, Management University of Africa, Kenya

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Rahab Wanjiru Waihenya & Prof. Peter Kithae “Mobile Banking Services and Performance of Informal Businesses in Nairobi, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.50-58 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/50-58.pdf

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Filter Bubble and Fake News: Facebook and Journalist Ethics

Fatima Saeed – October 2022- Page No.: 59-65

In 2016, the result of the American presidential election and Referendum in the United Kingdom shocked journalists all around the world. Social networking sites are now blamed for the construction of the filter bubble. The filter bubble is considered an intellectual state of isolation in which algorithms are making a circumstance where consumers progressively are getting data that reinforce their prior beliefs and less exposure to contradictory viewpoints. Filter bubbles play a key role in the handling, distribution, and dissemination of fake news stories. The study’s objective is to find out how a filter bubble increases susceptibility to believing and sharing fake news and whether applying the filter bubble violates journalistic ethics. Peircean pragmatic perspective is used as a methodological approach to concentrate on concepts such as representation, reality, and fixation of belief (priori method) because this method is relatively close to what happens with the filter bubble on social networking sites. The study results reflect the thing that the platforms of Social media i.e. Facebook, and Google search engines are blamed for the false news controversy, but still, the users’ belief activity and their online presence perform a critical role in driving facebook’s algorithms in this problem.

Page(s): 59-65                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61004

 Fatima Saeed
Riphah International University, Department of Media Sciences, Pakistan

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Fatima Saeed “Filter Bubble and Fake News: Facebook and Journalist Ethics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.59-65 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61004

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Examining the Level of Participation and Attitude of University Students Towards Environmental Sanitation in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Main Campus Awka (Unizik), Anambra State, Nigeria.

Peters Rebecca Nzubechukwu, Nzube. A. Chukwuma – October 2022- Page No.: 66-73

This study sort to examine the level of participation and the attitudes especially amongst university student towards environmental sanitation. The study aims to examine the level of participation and attitude of students toward environmental sanitation in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, with 3 distinct objectives; a)to examine the awareness level of student towards Environmental Sanitation across age in Unizik, b)to identify the level of participation of student towards environmental sanitation practice across gender in Unizik c)to evaluate the attitude of Unizik students towards environmental sanitation practices as regards their permanent residence.Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The descriptive research design was used for the study, using a random sampling technique, 396 students were sampled for the study. The study adopted the broad theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behaviour. The data was collected using the administered questionnaires via the Likert scale instrumentation and analyzed using the Chi-square statistical technique to test the hypothesis at a significant level of 0.05. Generally, the findings of this study indicated that the awareness level of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Student varies with ages, as higher aged (23-26) had the highest level of awareness, participation level varied across gender, with females having a higher level of participation and the attitude posed by students towards Environmental sanitation is directly influenced by the residential/home address of the student to either Urban area or rural areas. The study recommends that Students should be encouraged to participate in environmental sanitation, and be taught through seminars, workshops and media, to foster positive changes in the attitudes and increase the level of participation and awareness of environmental sanitation amongst student.

Page(s): 66-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2022

 Peters Rebecca Nzubechukwu
Department Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

 Nzube. A. Chukwuma
Department Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

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Peters Rebecca Nzubechukwu, Nzube. A. Chukwuma “Examining the Level of Participation and Attitude of University Students Towards Environmental Sanitation in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Main Campus Awka (Unizik), Anambra State, Nigeria.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.66-73 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/66-73.pdf

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The Convergence of Values: Exploring the Values System among the Taal Families of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija Philippines

Jose Epimaco R. Arcega – October 2022- Page No.: 74-78

This study focused on exploring the values system among the taal families of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija Philippines. Taal families refer to the families who have been considered “natives” in the community. The study was under the qualitative case study approach and used a semi-structured in-depth interview to gather. The study used purposive sampling and gathered data from the nine (9) heads of the family of the selected taal families based on the criteria identified in this study. Three themes related to the convergence of values emerged. These include the evolution of the values system, sharing of cultures together with the community, and creating a lasting family legacy: The persistence of traditional values system in this study. This implies that instead of creating and adopting a new values system that will fit our environment today, respondents simply adopted the way of practicing traditional values in the kind of society we have today by practicing it in a new way. Major findings reveal that the values system did not change, it just evolved only to respond to the modernity of our society today so that their children will be able to adopt it easily in which the traditional way of practicing family values just converged to the kind of society we have today.

Page(s): 74-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61005

 Jose Epimaco R. Arcega
Central Luzon State University, Philippines

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[25] Taylor, J. (2012, May 07). Personal Growth: Your Values, Your Life. Retrieved from: https://www..psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/the-power-prime/201205/personal-growth-your-values-your-life
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Jose Epimaco R. Arcega “The Convergence of Values: Exploring the Values System among the Taal Families of San Jose City, Nueva Ecija Philippines” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.74-78 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61005

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A Smart City- Tensions Between Space of Flows and Space of Places

Pethigamage Perera – October 2022- Page No.: 79-86

Contemporary urbanized populations are linked in many ways, both within their communities and across national and international borders. This research examines concepts associated with the notion of the informational city and is concerned with the tensions between knowledge flows in traditional placed-based cities and globalised flows of information.
The organisations in the city use of a variety of mechanisms for production, consumption. communicating with other organisations and investing money across the globe. Some theorists argue that the city is a place with clear boundary with specific elements for information and knowledge exchange, such as universities, libraries, parks, cafés, etc, others argue that a contemporary city is made up of networks and their flows and scattered beyond its physical boundary. Some see the need for specific places where information is exchanged informally and others focus on the impact of globalization and the ability to attract expertise to local hubs and make it available in other locations.
These two concepts are investigated by taking the essential characteristics of a range of theorists, Castells and Space of flows, Sassen and the Globalised City, Ergazakis and Knowledge Based urban design (KBUD) and Fisher and Information Grounds – to understand what really the organizations in the context of the informational cities. I hope to argue that an examination of a city and its development must facilitates the co-existence of two contradictory concepts, the space of flows (Networks) and the space of places (information grounds)

Page(s): 79-86                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61006

 Pethigamage Perera
Department Information and Communication Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia

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Pethigamage Perera “A Smart City- Tensions Between Space of Flows and Space of Places” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.79-86 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61006

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The Luo-Nandi Ethnic Conflicts Peacebuilding: A Study of Circumstantial Rationale to Its Persistent Nature and Implications for Building Peace in Kenya

Fredrick O. Amolo, Philomena N. Mwaura, Michael T. Katola – October 2022- Page No.: 87-94

In Kenya, The Luo and Nandi ethnic communities have had increased ethnic conflicts for over a decade. Ethnic tensions and conflicts have prevailed in the bordering section of the Muhoroni and Tinderet sub-counties. These ethnic conflicts have negatively affected the socio-cultural and political-economic well-being of the communities in conflict. The causes of such conflicts are varied in societies. The study investigated the causes of ethnic conflict between the Luo and the Nandi communities. The study was qualitative research designed to explore the reasons behind the persistent nature of the Luo and Nandi ethnic conflicts. The data was collected from community elders, community members, civil society, and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The study employed several instruments, including surveys, an oral interview guide and a focused group discussions guide. The data from the questionnaires were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The study finds that there are social, religio-cultural, political, and economic determinants in hostile Luo-Nandi relations. The study recommends that (1) The amity actors need to involve a multi-faceted method in the ethnic conflict to deal with ethnic conflict causative dimensions; (2) Peacebuilding efforts must take societal issues seriously to prevent ethnic conflicts between Luo and Nandi communities; (3) peace actors must work on social rebuilding and conduct transformation; and (4) the stakeholders in building peace must address economic matters along the border of the Luo and Nandi people.

Page(s): 87-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 October 2022

 Fredrick O. Amolo
Africa Nazarene University, Kenya

 Philomena N. Mwaura
Africa Nazarene University, Kenya

 Michael T. Katola
Africa Nazarene University, Kenya

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Fredrick O. Amolo, Philomena N. Mwaura, Michael T. Katola “The Luo-Nandi Ethnic Conflicts Peacebuilding: A Study of Circumstantial Rationale to Its Persistent Nature and Implications for Building Peace in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.87-94 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/87-94.pdf

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More Discussion on Regulations, Rules and Green Building of Vietnam Universities to Protect Students-Consumers Interest– A Case of Neu Hanoi

Nguyen Trong Diep, LLD, Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy, MBA, Nguyen Dinh Trung, PhD, Pham Thi Hong Nhung, Master, Ly Thi Hue, PhD – October 2022- Page No.: 95-98

This paper purpose aims to present a case of Neu University Hanoi and problems to improve lecture hall service an ddiscuss Relevant regulations on building universities in the country. By using qualitative and analytical methods, descriptive method for primary model, synthesis and discussion methods, This study find out that: NEU University do not pay attention much on task of training soft skills for lecture hall service staff. Also monitoring task of the university for lecture hall service not focused. Not checking working time of lecture hall service staff. Therefore in coming time, NEU University need to Building a culture of interaction between lecture staff, students and teachers is really necessary. Attention should be paid to building a culture of communication and behavior between classroom staff, students and teachers. Expressed through words of speech, communication, caring and sharing, responsibility for work.

Page(s): 95-98                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 October 2022

 Nguyen Trong Diep, LLD
School of Law, Vietnam National University Hanoi, Vietnam

  Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy, MBA
Banking University HCM city Vietnam – GSIM, International University of Japan, Niigata, Japan

 Nguyen Dinh Trung, PhD
National Economics University Hanoi Vietnam, Vietnam

  Pham Thi Hong Nhung
Ho Chi Minh College of Economics Vietnam, Vietnam

  Master, Ly Thi Hue, PhD
National Academy of Public Administration, Vietnam

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Nguyen Trong Diep, LLD, Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy, MBA, Nguyen Dinh Trung, PhD, Pham Thi Hong Nhung, Master, Ly Thi Hue, PhD “More Discussion on Regulations, Rules and Green Building of Vietnam Universities to Protect Students-Consumers Interest– A Case of Neu Hanoi” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.95-98 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/95-98.pdf

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Learner-Centred Approach: Its influence on Quality of Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Hanang District

Daudi Qambaday, and Prospery M. Mwila – October 2022- Page No.: 99-115

Learner Centred Pedagogical Approaches have become a global practice in the teaching and learning process. The approaches have been credited with the potential to impart learners with different skills and prepare them to work effectively in this ever-changing world. This study investigated the role of learner centred pedagogical approaches on quality learning in public secondary schools in Hanang District. The Social Constructivism Theory by Vygotsky (1968) provided a theoretical lens to this study. The Mixed research approach and a Concurrent embedded research design were used in this study. Data was obtained from a sample of 174 participants, including students, teachers, Heads of schools, Ward Education officers, and District Education officer. Questionnaires and interview guide were used to collect primary data. Quantitative data were analysed through descriptive statistic with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21 while Qualitative data were analysed thematically. The study revealed that learner centred approach contributes to quality learning through student’s involvement in complex learning situations in the classroom and ensuring active learning in the classroom. The study also reported that learner centred approach attracts learner’s interest and thus enhances good academic achievement. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that though learner centred approach had contributed in some way to improving quality of learning it had failed to influence –effectively, the quality of learning because of some challenges. Among challenges identified includes; lack of enough knowledge on implementation of learner centred, teacher’s resistance to change, overcrowded classroom, teacher’s low morale, poor teaching and learning material. Therefore, the study recommended that school administrators should work tirelessly resolve these challenges- for better implementation of learner centred approach in secondary schools in the country.

Page(s): 99-115                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61007

 Daudi Qambaday
Getanuwas Secondary School, Tanzania

 Prospery M. Mwila
St. Augustine University of Tanzania, Tanzania

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[30] Tilya, F.N. (2003). Teacher support for the use of MBL in activity-based physics teaching in Tanzania. Doctoral Dissertation. Enschede: University of Twente
[31] URT. (1999). Tanzania development vision 2025. Ministry of Education and Culture. Dares-Salaam Tanzania.
[32] URT. (2004). Secondary education development programme (SEDP). Ministry of Education and Culture. Dares-Salaam Tanzania.
[33] Vavrus, F. (2009). The cultural politics of constructivist pedagogies: Teacher education reform in the United Republic of Tanzania. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(3), 303-311.
[34] Vavrus, F., Thomas, M., & Bartlett, L. (2011). Ensuring quality by attending to inquiry: Learner- centered pedagogy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002160/216063e.pdf

Daudi Qambaday, and Prospery M. Mwila “Learner-Centred Approach: Its influence on Quality of Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Hanang District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.99-115 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61007

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Managerial Principles: Its role in the Utilization of Capitation Grants in Public Secondary Schools in Muleba District, Tanzania

Agripina Fidelis, and Prospery M. Mwila – October 2022- Page No.: 116-123

The decision to increase the quality and quantity of education, including in Tanzania, is crucial since education is essential for the development of human capital. In light of this, the government of the Republic of Tanzania introduced strategies to address the basic education supply and demands. Among the strategies is the Capitation grants’ policy. The aim of this study was to describe the role played by managerial principles in the utilization of capitation grants in public secondary schools in Muleba District, Tanzania. The study was guided by the Mintzberg’s managerial theory by Henry Mintzberg (1973). The study adopted convergent parallel research design under mixed research approach. The sample size of 85 was generated from a total population of 388 target groups. The quantitative data was collected through 70 questionnaires and analysed through descriptive statistic with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21 and presented in table, frequency and percent. The qualitative data was collected through 9 interviews and analysed thematically and presented in narratives and quotations from the respondents. A synthesis of the findings revealed that managerial principles play different roles including prioritizing financial allocation; effective management of the financial resources available as well as ensuring effective utilization of the capitation grants. The study concluded that managerial principles have a role to play in the utilization of capitation grants provided in public secondary schools. Therefore, the study recommended that school administrators and managers should equip school heads with skills on the effective use of managerial principles in the utilization of capitation grants provided in schools in order to ensure effective management and utilization of capitation grants- for overall institutional efficiency and effectiveness.

Page(s): 116-123                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61008

 Agripina Fidelis
St. Therese Sisters: P.O.Box 315 Bukoba

 Prospery M. Mwila
St. Augustine University of Tanzania: P.O.Box 307, Mwanza

[1] Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research (3rd ed.). Sage Publications.
[2] Dawuda, M.A. (2011). The Impact of Capitation Grants on Access to Primary Education in Ghana. (Master dissertation, Brandeis University). DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.10498.53448
[3] DSEO, (2021). Report of the Utilization of Capitation grants in Muleba District. Unpublished Report.
[4] Elisey, M., Catherine, M. & Eugene, L. (2020). Effectiveness of Heads of Schools Management of Capitation Grants for Service Delivery in Public Secondary Schools in Hai District, Tanzania. African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research, 8(1), 1-10
[5] Ephrahem, G., Amos, O., & Bhoke, A. (2021). Effectiveness of school heads in financial management skills in provision of quality education in secondary schools. International Journal of Education and Research 9(3), 20-28.
[6] Fetters, M. D. (2016). Haven’t we always been doing mixed methods research? Lessons learned from the development of the horseless carriage. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 10(1), 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689815620883
[7] Global Innovative Leadership Module, (2015). Budget and Financial Planning. ERASMUS+ Strategic Partnership for Youth. www.eleaderstochange.com
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[13] Kisigiro, P. A. (2015). Effective use of capitation grants in promoting primary education output in Kisarawe district council, Tanzania. (Masters Dissertation, Open University of Tanzania). http://repository.out.ac.tz/1444/1/PATRICK_AUGUSTINE_KISIGIRO_MED_APPS_DISSERTATION.pdf
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[15] Likuru, C and Mwila,P ( 2022) Overcrowded Classrooms: Effect on Teaching and Learning Process in Public Secondary Schools in Ilemela Municipality, Tanzania. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies 30(2): 75-87, 2022. DOI: 10.9734/AJESS/2022/v30i230744
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[18] Mgeni, V. A. (2015). The effectiveness of secondary school budgets in implementation of school projects in Sengerema district Mwanza. (Master Dissertation, the Open University of Tanzania).
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[25] Mzee, O., Nzalayaimisi, G. K. & Gabagambi, D. M. (2018). Analysis of Disbursement and Management of the Capitation Grant to Primary Schools in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Journal of Education and Practice, 9(8), 16-24.
[26] Nangusu, (2019). Factors Affecting Spending of Primary Education Capitation Grant in Ulanga District Council in Tanzania. (Masters Dissertation, Mzumbe University).
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Agripina Fidelis, and Prospery M. Mwila “Managerial Principles: Its role in the Utilization of Capitation Grants in Public Secondary Schools in Muleba District, Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.116-123 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61008

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School Quality Assurance Guidelines: Its Implementation and Challenges in Public Secondary Schools in Temeke Municipality, Tanzania

Gaudencia Medard, and Prospery M. Mwila – October 2022- Page No.: 124-133

Quality assurance guidelines are indispensable elements in quality effectiveness and maintenance. The guidelines put more consideration on strengthening and promoting the quality of the teaching and learning process. This study aimed at assessing the implementation of quality assurance guidelines in promoting the quality of teaching and learning. It was guided by two research objectives; to describe the status of school quality assurance implementation, and to identify the challenges encountered by the internal and external School Quality Assurance Officers during quality assurance exercises. The study adopted a Mixed Methods research approach and a descriptive survey design. The targeted sample was drawn from Temeke Municipality and included six public secondary schools, 60 students, 34 teachers, 6 head of schools, 3 ward district officers, 1 district education officer and 6 district quality assurance officers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and cross-tabulation. A synthesis of the findings revealed that public secondary schools in Temeke Municipality were exposed to quality assurance exercises by the school quality assurance officers. The findings also revealed that quality assurance reports were only shared to Education officer, Head of school, and teachers. Other stakeholders like students and ward education officers were not given the reports. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that quality assurance guidelines are fairly implemented in secondary schools in Temeke Municipality. However, challenges such as shortage of funds, shortage of staff, lack of working facilities, overcrowded classrooms, and lack of transport and materials for SQAOs made it impossible for the guidelines to be effectively implemented and thus impeded the acquisition of educational competencies among students in public secondary schools in Temeke Municipality, Tanzania. Therefore, educational stakeholders should ensure adequate provision of resources to schools to facilitate the effective implementation of the quality assurance guidelines as stipulated in the NSQAF, (2017).

Page(s): 124-133                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 October 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61009

 Gaudencia Medard
Temeke Municipality

 Prospery M. Mwila
St. Augustine University of Tanzania

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Gaudencia Medard, and Prospery M. Mwila “School Quality Assurance Guidelines: Its Implementation and Challenges in Public Secondary Schools in Temeke Municipality, Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.124-133 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61009

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Effects of FADAMA III Programme on Productive Assets Acquisition by Beneficiaries in Kaduna and Sokoto States, Nigeria

Idris Sa’idu, PhD, Mr. Abdullatif Murtala and Mrs. Asmau Idris – October 2022- Page No.: 134-138

This study is on the effects FADAMA III programme on productive assets acquisition on the beneficiaries. To achieve this, the study seeks to determine whether productive assets acquisition component of FADAMA III has significant and positive effects among the beneficiaries, and o find out whether significant difference exists in the level of productive assets acquisition. The study had a sample of 245 beneficiaries drawn from 12 Fadama Community Associations (FCAs) and 30 Fadama User Groups (FUG) units from Kaduna and Sokoto States, Nigeria. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the formulated hypothesis at 0.05 levels of significance and independent sample t-test was used to establish the differences in the level of productive assets acquisition. Results indicate that productive assets acquisition has strong and positive effects on the beneficiaries (r= 0.701, p= 0.000). The study recommends that the Nigerian Governments and donor agencies, the World Bank and African Development Bank should to initiate multi-pronged livelihood enhancing strategies that could stimulate productive assets acquisition by Smallholder farmers who produce the bulk of food stuffs in agrarian societies like Nigeria.

Page(s): 134-138                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2022

 Idris Sa’idu, PhD
Department of Public Administration, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria, Nigeria

 Mr. Abdullatif Murtala
Department of Public Administration, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria, Nigeria

 Mrs. Asmau Idris
Department of Public Administration, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria, Nigeria

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Idris Sa’idu, PhD, Mr. Abdullatif Murtala and Mrs. Asmau Idris “Effects of FADAMA III Programme on Productive Assets Acquisition by Beneficiaries in Kaduna and Sokoto States, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.134-138 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/134-138.pdf

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Error Analysis in the Written Works of Bangladeshi EFL University Fresh Learners

Muhammad Afsar Kayum – October 2022- Page No.: 139-143

This paper envisages the university fresh learners’ syntactic errors in the use of Tense from the EFL context of Bangladesh. Written essays from thirty university freshers from one private and one public university have been collected and analysed to find out the root causes of the learners’ errors in their written works. As found chiefly the causes, the mother language interference, as well as the other socio-economic factors, are responsible. Qualitative research design has been employed in data collection, identification and explanation of the study The identified data have been classified with proper description and explanation of the error types. The errors have been identified and explained so that the teachers can have enough knowledge on the type, causes & sources of the learners’ errors. So, the teacher might devote special attention to certain areas and can devise new pedagogical approaches to help learners overcome those difficulties

Page(s): 139-143                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2022

 Muhammad Afsar Kayum
Assistant Professor, Department of English, Manarat International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

[1] Afrin, S. (2016). Writing Problems of Non-English Major Undergraduate Students in Bangladesh: An Observation. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4(03), 104.
[2] Akhter, I. (2016). Effectiveness and difficulties of creative writing in language learning: a study of secondary level Bangla medium schools in Dhaka city (Doctoral dissertation, BRAC University).
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[8] Hallat, R. E., (2004). Error Analysis in the written English of pre-sessional Arab students at IIUM. Master. Thesis. International Islamic University, Malaysia.
[9] James, C.1998. Errors in Language learning and Use: Exploring error analysis. London: Longman.
[10] Karim, S. M. S., Maasum, T. N. R. T. M., & Latif, H. (2017). WRITING CHALLENGES OF BANGLADESHI TERTIARY LEVEL EFL LEARNERS. e-Bangi, 12(2).
[11] Kayum, M. A. (2011). Common Errors & Mistakes of the Language Learners in Bangladesh: A Case study.
[12] Khanom, H. (2014). Error Analysis in the Writing Tasks of Higher Secondary Level Students of Bangladesh. GSTF Journal on Education (JEd), 2(1), 1-7.
[13] Rahnuma, N. (2015). REVISITING ERROR ANALYSIS–THE CASE OF BANGLADESHI EFL STUDENT. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1).
[14] Roy, S. (2016). Causes for the Failure of Students in Developing Writing Skills at the HSC Level in Bangladesh. Language in India, 16(4).
[15] Rumnaz Imam, S. (2005). English as a global language and the question of nation‐building education in Bangladesh. Comparative Education, 41(4), 471486
[16] Talukder, A. A., & Samuel, M. (2017). Problematising problematisation: insights from critical pedagogy in a writing lesson in Bangladesh. Cambridge Journal of Education, 1-14.
[17] Tina, A. A. (2016). The Problems Students Face in Developing Writing Skill: A Study at Tertiary Level in Bangladesh.
[18] Zarina, R. (1996). Error Analysis of written English: An error Analysis of written English of University Students. Master. Thesis. University of Malaya

Muhammad Afsar Kayum “Error Analysis in the Written Works of Bangladeshi EFL University Fresh Learners” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.139-143 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/139-143.pdf

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Empowerment Skills for Capacity Building for Commercial Tricyclists (Keke Riders) in Nigeria: An Aggrandizer for Peaceful Co-existence and an Annihilator for Conflict and Societal Turbulence.

Barr. (Mrs.) Mary Lawrence Effiong Ph.D., Rev. Fr. Anwanga-Abasi Peter Essien M.Sc. – October 2022- Page No.: 144-148

This research focuses on capacity building skills for tricyclists, especially the commercial ones in Nigeria. The impetus for this quest is derived from the researcher’s desire to equip tricyclists for life sustainability, economic development, Contract sincerity as well as spiritual growth through successful business operation due to positive behaviors, spiritual stability and sufficient skills advancement. By the opinion of the researcher, this capacity building empowerment can instigates as well as promotes careful, prudent, rational and conscious decision making while operating their transportation business thereby enhancing safety of life, productive development and positive fulfillment through maximum profitability. For the goal of actualization in commercial tricycle business to be achieved, the researcher decides to contribute by providing proficiency empowerment skills for positive success on what can be seen as a ‘ must know and have’ foundation stone when it comes to tricycle business. Some assumed empowerment skills and objectives have been outlined and discussed. The paper concluded that, empowerment skills were necessary for catalyzing tricylcing business in Nigeria. Though it takes not less than two to tangle in the case of human beings, where there are more than one humane, one can be in a state or stage of confusion and dilemma to the extent of experiencing conflict, depression, terminal sicknesses that can take such a person’s life through either normal death or suicidal death. These types of conditions/ situations can be motivated or encourage by the harsh/turbulent society full of unemployment and poverty. Little wonder Longbap 2019 postulated that, for development enhancement and personality problems minimization, humans at individual and group levels need empowerment skills through counselling. This postulation becomes imperative because since counselling is a help rendering session, she can then be used as a catalyst to facilitate, assist, train in a way or means of supporting human beings to positively achieve his/her goals and responsibilities through attaining better human performances and behaviours in all endeavors of human relationships, commercial motortricycling inclusive.

Page(s): 144-148                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2022

 Barr. (Mrs.) Mary Lawrence Effiong Ph.D.
Department of Sociology, Obong University, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 Rev. Fr. Anwanga-Abasi Peter Essien M.Sc.
Department of Sociology, Obong University, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 Prospery M. Mwila
Department of Peace Studies and Conflicts Resolution, Obong University, Obong Ntak, Etim Ekpo Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State,Nigeria

[1] Azikiwe, U. (2008). Standard in tertiary education: Capacity building and sustainable development in Nigeria: Paper presented at Faculty of Education Conference, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka.
[2] Denen, I. (2020). Value re-orientation and national development in Nigeria: The role of Art Education. Benue State University Journal of Educational Management 2 (1) 238 – 45.
[3] Denga, D. (2019). Occupational stress. Calabar: Clearlines Publications.
[4] Denga, D. (2022). Guidance and counselling in school and non-school setting. Calabar: Lines Publications.
[5] Effiong, M. & Denga, D. (2011). Marriage counselling in Nigeria, pertinent legal and psycho-social issues. Calabar: Rapid Educational Publishers Limited.
[6] Effiong, M. & Effiong, E. (2021). Counselling for entrepreneurial development and sustainability. (Lecture note).
[7] Effiong, M. (2019). Quality parents: An elixir for quality education and sustainable development. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 4 (9) 620 – 623.
[8] Effiong, M. (2022). Facing the most challenging task in the early days of life. Paper presented at youth conference camp organized by Pentecostal Assembly, Port Harcourt.
[9] Longbap, N. (2019). Theories of counselling. Counselling and human development in Nigeria. Readings in honour of Prof. Ibrahim Adam Kolo. Ambik Press, 185 – 186.
[10] Obot, R. (2017). Occupational empowerment for less Tension. Unpublished Doctorate Thesis. University of Calabar,Calabar.
[11] Onah, E. (2018). Attitude behavioural therapy (A B T): Practical job-guides curriculum in guidance and counselling. Unpublished Text.

Barr. (Mrs.) Mary Lawrence Effiong Ph.D., Rev. Fr. Anwanga-Abasi Peter Essien M.Sc. “Empowerment Skills for Capacity Building for Commercial Tricyclists (Keke Riders) in Nigeria: An Aggrandizer for Peaceful Co-existence and an Annihilator for Conflict and Societal Turbulence.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.144-148 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/144-148.pdf

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The Role of Field Agricultural Extensive in Empowerment o5f Coffee Farmers (Case Study of Coffee Farmers Group in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency)

Ony Darmawan, Mubarokah, Sri Tjondro Winarno – October 2022- Page No.: 149-155

The shortage of government extension workers in the field has led to a gap in farmers’ innovation towards rapid changes in information and a decrease in the effectiveness of extension activities. As a result, farmers are powerless in dealing with changes in their own environment, especially with regard to farming, so that the role of extension workers is still needed by farmers to overcome this. This study aims to describe the role of agricultural extension workers and the empowerment of coffee farmers and to analyze the effect of the role of agricultural extension workers on the empowerment of coffee farmers in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency. The sampling technique used proportional random sampling, meaning that each farmer group was represented by each respondent with a proportional amount. Each farmer group was taken as many as 6, after being multiplied by the number of farmer groups, the sample in this study amounted to 66. The analysis in this study used descriptive analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM-PLS) analysis. The results of the study that the role of agricultural extension agents as innovators have a significant positive effect on the empowerment of coffee farmers in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency. As an innovator, extension workers provide the latest ideas or ideas about coffee cultivation, extension workers also provide the latest breakthroughs on harvest and post-harvest handling. The role of agricultural extension workers as motivators has a significant positive effect on farmer empowerment. The role of agricultural instructors as facilitators has a significant positive effect on the empowerment of coffee farmers in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency. The role of agricultural instructors as communicators has a significant positive effect on the dependent variable of Farmer Empowerment. The role of the extension agent is to act as a communicator by delivering extension materials and communicating well, the extension worker also listens to complaints from members of the farmer group during extension activities.

Page(s): 149-155                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2022

 Ony Darmawan
Master of Agribusiness Study Program, Indonesia

 Mubarokah
Faculty of Agriculture, UPN Veterans East Java, Indonesia

 Sri Tjondro Winarno
Jl. Rungkut Madya No. 1 Gunung Anyar, Gunung Anyar District, Surabaya East Java City, Indonesia

[1] Ghozali, I., & Latan, H. (2012). Partial Least Square Konsep, Teknik, dan Aplikasi Menggunakan Program SmartPLS 3.0. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.
[2] Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review.
[3] Halimah, S., & Subari, S. (2020). Pengembangan Kelompok Tani Padi Sawah (Studi Kasus Kelompok Tani Padi Sawah di Desa Gili Barat Kecamatan Kamal Kabupaten Bangkalan). 1, 103–114.
[4] Haryanto, Y., Sumardjo, S., Amanah, S., & Tjitropranoto, P. (2018). Efektivitas Peran Penyuluh Swadaya Dalam Pemberdayaan Petani Di Provinsi Jawa Barat. Jurnal Pengkajian Dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian, 20(2), 141. https://doi.org/10.21082/jpptp.v20n2.2017.p141-154
[5] Marbun, D. N. V.D., Satmoko, S., & Gayatri, S. (2019). Peran Penyuluh Pertanian dalam Pengembangan Kelompok Tani Tanaman Hortikultura di Kecamatan Siborongborong, Kabupaten Tapanuli. Jurnal Ekonomi Pertanian Dan Agribisnis, 3(3), 537–546. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.jepa.2019.003.03.9
[6] Muspitasari, D., Irmayani, & Yusriadi. (2019). Pengaruh Peran Penyuluh Pertanian Terhadap Pemberdayaan Kelompok Tani Padi di Kecamatan Mattirobulu Kabupaten Pinrang. Jurnal Ecosystem, 19(1), 19–23.
[7] Najib, M., & Rahwita, H. (2010). Peranan Penyuluh Pertanian Dalam Pengembangan Kelompok Tani Di Desa Bukit Raya Kecamatan Tenggarong Seberang Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara. Jurnal Zira’ah, 28(2), 116–128.
[8] Saputri, R. D., Anantanyu, S., & Wjianto, A. (2016). Perkembangan Kelompok Tani Di Kabupaten Sukoharjo. Jurnal Agrista, 4(3), 341–352.
[9] Setiyowati, L. (2018). Peran Penyuluh Pertanian Lapangan (PPL) Sebagai Inovator, Komunikator, Organisator, dan Penghubung Antar Sistem Terhadap Tingkat Kemandirian Petani Dalam Mengelola Pertanian. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.
[10] Sugiyono, M. (2014). Educational Research Methods Quantitative, Qualitative Approach and R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Ony Darmawan, Mubarokah, Sri Tjondro Winarno “The Role of Field Agricultural Extensive in Empowerment o5f Coffee Farmers (Case Study of Coffee Farmers Group in Trawas District, Mojokerto Regency)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.149-155 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/149-155.pdf

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Deploying Public Private Partnership PPP in Understanding the Missing Link and Requisite Legal Regime to Resolve the Almajiri System Challenge

Faruk Sani, LLM & Buhari Bello, PhD – October 2022- Page No.: 156-166

The various efforts of the Federal Government and its agencies together with international institutions at integrating the Almajiri education into contemporary education in Nigeria or mainstreaming the Almajiri system into the nation’s educational system have not achieved the desired objectives. The failure of relevant policy makers could be traced to their solution-strategies, which did not give adequate considerations to the historical realities of the Almajiri system; to the constitutional obligation of government to provide free and compulsory basic education to its school age citizens; and to a genuine stakeholder buy-in of Almajiri school operators. Using a doctrinal research methodology that leaned more on official narrative, institutional publications as well as Internet resources and online blogs, the paper looked at Almajiri concept, reviewed the legal framework underpinning basic education rights in Nigeria, and explored the various attempts at mainstreaming the Almajiri system. The paper discovered that the solution-strategies to deal with the Almajiri challenge are premised on a jaundiced notion of the Almajiri system, which is commonly viewed as a source of terrorists and criminal gangs recruitments, and the underestimation of the capacity of Almajiri school operators to lead the process. The paper found that the risk analyses of the solution strategies were not adequate and comprehensive enough with the attendant consequence of increased suspicion between the government and Almajiri school operators. The paper therefore recommended a partnership arrangement built on mutual respect among the three stakeholders, namely, the government, the Almajiri school operators and the Almajiri parents as well as a partnership on the basis of shared responsibilities, shared resources and shared rewards under which the operators or their immediate communities will take a commanding heights in the operation and management of the Almajiri schools. This type of arrangement is a good candidate for Pro-Poor Public Private Partnership (PPPPP), which is commonly used in many jurisdictions to serve the neglected part of the populations. In this respect, the paper recommends the Charter School model, which the United States established to cater for the educationally underserved and neglected among its citizens. If implemented, the twin incidences of out-of-school children and Almajiri Street begging will greatly reduced, thereby positively impacting to the social, political and economic sectors of the Nigerian society.

Page(s): 156-166                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61010

 Faruk Sani, LLM
Law Department, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

 Buhari Bello, PhD
Law Department, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

[1] Ahmad, Ismail, Almajiri and the Menace of Almajiranchi, (2019) 1-2 https://www.academia.edu/40798978/Almajiri_and_the_Menace_of_Almajiranci.
[2] Ahmed, I., ‘Nigeria: Controversy Trails Unity Schools Public/ Private Partnership’ Weekly Trust Newspaper Online (Kaduna, 25th February 20107) https://allafrica.com/stories/200722600558.html.
[3] Alabi, A., ‘Update: Nigeria Has Now 20 Million Out-Of -School Children – UNESCO’, Premium Times Online, (Abuja, 1st September 2022) https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/551804-breaking-nigeria- now-has-20-million-out-of-school-children-unesco.html.
[4] Ameh, J., and Others, ‘Almajiri Time Bomb: NSA Raises Fresh Concern, ACF Leader Knocks Governors’, The Punch Newspaper Online (Lagos, 5th December 2019) https://punchng.com/almajiri-time-bomb-nsa-raises-fresh-concern-acf-leader-knocks-govs/?amp
[5] Awofeso, N. and Ritchie, J. and Degeling, P., “The Almajiri Heritage and the Threat of Non-State Terrorism in Northern Nigeria – Lessons from Central Asia and Pakistan”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 26 Issue 4 July 2003, pp. 311 – 325.
[6] Busari, B., ‘Nigeria Has 11 Million Out of School Children, Highest in the World – World Bank’, The Vanguard Newspaper Online (Lagos, 21st June 2022 https://www.vanguardngr.com/nigeria-has-11-million-of-out-of-school-children-highest-in-the-world-world-bank/amp
[7] Dada, M. O. and Oladokun, M. G. Critical Success Factors for PPP projects in Nigeria: a Perceptual Survey 5 https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB17648.pdf.
[8] Dahiru, A. and Muhammad, R. S., ‘Critical Success Factors of Public Private Partnership https://www.ajol.info/index.php/atbu/article/download/126345/125836
[9] Deloitte, Public Private Partnership (PPP) as an Anchor For Diversifying The Nigerian Economy: Lagos Container Terminals Concession as Case Study (March 2017) 12 https://www2.deloitte.com/ content/dam/Deloitte/ng/Documents/strategy/ng-PPP-as-an-anchor-for-diversifying-the-Nigerian-economy-22032017.pgf
[10] Diop
 M., and Others, Governance and Finance Analysis of the Basic Education Sector in Nigeria, (World Bank Group, September, 2015) Report No. ACS14245, 59 < https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/23683/Governance0and0on0sector0in0Nigeria.pdf?sequence=1 [11] Hoechner, H., ‘Traditional Qur’anic Students (Almajirai) in Nigeria: Fair game for Unfair Accusations?’ In M-A. Pérouse de Montclos (Ed.), Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria (African Studies Centre Leiden, 2014) 80. https://research-portal.uea.ac.uk/en/publications/traditional-quranic-students-almajirai-in-nigeria-fair-game-for-u [12] Idoko, I., ‘Minister Faults Implementation Process of $611m BESDA Project’, The Nigerian Tribune Online (Lagos, 18th November 2021) https://tribuneonline.com/minister-faults-implementation-process-of-611m-besda-project/ [13] Jagaba, M. M., An Overview of the Federal Government Almajiri Education Programme in Nigeria, A Paper Presentation at a One-Day Retreat of Islamic Development Network, Held in Kano, between 18th and 20th December 2015. [14] Lubeck, P., Islamic Protest under Semi-industrial Capitalism: “Yan Tatsine Explained, Popular Islam South of the Sahara, edited by JDY Peel and CC Stewart Africa (1985) vol. 55, no. 4, p. 368 – 389 [15] Mohammed, A. M., ‘Before the Ban of Almajiri System of Education in Nigeria’, Paper delivered at Arewa House on 2nd November 2019. [16] NAN, ‘World Bank Supports Nigeria with $611million to get Children Back to School’, The Guardian Newspaper Online (Lagos, 10th August 2018) https://guardian.ng/news/world-bank-supports-nigeria-with-611-m-to-get-children-back-to-school/ [17] Njoku, G., Children Adjust to Life Outside Nigeria’s Almajiri System (UNICEF Nigeria, 17th September 2020) https://www.unicef.org/children-adjust-to-life-outside-nigerias-almajiri-system [18] Odumosu, O. and 8 others, ‘A Research Report: Manifestations of the Almajirai in Nigeria: Causes and Consequences’, 9 https://www.academia.edu/14506580/MANIFESTATIONS_OF_THE_ALMAJIRAI_IN_ NIGERIA_CAUSES_AND_CONSEQUENCES [19] Omokuvie, P., ‘You Can’t Ban Almajiri System without Alternative – Dahiru Bauchi Foundation tells FG’, The Sun Newspaper Online (Lagos, 23rd June 2019) https://www.sunnewsonline.com/you-cant-ban-almajiri-system-without-alternative-dahiru-bauchi-foundation-tells-fg [20] Orude, P. ‘No Power can Ban Almajiri in Nigeria Sheik Usman Bauchi’, The Sun Newspaper Online (Lagos, 4th July 2020) https://www.sunnewsonline.com/no-power-can-ban-almajiri-in-nigeria-sheik-usman-bauchi>
[21] Sunday, S. E., Investigation: ‘Almajiri School System Flops As N15bn Facilities Rot Away’, The Daily Trust Newspaper Online (Abuja, 16 April 2022) https://dailytrust.com/fgs-almajiri-school-system-flops-as-n15bn-facilities-rot-away
[22] Yusha’u, M. A. and Tsafe, A. K. and Lawal N. J., ‘Problems and Prospects of Integrated Almajiri Education in Nothern Nigeria’, Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (2013)2(3) 125 – 134 @ 129.
[23] Winters, C. A., “Koranic Education and Militant Islam in Nigeria”, International Review of Education, Vol. 33, No. 2 (1987).

Faruk Sani, LLM & Buhari Bello, PhD “Deploying Public Private Partnership PPP in Understanding the Missing Link and Requisite Legal Regime to Resolve the Almajiri System Challenge” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.156-166 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61010

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Darfur Conflict and Hybrid Operation: Challenges of a Pioneer Hybrid Peacekeeping Operation Model

Daniel Adekera PhD – October 2022- Page No.: 167-174

The African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) established on 31 July 2007 as the first truly joint peacekeeping mission was a very ambitious adventure in collective security management. For the first time in its 27 years of peacekeeping, the United Nations would be sharing command and control of a peacekeeping mission with a regional organization. It was an experiment whose success or otherwise would determine the way the United Nations, the body responsible for global peace and security, was going to do business. This article conducted a critical assessment of the mission using content analysis of UN Security Council Resolutions, Code Cables and Note Verbales as well as relevant African Union documents and in-depth interviews The data collected was critically examined using the qualitative method. It found that the mission was confronted with numerous logistical and security constraints as it operated in a complex and hostile political environment. It also found that several structural and functional issues were not very clearly defined, giving rise to operational challenges. The study recommends that, given the perceived influence the hybrid operation appears to have on future UN peacekeeping operations, issues bordering on command and control and mandates should be clearly defined to avoid gaps and or overlaps that were experienced in the Darfur operation.

Page(s): 167-174                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 November 2022

 Daniel Adekera PhD
Chief, Strategic Communication and Public Information/Spokesperson, United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), Sudan, Nigeria

[1] Abdelbagi, J. (2010). Past and Future of UNAMID: Tragic Failure or Glorious Success? Switzerland, Geneva: Darfur Relief and Documentation Centre.
[2] Aboagye, F. (2007). The hybrid operation for Darfur: A critical review of the concept of the mechanism. South Africa: ISS Africa: Occasional Paper 149,
[3] Agwai, M.L. (2010) Personal interview with General Martin Luther Agwai, UNAMID pioneer Force Commander on 12 June 2010
[4] Alagappa, M., 1997, “Regional institutions, the UN and international security: a framework for analysis” Third World Quarterly, Vol 18, No 3, (1997): 421- 441.
[5] Allen, J.E. (2010). Impediments to the Effectiveness of the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID); Fort Leavenworth, United States: Kansas School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College.
[6] Anstey, M. (2006). Managing Change: Negotiating Conflict. Cape Town: Juta and Co. Ltd.
[7] Anyidoho, K. (2010) Personal interview with Maj. Gen. Kwami Anyidoho, UNAMID Deputy Joint Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General 17 September 2010.
[8] Bah, S., and Jones, B., “Peace Operations Partnership: Lessons and Issues from Coordination to Hybrid Arrangements” Center on international Cooperation 2009.
[9] Brickhill, J. (2007). Protecting Civilians Through Peace Agreements: Challenges and
[10] lessons of the Darfur Peace Agreement. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies Paper
[11] de Waal, A. (2006). ‘I will not sign.’ London Review of Books. Retrieved from http://www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n23/waal01_.html
[12] Flint, J. and de Waal, A, (2005). Darfur: A New History of a Long War, London, Zed Books.
[13] Murithi, T. (2008). The African Union’s evolving role in peace operations: the African Union Mission in Burundi, the African Union Mission in Sudan and the African Union Mission in Somalia, African Security Review 17.1, Institute for Security Studies
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[17] Rufai, A. (2009 Personal Interview with Abubakar Rufai, Acting Director, Political Affairs, UNAMID 28 November 2009.
[18] Tar, U., “Old Conflict, New Complex Emergency: An Analysis of Darfur Crisis Western Sudan” Nordic Journal of African Studies 15(2006). pp. 406–427.
[19] Timo, P. and Lehmann, V. (2010). The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping (1): Hybrid Missions, (Friedrich Ebert Foundation New York Office, 2007),

Daniel Adekera PhD, “Darfur Conflict and Hybrid Operation: Challenges of a Pioneer Hybrid Peacekeeping Operation Model” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.167-174 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/167-174.pdf

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Environmental Accounting Costs and Financial Performance of Selected Quoted Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria

Okere Obinna Cletus PhD, Prof. S.C Nwite PhD, AGANA Ogagaoghene John, PhD, ACA – October 2022- Page No.: 175-187

The focus of this study is to examine the effects of environmental accounting costs on the financial performance of selected quoted oil and gas firms in Nigeria. To achieve this objective, Secondary source of data was used in the study and sourced through Nigeria exchange group and companies’ annual report of Conoil, MRS Oil and Forte Oil covering the period of 21years (2000-2020). The study adopted both the descriptive and inferential statistics in analyzing the panel data and in order to empirically investigate the effect of the explanatory variables on the dependent variable, multiple regression model involving ordinary least square method was used to test hypotheses formulated. Results from the regression indicate that environmental internal failure cost and environmental external failure cost have a positive and significant effect on the financial performance of oil and gas companies in Nigeria, while, Environmental pollution prevention costs and environmental detection costs revealed an insignificant effect on the financial performance of oil and gas companies in Nigeria. The Implications of these results are that, if the variables are not identified and improved upon, the challenges facing environmental accounting costs on the financial performance of the companies may persist and may lead to sub optimal performance and failed vision. Thus, the study concluded that the environmental accounting costs have significantly affected the general financial performance of oil and gas industry in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that the management of petroleum companies should continue to put funds on internal failure cost to ensure continuous reduction of contaminants in the environment to an amount that complies with environmental standards.

Page(s): 175-187                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61011

 Okere Obinna Cletus PhD
Department of Accountancy, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

 Prof. S.C Nwite PhD
Department of Banking, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

 AGANA Ogagaoghene John, PhD, ACA
Department of Accountancy, Ebonyi State Univesity, Abakaliki, Nigeria

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[2] Adediran, S. A. & Alade, S. O. (2013). The impact of environmental accounting on corporate performance in Nigeria. European Journal of Business Management. 5 (23), 141 – 151.
[3] Adegbei & Nwobodo (2020), environmental accounting and reporting practices: significance and issues in nigeria listed deposit money banks in Nigeria; European Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance Research.8(10),1-12.
[4] Adesina (2020), evaluation of environmental accounting and its impact on sustainable economy in Nigeria; International Journal of Social Sciences and Management Review, 3(6).
[5] Agbiogwu, Ihendinihu & Okafor (2016), Impact of Environmental and Social Costs on Performance of Nigerian Manufacturing Companies. International Journal of Economics and Finance; 8(9).
[6] Agbo, Ohaegbu & Akubuilo (2017), The Effect of Environmental Cost on Financial Performance of Nigerian Brewery. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(17).
[7] Agboola & Ayodeji (2019), Environmental Cost and Financial Performance: Analysis of Cement Companies in Nigeria; International Journal of Academic and Applied Research, 3(8), 60-65.
[8] Akpan, (2013), Principles of Environmental Accounting in Oil and Gas Industry. Larigraphics Ltd., No. 13 & 15 Eyamba Street, Jos.
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[10] Bassey, Effiok, and Eton, (2013), The Impact of Environmental Accounting and Reporting on Organizational Performance of Selected Oil and Gas Companies in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 4(3).
[11] Bassey, Usang & Edom, 2013, An Analysis of the Extent of Implementation of Environmental Cost Management and Its Impact on Output of Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(1).
[12] Charles, John-Akamelu, and Umeoduagu, (2017), Environmental Accounting Disclosures and Financial Performance: A Study of Selected Food and Beverages Companies in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(9).
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[15] Eilola, M. (2017). The link between corporate environmental performance and corporate financial performance. Master‟s thesis submitted to Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, 1-67.
[16] Enahoro J.A (2009), Design and bases of environmental accounting in oil & gas and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria. An Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis submitted to the Department of Accounting, Covenant University Ota, Nigeria.
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Okere Obinna Cletus PhD, Prof. S.C Nwite PhD, AGANA Ogagaoghene John, PhD, ACA “Environmental Accounting Costs and Financial Performance of Selected Quoted Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.175-187 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61011

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Bottom of the Pyramid – A working paper to understand whether globalization is bad for the poor

Mishra, Ganesh Prasad & Mishra, Kusum Lata – October 2022- Page No.: 188-192

There is great interest to understand whether “Bottom of the Pyramid” (BOP) approach is good or bad for poverty alleviation. The area lying at the bottom of the “Bottom of the pyramid” epitomizes those populations that make transaction in the market that are informal and unstructured. This area has become the pivot of attraction as maximum of the corporate want to target this area for marketing their products. Maximum authors have also started doing a lot of research in this area. There is a growing debate in this area whether BOP has been able to eradicate poverty from the region or not. The purpose of this paper to show case those feature that makes it different from other methods of uprooting poor and the poverty.

Page(s): 188-192                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61012

 Mishra, Ganesh Prasad
Professor Birla Institute of Technology Mesra Ranchi Off campus Jaipur, India

 Mishra, Kusum Lata
Associate Lecturer Birla Institute of Technology Mesra Ranchi Off campus Jaipur, India

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Mishra, Ganesh Prasad & Mishra, Kusum Lata “Bottom of the Pyramid – A working paper to understand whether globalization is bad for the poor” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.188-192 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61012

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Hepatic Assessment of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Gnetum Africanum Root on Wistar Alibino Rats

Akporhono Onyedikachi Joannah – October 2022- Page No.: 193-197

The effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Gnetum africanum root on hepatic biomarkers of wistar albino rats was determined. Samples of Gnetum africanum root obtained from Obokwe Ngor Okpala in Imo State were milled, homogenized and extracted with ethanol and aqueous solvents respectively. The lethal dose (LD50) of the crude samples were determined and found not to be toxic after acute and sub-chronic determination. 35 rats divided into seven groups of five rats each were used. The first (control) group received 1ml normal saline daily, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups received 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract, while groups 5, 6 and 7 received 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg body weight ethanol extract for 14 days duration of the research. The animals were sacrificed after 14 days, blood and liver organs were collected. The result revealed a significant increase in alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bilirubin concentration with ethanol extract and little or no significant change with aqueous extract of the Gnetum africanum root. Histopathology examination of the liver sections of the rats treated with ethanol extract revealed some abnormal morphology characteristics such as hypercellularity and slight haemorrhagic necrosis in all the treated groups. In conclusion, the aqueous extracts of Gnetum africanum root at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weight may possibly be safe for consumption without any significant toxic effect on the liver of the rats. It is recommended that further studies be done on additional biomarkers such as genetics, proteomics, metabolomics and MicroRNAs of hepatotoxicity in the serum; this can be measured in conjunction with ALT, with respect to specificity of liver injury

Page(s): 193-197                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 November 2022

 Akporhono Onyedikachi Joannah
Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

[1] Aghara, I. D (2014). Effect of aqueous leaf extract of moranga oleifera and telfairia accidentalist on some bio-chemical and some hematological parameters in wistar rats. Indian journal science research.
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Akporhono Onyedikachi Joannah “Hepatic Assessment of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Gnetum Africanum Root on Wistar Alibino Rats” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.193-197 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/193-197.pdf

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Influence of Small-Scale Business Skills on Employment Generation in Bayelsa State

Paul B. IGBONGIDI, PhD – October 2022- Page No.: 198-202

The study assessed the influence and prospects of small-scale business skills on employment generation in Bayelsa State. Two research questions were formulated and the study adopted a descriptive research design for the study. Using 1,200 small-scale businesses as the population while a sample size of 120 registered operators of Small-scale businesses in Yenagoa Local Government Area was randomly selected, the instrument used for the study was a questionnaire which was validated by three lecturers in the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Reliability of the instrument was carried out on 20 small-scale business owners in Amassoma that were not part of the population and the method of data analysis used was Mean and Standard Deviation. The study showed that accounting skills and managerial skills can be used by owners of Small-scale businesses to enhance their employability. In Conclusion, it was observed that accounting and managerial skills can make owners of small-scale businesses become well informed in keeping fundamental accounting records and management planning for effective profitability of their business ventures. It was recommended that Strong awareness campaign, Workshops and seminars would help owners of Small-scale businesses to acquire skills in Small-scale and business education

Page(s): 198-202                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 November 2022

 Paul B. IGBONGIDI, PhD
Department of Vocational and Technology Education,
Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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Paul B. IGBONGIDI, PhD “Influence of Small-Scale Business Skills on Employment Generation in Bayelsa State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.198-202 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/198-202.pdf

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Improving and Sustaining Economic Growth in Africa. A Case Study of China’s Three Gorges Dam

Richard Amoasi, Ivanrich Asamoah, Tyse Adwoa Acquah, Francisca Aborh, Winifred Serwornu, Margaret Asamoah – October 2022- Page No.: 203-207

Strategic alliance in the area of hydro dams’ construction will serve as a major mechanism for curtailing high cost of living and the high unemployment rates in Africa. Food shortage is normal in most African countries and prices of food is very high preventing many within the lower income groups from making any meaningful savings. Farmers depend on rainfall and in most times of the year, farmers do not obtain water for farming. Dams with excess water are spilled causing destruction of lives and properties without saving the water for any particular purpose in most African countries. Constructing similar dam like the Three Gorges Dam in Africa through strategic alliance with high hydro power production will increase electricity supply to sustain manufacturing companies, water supply as well as promote tourism to increase the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the nations. The 4 years full cost recovery instead of the projected 10 years is a sign of efficiency, transparency and a sense of accountability lacked by African governments.

Page(s): 203-207                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 November 2022

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Richard Amoasi, Ivanrich Asamoah, Tyse Adwoa Acquah, Francisca Aborh, Winifred Serwornu, Margaret Asamoah “Improving and Sustaining Economic Growth in Africa. A Case Study of China’s Three Gorges Dam” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.203-207 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/203-207.pdf

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Impact of Minimum Wage non-compliances on Employment in Cameroon

Joachem Meh Bin, Aloysius Mom Njong & Moses Ofeh Abit – October 2022- Page No.: 208-214

This paper investigates the impact of minimum wage theft for employment in Cameroon using the 2005 and 2010 Cameroon labour force surveys. To achieve these objectives, use is made of the Difference-in-Differences estimator, hackman two step approach, instrumental variables approach. Empirical results revealed that minimum wage theft is more prevalent, deeper and severer among rural (female) workers than their urban (male) counterparts. Results also reveals a negative relationship between minimum wage theft and employment in 2005 and a deeper disincentive effect on employment between 2005 and 2010. These findings suggest that government should increase minimum wage theft control and impose penalty for violating firms.

Page(s): 208-214                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 November 2022

 Joachem Meh Bin
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Bamenda-Cameroon

 Aloysius Mom Njong
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Bamenda-Cameroon

 Moses Ofeh Abit
Faculty of Economics and Management, University of Bamenda-Cameroon

[1] Asongu, S., & Mohamed, J. (2014). A Theory of Compliance with Minimum Wage Law. African Governance and Development Institute, Working Paper.
[2] Bin JM, Emmanuel SM, Theodore BN (2019). The structure -conduct –performance paradigm: An empirical analysis of Cameroon firms. J. Bus. Econ. Manag.7(9): 316-323.
[3] Bin JM, Moses O A, Sergeo B, C (2020) “Impact of the Corona Pandemic on Household Welfare in Cameroon” Journal of Economics and Management Sciences Vol 3 No 3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.30560/jems.v3n3p25
[4] Billhorn Law Firm. (1987). Fighting For Workers In Pay Disputes. Chicago: 53 West Jackson, Suite 401.
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[12] Dinkelman T., Ranchhod V., and Clare Hofmeyr C. (2014). Enforcement and compliance: the case of minimum wages and mandatory contracts for domestic workers. Econ3x3. HYPERLINK “http://www.econ3x3.org/article/enforcement-and-compliance-case-minimum-wages-and-mandatory-contracts-domestic-workers” http://www.econ3x3.org/article/enforcement-and-compliance-case-minimum-wages-and-mandatory-contracts-domestic-workers
[13] DPRU, (. (2016). Investigating the Feasibility of a National Minimum Wage for South Africa. Cape Town.
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[16] Katz, L., & Krueger, A. (1992). The effects of the minimum wage on the fast food industry. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol 46(1) pp6-21.
[17] Moses O A, Bin JM, sergeo B C (2020) “An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Decentralization on Poverty in Cameroon “. Journal of Social Economics Research Volume 7, 2, pp 91-106 DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2020.72.91.106
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Joachem Meh Bin, Aloysius Mom Njong & Moses Ofeh Abit “Impact of Minimum Wage non-compliances on Employment in Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.208-214 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/208-214.pdf

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Coping Strategies to Burnout in Pastoral Ministry among Catholic Religious Men and Women of Mbarara Archdiocese in Uganda

Ronald Musinguzi Kersteins, Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD) – October 2022- Page No.: 215-219

Coping strategies to burnout in pastoral ministry is paramount to the mental well-being of Catholic religious men and women. The objective of this study was to identify coping strategies for preventing burnout in pastoral ministry among the Catholic religious men and women of Mbarara Archdiocese Uganda. The study employed an exploratory research design. Through Purposive sampling the study utilized a sample size of 10 participants. The data was collected using Interview Guide. The data collected was analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings of this study revealed that spiritual practices such as prayer, retreats and recollections, are major ways of preventing burnout among religious men and women in their ministry. Moreover, the Catholic religious men and women prevent burnout in pastoral ministry through self-care which included activities such as taking time to rest, having time for recreation, breaks and holidays, and renewal courses. In addition, the findings showed that Catholic religious men and women prevent pastoral ministry through psycho-spiritual resources such as meditation, imagery, journaling, visualization, and awareness. The study recommends to Bishops and Major Superiors to put in place programs that emphasize self-care among their religious men and women. Programs such as regular vacations, sabbaticals, regular medical attention can help to enhance the wellness of the religious men and women even when they are involved in challenging apostolate.

Page(s): 215-219                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

 Ronald Musinguzi Kersteins
The Psycho-Spiritual Institute of Lux Terra Leadership Foundation, Marist International University College, a Constituency of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

 Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD)
Institute of Youth Studies, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Tangaza University College, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

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[11] Smith, L. W. (2015). Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Self-care: What Social Work Students Need to Know.California State University, San Bernardino, 88.
[12] Tayie, S. (2005). Research Methods and Writing Research Proposals. Cairo: Center for Advancement of Postgraduate Studies and Research.

Ronald Musinguzi Kersteins, Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD) , “Coping Strategies to Burnout in Pastoral Ministry among Catholic Religious Men and Women of Mbarara Archdiocese in Uganda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.215-219 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/215-219.pdf

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The Nature and Extent of Human-Wildlife Conflict Effect on Socio- Economic Development and Educational Development in Baringo North Sub-County, Kenya

Cheptarus, G., Rev. Sgt. Rtd. Dr. Odhiambo, E. O. S. & Dr. Nabiswa, J. – October 2022- Page No.: 220-230

Kenya Wildlife Service has invested heavily in implementation of strategies as a concerted effort by the government to curb Human Wildlife Conflict in Kenya. Despite this effort, cases of Human Wildlife Conflicts are still being reported. Various existing policies seem not to offer solutions to the prevailing Human Wildlife Conflict. It’s on this foundation that the study sort to examine the nature and extent of human wildlife conflicts in Baringo North Sub-County, Kenya. This study was guided by Stern Theory of Value Belief Norm; Kenneth’s and Kilmann’s Conflict Styles theory and Dollard’s Frustration Aggression Displacement theory. A descriptive survey research design was used. The study population was; Government field officers, Civil society leaders, KWS official, Opinion leaders, Teachers, Community based organizations, Leaders of Farmers Corporations, Village elders and victims of human wildlife conflicts, totaling to 329 respondents. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedules, observation checklist and Focus Group Discussions. Descriptive analysis using quantitative and qualitative techniques were used in the study. While quantitative data was presented in form of frequencies and percentage, in tables, charts and graphs, qualitative data was presented thematically through narratives reports and verbatim quotations. Findings indicated that there was risk of the children meeting wild animals as they cross paths with wild animals as they go to school or attend their daily chores, hence they face imminent injuries and death. Most wildlife attack people during the day as they work in their farms. Snakes and elephants were the most reported as wild animals that attack the people. Shared water and food resources were indicated as the main cause of the HWC. Poverty and overpopulation were identified as the main drivers of HWC and that wildlife habitats are disappearing at an alarming rate. The study recommends that government should resolve HWC by generating, lasting solutions. Such solutions include fencing off the reserve to keep off roaming wildlife and those injured together with the crops destroyed should be adequately compensated.

Page(s): 220-230                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61013

 Cheptarus, G.
Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Rev. Sgt. Rtd. Dr. Odhiambo, E. O. S.
Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

 Dr. Nabiswa, J.
Department of Peace and Conflict Studies, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya

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Cheptarus, G., Rev. Sgt. Rtd. Dr. Odhiambo, E. O. S. & Dr. Nabiswa, J. “The Nature and Extent of Human-Wildlife Conflict Effect on Socio- Economic Development and Educational Development in Baringo North Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.220-230 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61013

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Harmonized Gender and Development Guideline and Its Effect on Gender Responsive Infrastructure Projects of DPWH Region XI

Jezabel E. Tuling – October 2022- Page No.: 231-237

This quantitative study to identify the effect of Harmonized Gender and Development Guidelines on DPWH Infrastructure Projects in Region XI, particularly the Daang Maharlika Road, covering the cities of Tagum and Panabo and the Municipality of Carmen. A stratified random sampling technique using Cochran (1977) was employed to determine the sampling size. In measuring the level of gender responsiveness Daang Maharlika Road, this study used the Harmonized Gender and Development Guidelines (HGDG) Box 10. GAD checklist for designing and evaluating infrastructure projects. Mean and Standard Deviation was utilized to analyze the data before and after the adoption of HGDG, while secondary data from the agency was used to describe how HGDG affects the prioritization of the DPWH Infrastructure Project in terms of gender and development responsiveness. The survey result showed that before the adoption of HGDG, the level of gender responsiveness of the infrastructure projects was moderate (x=1.86) (sd=0.43), which means that most of its road infrastructures and related facilities have promising GAD prospects but still need further technical assistance in some areas. While after the HGDG was adopted, the gender responsiveness of the infrastructure projects improved, as shown in the result that was described as high (x=2.50) (sd=0.25). By using the HGDG Tool, the department has guaranteed that the following factors are taken into account during the program/project identification stage: (a) the involvement of both men and women in problem identification; (b) the generation and use of sex-disaggregated data (SDD); and (c) gender analysis to identify gender issues. Lastly, the identified mechanisms to be developed to sustain a gender-responsive infrastructure project are the following: (a) involvement in the decision-making, (b) intensifying the implementation and monitoring, and (c) forging a partnership with other networks.

Page(s): 231-237                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61014

 Jezabel E. Tuling
Masters in Public Administration Major in Organization and Management
Cor Jesu College, Digos, Davao del Sur, Philippines

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Jezabel E. Tuling, “Harmonized Gender and Development Guideline and Its Effect on Gender Responsive Infrastructure Projects of DPWH Region XI” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.231-237 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61014

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Implications of USA-China Clashing Interests in The Asia Pacific Region on International Peace and Security: Reflections of The South China Sea Dispute from 2012 to 2022

Emmanuel Sakarombe, Pedzisai Sixpence, Alouis Chilunjika and Jonah Marawako – October 2022- Page No.: 238-247

Asia Pacific region has become a region of strategic importance for both the United States of America (USA) and People’ Republic of China. As a result renewed interests have emerged. Both countries are actively competing for natural resources especially oil, for political and tactical influence as well as to ensure they expand their interests. These increased interests have reduced the Asia Pacific region to become a battleground for power and influence hence negatively affecting the presence of peace and security. This current situation has disposed the Asia Pacific region to become a center-piece for rivalry and is a region at risk of great power competition. Tensions between the US and China have created conditions of aggressive, assertive and revisionist tendencies. This has generated insecurities among countries in the Asia Pacific region. The South China Sea now presents an arena in which the US and China can show-case their power. The South China Sea is moving from being a marginal area to become the epicenter of US-China relations, this might affect peace and security in the region because these two major powers are prepared to go to war so as to safeguard their interests in the South China Sea. This paper provides an analysis of the implications of US-China interests in the Asia Pacific region on peace and security. The article examined the case of the South China Sea Dispute. This paper recommends that the US and China should locate areas of mutual interests and focus on collective interests which assures a peaceful and secure Asia Pacific region. The US and China should manage their relations with focus of creating a stable and conducive Asia Pacific region, through mutual respect and understanding.

Page(s): 238-247                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

 Emmanuel Sakarombe
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

 Pedzisai Sixpence
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

 Alouis Chilunjika
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

 Jonah Marawako
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

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Emmanuel Sakarombe, Pedzisai Sixpence, Alouis Chilunjika and Jonah Marawako “Implications of USA-China Clashing Interests in The Asia Pacific Region on International Peace and Security: Reflections of The South China Sea Dispute from 2012 to 2022” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.238-247 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/238-247.pdf

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Legal Politics of Money Laundering Law on Taxpayer Evasion Cases

Dr. Imam Ropii, S.H., M.H and Umar Said, S.H – October 2022- Page No.: 248-251

Lately, some people have misused a tax collection system to benefit themselves. One of them is the misuse of the self-assessment system, this system does not look like its initial goal, namely to improve tax compliance from taxpayers, but taxpayers interpret it as a gap in the implementation of tax avoidance activities. At a practical level, taxpayers can carry out tax avoidance activities such as setting operating costs, goods for sale, transfer pricing, and intercompany pricing, this can be done to minimize or avoid paying taxes. Of course, in the author’s opinion, this is a crime in the taxation sector, and it can even be categorized as an initial crime of money laundering, hereinafter referred to as ML. So that the author aims to conduct this research in order to explore and examine the direction of legal politics with regard to money laundering in the case of taxpayer evasion by using a statutory approach and a conceptual approach. The results of the study show that there is a connection between tax crimes and money laundering offenses, where tax crime is a predicate crime and money laundering is a derivative crime. Where it was also found that the legal political direction of the ML law adheres to the concursus realist principle which in its law enforcement ML is independent, and there is an obligation for investigators to investigate the merger between predicate crimes, in this case, tax crimes and money laundering offenses.

Page(s): 248-251                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

 Dr. Imam Ropii, S.H., M.H
Lecturer Master of Law, Indonesia

 Umar Said, S.H
Master of Law Student, Indonesia

[1] Arifki, N.A. and Azmi, I.F. (2020), “Tax Avoidance in the Discourse on the Crime of Money Laundering.” Pandecta: Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 15 No. 2, available at :https://journal.unnes.ac.id/nju/index.php/pandecta/article/view/18667.
[2] Denniagi, E. (2021), “Economic Analysis of the Criminalization of Money Laundering in Law Number 8 of 2010 on Prevention and Eradication of Money Laundering.” Lex Renaissan 6, No. 2.
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[5] Mahfud, M.D., (2011), The constitutional law debate after the constitutional amendment, Rajawali Pers, Jakarta.
[6] Pradityo, R. (2021), “Criminal Law Policy in Efforts to Combat the Crime of Money Laundering Performed by Corporations”, The Supremacy of Law: Journal of Legal Research 30, No.1.
[7] Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 8 of 2010 on the Prevention and Eradication of Money Laundering.

Dr. Imam Ropii, S.H., M.H and Umar Said, S.H “Legal Politics of Money Laundering Law on Taxpayer Evasion Cases” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.248-251 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/248-251.pdf

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Analysis of Trends in Food Supply and Intake in Bangladesh

Farzana Sultana Bari, Sanjib Ahmad Talukder Tonoy, Tasrin Jahan, Mohammad Abdul Mannan, Abdus Salam Mondol – October 2022- Page No.: 252-257

the nutritional scenario is gradually improving in developing countries like Bangladesh. This study presents analytical description on the supply trend of rice, wheat, total cereals, pulses, edible oil or oil seeds, sugar or sugarcane, etc during 2004, 2010, and 2016. These statuses have been based on change in supply levels in the light of data available. Data available on food supply from food balance sheet in FAOSTAT of FAO; on food intake from Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) were the basis of trend analysis of the study. In the year of 2004 to 2016 total food supply increased from 297.6kg to 417.21kg per capita year: whereas during the same period the total food intake decreased from 856.1g to 852.67g per capita per day in the country. There might be surplus of cereals in the country, but these prospects are likely to reduce in the years to come. This situation is even more alarming for pulses. Food based approach particularly supply of adequate safe and nutritious food, adequate intake of diversified food can ensure sustainable health and nutritional status of the population. To meet the future food requirements, the country have to either increase food production and supply, or depend on imports.

Page(s): 252-257                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

 Farzana Sultana Bari
Department of Public Health Nutrition, Primeasia University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Sanjib Ahmad Talukder Tonoy
Hi-Care General Hospital Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Tasrin Jahan
Department of Public Health Nutrition, Primeasia University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Mohammad Abdul Mannan
Nutrition Policy Advisor, Meeting the Undernutrition challenge (MUCH) FPMU, Ministry of Food, Bangladesh

 Abdus Salam Mondol
Department of Public Health Nutrition, Primeasia University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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[10]. Nahar. Quamrun, Subhagata Choudhury, Md. Omar Faruque, Syeda Saliha Saliheen Sultana, and Muhammad Ali Siddiquee (2013). Dietary Guidelines for Bangladesh. Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), with the support of National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Program (NFPCSP) of FAO, Food Planning and Monitoring Unit (FPMU) and USAID and EU. pp. 7-25.
[11]. National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates and ICF International (2009). Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2007. Dhaka, Bangladesh and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates and ICF International. pp. 145-147 and 163-164.
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[14]. www.grida.no/publications/154 The Environmental Food Crisis: The Environment’s Role in Averting Future Food Crises, 2009
[15]. www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/intake

Farzana Sultana Bari, Sanjib Ahmad Talukder Tonoy, Tasrin Jahan, Mohammad Abdul Mannan, Abdus Salam Mondol “Analysis of Trends in Food Supply and Intake in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.252-257 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/252-257.pdf

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COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown and the Transportation Industry (A Case of Lagos, Nigeria)

Adebakin, Oluyinka Osoja, Olasunkanmi O. Olasokan, Opeyemi Awotoye Michael, Olusegun Kayode Adenaiya – October 2022- Page No.: 258-269

The world economy has been ravaged by the Pandemic Lockdown, whose origin could be traced to China, and the world has since been stagnant from all formal activities for a longer period than initially projected, coupled with the Ukraine-Russian war. In a bid to curtail the spread of the virus, movement restriction was recommended by the world health organization (WHO), which has affected tremendously the transportation industry globally, as the industry depends heavily on mobility. This research, therefore, aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the transportation industry, to evaluate the various post-COVID-19 pandemic recovery and resilience strategies adopted by the transportation. The researcher adopted the review of various scholarly publications on the subject matter, which was used to draw inferences; primary data was also collected using a questionnaire, which was subjected to analysis for hypothesis testing. The research recommends Post crises management strategies, secured employment contracts, fair working conditions, and fair salaries for transportation employees, to aid their quick recovery; proper orientation on sustainable development strategies to help reduce the severity of the Pandemic, introduction of supportable development programs at various terminals to help reduce the severity of the pandemic lockdown on the transportation industry. Finally, the government and its stakeholders should adopt post COVID-19 recovery strategies which include postponement of all dues, and direct financial assistance, to help reduce the significant impact of the pandemic lockdown on the transportation industry and its employee.

Page(s): 258-269                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

 Adebakin, Oluyinka Osoja
Department of Transportation and Urban Infrastructure, Morgan State University Baltimore, Maryland United States of America

 Olasunkanmi O. Olasokan
Registry Department Lagos State University of Science and Technology, Ikorodu Lagos, Nigeria

 Opeyemi Awotoye Michael
Department of Transportation and Urban Infrastructure, Morgan State University Baltimore, Maryland United States of America

 Olusegun Kayode Adenaiya
Office of traffic and safety development, Maryland department of transportation, Hanover MD, USA

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Adebakin, Oluyinka Osoja, Olasunkanmi O. Olasokan, Opeyemi Awotoye Michael, Olusegun Kayode Adenaiya “COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown and the Transportation Industry (A Case of Lagos, Nigeria)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.258-269 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/258-269.pdf

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Promoting Human Resource Training Activities for The Southern Key Economic Region of Vietnam

Dinh Thi Huyen – October 2022- Page No.: 270-273

The Southern Key Economic Region includes 8 provinces and cities: Ho Chi Minh City, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, Dong Nai, Ba Ria – Vung Tau, Tay Ninh, Long An and Tien Giang. This area is considered as one of the most dynamic economic regions of the country. Therefore, it is very necessary to train and develop human resources in both quantity and quality to meet the socio-economic development requirements of each locality as well as the whole region. The Southern Key Economic Zone is a densely populated area, so it has an abundant labor force, plus a high level of expertise and production organization. Accompanying that is the investment in strong facilities to help the southern key economic region develop extremely.

Page(s): 270-273                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61015

 Dinh Thi Huyen
Ly Tu Trong College Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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Dinh Thi Huyen “Promoting Human Resource Training Activities for The Southern Key Economic Region of Vietnam” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.270-273 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61015

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Stakeholders’ Perceptions of The Relationship Between Parental Role and Students’ Delinquent Behaviors Change at College Saint-Andre, Nyarugenge District, Rwanda.

Victor Ndangamyambi, & Prof. Abdulrazaq Olayinka Oniye – October 2022- Page No.: 274-287

This research aimed at assessing the stakeholders’ perceptions of the relationship between parental role and student’s delinquent behaviors change at Collège Saint-André. Specific objectives of the research were to find out the relationship between parent- child relationship; child safeguarding and protection; and parent regular follow- up and student’s delinquent behaviors change at Collège Saint-André. Alternative hypotheses of the research were H1-3: there is significant relationship between parental- child relationship; child safeguarding and protection; and parent regular follow- up and student’s delinquent behaviors change at Collège Saint-André. The research used a mix of descriptive, empirical and correlational design. A sample of 104 respondents were selected from five clusters namely parents, students, teachers, staffs, and the sector education officers who responded to a questionnaire designed in form of five levels Likert scale. The data was analyzed using SPSS Statistics version 23. The results of the study revealed that parental- child relationship was positive and significant (β1= 0. 351; p< 0.05) to student’s delinquent behaviors change at Collège Saint-André; child safeguarding and protection was positive and significant (β2= 0. 219; p< 0.05); and parent regular follow- up was positive but not significant (β3= 0. 062; p>0.05). The R2 results indicated that parental- child relationship, child safeguarding and protection, and parent regular follow- up contribute 67.2% to the change in student’s delinquent behaviors at Collège Saint-André. The researcher concluded that parental- child relationship as well as child safeguarding and protection were positive and significant to students’ delinquent behaviors change. Therefore effective mechanisms of facing todays’ challenging juvenile delinquent behaviours specifically in schools consists of promoting awareness of the role of parents through improved good communication increasing trust into children, ensure their security from violence and flexible follow- up promoting autonomization. The researcher recommended to parents to improve their relationship with their children, to promote safeguarding and protection to their children and moderate their regular follow- up while promoting children’s autonomy.

Page(s): 274-287                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

 Victor Ndangamyambi
Master’s student (Educational Management and Administration), Graduate School, University of Kigali (Rwanda)

 Prof. Abdulrazaq Olayinka Oniye
Lecturer, Graduate School, University of Kigali (Rwanda)

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Victor Ndangamyambi, & Prof. Abdulrazaq Olayinka Oniye “Stakeholders’ Perceptions of The Relationship Between Parental Role and Students’ Delinquent Behaviors Change at College Saint-Andre, Nyarugenge District, Rwanda.” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.274-287 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/274-287.pdf

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Analysis of The Board of Director Independence on The Financial Performance Deposit Taking Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in Kiambu County, Kenya

Mary Katheu Nzomo – October 2022- Page No.: 288-324

Over the recent past, the Savings and Credit Co-operative sector have experienced persistent poor financial performance due to poor adoption of board of director independence strategy. This is in spite of the fact that the sector is an important contributor of the economics growth in Kenya. There have been financial woes especially in the deposit taking Savings and Credit Co-operative’s in Kenya that have been attributed to poor board of director independence strategy. The study’s main purpose is to establish the effect of board of directors’ and the performance of deposit taking Savings and Credit Co-operative’s in Kenya. It was however guided by the following independent variables that are: board structure; board diversity; CEO duality; and directors’ equity interest and financial performance of deposit taking Savings and Credit Co-operatives in Kiambu County. This study adopted mixed research methodology and correlational research design approaches. The target population was forty two registered and licensed Deposit-Taking Savings and Credit Co-operatives within Kiambu County Kenya. Census sampling technique was adopted in this study. Primary data was collected by use of structured questionnaires that was in five point non-comparative Likert scale. Pilot test was conducted from K-Unity DT-SACCO in Kiambu County through pre-testing the questionnaire on ten participants. Reliabilty was done through a random selection of ten (10) participants from K-Unity Sacco Limited in Kiambu County however the results were not part of the actual data analysis in this study. The reliability of 0.70 or higher (was obtained on a significant sample) was appropriate as a rule of thumb. Descriptive analysis was conducted using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) that resulted to means and standard deviation; multiple regression analysis; and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tables. The respondents’ consent was sought on the basis that anonymity and confidentiality was wholly ensured for the purpose of the study. This study found that board independence i.e. Board structure, Board Diversity, CEO Duality, Director’s Equity positively influences financial performance of Dt-Sacco’s in Kiambu County. It is recommended by the study that the board structure, board diversity, CEO duality, director’s equity for financial performance should be characterized by an increase in gender balance of the board members, an increase in meetings, increased managerial ownership and improved equity of each director for improved financial performance of Dt-Sacco’s.

Page(s): 288-324                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 November 2022

 Mary Katheu Nzomo
Mount Kenya University, Kenya

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Mary Katheu Nzomo “Analysis of The Board of Director Independence on The Financial Performance Deposit Taking Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in Kiambu County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.288-324 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/288-324.pdf

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Causes of Premarital Sex Among Undergraduate Students of University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Ayodele Mandela, ASEBIOMO (Ph.D), & Adebayo Lawrence, OJO (M.Ed) – October 2022- Page No.: 325-329

This study examined the causes of premarital sex among undergraduate students of University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed while a total of 200 male and female students were purposively and accidentally selected. A 35 items questionnaire named Causes of Premarital Sex Questionnaire (CPSQ) developed by the researchers was used to generate data for the study. The instrument was validated by expert’s and a reliability index of 0.84 was obtained using the Person Product Moment Correlation. Data generated were analyzed using percentage and multiple regression to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. On the basis of findings, the study concludes that premarital sex among undergraduate students of University of Ilorin were caused by peers, media, single parenthood, economic reason, academic progression and curiosity. Recommendations are made, among which is that sex education curriculum should be developed by the National Universities Commission (NUC) for higher institution of learning in Nigeria. This will contribute to the understanding of students on the dangers associated with premarital sex and prepare them on how to manage sexual urges

Page(s): 325-329                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 November 2022

 Ayodele Mandela, ASEBIOMO (Ph.D)
Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), Sheda-Abuja, Nigeria

 Adebayo Lawrence, OJO (M.Ed)
Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), Sheda-Abuja, Nigeria

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Ayodele Mandela, ASEBIOMO (Ph.D), & Adebayo Lawrence, OJO (M.Ed) “Causes of Premarital Sex Among Undergraduate Students of University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.325-329 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/325-329.pdf

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Assessment of the implementation of the Pioneer Secondary School Science Teachers Education Programme in the three Primary Teachers Colleges in Zimbabwe

Dr Florence Dube, and Peter Njini – October 2022- Page No.: 330-346

The research was concerned with assessment of the Secondary Science Teacher Programme that was introduced in the three Primary Teachers Colleges namely Masvingo, Mkoba and Joshua Mqabuko Polytechnic. Interviews were held with Administration personnel in the three colleges to find out how administration dealt with financing and staffing of the programme. Focus group discussions were held with members of the lecturing staff running the Secondary Science Teacher Programme in the three colleges, to find out the support that they got from administration to run the program, how the program was structured and implemented. A questionnaire was administered to students of the pioneer group who completed the course to find their opinions on the course. Findings were that the three colleges received money from the government to buy science equipment, books and consumables to run the course. All the three colleges used lecturers already in college to kick-start the programme. Learning space was also shared between the Primary and Secondary programs. Generally, lecturers running the programs were qualified to teach at that level. Programs that were running in the three colleges were comparable in terms of content but differences’ were seen in assessment and lack of practical activities in the colleges. Recommendations were that the University of Zimbabwe could revisit assessment in the Handbook guidelines while colleges could revisit their criteria of selecting students and structure of the course in terms of subject combinations. It was recommended that the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Innovation, Science and Technology Development could help colleges by sourcing for equipment and resources from a central point. The Ministry could also provide colleges with learning space and more lecturers to run the programme.

Page(s): 330-346                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 November 2022

 Dr Florence Dube
Former Principal of Mkoba Teachers College, Zimbabwe

 Peter Njini
Principal Lecturer in Mathematics at Mkoba Teachers College, Zimbabwe

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Dr Florence Dube, and Peter Njini “Assessment of the implementation of the Pioneer Secondary School Science Teachers Education Programme in the three Primary Teachers Colleges in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.330-346 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/330-346.pdf

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Mediating Effect of Transformational Leadership Style of School Heads on the Relationship Between Organizational Climate and Self-Esteem of Teachers

Glorybeth C. Pesania – October 2022- Page No.: 347-361

This academic endeavor aimed to determine the mediating effect of the transformational leadership style of school heads on the relationship between organizational climate and teachers’ self-esteem. This quantitative study utilizes mediation analysis with the comprehensive interpretation of the data gathered through statistical treatments (Mean, Correlation Analysis, Med-graph using Sobel z-test). The participants were selected through a stratified random sampling technique where they were identified as secondary school teachers of the Municipality of Santo Tomas, Schools Division of Davao del Norte. Results of the study revealed that the Level of Organizational Climate perceived by Secondary School Teachers in Santo Tomas has a high descriptive equivalent, Level of Self-Esteem of Teachers also has a high descriptive equivalent. Level of Transformational Leadership Style of School heads has a very high descriptive equivalent. It is also concluded based on the mediation analysis of the study that transformational leadership of school heads did not explain any significant portion of the relationship between organizational climate and self-esteem of secondary school teachers of the Municipality of Santo Tomas. However, the study also shows a strong relationship between organizational climate and self-esteem

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61016

Page(s): 347-361                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 November 2022

 Glorybeth C. Pesania
Department of Education, Sto.Tomas National High School, Philippines

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[90] Zapata, G. P., & Hargreaves, D.J (2018). The Effects of Musical Activities on the Self – Esteem of Displaced Children in Colombia. Psychology of Music. 46 (4), 540 – 550.

Glorybeth C. Pesania , “Mediating Effect of Transformational Leadership Style of School Heads on the Relationship Between Organizational Climate and Self-Esteem of Teachers” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.347-361 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61016

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English Second Language Pedagogy and its Effectiveness in the Rural Milieu of Namibia’s Kavango East Region

Natalia S. Intja, Sitemo R. Mufenda, Bilha, K. Simuketa – October 2022- Page No.: 362-366

After Namibia gained independence, there was a move towards an education for all. This meant that Namibians had to baptize a certain language as their official language. Namibians opted for English as the official language because it was more uniting than using a certain local language. Using a local language as the lingua franca would have empowered one ethnic grouping at the expense of others. In line with the adoption of English as the official language, the Ministry of Education, Arts, Sports and Culture began implementing English as a medium of instruction in all state schools and schools subsidized by government. Undoubtedly this move seems promising for the Namibian education sector but bring with it several challenges, particularly in rural areas. The study employed a combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The initial target population of this study was all learners and English language teachers in the rural milieu of Kavango East. However due to numerous constraints, the study comprised of 4 teachers from 2 rural schools of the Kavango East Region. Convenience sampling technique was ideal for this study as not all rural schools were being accessible to the researchers due to economic constraints. Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interview guides were used in the study. Inductive analysis was used in the study to derive concepts from data. Collected data were descriptively analysed and interpreted question by question. Findings were reported/ presented according to emerging themes. The findings in this study should serve as a wake up for the education ministry to ensure that advisory services are provided to teachers. There is an urgent need for government to invest more into building of classrooms to reduce over crowdedness, more budgetary allocations are needed to equip schools with ICT tools that will advance teaching and learning in the rural schools of Kavango East. Finally, this study recommends capacity building workshops for English teachers at least twice a year as this may equip them with the pedagogical skills to navigate their daily English classroom challenges.

Page(s): 362-366                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 November 2022

 Natalia S. Intja
Department of Intermediate and Vocational Education, University of Namibia

 Sitemo R. Mufenda
Department of Intermediate and Vocational Education, University of Namibia

 Bilha, K. Simuketa
Department of Intermediate and Vocational Education, University of Namibia

[1] Abebe, T. T., & Davidson, L. M. (2012). Assessing the Role of Visual Teaching Materials in Teaching English Vocabulary (Report). Language in India, 12, 524-552.
[2] Akasha, O. (2013). Exploring the Challenges Facing Arabic-Speaking ESL Students and Teachers in Middle School. Journal of ELT and Applied Linguistics, 1, 12-31.
[3] Barber, W., & King, S. (2016). Teacher-Student Perspectives of Invisible Pedagogy: New Directions in Online Problem-Based Learning Environments. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 14, 235-243.
[4] Ceka, A., & Murati, R. (2016). The Role of Parents in the Education of Children. Journal of Education and Practice, 7, 61-64.
[5] Cresswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. (2011). Designing and conducting Mixed Methods Research. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage
[6] Davila, L. T. (2019). “J’aime to Be Funny!”: Humor, Learning, and Identity Construction in High School English as a Second Language Classrooms. The Modern Language Journal, 103, 502-514.
[7] Education Management Information System (2016). Education Statistics. Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture.
[8] Greeff, M. (2011). Information collection: interviewing. In A.S. de Vos, H. Strydom, C.B. Fouche and C.S.L Delport (Eds.). Research at grass roots. For the social sciences and human service professions. 4th edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
[9] Harris, P. (2011). Language in Schools in Namibia: The Missing Link in Educational Achievement. The Urban Trust of Namibia.
[10] Igbemi, M. J. (2011). Constraints in teacher education and effects on teaching and learning of home economics in primary schools. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 1(3), 224-524.
[11] Jansen, J. D. (1995). Understanding social transition through the lens of curriculum policy: Namibia/South Africa. Journal of Curriculum Studies. Vol. 27 (3): p. 245-261.
[12] Kisting, D. (2011). 98% of Teachers Not Fluent in English. The Namibian Newspaper. https://www.namibian.com.na/index.php?id=87893&page=archive-read
[13] Lumbu, S. D. (2013). A case of study of the constraints perceived and encountered by Grade 10 teachers in teaching English as a second language in rural combined schools in the Oshana region. Master’s Thesis, University of Namibia: Windhoek.
[14] Mawere, M. (2012). Reflection on the Problems Encountered in the Teaching and Learning of English Language in Mozambique’s Public Schools. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 5, 38-46.
[15] Nawala, N. (2005). The Strategic Plan for the Education and Training Sector Improvement Programme: Planning for a Learning nation. Windhoek: ETSIP.
[16] Nyathi, F. S (1999). Constraints encountered by ESL H/IGCSE teachers teaching ESL in Namibian secondary schools (a case of Khorixas Education Region). Master’s Thesis, University of Namibia: Windhoek.

Natalia S. Intja, Sitemo R. Mufenda, Bilha, K. Simuketa “English Second Language Pedagogy and its Effectiveness in the Rural Milieu of Namibia’s Kavango East Region” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.362-366 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/362-366.pdf

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The Current Situation and Some Solutions to Improve the Quality of Education Socialization in Vietnam Today

Nguyen Phuoc Trong – October 2022- Page No.: 367-369

In Vietnam, the socialization of education was officially introduced and implemented from the Government’s Resolution No. 90-CP dated August 21, 1997 on the direction and policy of socializing education and health activities, culture. The socialization of education is a major policy of our Party and State. Initially, certain results have been achieved in mobilizing social resources to meet the increasing needs of all classes of people. In this article, the author focuses on clarifying the status of socialization of education along with clarifying the advantages and limitations in the work of educational socialization in recent years, thereby proposing solutions to improve the socialization of education. The role of educational socialization contributes to the cause of industrialization and modernization of the country

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61017

Page(s): 367-369                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 November 2022

 Nguyen Phuoc Trong
PhD Student, Thu Dau Mot University, Vietnam

[1] Chu Van Thanh et al (2004). Public services and socialization of public services – some theoretical and practical issues. National Political Publishing House, Vietnam.
[2] Chu Van Thanh (2007). Public services – innovation management and supply organization in Vietnam today. National Political Publishing House, Vietnam.
[3] Government of Vietnam (2005). Resolution No. 14/2005/NQ-CP on fundamental and comprehensive renovation of higher education in Vietnam for the period 2006 – 2020. Issued on November 2, 2005
[4] Government of Vietnam (1997). Resolution 90/NQ-CP on the direction and policy of socialization of educational, medical and cultural activities. Issued on August 21, 1997
[5] Ngo Thi Thu Ha (2014). The role of education and training in human resource development in Vietnam today. Vietnam Journal of Social Sciences, No. 3-2014.
[6] Nguyen Quang Sang (2021). The role of the state in the socialization of education in Vietnam. https://www.quanlynhanuoc.vn/2021/06/08/vai-tro-cua-nha-nuoc-trong-xa-hoi-hoa-Giao-duc-o-viet-nam/. Posted on June 8, 2021.
[7] Nguyen Thi Tuyet Van (2013). Fundamental and comprehensive renovation of education and training – Current situation and solutions. Journal of State Management, National Academy of Public Administration.
[8] National Assembly of Vietnam (2018). Law No. 34/2018/QH 14 Law amending and supplementing a number of articles of higher education. Issued on November 19, 2018.

Nguyen Phuoc Trong “The Current Situation and Some Solutions to Improve the Quality of Education Socialization in Vietnam Today” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.367-369 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61017

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Community Policing in Crime Management in Ongata Rongai, Kenya

Clifford Gichaba Okwoyo – October 2022- Page No.: 370-376

Community policing is an approach to policing that brings together the police and local communities to develop local solutions to safety and security concerns. This study sought to assess community policing in crime management in OngataRongai, Kajiado County. The study was guided by three specific objectives; to examine community policing partnerships, to analyze crime intervention techniques and to identify organizational features in crime management in OngataRongai. Broken Windows ‘Theory’ of Crime was applied in addressing the theoretical background of the study as well as linking it to the study objectives. Descriptive research design was used as the methodology for carrying out research. The target population for this study comprised Kenya National Police Service, State officers from the Ministry of Interior, Government policing agencies, and stakeholders from Religious groups Community-Based Organizations, civil society organizations, business community, the private security industry, the media, Non-Governmental Organizations, special needs groups, educational institutions, youth and women’s organizations. Purposive sampling was utilized and the sample size was 100 respondents. The study used questionnaires, guided interview schedules, telephone interviews and focused group discussions. A total of 3 Focus Group Discussions and 4 key informant interviews were conducted. Validity and reliability of the questionnaires were determined by conducting a pilot study in the adjacent sub-county of Ngong. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data was presented through content analysis as obtained from the field exercise. The major findings of the study include; the existing partnerships were not effective due to lack of trust and interest between the police and members of public to CP program in OngataRongai; the introduction of flood lights, mulika platform, marking/naming of streets, regular foot and mobile patrols, KaziMtaani Programmes, installation of CCTV Cameras and zoning of areas had enhanced safety and security by positively contributing to a decrease in crime; LEMELEPO, Ole Kassasi, and OngataRongai CBOs had assisted to bring down levels of crime. These were some of the key recommendations; The police should cultivate a culture of partnership with members of the public by identifying and striving to overcome the problem of long-standing mutual mistrust and suspicion; the government should ensure the police are equipped adequately with the necessary logistics, training, terms and conditions of service and facilitation to enable the them discharge their mandate effectively; members of public should be sensitised on the importance of having good relationship with the police and providing information concerning insecurity and other forms of crime; and lastly the government should create an enabling environment for the conduct of business in the country to prevent the youth from engaging in criminal activities.

Page(s): 370-376                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61018

 Clifford Gichaba Okwoyo
Department of International Relations, Conflict and Strategic Studies, Kenyatta University, Kenya

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[3] Bowers, K. (2014). Risky facilities: Crime radiators or crime absorbers? A comparison of internal and external levels of theft. Journal of Quantitative Criminology , 30:389–414.
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[10] Gjelsvik, I. M. (2020). Police Reform and Community Policing in Kenya: The Bumpy Road from Policy to Practice.
[11] Heale, R., & Twycross, A. (2015). Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. . Evidence-based nursing, 18(3), , 66-67.
[12] Kamau, A. W. (2018). ). Attitude Towards Community-Based Policing By The Kenyan Communities In Prevention Of Crime: A Case Of Koibatek Sub-County Of Baringo County. Nairobi: (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[13] Karuri, J. G., & Muna, W. (2019). Effects of community policing on crime prevention in Kakamega County, Kenya. . International Academic Journal of Law and Society, 1(2),, 312-327.
[14] Kenya, R. o. (2018). Kenya Police annual report 2018. Nairobi: Government Printers .
[15] Kiprono, W., & Karungari, M. (2016). Peace building challenges in Kenya: Implementation of community policing as a critical factor. International Journal of Contemporary Research & Review, 7(12),, 20185-20204.
[16] Mohajan, H. K. (2018). Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1),, 23-48.
[17] Muchira, J. M. (2016). The role of community policing in crime prevention: Kirinyaga county, Central Kenya . Thika: (Doctoral dissertation, Mount Kenya University).
[18] Mutegi, T. M. (2017). Strategic responses by Administration Police Service in Kenya to crime prevention: A case study of Nairobi County . Nairobi: (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
[19] Ogoti, N. G. (2018). Citizen’s Participation Effectiveness and Community Policing Scenario at Ongata Rongai in Kajiado County, Kenya . Nairobi: (Doctoral dissertation, Kenyatta University).
[20] Okafor, J., & Aniche, E. (2018). Policing the community or community policing: implication for community development in Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, ISSN, 2224-5766.
[21] Okech, R. (2017). Community Policing and Security in Kenya: Case Study of Ngong’Sub county, 2003-2013 . Nairobi: (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
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[23] Parashina, I. K. (2018). Institutional Challenges for Sustainable Management of Urban Areas in Kenya: a Case Study of Kajiado County . (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
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Clifford Gichaba Okwoyo “Community Policing in Crime Management in Ongata Rongai, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.370-376 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61018

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Applying Ethical Issues in Research Statistical Analysis and Their Relation to Human Actions

Harisa Mardiana – October 2022- Page No.: 377-380

Researchers in calculating or measuring statistics use research tools or software, and researchers must apply research ethics. However, many researchers are negligent in research ethics, especially in using statistics. It is related to the relationship and the actions of the researchers themselves. Thus, if ethical norms in research are not applied, there is falsifying, fabrication, and misrepresenting data that does not support the truth. The researcher’s responsibility seems to be lost, and the honesty of the researcher disappears.
The actions of researchers or humans like that happen a lot and make research useless. This article discusses the dishonesty of researchers, third-party interference, and conflicts of interest. So, it becomes a fatal error. Therefore, the ideal of scientific perfection, where researchers must think critically and scientifically, feel or act and have reliability in measurement, is unpredictable.

Page(s): 377-380                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61019

 Harisa Mardiana
Department Informatics Engineering, Universitas Buddhi Dharma, Indonesia

[1] Ahmar, A. S., Kurniasih, N., Irawan, D. E., Sutiksno, D. U., Napitupulu, D., Hafid, H., Setiawan, M. I., Simarmata, J., Wibowo, A., Sururi, A., Iskandar, A., Saleky, A. P., Kurniawan, C., Sagala, D., Novitasari, D., Indriani, D. E., Kismawadi, E. R., Ende, Souisa, F., … Abraham, J. (2018). Lecturers’ understanding on indexing databases of SINTA, DOAJ, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, and Web of Science: A study of Indonesians. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 954. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/954/1/012026
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Harisa Mardiana “Applying Ethical Issues in Research Statistical Analysis and Their Relation to Human Actions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.377-380 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61019

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A Critical Analysis of Learner performance in the Content-Based and Outcome-Based Secondary School History Curriculum in Zambia

Nisbert Machila, Ferdinand M Chipindi, Euston Chiputa and Bestern Kaani – October 2022- Page No.: 381-390

In this article a critical analysis of learner performance in the content based and outcome-based history curriculum is explored. The aim of study was to determine whether there was any statistical significance in learners’ performance between the content based and outcome-based curriculum in Lusaka, Zambia. The study further sought to ascertain the extent pupils’ demographic characteristics influence secondary school history achievement as a function of school type and syllabi. The study focused on six schools in Lusaka district, of which two were government, two private and two Missionary Grant Aided. Data were collected using document study, examination of Zambia reports, observations and scholarly works. The sample of 8,276 grade 12 history learners who sat for the national secondary school certificate in the period 2011 to 2020 in six secondary schools were used. A one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the effect of syllabus type on performance of the learners. The study results show that history learners performed statistically better on Outcome-based education (M 66.24 and SD 31.24) compared to Content-based education (M 28.53, SD20.36). The study also revealed that demographic factors such as type of syllabus and school type were statistically significant in their contribution to learners’ academic performance. Another interesting finding of the study was that private and grant-aided schools outperformed government schools in both syllabus types. Most private and grant-aided schools seem to perform better in good governance and human resource management, availability of teaching/learning resources, good pupil-teacher ratio, well trained and experienced teachers, teachers’ motivation through awards and better infrastructure development. The findings of the study prompted the proposal of a recommendation to revisit the senior secondary school History syllabus for it to respond to the Zambian changing dynamics such as a shift from emphasis Eurocentric views to Zambianised History

Page(s): 381-390                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 November 2022

 Nisbert Machila
University of Zambia, School of Education, Zambia

 Ferdinand M Chipindi
University of Zambia, School of Education, Zambia

 Euston Chiputa
University of Zambia, School of Education, Zambia

 Bestern Kaani
University of Zambia, School of Education, Zambia

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[26] Maluma, P. and Banja, M. K. (2019). Factors affecting pupil academic performance at grade twelve (12) level of selected grant-aided secondary school in Zambia. Multidisciplinary Journal of Language and Social Sciences Education, 2, 2, 95-118.
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Nisbert Machila, Ferdinand M Chipindi, Euston Chiputa and Bestern Kaani , “A Critical Analysis of Learner performance in the Content-Based and Outcome-Based Secondary School History Curriculum in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.381-390 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/381-390.pdf

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Comparative Effectiveness of Inductive and Deductive Teaching of Indices in Secondary Schools in Bamenda Municipality-Cameroon

Beyoh Dieudone Nkepah (PhD) – October 2022- Page No.: 391-394

The purpose of the study was to compare the mean achievement scores of students taught indices using the inductive and the deductive methods and to ascertain which of these two methods could minimise gender inequality in the learning of indices. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design where two Form Three intact classes were sampled using both the purposive and the simple random sampling techniques. A pre-test and a post-test were administered to the two intact classes to determine their cognitive levels before and after the experiment respectively. Two equivalent forms of a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) in indices were used to achieve this purpose. The findings of the study revealed that students taught indices using the inductive method performed significantly better than those taught using the deductive teaching method. The findings also showed that female students performed better than their male counterparts when taught indices using the inductive teaching method, while the male students performed better than their female counterparts when taught indices using the deductive teaching method. It was recommended that mathematics teachers in Bamenda municipality should adopt the inductive method in teaching indices. Seminars could be organised to build their capacities in relation to the use of this teaching method. Lastly, if education stakeholders in Bamenda municipality are interested in maintaining gender equality in the learning of mathematics and specifically in the learning of indices, then the inductive teaching method is strongly recommended.

Page(s): 391-394                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61020

 Beyoh Dieudone Nkepah (PhD)
Teacher Education Department (TED) – STEM Programme, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

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[3] Nicole, S., & Timothy, J. (2007). Comparing inductive and deductive methodologies for design patterns identification and articulation. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Press.
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[5] Wardani, S. & Kusuma, I. W. (2020). Comparison of learning in inductive and deductive approach to increase student’s conceptual understanding based on international standard curriculum. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9 (1), 70-78.

Beyoh Dieudone Nkepah (PhD) “Comparative Effectiveness of Inductive and Deductive Teaching of Indices in Secondary Schools in Bamenda Municipality-Cameroon” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.391-394 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61020

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Promoting Compliance to Covid-19 prevention Protocol: Health Education Action Point

Ukandu, Chidiebere. P., Echewendu, Ezinne & Ekenedo, G. O. – October 2022- Page No.: 395-401

COVID-19 is a very significant public health problem that has challenged to exhaustion the scientific, technological and medical prowess of all nations including the acclaimed industrialized/developed nations of the world. Owing to the fast spreading nature of COVID-19 and its fatality potential, preventing the spread, treatment and development of vaccine for the virus became topmost priority of world leaders. Although, vaccines have been recently developed, eliminating the source of infection, cutting off the route of transmission, and protecting people from COVID-19 has been central to the actions of health authorities. Therefore, the need to leverage on health education. Health Education is important components of disease prevention activities in general, but during disease outbreaks and health emergencies. This paper is review on the trends of COVID-19 with particular focus on compliance prevention protocol and compliance. Most importantly, the reviewed and identified health education action points for improve compliance to COVID-19 prevention protocol.

Page(s): 395-401                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2022

 Ukandu, Chidiebere. P.
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Echewendu, Ezinne
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Ekenedo, G. O.
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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[15] The Open University, (2021). Approches to Health Education: Health Education, Advocacy and Community Mobilisation. https://www.open.edu/openlearncreate/mod/oucontent/view Retrieved on 29/09/2021
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[18] World Health Organization (2012). Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies: A foundation document to guide capacity development of health educators.https://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/EMRPUB_2012_EN_1362.pdf Retrieved on 29/09/2021
[19] Zhong, B. L., Luo, W., Li, H. M., Zhang, Q. Q., Liu, X. G., Li, W. T., et al.(2020). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci ; 16(10):1745–52.

Ukandu, Chidiebere. P., Echewendu, Ezinne & Ekenedo, G. O. “Promoting Compliance to Covid-19 prevention Protocol: Health Education Action Point” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.395-401 October 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-10/395-401.pdf

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An Investigation of the Challenges and Strategies of Adaptive Instruction in Junior High Schools in the Jirapa Municipality of the Upper West Region of Ghana

Ebenezer Nabiebakye, Libanus Susan, Prof. Clement K. Agezo – October 2022- Page No.: 402-413

Teachers are challenged to teach for all learners in the classroom to benefit. Teachers are tasked to adjust and modify the teaching and learning essentials to meet learners’ needs. The study examined the challenges and strategies of adaptive instruction in Junior High Schools in the Jirapa Municipality of the Upper West Region of Ghana. The study used pragmatists’ philosophy, mixed method approach and Cross-sectional research design. Humanistic learning theory developed by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and James F. T. Bugental in the early 1960’s. Data for this study was gathered using interviews, observational protocol and questionnaires. A sample size of 80 learners, 10 headteachers and 0ne Municipal Education Training Officer were selected for the study using purposive sampling method. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis approach whilst the quantitative data was analysed using SPSS version 20. The findings revealed that: teachers were unable to use adaptive instruction effectively because some had inadequate adaptive expertise; time constraint; large class size; overloaded curriculum; multi-grade teaching and poor supervision. Also, on the strategies of responding to the challenges in the classroom, majority of the teachers claimed they used mixed ability grouping; ability grouping; collaborative learning; co-operative learning; inquiring based learning; microteaching; self-directed learning and task analysis approach as adaptive instructional strategies to teaching learners with varied learning needs. Unfortunately, in observing how teachers used the foregoing strategies, it was found that many did not use mixed and ability grouping as a strategy in teaching varied learners in the classroom. Amongst the various strategies, learners rated co-operative learning as the best form of learning strategy for responding to their learning differences.

Page(s): 402-413                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61021

 Ebenezer Nabiebakye
Ghana Education Service (St. Cecilia School), Box 567, Wa, Upper West Region, Ghana.

 Libanus Susan
SDD-University of Business and Integrated Development Studies, Dept. of Public Policy and Management, Box Wa64, Wa, Upper West Region, Ghana.

 Prof. Clement K. Agezo
Department of Basic Education- University of Cape Coast, Ghana.

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Ebenezer Nabiebakye, Libanus Susan, Prof. Clement K. Agezo , “An Investigation of the Challenges and Strategies of Adaptive Instruction in Junior High Schools in the Jirapa Municipality of the Upper West Region of Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.402-413 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61021

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Effect of Debt Experiences on The Indebtedness of Employees in The Formal Sector in Kenya

Morris Irungu Kariuki PhD – October 2022- Page No.: 414-423

This study examined the relationship between debt experiences and indebtedness of formal sector employees in Kenya. Positivism paradigm was used in this study. The study adopted a cross sectional and correlational descriptive research design. The study targeted about 2.4 million employees in the formal sector. Three stage sampling was done, first, cluster sampling and then, stratified sampling and finally random sampling. The study used primary data collected by use of self-administered questionnaires. A pilot test of the questionnaire was conducted on 40 respondents to check its validity and reliability. 384 questionnaires were circulated. Of the returned 337, 292 questionnaires were considered usable. Cronbach’s alpha for likert type items was found reliable (over 0.7). Data analysis used IBM SPSS statistics 21 for descriptive and correlation analysis. Further, OLS Multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between debt experiences and indebtedness. The findings reveal that debt experiences have a significant effect on indebtedness.

Page(s): 414-423                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61022

 Morris Irungu Kariuki PhD
Lecturer, Department of Finance and Accounting, University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Morris Irungu Kariuki PhD “Effect of Debt Experiences on The Indebtedness of Employees in The Formal Sector in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.414-423 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61022

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Monetary Policy and Inflation Level in Nigeria

Emeka Idika, Emmanuel Chinanuife, Monday Itua, Jeremiah Eleojo Idoko – October 2022- Page No.: 424-431

Citizens in Nigeria are faced with continuous rise in the general price level and as a result, most families find it difficult to meet up the basic life sustaining needs. The price level in Nigeria is now a serious concern as the cost of feeding increases daily without a corresponding increase in household income. This study used time series data from the period of 1983 to 2021 to assess the impact of monetary policy on inflation in Nigeria. To ensure the stationarity of the variables in the model, the study adopted the Phillip Peron Unit root test. Based on the order of integrations, bound test approach to cointegration was used to ensure the existence of long run association among the variables in the model. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to test the impact of monetary policy variables on inflation and on gross domestic product. The study found that monetary policy negatively affects inflation in Nigeria through liquidity ratio, money supply and exchange rate. The study therefore recommends that monetary policy instruments such as liquidity ratio, money supply and exchange rate should be used when the target is to reduce or control inflation in the country. Government should adopt loose monetary policy to stimulate aggregate purchases. With this, money supply can be increased when there is decrease in aggregate spending in an economy

Page(s): 424-431                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61023

 Emeka Idika
Department of Economics, College of Management and Social Sciences, Salem University, Lokoja, Nigeria

 Emmanuel Chinanuife
Department of Economics, College of Management and Social Sciences, Salem University, Lokoja, Nigeria

 Monday Itua
Department of Economics, College of Management and Social Sciences, Salem University, Lokoja, Nigeria

 Jeremiah Eleojo Idoko
Department of Economics, College of Management and Social Sciences, Salem University, Lokoja, Nigeria

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Emeka Idika, Emmanuel Chinanuife, Monday Itua, Jeremiah Eleojo Idoko “Monetary Policy and Inflation Level in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.424-431 October 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61023

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Evaluation of the Prospects of Farin Ruwa Water Fall as Tourist Attraction for the Development of Nasarawa State

Angbashim, Bridget Bitrus, Francisca Jacob Dayang, Tpl Bashayi Obadiah – October 2022- Page No.: 432-436