The Effectiveness of Learning Management on Student Achievements at Tsanawiyah Madrasah North Sinjai Country Sinjai Regency (Study of Interaction Analysis of teaching staff and students)

Syamsuddin AB, Suf Kasman, Nurbaya – December 2022- Page No.: 01-07

The effectiveness of learning management to improve student achievement is closely related to the school learning management system. As for the purpose, to find out the effective learning management carried out by the teacher on student achievement. The research uses a qualitative descriptive method that describes and explains in depth the effectiveness of learning management in improving student achievement, using the research instrument itself, data processing through observation, interview guides, and documentation. Data analysis used data reduction, presenting data, and drawing conclusions. To check the validity of the data, the triangulation technique was used.
The results of the study show that learning management at Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri Sinjai Utara, Sinjai Regency has been going well, including: a). Aspects of planning a learning program with a structured learning program; aspects of the implementation of learning with the implementation of learning guided by the program plan that has been prepared; aspects of learning evaluation, implementation of evaluation after students carry out the learning process, b) The effectiveness of teachers in managing learning to improve student achievement, including: the ability of teachers to plan learning programs in a systematic, careful and effective manner, the ability of teachers to optimally carry out learning that can improve student learning achievement, teacher’s ability to carry out student learning evaluation activities.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 December 2022

 Syamsuddin AB
Faculty of Da’wah and Communication, Makassar State Islamic University, Indonesia

 Suf Kasman
Faculty of Da’wah and Communication, Makassar State Islamic University, Indonesia

 Nurbaya
Teacher of Darul Istiqamah Islamic Boarding School, Sinjai, Indonesia

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Syamsuddin AB, Suf Kasman, Nurbaya “The Effectiveness of Learning Management on Student Achievements at Tsanawiyah Madrasah North Sinjai Country Sinjai Regency (Study of Interaction Analysis of teaching staff and students) ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.01-07 December 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/01-07.pdf

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Information and Communication Technology in Rural Healthcare and Social Welfare Service Provision in Ghana – Prospects in the Face of Social Inequalities

Paul Kwaku Larbi Anderson, Johannes Schädler, Lars Wissenbach – December 2022- Page No.: 08-15

In recent times, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are being adopted more widely and variously by local governments across the globe to enhance citizens’ participation in the socio-political decision-making process. Potentially, ICTs, if properly designed and implemented, can improve civic participation in the context of information dissemination, request and feedback, and direct engagement in local policy debates in various areas of public service delivery. This paper presents the findings of a study that examined the prospects of enhancing citizens’ participation in local governance and development through ICTs in rural Ghanaian communities. The main objective was to explore the potential of ICTs to facilitate communication relating to social welfare and health-related services between rural dispersed communities and local government structures. The study was conducted in two purposefully selected municipalities, one being Nsawam-Adoagyiri, and the other Suhum, both situated in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Through community engagements and participatory design, digital competence, and the use of ICT tools for communication and participation in local governance were explored with the primary focus on public service delivery relating to health and social care.

Page(s): 08-15                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61201

 Paul Kwaku Larbi Anderson
Center for Planning and Development of Social Services (ZPE) University of Siegen, Germany

 Johannes Schädler
Center for Planning and Development of Social Services (ZPE) University of Siegen, Germany

 Lars Wissenbach
Center for Planning and Development of Social Services (ZPE) University of Siegen, Germany

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Paul Kwaku Larbi Anderson, Johannes Schädler, Lars Wissenbach “Information and Communication Technology in Rural Healthcare and Social Welfare Service Provision in Ghana – Prospects in the Face of Social Inequalities” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.08-15 December 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61201

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Women’s Progress and Challengage: A Feminist Study of Chuadanga District

Md. Eftekhairul – December 2022- Page No.: 16-25

Women are very inferior in every sector of the sphere of human life. Illiterate mothers or fathers cannot make well-decision and cannot contribute fruitful ideas at the family, society, national and international levels as well. Women are identified as men’s names. They are not, according to recognition, normal beings in the patriarchal society; women have accepted their fate and many of them started enjoying this status as well. Although they carry and flourish their lord’s name being empowered and developed, they are not out of greedy sight of men who are women’s fathers, brothers, and sons as well. Continuously women are violated, depressed, and victimized for sex even though they are young or old; child or daughter; it does not matter to the men except lust. The underestimation to women affects the confidence of women and under-scales women’s educational inspiration. The article attempts how women and adolescent girls are underestimated and considered a matter of nothing in the civilized modern world by physical torture like single rape, seduction, and gang rape; the result is to be death for the safety of males. The scope of this work is to recheck Bangladeshi women’s contribution in feminism through literature and to unfold the untold challenges among students of educational institutes in Bangladesh. The article aimed to term ‘feminism as F-independence’ and ‘M-independance’.

Page(s): 16-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61202

 Md. Eftekhairul
PhD Fellow, Kalinga University Raipur, C.G., India

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Md. Eftekhairul “Women’s Progress and Challengage: A Feminist Study of Chuadanga District ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.16-25 December 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61202

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The Legal Position of Customary Management (Prajuru Adat) in the Lease Agreement Leases the Utilization of Laba Pura Land in Tumbak Bayuh Village, Mengwi District, Badung Regency

I Ketut Kasta Arya Wijaya, I Wayan Rideng, Ni Luh Made Purnamawati – December 2022- Page No.: 26-29

This paper examines and analyzes related to the use of land that has occurred a transfer of functions that previously emphasized the magical and social religious nature has led to economic aspects. The development of globalization today brings very fundamental changes in the economic world, including in the field of land. Lands in Bali that emphasize magical religious properties have shifted towards the economic and pragmatic. The economic aspect is prioritized in improving the welfare of the community by utilizing customary lands in Bali. For indigenous peoples, land has a very important function because without land humans cannot live and land is also a place where indigenous peoples live and land also provides livelihoods for it because land has a very important function. Prajuru adat (customary management) legal position in the lease agreement leases the use of customary land from Laba Pura in Tumbak Bayuh Village, Mengwi, Badung, Bali. This research uses empirical legal research, using primary data and secondary data. Primary data by conducting interviews and field studies, in addition to using research results and relevant books in assessing this problem. The results of the study found that the legal position of prajuru adat as a legal subject in carrying out legal acts in the form of lease agreements for laba pura land can be said to be valid and based because customary management can represent as a legal subject of the object of the laba pura land

Page(s): 26-29                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61203

 I Ketut Kasta Arya Wijaya
Lecturer of the Faculty of Law, University of Warmadewa, Indonesia

 I Wayan Rideng, Ni Luh Made Purnamawati
Student Of Law Doctoral Program, Warmadewa University, Indonesia

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I Ketut Kasta Arya Wijaya, I Wayan Rideng, Ni Luh Made Purnamawati “The Legal Position of Customary Management (Prajuru Adat) in the Lease Agreement Leases the Utilization of Laba Pura Land in Tumbak Bayuh Village, Mengwi District, Badung Regency ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.26-29 December 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/26-29.pdf

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The Impact of Capital Budgeting on Economic Growth in Ghana

Frederick Forkuo Yeboah – December 2022- Page No.: 30-37

The aim of this study is to examine the effect of capital budgeting on economic growth as well as the causal relationship between capital budgeting and economic growth in Ghana. The study employed secondary data from the World Development Indicators (WDI) and Ministry of Finance, Ghana, annual data spanning from 1990 to 2021 which was estimated with Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) cointegration technique. The findings revealed that there was statistically significant long run relationship between capital budgeting and economic growth from the bounds test. Again, capital budgeting significantly relates negatively to economic growth in both long and short run in Ghana. the study found out that Ghana’s capital expenditure is mostly spent on unproductive ventures. There were no causal relations between capital budgeting and economic growth in Ghana. The study recommends that government and policy makers should urgently direct capital budget to productive capital ventures with good returns and short payback period.

Page(s): 30-37                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61204

 Frederick Forkuo Yeboah
School of Business, Valley View University, Ghana

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Frederick Forkuo Yeboah “The Impact of Capital Budgeting on Economic Growth in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.30-37 December 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61204

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Twitter Media Information Sharing on BPJS Kesehatan Services

Neka Fitriyah, Isti Nursih – December 2022- Page No.: 38-41

Health services are one of the fundamental rights of the people whose provision must be administered by the Government as mandated in the 1945 Constitution. BPJS Kesehatan twitter account often finds various types of complaint tweets, questions, criticisms and suggestions every day from the public in submitting opinions, questions, confirmations and other information. This research tries to see how the role of Twitter BPJS Kesehatan as a medium for sharing information. The research method used in this study is a descriptive qualitative method that tries to describe BPJS Kesehatan’s Twitter social media as a means of sharing information.
The results of this study illustrate the role of Twitter in BPJS Kesehatan including: (1) Promoting blog posting companies through company accounts (2) Communicating problems faced by the community in obtaining BPJS Kesehatan services (3) Building a reputation for BPJS Kesehatan services (4) Educational facilities to the public.

Page(s): 38-41                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61205

 Neka Fitriyah
Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University Banten-Indonesia

 Isti Nursih
Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University Banten-Indonesia

[1] Fitriyah, N., Fahrizky, R., & Rivaldi, A. (2022). Diseminasi Informasi Potensi Desa Wisata Melalui Website: Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat Indonesia, 2(3), 261-269.
[2] Fahlapi, R., & Rianto, Y. (2020). Twitter Comment Predictions on Dues Changes BPJS Health In 2020. Sinkron: jurnal dan penelitian teknik informatika, 5(1), 170-183.
[3] Solihin, F., Awaliyah, S., & Shofa, A. M. A. (2021). Pemanfaatan Twitter Sebagai Media Penyebaran Informasi Oleh Dinas Komunikasi dan Informatika. Jurnal Pendidikan Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial (JPIPS), 13(1), 52-58.
[4] Undang-Undang Dasar negara Indonesia Pasal 28 dan pasal 34
[5] Sugiyono, D. (2010). Memahami penelitian kualitatif. Rosdakarya Bandung
[6] Merriam, S. B. (2002). Introduction to qualitative research. Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis, 1(1), 1-17.
[7] Data BPS Indonesia
[8] Assaad, W., & Gómez, J. M. (2011). Social network in marketing (social media marketing) opportunities and risks. International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies (IJMPICT) Vol, 2.
[9] Putra, O. V., Wasmanson, F. M., Harmini, T., & Utama, S. N. (2020, November). Sundanese twitter dataset for emotion classification. In 2020 International Conference on Computer Engineering, Network, and Intelligent Multimedia (CENIM) (pp. 391-395). IEEE.

Neka Fitriyah, Isti Nursih “Twitter Media Information Sharing on BPJS Kesehatan Services ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.38-41 December 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61205

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The Relationship of Completeness of Medical Information with the Accuracy of Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis Codes at X Kediri Hospital

Gunawan, Hartaty Sarma Sangkot, Alifia Lestiana Putri – December 2022- Page No.: 54-59

Completeness of medical information is very supportive in determining the accuracy of the diagnosis code for each disease. The correct diagnosis code determines the value of the claim following the tariff pattern that has been determined by the insurance company. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is in the top 10 diseases in Indonesia, so research in this field is important. The analysis of the relationship between the completeness of medical information and the accuracy of the diabetes mellitus diagnosis code is the purpose of this study. The research design used correlation analytics with the cross-sectional approach. The population consisted of 68 medical record documents with diabetes mellitus cases in January-August 2021. The research sample used the entire population, namely 68 inpatient medical record documents. The results showed that complete medical information was 39 medical record documents (57%) and incomplete was 29 medical record documents (43%). The accuracy of the correct diagnosis code for diabetes mellitus is 17 medical record documents (24%) and the incorrect code is 51 medical record documents (76%). Based on the results of the Chi-Square statistical test, the results obtained p-value = 0.023, which means p-value <0.05 so H0 is rejected, which means that there is a significant relationship between the completeness of medical information and the accuracy of the diabetes mellitus diagnosis code. As conclusion, the completeness of information in medical record influence the accuracy of diagnose, specifically in diabetes mellitus cases (p-value = 0.023) Therefore, medical record officer plays important roles for the completeness of the documents

Page(s): 54-59                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61207

 Gunawan
Department Medical Records and Health Information Ministry of Health Malang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Hartaty Sarma Sangkot
Department Medical Records and Health Information Ministry of Health Malang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Alifia Lestiana Putri
Department Medical Records and Health Information Ministry of Health Malang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

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Gunawan, Hartaty Sarma Sangkot, Alifia Lestiana Putri “The Relationship of Completeness of Medical Information with the Accuracy of Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis Codes at X Kediri Hospital ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.54-59 December 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61207

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Effects of Simulation Strategy Senior Secondary Two Biology Students’ Interest and Academic Achievement in Plateau Northern Senatorial Zone, Nigeria

Daniel Gata Abalas, Keswet Larai Andrew (Ph.D), Michael Segun Abifarin (Ph.D) – December 2022- Page No.: 60-64

The study sought to examine the effects of simulation strategy on senior secondary school Biology academic achievement in Plateau Northern Senatorial Zone, Nigeria. Two specific objectives and two research questions were raised and two hypotheses formulated and tested at .05 level of significance. Quasi-experimental research design, specifically the pre-test-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used in the conduct of this study. The population of the study consisted of all the 5130 SS II Biology students, 2795 males and 2335 females). The sample size was 74 SS II Biology students, which consisted of the experimental group with 44 students (19 males and 25 females), and control group with 30 students (17 males and 13 females). The instruments used for the study was, Human Circulatory System Achievement Test (HCSAT) which was developed and validated by the researcher. The research questions raised were answered using mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses formulated were tested using ANCOVA and ANOVA. The study showed that the achievement mean scores of the experimental group was higher than the mean scores of the control group after treatment. This signifies that simulation strategy improves students’ achievement more than the traditional method of teaching Biology. The study recommended the need for teachers to used simulation strategy in teaching so as to improve students’ achievement in Biology

Page(s): 60-64                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2022

 Daniel Gata Abalas
Department of Science and Technology Education, University of Jos, Nigeria

 

 Keswet Larai Andrew (Ph.D)
Department of Science and Technology Education, University of Jos, Nigeria

 

 Michael Segun Abifarin (Ph.D)
Department of Science and Technology Education, University of Jos, Nigeria

 

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Daniel Gata Abalas, Keswet Larai Andrew (Ph.D), Michael Segun Abifarin (Ph.D) “Effects of Simulation Strategy Senior Secondary Two Biology Students’ Interest and Academic Achievement in Plateau Northern Senatorial Zone, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.60-64 December 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/60-64.pdf

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Learning to Learn Competencies at Omani Cycle Two Schools: Students’ Perceptions and EFL Teachers’ Beliefs

Al Oufi, Safiya Jamil shames and Abdo Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi – December 2022- Page No.: 65-73

This study aimed to investigate Omani Cycle Two students’ perceptions and Omani English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ beliefs regarding students learning autonomy. Three main areas of learning to learn competencies were explored to investigate learning autonomy: learning skills, the ability to take control of learning, and reflecting and evaluating learning. The study uses a mixed-method research design to investigate the perceptions of 383 grade nine students in Oman using a questionnaire. Also, four female English teachers who were teaching grade nine in the academic year 2021/2022 were interviewed in a focus group. The quantitative data analysis of the learning autonomy questionnaire indicated that grade nine students held moderated beliefs in their learning skills, ability to take control of their learning, and the ability to reflect and evaluate their learning. However, the teachers believed that students need to be trained and directed to acquire learning to learn competencies.

Page(s): 65-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61208

 Al Oufi, Safiya Jamil shames
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

 Abdo Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

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Al Oufi, Safiya Jamil shames and Abdo Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi “Learning to Learn Competencies at Omani Cycle Two Schools: Students’ Perceptions and EFL Teachers’ Beliefs ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.65-73 December 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61208

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Learning Through Technology: Development of a Sexual Health Education Application for Adolescents and Youth in Benin

AITCHEDJI Magloire Fortuné Landry, GADO Issaou, HOUESSOU Dossou Y. Patrick- December 2022 Page No.: 74-79

In Benin, to support the promotion of sexual health education, the government has made the improvement of sexual and gender health conditions in schools one of its priorities. The introduction of technological tools, Internet access (ADSL/Wifi) and the growing importance of the use of digital social networks by many school children in Benin constitute a challenge for the entire educational community. In order to respond to the lack of digital educational materials to improve knowledge and change attitudes towards sexual health among adolescents and young people, we designed a digital tool, in the form of a sexual health education application, and then used it as educational materials in several high schools and colleges in Benin. After the experimental use of the application in the chosen school environment, a survey was conducted to study the attitudes of adolescent students towards this mode of learning. The results obtained show a general increase in learners’ interest in sexual health education through the device. Learning seems to have a more playful aspect that keeps learners engaged and maximizes accessibility to key concepts in sexual health education. However, further data collection from learners is needed before appropriate ways to integrate sex education can be deduced. The long-term impact of the application needs to be studied further in order to reach more formal and decisive conclusions.

Page(s): 74-79                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61209

 AITCHEDJI Magloire Fortuné Landry
Ecole Normale Supérieure de Natitingou, UNSTIM (Bénin), Faculté des Sciences de l’Education et de la Formation, UAC(Bénin)

 GADO Issaou
Ecole Normale Supérieure de Natitingou, UNSTIM (Bénin), Faculté des Sciences de l’Education et de la Formation, UAC(Bénin)

 HOUESSOU Dossou Y. Patrick
Ecole Normale Supérieure de Natitingou, UNSTIM (Bénin), Faculté des Sciences de l’Education et de la Formation, UAC(Bénin)

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AITCHEDJI Magloire Fortuné Landry, GADO Issaou, HOUESSOU Dossou Y. Patrick, “Learning Through Technology: Development of a Sexual Health Education Application for Adolescents and Youth in Benin ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.74-79 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61209

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The Status of Prison Education in Selected Correctional Facilities of Western Zambia.

Mate Situmbeko and Kalisto Kalimaposo- December 2022 Page No.: 80-88

This study investigated the status of rehabilitation education in selected correctional facilities of Western Zambia. The study was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and used an embedded case study approach built on the premise that reality has multiple layers and is complex. The study involved 43 participants selected through purposive sampling techniques from three correctional institutions in Western Zambia. Data was mainly collected through one-to-one interview. Focus group discussions and observation were also used to triangulate data obtained through one-to-one interviews. The objectives of the study were; to establish the nature of teaching and learning in selected correctional centres; to investigate the learning environment in selected correctional centres, to assess the benefit of correctional education provided in correctional centres to inmates and to find out the challenges faced in the provision of correctional education in selected correctional facilities of Western Zambia. The study observed that learner centred methods were limited, teachers could not apply methods like group discussions due to various factors. The study also revealed that correctional education centres were grossly under resourced in terms of teaching and learning materials. Classroom infrastructure was inadequate and not conducive for learning. The study recommended inter alia that correctional centres should be more receptive to other stakeholders and partner with other organisations in addressing their educational challenges. Additionally, curriculum review should be considered to suit the needs of inmates as most of them were adults.

Page(s): 80-88                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2022

 Mate Situmbeko
Kambule Secondary School, University of Zambia, Zambia

 Kalisto Kalimaposo
University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education, Zambia

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Mate Situmbeko and Kalisto Kalimaposo, “The Status of Prison Education in Selected Correctional Facilities of Western Zambia. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.80-88 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/80-88.pdf

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Influence of English language proficiency on tertiary level education

Gopika.N and Kaveevendan.K- December 2022 Page No.: 89-96

English is an international language, which is essential for interpersonal communication across the world. It is considered to be a common language in the field of education, business, trade, and commerce. It is found from the research studies that imparting proficiency in the English language should begin right from the school level education. Thus, the present study was carried out to assess the influence of English language proficiency on tertiary-level education in a target undergraduate student population (second year in biological sciences) at the Faculty of Science, Eastern University, Sri Lanka. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Collected data were analyzed by Excel software (Windows 10.0) to assess the significant influence of English language proficiency in tertiary education. In the current study, the sex ratio (male and female) was nearly 2:1 (63% and 37%) respectively. The national
school students showed a more successful rate for university entrance than provincial school. Further, the highest frequent usage of English than their mother tongue was noticed among university teachers (84%) when compared with school teachers (40%). Furthermore, the analysis showed that the majority of the students are using the English language in the university (87%), then school (40%). Most of the students were highly engaged in writing (94%), listening (83%), and reading rather than speaking skills (53%). Usage of the English language was higher (100%) in university education than in schools. Hence, the pass rate of English language proficiency was high at the tertiary level than the secondary level. Thus, this study recommends that school teachers should frequently use English in order to communicate with students while teaching.

Page(s): 89-96                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61210

 Gopika.N
Main Library, Eastern University, Sri Lanka

 Kaveevendan.K
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Eastern University, Sri Lanka

[1] Choi, Y.H. and Lee, H.W., 2008. Current trends and issues in English language education in Asia. Journal of Asia TEFL, 5(2).
[2] De Silva, Radhika, and Dinali Devendra. “Responding to English language needs of undergraduates: Challenges and constraints.” (2014).
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[4] John Flowerdew and Lindsay Miller. (1992). Student Perceptions, Problems and Strategies in Second Language Lecture Comprehension, RELC Journal ,23: 60. DOI: 10.1177/003368829202300205
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[6] Murdoch, George. “Language development provision in teacher training curricula.” ELT journal 48.3 (1994): 253-265.
[7] Nawaz, A. M. M. (2016). Challenges Faced by Students in English Medium Undergraduate Classes: An Experience of a Young University in Sri Lanka.
[8] Navaz, A. M. M. (2012). Lecturer-student interaction in English-medium science lectures: an investigation of perceptions and practice at a Sri Lankan university where English is a second language. Unpublished PhD, the University of Nottingham.

Gopika.N and Kaveevendan.K, “Influence of English language proficiency on tertiary level education ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.89-96 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61210

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The Effect of the Use of Information Technology, Internal Control Systems, and Human Resource Competence on The Accountability of Village Fund Management in Bungaraya District

Evi Ardianti, Zulhelmy, R. Rudi Alhempi, Syahrial Shaddiq- December 2022 Page No.: 97-104

This study aims to examine the influence of Information Technology Utilization, Internal Control System and Human Resource Competence on Village Fund Management Accountability in Bungaraya District. The population in this study was all village offices in Kecamtan Bungaraya, namely there were 10 villages and the number of samples used was 10 villages with 40 respondents. The sample return technique uses census techniques. This research is a quantitative research using survey methods. Data collection techniques by distributing questionnaires. The data analysis techniques used are descriptive statistics, descriptive tests, data validity tests, classical assumption tests, multiple liner regression analysis and hypothesis testing. The results showed that the use of information technology, internal control systems, and human resource competencies had a positive and significant effect on the accountability of village fund management. It is known that the value of R-Square is 0.810. This value means that the magnitude of the influence of the use of information technology, internal control systems and human resource competence on the accountability of village fund management in Bungaraya District is 81% while the remaining 19% is known to other variables that were not studied in this study.

Page(s): 97-104                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61211

 Evi Ardianti
Department of Accounting, University of Islamic Riau, Indonesia

 Zulhelmy
Department of Accounting, University of Islamic Riau, Indonesia

 R. Rudi Alhempi
Department of Management, School of Economics Persada Bunda, Indonesia

 Syahrial Shaddiq
Department of Management, University of Cahaya Bangsa, Indonesia

[1] Anggraeni, Prita Dilla, dan Nur Laila Yuliani. 2019. “Pengaruh Kompetensi Sumber Daya Manusia, Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi, Penganggaran Partisipasi, Supervisi dan Peran Perangkat Desa terhadap Akuntabilitas Pengelolaan Dana Desa (Studi Empiris Desa di Kabupaten Kajoran).” Prosiding Konferensi Bisnis dan Ekonomi ke-2 Dalam Memanfaatkan Techonolgy Modern 267–84.
[2] Arizal, A., Sukmana, R. A., Ulfah, Y., Shaddiq, S., & Zainul, M. (2021). Strategi Pemanfaatan Facebook Marketplace dalam Manajemen Periklanan. Syntax Idea, 3(6), 1278-1289.
[3] Asriani Maya Rini. 2022. “Pengaruh Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi Dan Komitmen Organisasi Terhadap Akuntabilitas Pengelolaan Dana Desa Di Kecamatan Bontonompo.”
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[5] Fadilurrahman, M., Ramadhani, R., Kurniawan, T., Misnasanti, M., & Shaddiq, S. (2021). Systematic Literature Review of Disruption Era in Indonesia: The Resistance of Industrial Revolution 4.0. Journal of Robotics and Control (JRC), 2(1), 51-59.
[6] Habibah, M., Setiawan, A., Shaddiq, S., & Zainul, H. M. (2021). Creative Advertising Management Application Strategy on Television in Indonesia. Jurnal Mantik, 5(2), 800-806.
[7] Handayani, W., Semara, O. Y., Rahayu, F., & Shaddiq, S. (2022). Proceedings on Engineering Sciences. Proceedings on Engineering, 4(2), 137-142.
[8] Hidayat, M., Mahalayati, B. R., Sadikin, H., Shaddiq, S., & Zainul, H. M. (2021). Advertising Media Strategy as Product Ordering. Jurnal Mantik, 5(2), 812-819.
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[11] Joko, C. P. E. S. P., Widokarti, R., & Shaddiq, S. (2022). Core Values Akhalak BUMN on Millenial Generation Job Satisfactions.
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[13] Kurniawan, M. I., Subroto, P., Ulfah, Y., Shaddiq, S., & Zainul, M. (2021). The Impact of Merger Company on the Value of Case Study Stocks on Merger Gojek and Tokopedia. Proceedings on Engineering, 3(4), 425-432.
[14] Norrahmi, D., Lestari, D., Gafar, A., Shaddiq, S., & Abbas, A. E. (2021). Pengaruh Promosi Penjualan Matahari Department Store Terhadap Sikap Konsumen di Kota Banjarmasin.
[15] Norrahmiati, S. S., & Suharto, I. (2022). Marketing Strategy of Kulit Lumpia Beuntung Banjarmasin Business in Increasing Sales Volume.
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[19] Ramadhani, R., Suswanta, S., & Shaddiq, S. (2021). E-marketing of Village Tourism Development Strategy (Case Study in the Tourist Village Puncak Sosok). Journal of Robotics and Control (JRC), 2(2), 72-77.
[20] Rizal, R., Misnasanti, M., Shaddiq, S., Ramdhani, R., & Wagiono, F. (2020). Learning Media in Indonesian Higher Education in Industry 4.0: Case Study. International Journal on Advanced Science, Education, and Religion, 3(3), 127-134.
[21] Rizani, M., Widyanti, R., Kurniaty, K., Shaddiq, S., & Yahya, M. Y. D. (2022). Effect of the Toxic Leadership on Organizational Performance with Workplace Deviant Behavior of Employees as Mediation. SMBJ: Strategic Management Business Journal, 2(01), 26-38.
[22] Saputra, M. R. Y., Winarno, W. W., Henderi, H., & Shaddiq, S. (2020). Evaluation of Maturity Level of the Electronic based Government System in the Department of Industry and Commerce of Banjar Regency. Journal of Robotics and Control (JRC), 1(5), 156-161.
[23] Shaddiq, S., Iyansyah, M. I., Sari, S., & Zainul, H. M. (2021). The Effect of Marketing Promotion Management on Public Service Advertising in Strengthening Digital Communication. SMBJ: Strategic Management Business Journal, 1(02), 1-16.
[24] Surti, S., Shaddiq, S., Suhaimi, A., & Abdillah, M. H. (2022). The Potency of the Tumih Village Farmer Community’s Participation in the Agricultural Development Planning Strategy. Gorontalo Development Review, 5(2), 141-155.
[25] Syafaruddin, Andi Riska Andreani, Jeni Kamase, dan Mursalim. 2019. “Pengaruh Kompetensi Aparatur , Sistem Pengendalian Internal ,.” Jurnal Ekonomi Manajemen Dan Akuntansi 14(1):9–16.
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[30] Wijaya, B. A., Noveriady, M., Puspaningratri, N., & Shaddiq, S. (2021). The Role of Corporate Marketing Communications Management in Implementing Advertising Ethics and Standards. Jurnal Mantik, 5(2), 807-811.

Evi Ardianti, Zulhelmy, R. Rudi Alhempi, Syahrial Shaddiq, “The Effect of the Use of Information Technology, Internal Control Systems, and Human Resource Competence on The Accountability of Village Fund Management in Bungaraya District ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.97-104 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61211

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Legacy Leadership Competency among Public Elementary School Heads at Bago City Philippines: Practices and Organizational Thrust

Reynan S. Tongcua, Maylin M. Tongcua, Trudy C. Cerbo- December 2022 Page No.: 105-109

This descriptive research determined the level of competency of school heads in terms of the five best practices of legacy leadership as assessed by the school heads, teachers, non-teaching personnel, and PTA members. Conducted during school year 2020-2021, the study also focused on the organizational thrusts and legacies that the school heads wanted to leave in their organization in terms of administration, curriculum and instruction, research and community and extension. Weighted mean and frequency count were used for descriptive analyses, and Kruskal Wallis was used for inferential analyses. The level of legacy leadership competency as self-assessed by the school heads was very high whether they were taken as a group or were categorized according to age, sex, length of service, and educational qualifications. The teachers, non-teaching personnel, and PTA members rated the legacy leadership competency in all practices to a very high level. The teachers and the school heads, and the PTA members and the school heads differed significantly in their assessments of competency particularly in the role of school heads as Advocator of Differences and the Community, and as Calibrator of Responsibility and Accountability. In aadministration, the school heads prioritize the development of an organizational culture of transparency, productivity, punctuality, and optimism which is the legacy that they want to leave in their schools. In curriculum and instruction, the school heads underscore the importance of the delivery of instruction based on curriculum that is “Maka-diyos, Makatao, Makabansa, and Makakalikasan”, the quality of curriculum and instruction as legacy that they want to leave in their organizations. In research, the administrative thrust of the school heads hinges upon the generation of relevant, useful, profound, collaborative, and published researches which are the legacy that they want to offer to their organizations. In Community Involvement, the school heads put their administrative thrust on the establishment of community involvement programs that are based on committedness, kindness, and cooperativeness, a robust community engagement that they want to leave as legacy to their schools.

Page(s): 105-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61212

 Reynan S. Tongcua
Department of Education, Division of Bago City, Philippines

 Maylin M. Tongcua
La Carlota City College, La Carlota City, Philippines

 Trudy C. Cerbo
La Carlota City College, La Carlota City, Philippines

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Reynan S. Tongcua, Maylin M. Tongcua, Trudy C. Cerbo, “Legacy Leadership Competency among Public Elementary School Heads at Bago City Philippines: Practices and Organizational Thrust ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.105-109 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61212

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Impact of Village Savings and Loan Associations on Food Security in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of Marange Community in Mutare District.

Dereck Moyo (Mr) and Tough Chinoda (PhD)- December 2022 Page No.: 110-124

Objective: The study aimed at evaluating the impact of the Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) on food security.
Methods: Guided by a pragmatist philosophy, the study applied mixed methods approach with an exploratory sequential design beginning with qualitative research phase. It explored the views of participants from four focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven key informant interviews (KIIs) to identify and specify variables to be measured through the second phase which was quantitative research. The quantitative phase used a household survey questionnaire to collect data from 204 respondents exclusive of participants of the first phase. Data from FGDs was analysed using NVivo, while One-Way ANOVA Test was used to analyze data from individual households.
Results: The results showed that non-VSLAs members experience poor food availability and utilization throughout the year. Participation in VSLAs increased household food availability by 0.349 and utilization of food by 0.222, as evidenced by eating of balanced meal by household members. The results also indicated that participation in VSLAs led to better access to food, and stability of access, availability and utilization of food than non-VSLAs households.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between household’s participation in VSLAs and its food security.

Page(s): 110-124                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61213

 Dereck Moyo (Mr)
Dereck Moyo. Principal Author of this paper. Currently pursuing a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Development Studies at the Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe.

 Tough Chinoda (PhD)
Tough Chinoda (PhD), Co-author for this paper. Senior lecturer, University of Zimbabwe.

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Dereck Moyo (Mr) and Tough Chinoda (PhD), “Impact of Village Savings and Loan Associations on Food Security in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of Marange Community in Mutare District. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.110-124 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61213

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Adolescents’ Physical Development on Personality Traits Development Among Boys in Public Day Secondary Schools in Kirinyaga East Sub County.

Kezzy Wawira Wanjira, Ann Muiru, Dr. Benson Njoroge- December 2022 Page No.: 125-131

Personality traits development is a problem portrayed among boys, especially at adolescence age. This study sought to assess the influence of learners’ physical development on personality traits development behaviour among form two boys in public secondary schools in Kirinyaga East Sub County. This study was guided by Adolescence Developmental Tasks theory. This study used mixed research methodology and concurrent triangulation design where descriptive survey research design was used to collect qualitative data and phenomenological design to collect qualitative data. The target population was 136 form masters/mistresses, 136 form class teachers, 68 HODs of Guidance and Counseling department, 1173 form 2 and 1011 form 3 students in 34 public day secondary schools. The sample size was 345 respondents. Purposive, stratified and simple random sampling was used to select respondents. The study used questionnaires and informant interviews to collect data. Piloting of the research instruments was conducted in order to ascertain their validity and reliability. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data, which were then presented in narratives and reports. Quantitative data was evaluated with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 utilizing descriptive and inferential statistics. Percentages, frequencies, mean, and standard deviation are examples of descriptive statistics. Correlations and regression analysis were utilized inferentially. Tables were used to present the analyzed data. The study findings showed that physical adjustments have a positive and significant influence on personality traits development (β=0. 138, p<0.05). The study concluded that students have experienced physical adjustments such as experiencing deepening of their voice, shoulders broadened and faces changed influencing personality traits development. The study recommends that teachers should provide reading and research opportunities that enable students to acquire information regarding adolescents’ developmental such as storybooks, novels, and research-based books.

Page(s): 125-131                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2022

 Kezzy Wawira Wanjira
Master’s Degree in Educational Psychology, Kenya

  Ann Muiru
Lecturer, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

 Dr. Benson Njoroge
Lecturer, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

[1] Baumert, A., Schmitt, M., Perugini, M., Johnson, W., Blum, G., Borkenau, P., … & Wrzus, C. (2017). Integrating personality structure, personality process, and personality development. European Journal of Personality, 31(5), 503-528.
[2] Bodner, N., Kuppens, P., Allen, N. B., Sheeber, L. B., & Ceulemans, E. (2018). Affective family interactions and their associations with adolescent depression: A dynamic network approach. Development and psychopathology, 30(4), 1459-1473.
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[14] Grzanka, P. R., & Cole, E. R. (2021). An argument for bad psychology: Disciplinary disruption, public engagement, and social transformation. American Psychologist, 76(8), 1334-1335.
[15] Havighurst, R. J. (1953). Human development and education.
[16] Johnson, S. A. (2016). Parenting styles and raising delinquent children: Responsibility of parents in encouraging violent behavior. Forensic Research and Criminology International Journal, 3(1), 81-84.
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[18] Linehan, M. M. (2018). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York City: Guilford Publications.
[19] Minishi, E. J., Musamas, J. C., & Kyalo, W. B. (2017). Strategies For Managing Drugs And Substance Abuse Among Secondary School Students In Kenya: A Case Of Eldoret Town. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies. 1(2), 73-83.
[20] Mutekwe, E. (2018). Using a Vygotskian sociocultural approach to pedagogy: Insights from some teachers in South Africa. Journal of Education (University of KwaZulu-Natal), (71), 58-72.
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[23] Rogers, M. E., Creed, P. A., & Praskova, A. (2018). Parent and adolescent perceptions of adolescent career development tasks and vocational identity. Journal of Career Development, 45(1), 34-49.
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[27] Swanson, D. P., Edwards, M. C., & Spencer, M. B. (Eds.). (2010). Adolescence: Development during a global era. Boston: Academic Press.
[28] Tarsianer, M. P., Ciriaka, M. G., & Kaberia, I. K. (2021). Influence of personality types, instructional supervision practices, and performance in public primary schools in Kenya. Educational Research and Reviews, 16(2), 27-39.
[29] Tetzner, J., Becker, M., & Maaz, K. (2017). Development in multiple areas of life in adolescence: Interrelations between academic achievement, perceived peer acceptance, and self-esteem. International journal of behavioral development, 41(6), 704-713.
[30] Wong, D., & Hiew, Y. L. (2019, September). A viable system perspective on cluster development. In 2019 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Systems Management (IESM), 35(2), 203-226.
[31] Yu, H., Jiang, S., & Land, K. C. (2015). Multicollinearity in hierarchical linear models. Social science research, 53, 118-136.

Kezzy Wawira Wanjira,Ann Muiru, Dr. Benson Njoroge, “Adolescents’ Physical Development on Personality Traits Development Among Boys in Public Day Secondary Schools in Kirinyaga East Sub County. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.125-131 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/125-131.pdf

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Land Allocation and Conflicts among Refugees and Host Communities, A case of Nakivale and Oruchinga Refugee Settlements in Western Uganda

Atukwatse Judith, Dr. Ogbona Chidiebere- December 2022 Page No.: 132-138

The increase in the number of refugees due to different situations that threaten human security has become a global problem manifested in societal, governmental and international levels (Steimel 2021). Uganda is among the top refugee-hosting countries in Africa and the world with 1.4million refugees (UNHCR, 2019). The government adopted an approach of accommodating refugees by placing them in settlements within communities and granting them access to basic resources like land, water and others services, which they at times share with host community members (Lomba, 2010).Uganda’s progressive refugee policy has not effectively addressed the issue of land allocation and conflicts between refugees and host communities as land is continuously becoming scarce due to increase in population (Bjørkhaug, 2020). While several refugee-related studies have been conducted worldwide, little is known about the conflict between refugees and host-community in western Uganda-a gap this study hoped to address. The objective sought to examine how land allocation to refugees leads to conflicts between refugees and host-communities of Nakivale and Oruchinga. The study was guided by Conflict theory propounded by (Bartos, 2002), as derived from the ideas of Karl Marx in 1848. A case study research design was adopted, where qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in data collection. The study found various probable causes of land conflicts between refugees and host communities in Nakivale and Oruchinga to include: inadequate consultation by the government with the host communities prior to the establishment of refugee camps and settlements; lack of direct and clear information from the government to the communities about the tenure of land occupation by refugees; cultural differences between the refugees and host community, which has resulted in lack of trust and breach of harmony among the two groups. Also, it was found that climate change with its attendant impact on environmental degradation has exacerbated scarcity of arable land, leading to resources conflict between refugees and host community members in Nakivale and Oruchinga. The study concludes that lack of prior engagement of key stakeholders in the processes of land allocation mostly host communities and proper demarcation of land between host communities and refugees will always lead to continuous conflicts in Nakivale and Oruchinga. This implies that there is need for timely consultations with the host communities, sensitization of refugees and host communities on peaceful co-existence and involvement of all key stakeholders before and during land allocation processes.

Page(s): 132-138                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2022

 Atukwatse Judith
Kampala international university (KIU), UGANDA

  Dr. Ogbona Chidiebere
Kampala international university (KIU), UGANDA

[1] Bagenda E, Naggaga A and Smith E (2003), Land problems in Nakivale refugee settlement and implications for refugee protection in Uganda, Refugee Law Project working paper No. 8, Makerere University, Kampala Uganda.
[2] Bannon, I., & Collier, P. (Eds.). (2003). Natural resources and violent conflict: Options and actions. World Bank Publications.
[3] Bartos, O. J., &Wehr, P. (2002). Using conflict theory. Cambridge University Press England.
[4] Berke, T., & Larsen, L. (2022). Using Land to Promote Refugee Self-Reliance in Uganda. Land, 11(3), 410.
[5] Betts, A. (2021). Refugees And Patronage: A Political History Of Uganda’s ‘Progressive’ Refugee Policies. African Affairs, 120(479), 243-276.
[6] Betts, A. (2012) Self-reliance for refugees: a view from Kyangwali settlement, Humanitarian Innovation Project Available at http://www.humanitarianinnovation.com/blog.html
[7] Bjørkhaug, I. (2020). Revisiting the Refugee–Host Relationship in Nakivale Refugee Settlement: A Dialogue with the Oxford Refugee Studies Centre. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 8(3), 266-281.
[8] Burke, M., & Young, P. (2019). Social Norms. In A. Bisin, J. Benhabib, & M. Jackson (Eds.), The 343 Handbook of Social Economics (pp. 1–51).
[9] Dryden-Peterson, S. and Hovil, L, (2003), ‘Local integration as a durable solution: Refugees, host populations and education in Uganda’, New Issues in Refugee Research Working series, No. 93, 2003, http://www.unhcr.org/3f8189ec4.html
[10] Gil-Bazo, M. T. (2007). The Protection of Refugees under the Common European Asylum System: The Establishment of a European Jurisdiction for Asylum Purposes and Compliance with International Refugee and Human Rights Law. Available at SSRN 983722.
[11] Gingyera, P (1998). “Sharing with the Refugees in our Midst: The Experience of Uganda.” Unpublished paper: Makerere University.
[12] Gingyera, P. (Ed.) (1998). Uganda and the Problem of Refugees, Kampala: Makerere University Press.
[13] Hadijah, M. (2018). Challenges Facing the Prevention of Violent Extremism in Refugee Camps in Africa: a Focused Comparison of Eastern Africa and Sahel Regions Experiences (Doctoral dissertation, university of Nairobi).
[14] Holden, S. T., & Otsuka, K. (2014). The roles of land tenure reforms and land markets in the 394 context of population growth and land use intensification in Africa. Food Policy, 48, 88–97.
[15] Kalyango Ronald and Huff Kirk (2002) Refugees in the city: status determination, resettlement and the changing nature of forced migration in Uganda, Refugee Law Project working paper No. 6, Kampala Uganda.
[16] Lomba, S. D. (2010). Legal status and refugee integration: A UK perspective. Journal of Refugee Studies, 23(4), 415-436.
[17] Martin, A. (2005). Environmental conflict between refugee and host communities. Journal of Peace Research, 42(3), 329-346.
[18] Pincwya. G (1998), Uganda and the problem of refugees, Kampala: Makerere University Press. pp 8-25
[19] Russell, I. (2021). Embedded institutions, embodied conflicts: Public Universities and post-war peace building in Sierra Leone and Sri Lanka.
[20] Steimel, S. J. (2010). Refugees as people: The portrayal of refugees in American human-interest stories. Journal of Refugee Studies, 23(2), 219-237.
[21] Ten Holder, M. (2019). The pursuit of self-reliance in the absence of aid.
[22] Turyamureeba, R. (2017). Building Peace through land access and food security in the Nakivale Refugee Settlement, Uganda (Doctoral dissertation Durban University of Technology South Africa.
[23] UNHCR (2018, January 25). Uganda Refugee Response: South Sudan Situation, Retrieved from reliefweb.in:https://reliefweb.int/report/uganda/uganda-refugee-response-monitoring-settlement-fact-sheet-oruchinga-February-2018
[24] UNHCR (2018, Jun). UNHCR: Uganda Refugee Response Monitoring, Settlement Fact Sheet: Oruchinga| June 2018. Retrieved from reliefweb.in: https://reliefweb.int/report/uganda/uganda-refugee-response-monitoring-settlement-fact-sheet-oruchinga-june-2018
[25] OPM & UNHCR. (2017). UGANDA Comprehensive Refugee Response Plan 2017 HumanitarianNeeds.
[26] UNHCR. (2020). Refugee statistics: Global trends at glance. United Nations High Commission for refugees.www.unrefugees.org/refugee-facts/statistics
[27] Van Leeuwen, M., & Van Der Haar, G. (2016). Theorizing the land–violent conflict nexus. World Development, 78, 94-104.
[28] Walton, O. (2012). Preventing conflict between refugees and host communities. Governance and Social Development Resource Centre, http://www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/hdq845.pdf

Atukwatse Judith, Dr. Ogbona Chidiebere, “Land Allocation and Conflicts among Refugees and Host Communities, A case of Nakivale and Oruchinga Refugee Settlements in Western Uganda ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.132-138 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/132-138.pdf

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Evaluating the Impact of Chemistry Practicals on Students’ Performance in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools of Nasarawa State Nigeria

Musa W. O., Akuba J. C., Gloria S. A.- December 2022 Page No.: 139-142

The study investigated the impact of chemistry practicals on students’ performance in chemistry of public secondary schools of Nasarawa state, Nigeria. The study was conducted in Akwanga, Nasarawa-Eggon and Wamba LGA in Nasarawa North Senatorial zone. This study utilized a quantitative approach, with a quasi-experimental design. The design was in form of pre and post-test. Questionnaire was used to collect data. The main population for the study comprised all the public secondary schools offering chemistry in the zone from which 15 sample schools was selected using a combination of stratified, purposive and systematic sampling procedures. It involved 30 chemistry teachers `and 300 SS2 chemistry students comprising 200 boys and 100 girls. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation were used and independent samples t-tests. The study established that the use of chemistry practicals in teaching and learning of chemistry at secondary schools greatly improved performance. The findings shows that there was a significant difference in performance between students who studied chemistry through practicals and those who studied chemistry without practicals. The study recommends intensive in-service training for chemistry teachers in practical work management and latest research to improve their practices.

Page(s): 139-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2022

 Musa W. O.
Chemistry Department, College of Education, Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Akuba J. C.
Chemistry Department, College of Education, Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Gloria S. A.
Chemistry Department, College of Education, Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

[1] Afyusisye, A, and Gakuba, E (2022). The Effect of the Chemistry Practicals on the Academic Performance of Ward Secondary School Students in Momba District in Tanzania. Journal of Mathematics and sciences Teacher 2(2) 6pages
[2] Abdi, A. (2014). The Effect of Inquiry-based Learning Method on Students’ Academic Achievement in Science Course. Universal Journal of Educational Research, [Online] 2(1), 37-41. Available from: https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2014.020104 (Accessed: 15 March 2019).
[3] Abimbola, I. O. (1994). A critical appraisal of the role of laboratory chemistry practicals in science teaching in Nigeria. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 4 (1&2), pp.59-65.
[4] Abrahams, I. & Millar, R. (2008). Does chemistry practicals really work? A study of the effectiveness of chemistry practicals as a teaching and learning method in school science. International Journal of Science Education. 30.14: 1945-1969.
[5] Anaso, J. N. (2010). Strategies for Improving the Performance of Students in Chemistry at the Tertiary Level. Abuja, Nigeria: National Mathematical Centre.
[6] Ajagun, G.A. (2006). Towards good performance in science education. Journal of Teacher Education and Teaching, 2(1), 117-125.
[7] Ayodele O.S, Obafemi F.N and Ebong F.S (2013). Challenges facing the achievement of the Nigeria vision 20:2020. Global Advanced Research Journal of Social Sci. (GARJSS) 2(7):143-157, July, Retrieved on 18/03/ 2015@ http://garj.org/garjss/
[8] Federal Ministry of Education (2004). National policy on education. (4thed.), Yaba Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council. (NERDC)
[9] Federal Ministry of Education (2009) Roadmap for the Nigerian education sector. Abuja, Federal Ministry of education.
[10] Hinneh, J.T (2017). Attitude towards Practical Work and Students’ Achievement in Biology: A Case of a Private Senior Secondary School in Gaborone, Botswana. IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM), 13(4), 06-11.
[11] Hofstein, A. & Mamlok-Naaman, R. (2007). The laboratory in science education: the state of the art. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 8(2), 105-107. The Royal Society of Chemistry
[12] Khan, M.S., Hussain, S., Ali, R., Majoka, M. I., and Ramzan M. (2011). Effect of inquiry method on achievement of students in chemistry at secondary level. International Journal of Academic Research, Vol. 3. No.1. Part III: pp.955-959.
[13] Mwangi, J. T. and Kibui A. W (2017). Effect of Chemistry Practicals on Students Performance in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools of Machakos and Nairobi countries in Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research 6(8): 586-589
[14] Ogunkola, B. J. and Fayombo, G. A. (2009). Investigating the combined and relative effects of some student related variables on science achievement among secondary school students in Barbados. European Journal of Scientific Research. ISSN 1450-216X Vol.37 No. (2009), pp.481-489. http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm
[15] Okam, C.C. and Zakari, I.I. (2017) Impact of Laboratory-Based Teaching Strategy on Students’ Attitudes and Mastery of Chemistry in Katsina Metropolis, Katsina State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 6(1), 112.
[16] Rogan, J. M. & Grayson, D. (2003). Towards a Theory of Curriculum Implementation with Particular Reference to Science Education in Developing Countries. International Journal of Science Education; 25, 1171-1204.
[17] Shana, Z.J., & Abulibdeh, E.S. (2020). Science practical work and its impact on students’ science achievement. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 10(2), 199-215.
[18] Tsobaza, M. K. and Njoku, Z.C Effect of Practical Chemistry Teaching Strategies on Students’ Acquisition of Practical Skills in Secondary Schools in Kogi State. African Journal of Science, Technology & Mathematics Education (AJSTME). 6 (1): 195-203
[19] Wachanga, S. W., & Mwangi. J. G. (2004). Effects of the cooperative class experiment teaching method on secondary school students‟ chemistry achievement in Kenya’s Nakuru District. International Education Journal, Vol 5, No 1, 2004. http://iej.cjb.net

Musa W. O., Akuba J. C., Gloria S. A., “Evaluating the Impact of Chemistry Practicals on Students’ Performance in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools of Nasarawa State Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.139-142 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/139-142.pdf

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Affliction and Frightened Laughter in the Song “Covid” by a Kenyan Gusii musician, Henry Sagero

Felix Ayioka Orina, Christopher Okemwa – December 2022- Page No.: 143-153

Laughter in the face of affliction and looming danger can be an outrageous act bordering on taboo. Indeed, any attempt to make light of a matter as grave as Covid-19, a pandemic that has occasioned endemic fright and a global existential crisis of a magnitude never witnessed before, can only confirm one’s callousness or, at best, be evidence that the concerned party has lost it and is now displaying signs of severe mental distress. Fear, anxiety, distress, panic and terror would be the more typical reaction, some art produced in the aftermath of Covid-19 reveals a tendency towards the comic. A case in point is the song “Covid” by Henry Sagero. The present paper seeks to examine the aesthetic value of humorous representations in life-threatening circumstances with reference to the song titled “Covid” by Henry Sagero of Bonyakoni Kirwanda Band—a popular music artist from Kisii County, Kenya. The focus will be on establishing the link between the artist’s perception of the existing threat, his conception and deployment of humorous images and, ultimately, the audience’s anticipated participation (or reaction thereof) in the ensuing humorous enterprise. With the purposively sampled song, the study pursues a descriptive and analytical approach aimed at revealing how artistic responses and choices within the phenomenon of popular art have not only been influenced by the Covid-19 pandemic but also the extent to which they contribute to collective societal resilience and survival. Theoretically, the study is grounded in semiotic and psychoanalytic tenets that enable us to view meaningful existence.

Page(s): 143-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2022

 Felix Ayioka Orina
Kibabii University, Kenya

 Christopher Okemwa
Kisii University, Kenya

[1] Chitando, A. & Chitando, E (2008) Songs of pain and hope: HIV and AIDS in Zimbabwean music, Muziki, 5:1, 62-74, DOI: 10.1080/18125980802671466
[2] Bueno-Gomez, N. (2017). Conceptualising suffering and pain. Philos Ethics Human. 12,7. DOI10.1186/s13010-017-0049-5.
[3] Collins, E.J., (2012). Some reasons for teaching African popular music studies at university. In Reclaiming the Human Sciences and Humanities Through African Perspectives, Vol. 2, (ed. Helen Lauer & Kofi Anyidoho).
[4] Mboya, T.M. (2009). Sex, HIV/AIDS and “Tribal politics in the Benga of Okatch Biggy. Postcolonial text
[5] ___________ (2019). Popular music, ethnicity and politics in the Kenya of the 1990s. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK.
[6] Okigbo, A.C., (2017) South African Music in the History of Epidemics. Journal of Folklore Research. Vol. 54, No. 1-2, Music and Global Health, pp. 87-118. URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/jfolkrese.54.2.04
[7] Ondara, R.K. (2020). Omogusii omokimbizi: A Gusii popular artist’s meditation on the post-election violence in Kenya. In Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies, 6:1, 41-57. DOi:10.1080/23277408.2019.1710341.
[8] Zolten, J.J. (1988). Joking in the face of tragedy. A Review of General Semantics, Winter 1988, Vol. 45, No. 4. 345-350

Felix Ayioka Orina, Christopher Okemwa “Affliction and Frightened Laughter in the Song “Covid” by a Kenyan Gusii musician, Henry Sagero ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.143-153 December 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/143-153.pdf

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Quality of Work Life: A Literature Review

Hilda Safira Ayu Rulita Jati, Dr. Anggi Aulina Harahap, Diplm .Soz and Dr. Benny Jozua Mamoto, S.H., M.Si – December 2022- Page No.: 154-158

Quality of Work Life for companies is to attract and retain qualified workers to work into a company and for workers the application of principles that pay attention to the Quality of Work Life side of the workplace can provide several benefits such as ensuring employee welfare, having a good working climate and conditions and ultimately having a psychological impact on the personality of each worker himself. Factors that influence Quality of Work Life in the 10 (ten) journals that have been reviewed are dominantly seen in 8 factors from Walton’s opinion, namely Adequate and fair compensation, Constitutionalism, The total life space, Social relevance, Social integration, Growth and security, Development of human capacities. The Quality of Work Life instrument in this study consists of several dimensions developed by Zin, namely the Participation Dimension, the Work Restructuring Dimension, the Reward System Dimension and the Work Environment Dimension,

Page(s): 154-158                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61214

 Hilda Safira Ayu Rulita Jati
Postgraduate Programme in Police Studies, University of Indonesia

 Dr. Anggi Aulina Harahap, Diplm .Soz
Postgraduate Programme in Police Studies, University of Indonesia

 Dr. Benny Jozua Mamoto, S.H., M.Si
Postgraduate Programme in Police Studies, University of Indonesia

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Hilda Safira Ayu Rulita Jati, Dr. Anggi Aulina Harahap, Diplm .Soz and Dr. Benny Jozua Mamoto, S.H., M.Si “Quality of Work Life: A Literature Review” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.154-158 December 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61214

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Wearable Technology Maintenance Skill Needs of Technical College Students for Job Creation in Rivers State.

Tambari Mtormabari Deebom (Ph.D) & Joseph, Brown Simon Abigo – December 2022 Page No.: 159-169

This study which determined wearable technology maintenance skill needs of technical college students for job creation in Rivers State adopted a descriptive research survey design. The study was carried out in Rivers State. Three research questions were answered while corresponding null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study comprised of all electronic technicians in Rivers State and 49 electrical and electronic trades teachers in all the four Government Technical Colleges in Rivers State. Electrical/Electronic trades teachers were not sampled due to small population size while 170 electronic technicians were selected through accidental sampling technique. Hence, a total of 219 respondents was used as sample for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 105 item self-structured questionnaire titled: Wearable Technology Maintenance Skills for Job Creation. The reliability of the instrument was established as 0.80 using Cronbach’s Alpha method of reliability. Data collected were analysed using mean with standard deviation statistical tools to answer the research questions while z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study revealed that the students need the ability to; disconnect the upper ribbon cable gently, check the sound balance in device settings among others. The study also revealed the challenges associated with technical college students in the use of modern tools and equipment for the maintenance of wearables. Based on the findings of the study. It was recommended among others that National Board for Technical Education should ensure that the curriculum developers integrate smartwatch and head mounted display maintenance skills into the curriculum of technical colleges for this will enable the graduates become self-reliance. Government at all levels should ensure the provision of modern tools and equipment to be used at the technical college workshops and laboratories for effective training of students.

Page(s): 159-169                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2022

 Tambari Mtormabari Deebom (Ph.D)
Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria.

 Joseph, Brown Simon Abigo
Department of Vocational and Technology Education, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria.

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Tambari Mtormabari Deebom (Ph.D) & Joseph, Brown Simon Abigo , “Wearable Technology Maintenance Skill Needs of Technical College Students for Job Creation in Rivers State. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.159-169 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/159-169.pdf

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Influence of Non-Governmental Organizations’ Financial Interventions on Community Empowerment

M.W. Mutiga, M.M. Mutuku, L.N. Kinuthia and A. A. Olubandwa- December 2022 Page No.: 170-179

Non-governmental organizations play a key role in promoting community development in developing and undeveloped countries through support of various interventions such as agriculture, health, climate change, gender, family planning, water and sanitation and education. Each of these interventions play a key role in the realization of sustainable community development. However, education is an integral part in achievement of all the other 16 Sustainable Development Goals. Education is one of strategies used by non-governmental organizations to empower individuals and communities through financial interventions which enable communities to access equitable and inclusive quality education. Though non-governmental organizations have been supporting education as a way of empowering communities with the aim of realizing community development, there are still challenges in terms of social economic development. Education is an empowerment tool that is regarded as effective through achievement of individual and community empowerment. However, success of education financial interventions is measured using individual empowerment, as a result, an empirical knowledge gap exists on their influence on community empowerment. The study aimed at assessing the influence of non-governmental organizations’ education financial interventions on community empowerment in Nakuru County. The study was guided by Social Capital Theory, Empowerment Theory and General Systems Theory. The study adopted an ex-post facto and correlational research design. The accessible population was 116 non-governmental organizations in Nakuru County. Stratified random sampling and purposive sampling were used. Data collection instruments were questionnaires. The subjects involved in the study were beneficiaries of the education financial interventions and the social workers in charge of education. Statistical Package for Social Science Version 20 was used for data analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The findings were non-governmental organizations’ education financial interventions significantly influenced community empowerment (r=0.261; p=0.008). This finding may be used to inform; community development stakeholders on the influence of non-governmental organizations’ education financial interventions on community empowerment; policy makers on adoption of education as an integral part of achieving sustainable development and recommend development of an education for community empowerment model.

Page(s): 170-179                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2022

 M.W. Mutiga
Department of Applied Community Development Studies, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.

 M.M. Mutuku
Department of Applied Community Development Studies, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.

 L.N. Kinuthia
Department of Applied Community Development Studies, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.

 A. A. Olubandwa
Department of Applied Community Development Studies, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya.

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M.W. Mutiga, M.M. Mutuku, L.N. Kinuthia and A. A. Olubandwa, “Influence of Non-Governmental Organizations’ Financial Interventions on Community Empowerment ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.170-179 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/170-179.pdf

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Covid 19 Pandemic and Post Covid-19 Era in Business Activities of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (Msmes) in Manado Indonesia

Olivia Fransiske Christine Walangitan, Tinneke Meyske Tumbel, Joanne Valesca Mangindaan December 2022 Page No.: 180-187

This research aims to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic and the new normal era affect MSME business activities in Manado. The Covid 19 pandemic has changed MSME business activities in Manado. This research is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach by conducting interviews with informants. The condition of Indonesia’s economic development, especially in North Sulawesi, more specifically in the City of Manado, needs a thorough movement of economic actors. Currently, the role of MSMEs is the focus point. MSMEs are one of the supporting drivers of the economy, their part is very much needed because the business processes carried out can be elementary with low capital and materials, but the economic movement in them is substantial. It is hoped that the government in charge, in this case, the government of Manado, can continue to provide learning by providing socialization and training to business actors and be able to form a network for MSMEs so that they can continue to be monitored and the skills of MSMEs will increase.

Page(s): 180-187                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2022

 Olivia Fransiske Christine Walangitan
University Sam Ratulangi, Manado, Indonesia

 Tinneke Meyske Tumbel
University Sam Ratulangi, Manado, Indonesia

 Joanne Valesca Mangindaan
University Sam Ratulangi, Manado, Indonesia

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[12] Purwana, D., Rahmi, R., & Aditya, S. (2017). Utilization of Digital Marketing for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the Malaka Sari Village, Duren Sawit. Journal of Civil Society Empowerment (JPMM), 1(1), 1–17.
[13] Republika. (2020). The government will provide working capital to SMEs in the form of blt.
[14] Setyorini, D., Nurhayati, E., & Rosmita. (2019). The Effect of Online Transactions (e-Commerce) on Increasing MSME Profits (Case Study of UMKM Iron Processing Ciampea, Bogor, West Java). Journal of Management Partners (JMM Online), 3(5), 501–509.
[15] Sugiri, D. (2020). Saving Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises from the Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic. Business Focus: Management and Accounting Studies Media, 19(1), 76–86. https://doi.org/10.32639/FocusBusiness.v19i1.575
[16] Susanti, A., Istiyanto, B., & Jalari, M. (2020). SME Strategy during the Covid-19 Pandemic SMEs Strategy at Covid-19 Pandemic SMEs Strategy at Covid-19 Pandemic.
[17] Tambunan, T. (2012). Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Indonesia: Important Issues. Jakarta: LP3ES.

Olivia Fransiske Christine Walangitan, Tinneke Meyske Tumbel, Joanne Valesca Mangindaan, “Covid 19 Pandemic and Post Covid-19 Era in Business Activities of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (Msmes) in Manado Indonesia ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.180-187 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/180-187.pdf

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Firm Size, Financial Leverage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Firms Listed in the Non-Financial Sectors of the Nigeria Stock Exchange

James Sunday Kehinde, Sehilat Abike Bolarinwa, Olukayode Ezekiel Ibironke- December 2022 Page No.: 188-195

This study examined the moderating effects of firm size on the financial leverage – performance relationship of non-financial firms in Nigeria. The study used the ex-post facto research design and secondary data was adopted from annual reports of 50 non-financial firms listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange as at 31 December 2019. The data used was for the period of 2010 – 2019 and multiple regression tool was used to analysed the data collected. The findings of this study shows that debt ratio (β= -0.459; p < 0.05) has a significant negative relationship with financial performance of listed non-financial firms as at 31 December, 2019. Also, introducing firm size as a moderating variable led to a (β=0.043; p < 0.05) significant positive effects on the leverage – performance relationship. The study concluded that financial leverage affects the financial performance of non-financial firms in Nigeria and that firm size has effects on the leverage-performance relationship. The study recommended that management must determine their organization optimal capital mix and also put their firm size into consideration before deciding the amount of debt finance to be included in the capital.

Page(s): 188-195                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2022

 James Sunday Kehinde
Department of Accounting, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria

 Sehilat Abike Bolarinwa
Department of Accounting, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria

 Olukayode Ezekiel Ibironke
Department of Accounting, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria

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[49] Voulgaris, F., Asteriou, D., & Agiomirgianakis, G. (2004). Size and Determinants of Capital Structure in the Greek Manufacturing Sector. International Review of Applied Economics, 18(2), 247–262.

James Sunday Kehinde, Sehilat Abike Bolarinwa, Olukayode Ezekiel Ibironke, “Firm Size, Financial Leverage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Firms Listed in the Non-Financial Sectors of the Nigeria Stock Exchange ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.188-195 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/188-195.pdf

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Insurance Operations and Financial Deepening in Nigerian: Policyholders Perspective (1999-2020)

Onuoha, Donatus Chinedu, Dr Ezekwe, Kenneth Chukwudi- December 2022 Page No.: 196-202

Insurance as a financial risk management mechanism performs several operations at ensuring financial deepening in an economy. This study examined the effects of insurance operations on financial deepening in Nigeria: Policyholders Perspectives (1999-2020). The research design employed was an ex-post facto. Data for the study was collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and annual publications of the Nigerian insurance digest for 22 years’ period, 1999-2020. Using linear regression model, the results revealed that insurance premium income and insurance claims paid had statistical significant negative relationship with financial deepening in Nigeria. The study recommends that regulatory bodies and other stakeholders in the Nigerian insurance industry should put in place appropriate mechanisms that will ensure public awareness on the inevitability of insurance, and also that technical staff training and retraining for effective underwriting and claims management practices should be prioritized.

Page(s): 196-202                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2022

 Onuoha, Donatus Chinedu
Doctorate Student, Department of Insurance and Risk Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu Enugu State, Nigeria.

 Dr Ezekwe, Kenneth Chukwudi
Insurance Department, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria.

[1] Abass, O. A. & Obalola, M. A. (2018). Reinsurance utilization and performance of non-life business in the Nigerian insurance industry: A mixed methods approach. Journal of Risk Management and Insurance, 22(2), 18-30.
[2] Association of Insurance and Risk Managers in Industry and Commerce (2009). Delivery excellence in insurance claims handling: Guide to best practice. London: AIRMIC.
[3] Bortz, P. G., & Kaltenbrunner, A. (2017). The International Dimension of Financialization in Developing and Emerging Economies. Development and Change, 49(2), 375-393.
[4] Cummins, D.J., & Rubio-Misas, M. (2006). Deregulation, consolidation, and efficiency: Evidence from the Spanish insurance industry. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 38(2), 323–356.
[5] Dansu, F. & Yusuf, T. (2014) Effect of Claim Cost on Insurer’s Profitability in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 3(10), 1 – 2.
[6] GIS for the Insurance Claims Process: Five Steps for an Effective Workflow. California: Esri Whitepaper.
[7] Epetimehin & Ekundayo, O. (2012) The Impact of Risk Pricing on Profit Maximization of Insurance Companies. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 1 (14), 21 – 35
[8] Epstein, G. A. (2005). Financialization and the world economy. Edward Elgar Publishing.
[9] Fiedler, M. (2018) How would Individual Market Premiums change in 2019 in a stable Policy Environment? USC-Brookings Schaeffer Initiative for Health Policy.
[10] Gabriel, U & Butler, S. (2010). Cutting the cost of insurance claims and taking control of the process and strategy. http: www.booz.com.
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[12] Institute of Business Management (IBM). (2007). Insurance claims – more speed, more efficiency. London: IBM Corporation.
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[14] Jacob, T. (2007). Claims processing: meeting the challenges of today and tomorrow. Whitepaper. UK: Microsoft Corporation.
[15] Jun, H., Yue, Z., Datang, Z. & Hongyan, W. (2019). Relationship between financial development and economic growth from the perspectives of financial deepening and inclusive finance. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2, 14-19.
[16] King. R & Levine R. (1993a). Finance and growth: Schumpeter might be right. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108 (9), 681-737.
[17] Krippner, G. R. (2005). The financialization of the American economy. Socio-Economic Review, 3(2), 173-208.
[18] Levine, R. (2004). Finance and growth: theory and evidence. NBER Working Paper No. 1703
[19] Mader, P., Mertens, D., & Van der Zwan, N. (Eds.). (2020). The Routledge international handbook of financialization. Routledge.
[20] Oladunni, O. E. (2019). Proposal for establishment of personal accident insurance policy in ABU Business School, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. An M.Sc. Assignment, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Obeano, Enugu-Nigeria
[21] Oladunni, O.E & Eche, A.U. (2022). Impact of reinsurance underwriting operations on assets management of insurance companies in Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Sciences, 6(4), 604-613.
[22] Oladunni, O.E (2021). Impact of reinsurance operations on financial performance of insurance companies in Nigeria. M.Sc. Dissertation, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Edeano, Enugu-Nigeria.
[23] Oladunni, O. E. & Okonkwo, I. V. (2022). Impact of risk retention on claims management of insurance companies in Nigeria. Fuoye Journal of Finance and Contemporary Issues, 3(1), 63-79.
[24] Palley, T. I. (2013). Financialization: What It Is and Why It Matters. Financialization, 1, 17-40.
[25] Silvester, H. & Nwankwo, S. I. (2010). Essential of insurance: A modern approach (1st ed.). Lagos: Fevas Publishing.
[26] Ukpong, M. S (2019). An empirical investigation into the relationship between premiums and claims paid in the Nigerian insurance industry: 2000-2017. International Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research, 1(1), 9-17.
[27] Vaughan, E. J., & Vaughan, T. M. (1998). Fundamental of risk and insurance. New York: Wiley.
[28] Vaughan, E. J., & Vaughan, T. M. (2008). Fundamental of risk and insurance. USA: John Wiley Sons & Inc.
[29] Wahyuddin, K. & Mauliyana, L. (2021). The Effect of Premium Revenue, Underwriting Results, Investment Results, and Risk Based Capital on Income in Insurance Company (Study on Corporate Insurance – The Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange). Quantitative Economics and Management Studies (QEMS), 2(6), 387-399.
[30] Yuliia, S & Oleksii, S (2021). Effect of financial deepening on economic growth: Does it encourage income group transition. Banks and Bank System, 16(4), 101-113.
[31] Yusuf, T. O. & Dansu, F. S. (2018). The effect of claim cost on insurers’ profitability in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 3(10), 1-20.

Onuoha, Donatus Chinedu, Dr Ezekwe, Kenneth Chukwudi, “Insurance Operations and Financial Deepening in Nigerian: Policyholders Perspective (1999-2020) ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.196-202 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/196-202.pdf

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Archival Responsibility, Access and Technological Issues in Contemporary Society

Dr Nene F. K. Obasi, And Dr Rose Ezeibe- December 2022 Page No.: 203-208

The current convergence of interest in archives has generated issues for the archival community and archival practice. These issues- access and preservation, digitization and copyright, user expectations, and global economic realities- are topical and are a determinant in dispensing quality archival services to individuals, and researchers, and a tool for a common understanding and tackling of national and global issues. This paper therefore takes a critical look at them, with a view to proffering possible way out. The paper observed that the ‘slow and steady moving’ archival field will continue to evolve as the world is in a state of constant flux. The paper therefore calls for the need to open up the archives more, through a corresponding increased research attention to keep pace with the continual evolving archival issues; building collaboration and partnerships among archival stakeholders; archival marketing; and entrepreneurial archiving.

Page(s): 203-208                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2022

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61215

 Dr Nene F. K. Obasi
Department of Library and Information Science, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

 Dr Rose Ezeibe
The University Library, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

[1] Aguolu, C. C. & Aguolu, I. E. (2002). Libraries and information management in Nigeria. Maidugiri: ED-LINFORM Services
[2] Banton, P. (2012). Strategies for managing electronic records: a new archival paradigm? An affirmation of our archival tradition. http://www.indiana.edu/~libarch/ER/macpaper12pdf
[3] Bingham, N. J. & Bryne, H. (2021). Archival strategies for contemporary collecting in a world of big data: Challenges and opportunities with curating the UK web archive. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053951721990049
[4] Chery, K. (2022). Freud’s theories of life and death instincts. htpps://verywellmind.com/life
[5] Deazley, R. (2005) “Archives and preservation”, http://www.copyrightuser.org/topics/ archivingandpreservation
[6] Farr, E. (2010). Finding aids and file directories: researching a 21st century archive in Born digital: The 21st century archive in practice and theory File: ///c:user/desktop/borndigital, the 21st century archive.
[7] Gilliland, A. & Mckemmish, S. (2013). Archival and record keeping research: past, present and future. In Williamson, K. & Johanson G. [eds.] Research methods: information, systems and contexts. Prahan: Tilde Publishing. Pp.79-112. http://www.tup.net.au/and Amazon.com
[8] Harmon, J. (2014). The challenges facing archivists in the 21st century. UCLA Newsroom. https://newsroom.ucla.edu
[9] Jimerson, R. C. (2005). Archival priorities: Ten critical issues for the profession Provenance, Journal of the Society of Georgia Archivists, 23(1), 57-70. https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/provenance/vol23/iss1/5
[10] Lawrimore, E. (2013). Collaboration for a 21st century archives: connecting University archives with the library’s information technology professionals. Collaborative Librarianship, 5(3):189-196,http://www.collaborativelibrarianship.org/index. php/jou/article/viewfile /235/204
[11] Manoff, M. (2004). Theories of the archive from across the disciplines. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 4, (1), 9-25, http://muse.jhu.edu
[12] National Archives (United Kingdom) (2012). Archives for the 21st century in action: refreshed 2012-2015. http://www2.archivists.org/glossary/itens/a/archive
[13] Nongo, C. J. & Terna, R. ((2021). 21st Century archival management for sustainable development of federal universities in North Central States of Nigeria. International. Journal of Academic Library Information Science, 9 (8), 364 -372.
[14] Okon, M. E. (2016). Marketing of information and library services in Nigerian University libraries: the way forward. A seminar presented to the department of Educational Technology and Library Science, Faculty of Education, University of Uyo.
[15] Olivieri, B. & Mehaffey, A. M. (2015). Interlibrary Loan of Special Collections materials: An overview and case study, A Journal of Rare Books, Manuscripts and Cultural Heritage, 16 (2): 113-126. http://www.rbm.acrl.org/content/16/2/13.short
[16] Olson, M. (2010). Computer forensics in the archive: an analysis of software tools for born digital collection. 2010: borndigital: the 21st Century Archive in Practice and Theory.htm
[17] Redwine, G. (2010). Archives and ‘the archive’: the computer as archival object. 2010: borndigital: the 21st Century Archive in Practice and Theory.htm
[18] Redwine, G., Kirshenbaum, Olson, M. & Farr, E. (2010). Born Digital: the 21st century archive in practice and theory. Files:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/Born Digital The 21st Century Archive in Practice and Theory.htm
[19] Reitz, J. M. (2010). Online dictionary for library and information science ODLIS. http://iu.com/odlis_ictm#library
[20] Society of American Archivists (2005). A glossary of archival and records terminology. www2.archivists.org
[21] Society of American Archivists (2016). Types of archives. http://www2.archivists.org/usingarchives/typesofarchives
[22] Society of American Archivists (2022). Dictionary of archives terminology. http://www2.archivists.org
[23] Vetelaar, E. (2001). Tacit narratives: The meaning of archives. Archival Science, 1:131-141
[24] Wikipedia (2022). Archive. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archive
[25] Wikipedia (2022). Death drive. https://en.wikipedia.org
[26] Zazzau, V. E. (2007). Transforming archives through information technologies: A bibliography. MPublishing, Michigan, United States: University of Michigan Library. http://hdl.handle.net/2007/spo.3310410.0010.303

Dr Nene F. K. Obasi, And Dr Rose Ezeibe, “Archival Responsibility, Access and Technological Issues in Contemporary Society ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.203-208 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61215

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A Study of The Nature and Role of Traditional Leadership and Governance in Homa Bay County in The Pre-Colonial and Colonial Periods in Kenya.

K’Odipo, Walter Otieno- December 2022 Page No.: 209-222

The objective of the study was to analyze the nature and role of leadership and governance in Homa Bay County in pre-colonial period. The findings of the research would help the state to reform the institution of the chief regarding the ever-changing administrative framework for people at the grassroots. The role of chiefs as per the findings of this study was key in socio-economic transformations in Homa Bay County during the colonial period. Chiefs directed virtually the social, economic and political affairs in the communities. For example, the prime movers of the socio-economic activities in today’s Homa Bay County, whose economy largely relied on livestock, agriculture, fishing, pottery and weaving were the chiefs. With the establishment of Local Native Councils and later on the African District Councils, chiefs became the fulcrum around which these institutions of governance revolved.

Page(s): 209-222                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2022

 K’Odipo, Walter Otieno
Kaimosi Friends University (Kafu), Kenya

Published
[1] Ochieng’, W.R., (1975) A History of the Kadimo Chiefdom of Yimbo in Western Kenya. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.
[2] Ogot, B. A., (1967) History of the Southern Luo Nairobi: East African Publishing House.
[3] Odinga, O., (1967) Not Yet Uhuru, an autobiography, East African Educational Publishers: Nairobi, Kampala, Dar-es-Salaam.
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K’Odipo, Walter Otieno, “A Study of The Nature and Role of Traditional Leadership and Governance in Homa Bay County in The Pre-Colonial and Colonial Periods in Kenya. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.209-222 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/209-222.pdf

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Educational Key Terms for the Teaching of African Languages: the Case of the Kom Language, North-West Region of Cameroon

Godfrey C. Kain- December 2022 Page No.: 223-233

Basic Education teachers in Kom face challenges in their attempts to use the Kom language as a medium of instruction. They attribute the challenges to limited terminologies in Kom that can be used to teacher other subjects rather than teach the Kom language as a subject. Diagnosis carried out through observations in their case study necessitate the creation of Kom Education Key Terms. They need Key Terms to match foreign concepts in the subjects that are taught as their education content.
It is as a result of this challenge that one prioritized to create Kom Education Key Terms with a mixed (KEKT) to fill the vacuum identified in the Kom Education programme. The attempt falls in line with the call for the development of every people’s language in the world as a cultural, and education right. It seems too late as foreign languages are already the order of the day, domineering in religion, education, administration, politics, economic, and health domains of the peoples’ lives.
The Kom language is just one out of the two hundred and eighty-two languages that exist in Cameroon not standardized. It is on the given tenets that one attempts to give a balance sheet of his/her auto-ethnographic experiences in the development of the (KEKT). During the execution of two renown projects within the Kom community. One got involved in two principal Kom projects namely; the Operational Research Project for Language Education in Cameroon (PROPELCA) and the Kom Education Pilot Project (KEPP) executed from 1992 to 2006 and 2006-present day respectively. The latter came into existence when the former declined due to reasons already advanced and financial issues that were as take. If a timely solution is not fetched, the problem can continue and could disrupt the education initiatives that have been invested in the Kom community with likely effect on low academic performances. The KEKT were exercised in the three subdivisions of Belo, Fundong, Njinikom and the regional headquarters in Bamenda where notions on education were listened, analysed, and attempted solutions were proposed.

Page(s): 223-233                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 December 2022

 Godfrey C. Kain
Laboratory of African Studies and the Diaspora, University of Dschang, Cameroon

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Godfrey C. Kain, “Educational Key Terms for the Teaching of African Languages: the Case of the Kom Language, North-West Region of Cameroon ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.223-233 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/223-233.pdf

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Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) Attributes and Earnings Management of listed Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria

Olusola LODIKERO, Kazeem A. SOYINKA, Oluwafemi M. SUNDAY- December 2022 Page No.: 234-239

Many studies have appeared in recent years concerning CEO attributes and earnings management in both developed and developing economies. While many of those studies have provided empirical evidence on CEO attributes and earnings management. There are extensive studies CEO attributes and earnings management in developed economies. In contrast, there is a dearth of research on the subject in developing economies (e.g. Nigeria). The present study empirically examined the CEO attributes and earnings management in Nigeria. Secondary data were used for a for a 10-year period (2012-2021), the study and the data were sourced from annual reports of 13 deposit money banks listed on the Nigeria Exchange Group (NEG) as at 31st December, 2021. In determining the dependent variable, discretionary accruals through modified Jones model was used while CEO age, CEO tenure and CEO gender was used to examine CEO attributes. The study utilized panel data analysis with the application of ordinary least square (OLS) regression to test the hypotheses and to ascertain the significant relationship between CEO age, CEO tenure, CEO gender and earnings management of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. The findings revealed a significant negative relationship between CEO age and earnings management, while CEO tenure and CEO gender were statistically non-significant in explaining variations in earnings management of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study concludes that CEOs age are the strong drivers of earnings management. Therefore, the study recommends that listed deposit money banks in Nigeria should focus on CEOs age as the major criteria for CEO selection or reselection, while less emphasis should be placed on tenure and gender.

Page(s): 234-239                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2022

 Olusola LODIKERO
Department of Accountancy, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State. Nigeria

 Kazeem A. SOYINKA
Department of Taxation, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State. Nigeria

 Oluwafemi M. SUNDAY
Department of Taxation, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State. Nigeria

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Olusola LODIKERO, Kazeem A. SOYINKA, Oluwafemi M. SUNDAY, “Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) Attributes and Earnings Management of listed Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.234-239 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/234-239.pdf

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Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Production in Rivers State, Nigeria

Dr. Christiana Uzoaru Okorie, And Dr. Chukwuma Alexander Ezechinnah- December 2022 Page No.: 240-245

Climate change impact on crop production is a global issue that is contributing to food insecurity, crop farmers in Rivers State are finding it difficult to meet the food demand of the teaming population in the state due to climate change impact. This paper x-rays the impacts of climate change impact on crop production in the state, these include low productivity, loss of biodiversity, breed of conflict or communal crisis, causes displacement of farming communities amongst others. However, to meet up the food demand and also sustenance of rural economy which is dependent on farming, different climate change mitigation and adaptation measures were suggested as way forward for crop farmers in the state.

Page(s): 240-245                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 January 2023

 Dr. Christiana Uzoaru Okorie
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Dr. Chukwuma Alexander Ezechinnah
Department of Adult Education and Community Development Faculty of Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Nigeria

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[2] Ajiere, S.I. and Weli, V.E. (2018) Assessing the impact of climate change on maize (zea mays) and cassava (manihot esculenta) yields in Rivers State, Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 8, 274-285. https://doi.org/10.4236/acs.2018.82018.
[3] Alawa, D.A., Asogwa, V. C. & Ikelusi, C. O. (2014). Measures for Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change on Crop Production in Nigeria. American Journal of Climate Change, 3, 161-168.
[4] Ayinde, O.E, Muchie, M., Olatunji, G.B. (2011), Effect of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria: A Cointegration Modelling Approach. Journal of Human Ecology, 35(3), 185-194
[5] Chang‐Gil K (2011) The Impact of Climate Change on the Agricultural Sector: Implications of the Agro‐Industry for Low Carbon, Green Growth Strategy and Roadmap for the East Asian Region.
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[7] Eheazu, B. A. (2013). Antecedents of Environmental Adult Education. In B. A. Eheazu, C. N. Barikor, & I. I. Nzeneri (eds) Readings in Adult and Non-Formal Education. Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Press. 19-33.
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[10] Eregha, P.B. Babatolu J.S. & Akinnubi R.T. (2014). Climate Change and Crop Production in Nigeria: An Error Correction Modelling Approach. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 4 (2), 297-311.
[11] Ezechinnah, C. A (2019). Environmental Adult Education Programmes as Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation by Farmers in Rivers State. An unpublished Ph.D Thesis submitted to the Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, University of Port Harcourt.
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[24] Nwaiwu, I.U.O., Orebiyi, J.S., Ohajianya, D.O., Ibekwe, U.C., Onyeagocha, S.U.O., Henri-Ukoha, A., Osuji, M.N. and Tasie, C.M. (2014) The Effects of Climate Change on Agricultural Sustainability in Southeast Nigeria—Implications for Food Security. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 3, 23-36.
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[27] Onyeneke, R.U. (2010), Climate Change and Crop Farmers’ Adaptation Measures in the Southeast Rainforest Zone of Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis submitted to the Department of Agricultural Economics, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria.
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[29] Tunde, A.M, Usman, B.A., Olawepo, V.O. (2011), Effects of Climate Variables on Crop Production in Patigi LGA, Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 4(4), 695- 700
[30] Udulor, C (2016). Environmental literacy levels of Secondary School Teachers in Rivers and Imo State. an Unpublished Dissertation, University of Port Harcourt.
[31] Vermeulen, S. J., Campbell, B. M., and Ingram, J. S. I. (2012). Climate change and food systems. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resource. 37, 195–222.

Dr. Christiana Uzoaru Okorie, And Dr. Chukwuma Alexander Ezechinnah, “Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Production in Rivers State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.240-245 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/240-245.pdf

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The Influence of Leadership Style, Talent Management and Succession Planning on Employee Retention.

Emenike Umesi. Ph.D. – December 2022 Page No.: 246-252

This study investigated the influence of leadership style, talent management and succession planning on employee retention in the hospitality industry in Abuja, Nigeria’s federal capital territory. The study was carried in the Abuja municipal council area with a population of 2500 workers in the 191 hotels and other facilities rendering hospitality services in the area. A sample of 100 workers were purposively selected as respondents for the study, out of which 94 responded. Four research questions and one hypothesis were used to guide the study. Related literature was reviewed, and gaps identified justifying the study. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The multi linear analysis statistic was adopted to test the hypothesis. The responses on the questionnaire answering the research questions revealed that there is a positive relationship between leadership style, talent management, succession planning on the retention of staff in the hospitality industry in Abuja. It also rejected the null hypothesis of the study thereby averring that the three independent variables of Leadership style, talent management and succession planning exerts significant influence on employee retention. The study concluded that managers should ensure that these variables are considered while decisions on employee retention is being made in their various organisations in the hospitality industry. A total of six recommendations were made on how to enhance employee retention by the study.

Page(s): 246-252                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 January 2023

 Emenike Umesi. Ph.D.
Senior Lecturer, Global Distance Learning Institute, Abuja, Nigeria

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[6] Birdir, K. (2002). General Manager Turnover and root causes. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 14(1), pp43-47.
[7] Brien, A. (2004). The New Zealand hotel industry: vacancies increase while applicant and caliber decreases. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 5(1), Pp.87-103
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[10] Carbery, R. G., T. N., O’Brien, F., & McDonnell, J. (2003). Predicting hotel manager turnover cognition. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(7), Pp.649-679
[11] Cascio, F. W. (2006). Managing Human Resources: Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi
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[13] Charity Nonde Luchembe Chikumbi (2011) An investigation of talent management and staff retention at the Bank of Zambia. MBA thesis submitted to the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Business School South Africa.
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[15] Davidson, M. C. G., Timo, N., & Wang, Y. (2010). How much does labor turnover cost? A case study of Australian four-five star hotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(4), Pp.451-466. doi:10.1108/09596111011042686
[16] Doh, J., Stumpf, S. & Tymon, W. (2011). Responsible Leadership Helps Retain Talent in India. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(1), 85-100.
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[20] Hamstra, M.R.W., van Yperen, N.W., Wisse, B., Sassenberg, K. (2011), Transformational transactional leadership styles and followers regulatory focus: Fit reduces follower’s turnover intentions. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10(4), 182-186.
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[23] Hughes, J. and E. Rog, (2008). Talent management: A strategy for improving employee recruitment, retention and engagement within hospitality organization. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20: 743-757.
[24] Hussein M. Hiring and Firing with ethics. Human Resource Management Digest, 2009; 17(4):37-40
[25] James, L. & Mathew, L. (2012). Employee Retention Strategies: IT Industry. SCMSJournal of Indian Management, 9(3).
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[28] Kagwiria, L. R., (2013). Role of Talent Management on Organization Performance in Companies Listed in Nairobi Security Exchange in Kenya: Literature Review. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 3(21), 285-290.
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[42] Njeria, K. J. (2013). Challenges Affecting Implementation of Talent Management in State Corporations. Case of Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, Kenyatta University.
[43] Nzuve, S. (2008) Management of Human Resources: A Kenya perspective Revised edition, Basic modern management consultants, Nairobi
[44] Price, JL (2001) “Reflections on the Determinants of Voluntary Turnover”, International Journal of Manpower, 22 (7), 600-624,.
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Emenike Umesi. Ph.D. , “The Influence of Leadership Style, Talent Management and Succession Planning on Employee Retention. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.246-252 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/246-252.pdf

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Parents’ perceptions of education offered by secondary mission boarding schools in the Mutasa district of Manicaland, Zimbabwe

Mandikiana Memory Rumbidzai V., & Murairwa Stanley – December 2022 Page No.: 253-266

Mission boarding schools were built by Christian Missionaries, in collaboration with local communities, with the view to provide affordable and quality education to African children who were marginalized by the British Colonial system. In essence, the schools are jointly owned by the church and local communities. After independence, parents continued to prefer mission boarding schools, particularly for academic excellence, and moral standards, and to allow them to focus on employment and investment in the future. Over time, however, the education for all agenda led to the emergence of private schools, and the general population also accessed government and council-owned schools. The study sought to understand the perceptions of parents towards mission boarding schools in the Mutasa district of Manicaland, with a view of evaluate and perhaps, influencing corrective measures, towards continuing to provide competitive advantage on the market. Considering the novelty of the COVID-19 pandemic, the researchers used an online questionnaire to collect both quantitative and qualitative data, which was shared with parents on school WhatsApp platforms, hence purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used. Permission was sought from the school authorities and Education Officials. The data was encoded into the Kobo toolbox and analyzed using SPSS and NVivo to produce results. Some of the data were posted to Data Wrapper for a more appealing graphical presentation. The findings were that parents are still satisfied with academic excellence but worry about dilapidated infrastructure, poor road network, failure to adopt blended learning, disjointed synergies with stakeholders, and misgovernance amongst other follies. The recommendations are for schools to reserve quotas for local students and ancillary staff, create sound synergies with stakeholders, have feedback platforms, improve school infrastructure and road network systems, adopt blended learning, and most importantly, respect that the schools are co-owned by the local communities and the church.

Page(s): 253-266                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 January 2023

 Mandikiana Memory Rumbidzai V.
Africa University, Zimbabwe

  Murairwa Stanley
Africa University, Zimbabwe

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[2] Atkinson, N. D. (1972). Teaching Rhodesians: A history of educational policy in Rhodesia. London: Longman.
[3] Ceka, A., & Murati, R. (2016). The role of parents in the education of children. Journal of Education and Practice, 61-64.
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[5] Creswell, J. W. (2018). Research design: Qualitaive, quantitative, and mixed methods apporaches. Oaklands: SAGE Publishers.
[6] Florence, M. D., Asbridge, M., & Veugelers, P. J. (2008). Diet quality and academic performance. Journal of school health, 209-215.
[7] Gandiya, C. (2013, November). Why do mission schools always perform better than others? Retrieved from The Zimbabwean: https://www.thezimbabwean.co/2013/11/why-do-mission-schools-always/
[8] GoZ. (2013). Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment No.20. Harare: Government of Zimbabwe.
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Mandikiana Memory Rumbidzai V., & Murairwa Stanley, “Parents’ perceptions of education offered by secondary mission boarding schools in the Mutasa district of Manicaland, Zimbabwe ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.253-266 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/253-266.pdf

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Zambian Democracy in Relation to Governance of Society

Callistus Kahale Kabindama- December 2022 Page No.: 267-271

This chapter will deal with the matter of Zambian democracy vis-à-vis Aristotle’s view of society governance. The discussion will be done by looking at how Zambia democratically progressed in her three republics. The chapter will also reflect on how the republics’ transitions brought challenges to values of democracy and leadership. We will show how political ideologies can be nurtured in a state by having active civil society groups and a constitutional rule. The paper will conclude by giving a critique on the matter at hand by analyzing a citizen with an Aristotelian citizenry.

Page(s): 267-271                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 January 2023

 Callistus Kahale Kabindama
St. Augustine’s Major Seminary, Mpima, Zambia

[1] Barnes, Jonathan. Aristotle – A very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
[2] Binsbergen, Wim Van. “Aspects of Democracy and Democratisation in Zambia and Botswana.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies Vol. 13, No.1 (1995): P. 3 – 33.
[3] Cawthra, Gavin Andre du Pisani and Abillah Omari, eds. Security and Democracy in Southern Africa. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2007.
[4] Christopher Shields ed., The Blackwell Guide to Ancient Philosophy (Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2003), p. 201.
[5] Habasonda, Lee M. “The Military, Civil Society, and Democracy in Zambia.” Institute for Security Studies Vol. 10 No. 2 (2002): P. 227 – 238.
[6] Lerch, Hubert. An Introduction to Political Philosophy. Tokyo: Createspace Ltd, 2011.
[7] Phiri, Bizeck. Strengthening Parliamentary Democracy in SADC Countries – Zambia Country. Pretoria: SAIIA Press, 2005.
[8] Sumbwa, Nyambe. “Traditionalism, Democracy and Political Participation.” African Study Monographs Vol.2 No. 3 (July 2006): P. 105 – 146.
[9] Taylor, Scott D. Culture and Customs of Zambia. Connecticut: Greenword Press, 2006.
[10] Wacks, Raymond. Philosophy of Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
[11] Wanjala, S. Smokin. Kichamu Akiranga, and Kirutha Kiburana. Yearning For Democracy – Kenya at The Dawn of New Century. Nairobi; Clari press, 2002.

Callistus Kahale Kabindama, “Zambian Democracy in Relation to Governance of Society ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.267-271 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/267-271.pdf

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Impact of COVID 19 on the banking sector

Dr. Meenu Baliyan, Muskan Goel – December 2022 Page No.: 272-276

COVID-19 adversely affected the Indian Economy as well as human lives. Almost all the sectors have been affected. This paper aims to investigate the COVID-19 pandemic’s effect on the banking sector. Because of the lockdown, there were no sources of income. That’s why people demanded advances and on the other hand, they were not able to pay the loans. To overcome this situation, the Reserve bank of India and the central Government have taken many measures to provide relief to the people. This Research Paper shows the relationship between NPAs, Advances, and Profitability due to COVID-19 and also the impact of measures taken by RBI and the government in the Indian Banking sector.

Page(s): 272-276                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2023

 Dr. Meenu Baliyan
IMSEC Ghaziabad, India

 Muskan Goel
IMSEC Ghaziabad, India

[1] Mishra Ambrish Kumar, Archana Patel and Sarika Jain (Feb, 2021), “Impact of Covid-19 Outbreak on Performance of Indian Banking Sector by “Impact of Covid-19 on Indian Economy with Special Reference to Banking Sector: An Indian Perspective”
[2] Dr. Nilam Panchal “Impact of Covid-19 Outbreak on Performance of Indian Banking Sector” AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
[3] https://www.axisbank.com/shareholders-corner/shareholders-information/annual-reports
[4] https://sbi.co.in/web/corporate-governance/annual-report
[5] https://www.hdfcbank.com/personal/about-us/investor-relations/annual-reports
[6] https://www.bankofbaroda.in/annual-report.htm
[7] https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/economic-update/npas-and-its-effects-on-banks_profitability/
[8] https://www.business-standard.com/article/finance/covid-19-indian-banking-system-to-be_amongst-the-last-to-recover-says-s-p-120092400319_1.html

Dr. Meenu Baliyan, Muskan Goel , “Impact of COVID 19 on the banking sector ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.272-276 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/272-276.pdf

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Psychometric Characteristics of Test Anxiety Analysis Tools

Justice Dadzie, Ruth Annan-Brew, Vida Adjeley Akai-Tetteh, Afua Twiba Ahenkora – December 2022 Page No.: 277-284

An individual’s test anxiety might be high, normal, or low, according to Casbarro (2005). The instrument’s scores range from 30 to 120, with a lower score suggesting minimal test anxiety and a higher score indicating high test anxiety. Individuals with scores ranging from 30 to 59 inclusive have mild test anxiety, those with scores ranging from 60 to 89 have normal test anxiety, and those with scores ranging from 90 to 120 have significant test anxiety.
The study was conducted in sekondi-takoradi using all the 10 senior high schools, a multi-stage sampling technique was used in deriving the sample size of 370 respondents. It is preferable to have little test anxiety. According to Akanbi (2013), a modest degree of worry might be beneficial since it functions as motivation and can boost success by pushing pupils to perform their best. In circumstances of severe test anxiety, the client should consult with a competent counsellor. This is because excessive anxiety might impair mental abilities required for exam achievement (Casbarro, 2005).

Page(s): 277-284                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2023

 Justice Dadzie
Department of Education and Psychology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

 Ruth Annan-Brew
Department of Education and Psychology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

  Vida Adjeley Akai-Tetteh
Department of Health Physical Education and Recreation (HPER), University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

 Afua Twiba Ahenkora
Department of Education and Psychology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

[1] Akanbi, S. T. (2013). Comparisons of test anxiety level of senior secondary school students across gender, year of study, school type and parental educational background. Ife Psychologia, 21, 40–54.
[2] Ali, M. S., & Mohsin, M. N. (2013). Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI): Factor analysis and psychometric properties. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 8 (1), 73-81.
[3] Allen, M. J., & Yen, W. M. (1979). Introduction to Measurement Theory. NJ: Waveland Press Inc.
[4] Atasheneh, N., & Izadi, A. (2012). The role of teachers in reducing/increasing listening comprehension test anxiety: A case of Iranian EFL learners. English Language Teaching, 5, 178 – 187.
[5] Bertrams, A., Engelert, C., & Dickhauser, O. (2013). Role of self-control strength in the relation between anxiety and cognitive performance. Emotion, 13, 668– 680.
[6] Casbarro, J. (2005). Test anxiety & what you can do about it. New York: Dude Publishing.
[7] Cassady, J. C. (2001). The stability of undergraduate students’ cognitive test anxiety levels. Melbourne: TEE Publications. Available at: http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=7&n=20.
[8] Cassady, J. C. (2004). The impact of cognitive test anxiety on text comprehension and recall in the absence of external evaluative pressure. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 311 – 325.
[9] Chavous, M. T. (2008). Evaluation (test) anxiety. Psychology of classroom learning, 1, 387-389.
[10] Duesek, J. B. (1980). The development of test anxiety in children: Theory, research, and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[11] Eccles, L. (2007). Gender differences in teacher-student interactions, attitudes and achievement in middle school science Doctoral Thesis, Curtin University of Technology.
[12] Fulton, B. A. (2016). The relationship between test anxiety and standardized test scores. Doctoral Thesis, Walden University.
[13] Gyimah, A., & Amedehe, F. (2016). Introduction to measurement and evaluation (6th ed.). Hampton press, Cape Coast.
[14] Hill, K. T., & Wigfield, A. (1984). Test anxiety: A major educational problem and what can be done about it. The Elementary School Journal, 85, 105 – 126.
[15] Kassim, M. A., Hanafi, R. M., & Hancock, D. R. (2008). Test anxiety and its consequences on academic performance among university students. Advance in Psychology Research. 53, 75-95.
[16] Markman, U., Balik, C., Braunstein-Bercovitz, H., & Ehrenfeld, M. (2010). The effects of nursing students’ health beliefs on their willingness to seek treatment for test anxiety. Journal of Nursing Education, 50, 248-251.
[17] Nitko, A. J. (2004). Educational assessment of students. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Merrill, Prentice Hall.
[18] Putwain, D. W. (2008). Test anxiety and GCSE performance: The effect of gender and socio-economic background. Educational Psychology in Practice, 24, 319 – 334.
[19] Rafiq, R., Ghazal, S., & Farooqi, Y. N. (2007). Test anxiety in students: semester’s vs. annual system. Journal of Behavioural Science, 17 (1-2), 79-95.
[20] Ringeisen, T., Buchwald, P. & Hodapp, V. (2010). Capturing the multidimensionality of test anxiety in cross-cultural research: An English adaptation of the German test anxiety inventory. Cognition, Brain, Behaviour: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 347 – 364.
[21] Rubenzer, R. L. (1988). Stress management for the learning disabled. Reston, VA: ERIC Digest 452.
[22] Sapp, M., Durand, H., & Farrel, W. (1995). The effects of mathematics, reading and writing tests in producing worry and emotionality test anxiety with economically and educationally disadvantaged college students. College Students Journal, 29 (1), 122-125.
[23] Sarason, I. G., & Stoops, R. (1978). Test anxiety and the passage of time. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 102-109.
[24] Shokrpour, N., Zareii, E., Zahedi, S., & Rafatbakhsh, M. (2011). The impact of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies on test anxiety and students’ educational performance. European Journal of Social Science, 21, 177– 188.
[25] Spielberger, C. D., & Sarason, I. G. (1978). Stress and anxiety. Washington, D.C: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
[26] Vogel, H. L., & Collins, A. L. (2002). The relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. NJ: Prentice Hall. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/333.php
[27] Wren, D. G. & Benson, J. (200). Measuring test anxiety in children: scale development and internal construct validation. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 17 (3), 227-240.
[28] Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York: Plenum Press.

Justice Dadzie, Ruth Annan-Brew, Vida Adjeley Akai-Tetteh, Afua Twiba Ahenkora , “Psychometric Characteristics of Test Anxiety Analysis Tools ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.277-284 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/277-284.pdf

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Succession Planning and Sustainability of Family Owned Businesses in Lagos State

Rafee I. Tunde OLAGUNJU, Issa ABDULRAHEEM Ph.D, Zekeri ABU Ph.D, And Abdulazeez Alhaji SALAU Ph.D – December 2022 Page No.: 285-291

The majority of organized small- and medium-sized enterprises in Nigeria are family businesses, and family succession is a key factor in their growth and survival. In Lagos State, the study looked at how succession planning affected the viability of family-owned janitorial service companies. The study used a cross-sectional survey with a descriptive methodology to gather data from 145 cleaning service companies registered with the Cleaning Practitioners Association of Nigeria (CPAN) and operating in the state of Lagos. Primary data were collected for the study utilizing a standardized questionnaire. Tables were used to illustrate the data, and multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis. The study’s primary goal was to determine how succession planning affects sustainability. The study discovered that family-owned janitorial service businesses in Lagos State applied succession planning initiatives to a moderate extent. Very few of the companies showed any indication that they were conducting succession planning. The survey found that only a small number of organizations used various succession planning strategies, such as ensuring that work continues even without the founder, resolving conflicts, sharing vision, and educating successors. In order to promote a smooth transition from one generation to the next, the study advised family business owners to always encourage the capability and dedication of their successors by exposing them to training and involvement in the business.

Page(s): 285-291                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2023

 Rafee I. Tunde OLAGUNJU
Postgraduate Student, Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria

 Issa ABDULRAHEEM Ph.D
Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria

 Zekeri ABU Ph.D
Department of Business and Entrepreneurship, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria

 Abdulazeez Alhaji SALAU Ph.D
Department of Management and Accounting, Summit University, Offa Kwara State, Nigeria

[1] Abdille, H. M. (2013). The Effects of Strategic Succession Planning on Family Owned Businesses in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi). 2013.
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Rafee I. Tunde OLAGUNJU, Issa ABDULRAHEEM Ph.D, Zekeri ABU Ph.D, And Abdulazeez Alhaji SALAU Ph.D , “Succession Planning and Sustainability of Family Owned Businesses in Lagos State ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.285-291 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/285-291.pdf

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Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) as Assessment Tool in Primary Schools: Perceived Influence on Students Writing Skills in Secondary Schools in Yaounde VI.

Ndifor Roseline Fuhtung – December 2022 Page No.: 292-296

This study examines the influence of excess used MCQ as an assessment or test tool in senior primary schools on their writing competences in early secondary schools. The problem of this study emanates from the observed fall in writing skills among early primary school pupils in Yaounde V. Majority of the students who register in Form One do not know how to write well. The piloted and validated qualitative data analyses tool (interview guide) were used to collect data from 18 participants being 10 primary school class 5 and 6 teachers and 8 secondary school English teachers. The data was examined and the majority of the opinions sampled were considered and it indicated that: Junior secondary school students have unadorned writing challenges due to excess use of MCQ as assessment tools. They concede that it does not give the learner the ability to practice their own writing skills, thus, they turn to neglect it because it’s not much tested in the exams. We therefore recommend to the teachers that; they should employ a heterogeneous testing method in pupil’s exams.

Page(s): 292-296                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2023

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61216

 Ndifor Roseline Fuhtung
University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon

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Ndifor Roseline Fuhtung , “Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) as Assessment Tool in Primary Schools: Perceived Influence on Students Writing Skills in Secondary Schools in Yaounde VI. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.292-296 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61216

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Linking Theory to Practice: Perspectives on Practical Measures and Policies in Enhancing the Implementation of the Localised curriculum in Mwansabombwe District of Zambia

Robert Changwe, Christine Mwanza, Harrison Daka, and Moreblessing Ng’onomo – December 2022 Page No.: 297-304

The relevance of the school curriculum cannot be over emphasised in every form of education system. Of vital importance in the upholding of curriculum relevance in any society is the insurance that it is well contextualised or localised. When the curriculum is not contextualised and its implementation process not localised, the education system risk producing learners in a vacuum who may not eventually play a significant role in solving various societal glitches. If a country is to achieve rapid economic growth however, its education should be related to productivity (Bishop, 1985). Some of the solutions to problems currently encountered in African societies and communities Zambia inclusive, must proceed from understanding the dynamics with the local context. It is from this background that this study was undertaken to explore perspectives on practical measures and policies in enhancing the implementation of the localised curriculum in Mwansabombwe district of Zambia. The researchers used qualitative research approach specifically descriptive research design to collect, analyse and interpret data. Out of the study population of 30,000 residents of Mwansabombwe district, 50 respondents were purposively sampled whose break downs were as follows; 10 local community members, 10 learners, 20 teachers, 5 officers from Mwansabombwe District Education Board Secretary’s office (DEBS) and 5 Education Standards Officers. Both semi structured interview guide and focus group discussion guide were used to collect data and content analysis was used to analyse the collected data. Research findings revealed that there was no effective implementation of the localised curriculum in Mwansabombwe district. This was necessitated by lack of appropriate practical measures by the Ministry of Education (MoE) to address key issues such as those that had to do with; teaching and learning materials, lack of capacity building amongst the teaching staff, lack of motivation amongst the learners, teachers and community members as well as ignorance on pertinent issues surrounding the localisation of the curriculum amongst various stakeholders. Hence from the research findings, it was recommended that the MoE need to thoroughly conduct both needs assessment and situation analysis for the localisation of the curriculum to be effectively implemented in Zambian schools. Besides, the MoE needed to reinforce policy on localisation of the curriculum in schools if the country was to achieve the intended results about the localised curriculum.

Page(s): 297-304                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2023

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61217

 Robert Changwe
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, P. O Box 32379, Lusaka, ZAMBIA

 Christine Mwanza
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, P. O Box 32379, Lusaka, ZAMBIA

 Harrison Daka
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, P. O Box 32379, Lusaka, ZAMBIA

 Moreblessing Ng’onomo
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of Language and Social Sciences Education, P. O Box 32379, Lusaka, ZAMBIA

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Robert Changwe, Christine Mwanza, Harrison Daka, and Moreblessing Ng’onomo , “Linking Theory to Practice: Perspectives on Practical Measures and Policies in Enhancing the Implementation of the Localised curriculum in Mwansabombwe District of Zambia ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.297-304 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61217

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Credit Risk Assessment and Financial Perfomance of SACCOs. A Case of Selected SACCOs in Ibanda Municipality

Nelson Nkwasibwe, Atuhereze Elly Katsigaire – December 2022 Page No.: 305-311

The study examined the influence of credit assessment on financial performance SACCOs in Ibanda municipality. The main purpose was; to examine how credit risk assessment influences the financial performance of SACCOs in Ibanda municipality. The cross sectional descriptive survey design with quantitative approaches of data collection and analysis were used. The study population comprised of employees of SACCOs in Ibanda municipality. In this study credit supervisors and loans officers were the key respondents. A sample of 90 respondents was used. Questionnaires and documentary review were used to collect data. Statistical Package for Scientists (SPSS) Version (23) software helped in analyzing the collected data. Credit Risk assessment was found significant impacting on financial performance in the dimensions. The study thus recommended that there is a need for SACCOs to put in place credit assessment strategy.

Page(s): 305-311                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 January 2023

 Nelson Nkwasibwe
Ibanda University, Uganda

 Atuhereze Elly Katsigaire
Ibanda University, Uganda

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[71] Parrenas, J. C. (2005. Commercial bank‘s Risk Management Practices. A Survey of Four Asian Emerging Markets.
[72] Ragin, C. C. (2011). The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. University of California Press 2011.
[73] Robert. (2011).COSO Enterprise risk management; Establishing effective governance risk and compliance. Hoboken: John Wiley & sons Inc.
[74] Roodman L.,& Morduch.M (2009).The Impact of Microcredit on the poor in Bangladesh: Revisiting the Evidence.Working paper 174, enter for Global development.
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[76] Sewandagi, G. (2015). Causes of Default in Micro credit, Motivating and encouraging enthusiasm among members is essential to addressing the causes of default, The state of microfinance, Thesis report, pp. 36-44.
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[81] Turyahebwa.A (2013) Financial Performance in the Selected Microfinance Institutions in Uganda (unpublished master’s thesis) Kampala International University, West campus
[82] Uganda Cooperative Alliance (UCA, 2017). Report on management of SACCO’s in Uganda.
[83] Waweru N. M & Kalani V. M (2009). Commercial Banking Crises in Kenya: Causes and Remedies. African Journal of accounting, Economics, Finance and Banking Research, 4 (4), 12 – 33
[84] World Council of Credit Unions [WOCCU], (2011). Case Study of Four Savings and Credit Co-operative societies (SACCOS) Operating in the Hills of Nepal.

Nelson Nkwasibwe, Atuhereze Elly Katsigaire , “Credit Risk Assessment and Financial Perfomance of SACCOs. A Case of Selected SACCOs in Ibanda Municipality ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.305-311 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/305-311.pdf

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Text and Image Interplay in Selected Primary School English Textbooks in Ekiti State

Moses Olusanya Ayoola, Mercy Adenike Bankole, Chinyere Blessing Okorie – December 2022 Page No.: 312-318

This study sought to establish the relationship between text and images in selected primary school English textbooks and the ways in which text and image interplay supports interaction between pupils and materials in selected primary school English textbooks. Four English textbooks of primary 1 to 2 were selected for the study. The framework for the analysis in this study was based on the system of image text relations by Martinec and Salway (2005). Using both quantitative and qualitative analysis, the findings demonstrate that the total amount of instances of image-text relations in each textbook is 97 (18.5%), 202 (39.6%), 50 (8.8%) and 136 (26.1%) respectively. The study found out that there is a significant relationship between text and image in primary school English textbooks. Just as the image exemplifies the written text, the text also modifies the images. Through this, pupils are presented with concrete and familiar concepts that they can easily relate with. Thus, attention and interest of pupils are aroused, sustained and their reading speed and comprehension enhanced. The study concludes that, better understanding of the inter-semiotic relations between visual images and verbal texts helps textbook designers to design more suitable textbooks; enhances language learning and use through the learners’ proper interpretation of the pictures, words and design, as these elements come together to produce a visual-verbal narrative which is disregarded when there is a focus on the words only. The study, therefore offers more insights on how to interpret and understand how different modes in the textbooks relate to achieve the goal of language learning.

Page(s): 312-318                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 January 2023

 Moses Olusanya Ayoola
Department of Languages and Linguistics, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Mercy Adenike Bankole
Department of Languages and Linguistics, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Chinyere Blessing Okorie
Department of Languages and Linguistics, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1] Agosto, Denise E. (1999). One and inseparable: Interdependent storytelling in picture storybooks. Children’s Literature in Education, 30(4), 267280.
[2] Doonan, Jane. (1993). Looking at pictures in picture books. Stroud, England: Thimble Press
[3] Goddard, A (1998) The language of advertising. Routledge
[4] Graham, Judith. (1990). Pictures on the page. Sheffield, UK: National Association for the Teaching of English.
[5] Koutsikou, M.; Christidou, V.; Papadopoulou, M.; Bonoti, F.(2021) Interpersonal Meaning: Verbal Text–Image Relations in Multimodal Science Texts for Young Children. Education. Science. 2021, 11, 245. https:// doi.org/10.3390/educsci11050245
[6] Kress, G. (2009). What is mode? In C. Jewitt (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of multimodal analysis (pp. 54-68). Abingdon: Routledge.
[7] Kress, G. (2012). Multimodal discourse analysis. In P. Gee & M.
[8] Kress, G. and van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Reading images: A grammar of visual design (2nd edition). London: Routledge.
[9] Lai, H. (2018) Image-text Relations in Junior High School EFL Textbooks in China: A Mixed-methods Study. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, (9), 6, pp. 1177-1190,
[10] Lemke, J. (2012). Multimedia and discourse analysis. In P. J. Gee and M. Handford (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 79-89). London: Routledge.
[11] Liu, X., & Qu, D. (2014). Exploring the multimodality of EFL textbooks for Chinese college students: A comparative study. London & New York: Routledge.
[12] Martinec, R & Salway, A. (2005). A system for image-text relations in new (and old) media. Visual Communication, 4(3), pp. 337-371.
[13] Pantaleo, Sylvia. (2005). Young children engage with the metafictive in picture books. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 28(1), 1937.

Moses Olusanya Ayoola, Mercy Adenike Bankole, Chinyere Blessing Okorie , “Text and Image Interplay in Selected Primary School English Textbooks in Ekiti State ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.312-318 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/312-318.pdf

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Awareness and Knowledge levels as determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening uptake among Women Seeking Healthcare Services at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kenya

Chepngeno B. Judy, Prof. Kiptoo K. Michael – December 2022 Page No.: 319-324

The community health seeking behaviour on various health issues is driven by the level of knowledge and awareness. This study aimed at determining the link between cervical cancer awareness and knowledge levels in relation to uptake of cervical cancer screening among women seeking healthcare services at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kenya.
By assessing public awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer, deeper insights into existing public practices can be gained, thereby helping in identifying factors that influence women in adopting healthy practices and modelling public health interventions. The objectives of the study were; to find out the level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer screening among the women and to examine the relationship between the level of cancer awareness and knowledge cancer screening uptake. The study area was Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. The study adopted a mixed methods approach to arrive at logical conclusions. The major finding of the study revealed that many women accessing healthcare services at MTRH Kenya had ever heard about cervical cancer but majority of them had poor knowledge about the disease. They were not aware that it is sexually transmitted, can be prevented through vaccinating young girls before sexual debut and early and regular screening for cervical cancer. The study found out low levels of awareness of symptoms, knowledge on risk factors, and not able to differentiate between facts and misconceptions about the disease. In addition, it was found that the uptake of cancer screening services increased with the increase in knowledge level and vice versa. This study concludes that there is need to create massive awareness on cervical cancer prevention by government and non-state actors at all levels from the community level to the national level. The Ministry of health with communication practitioners should develop clear, easy to understand educational messages about cervical cancer and screening tests and appropriately communicate to the women. The health care providers should sensitize women on the need for early screening for cervical cancer during clinic visits to prevent late diagnosis of the disease when little treatment options are available. In order to prevent cervical cancer, effective communication is crucial in creating awareness and in increasing knowledge levels among women and to enhance uptake of screening in Kenya in particular and sub-Saharan Africa at large.

Page(s): 319-324                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 January 2023

 Chepngeno B. Judy
PhD Candidate (Communication Studies), Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya.

 Prof. Kiptoo K. Michael
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, South Eastern Kenya University, Kitui, Kenya.

[1] Adewumi, K., Nishimura, H., Oketch., S.Y., Adsul, P. and Huchko M. (2022). Barriers and Facilitators to Cervical Cancer Screening in Western Kenya: a Qualitative Study. Journal of Cancer Education. ;37(4):1122-1128.
[2] Bonful, H.A., Adolphina, A., Ransford S. S., Adanna, N., Timothy A. A., Adolf K. A., Nii A.A., Florence, D., Richard, M., Kofi A., and Kolawole, S. O. (2022). “Developing a Culturally Tailored Short Message Service (SMS) Intervention for Improving the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening among Ghanaian Women in Urban Communities.” BMC Women’s Health 22(1):1–21. doi: 10.1186/s12905-022-01719-9.
[3] Bante, S. A, Simegnew A.G., Almaz, A. G., Kebadnew, M., and Selamawit, L. F. (2019). “Uptake of Pre-Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Reproductive Age Women in Debre Markos Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2017.” BMC Public Health 19(1):1–9. doi: 10.1186/S12889-019-7398-5/TABLES/3.
[4] Bashshur, R.L, Shannon, G.W, Krupinski, E.A, Grigsby, J, Kvedar, J.C, Weinstein, R.S, Sanders, J.H.; Rheuban, K.S.; Nesbitt, T.S.; Alverson, D.C.; Merrell, R.C.; Linkous, J.D.; Ferguson, A. S.; Waters, R. J.; Stachura, M.E.; Ellis, D.G.; Antoniotti, N.M.; Johnston, B.; Doarn, C.R…Tracy, J. (2009). “National Telemedicine Initiatives: Essential to Healthcare Reform”. Telemedicine and e-Health. 15(6):600-10.
[5] Bayu et al. (2016). Cervical Cancer Screening Service Uptake and Associated Factors among Age Eligible Women in Mekelle Zone, Northern Ethiopia, 2015: A Community Based Study Using Health Belief Model. doi: 10.1186/S12889-019-7398-5/TABLES/3.
[6] De Ver Dye T, Bogale S, Hobden C, Tilahun Y, Hechter V, Deressa T, et al. (2011). A mixed-method assessment of beliefs and practice around breast cancer in Ethiopia: implications for public health programming and cancer control. Glob Public Health. 2011; 6:719–31. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com.
[7] Gatumo, M. Gacheri, Sayed, A and Scheibe, A. (2018). Women’s knowledge and attitudes related to cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening in Isiolo and Tharaka Nithi counties, Kenya: a cross-sectional study. BMC Cancer. 18: 745.
[8] Mingo, A.M., Catherine, A. Panozzo, Yumi, T. D., Jennifer S. S., Andrew, P. S., Doreen, R., and Noel T. B. (2012). “Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Botswana.” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer: Official Journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society 22(4):638. doi: 10.1097/IGC.0B013E318249470A.
[9] Morema, N., Harrysone E.A., Rosebella O.O., Joyce H.O., and Collins O. (2014). “Determinants of Cervical Screening Services Uptake among 18-49Year Old Women Seeking Services at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu, Kenya.” BMC Health Services Research 14(1). doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-335.
[10] Nyangasi, M., Nkonge, N. G., Gathitu, E., Kibachio, J., Gichangi, P., Wamai, R. G., & Kyobutungi, C. (2018). Predictors of cervical cancer screening among Kenyan women: results of a nested case-control study in a nationally representative survey. BMC public health, 18(3), 1221.
[11] Orang’o, E.O, Wachira, J., Asirwa, F.C, Busakhala, N., Naanyu, V., and Kisuya J, (2016). Factors Associated with Uptake of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) for Cervical Cancer Screening in Western Kenya. PloS one. 11(6): e0157217.
[12] Podder D., Paul, B., Dasgupta, A, Bandyopadhyay, L., Pal, A., Roy, S. (2019). Community perception and risk reduction practices toward malaria and dengue: a mixed-method study in slums of Chetla, Kolkata. Indian Journal Public Health. 63:178. doi: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_321_19.
[13] Rosser, J.I., Zakaras, J.M., Hamisi, S. and Huchko, M.J. (2014) Men’s Knowledge and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Screening in Kenya. BMC Women’s Health, 14, Article No. 138.
[14] Shaikh, B. T and Hatcher, J. (2005). “Health seeking behaviour and health service utilization in Pakistan: challenging the policy makers,” Journal of Public Health, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 49–54.
[15] Tiruneh, F.N, Chuang, K.Y, Ntenda, P, and Chuang, Y.C. (2017). Individual-level and community-level determinants of cervical cancer screening among Kenyan women: a multilevel analysis of a Nationwide survey. 17(1):109
[16] Wamburu et al, (2016). Association Between Stage at Diagnosis and Knowledge on Cervical Cancer Among Patients in a Kenyan Tertiary Hospital: a Cross-Sectional Study. doi: 10.11604/pamj.supp.2016.25.2.10684.

Chepngeno B. Judy, Prof. Kiptoo K. Michael , “Awareness and Knowledge levels as determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening uptake among Women Seeking Healthcare Services at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kenya ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.319-324 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/319-324.pdf

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Motivation and Attitude Towards English among Medical Technology Laboratory Students Universitas Perintis Indonesia

Nova Mustika, Rafnelly Rafki, Rinda Lestari, Marisa – December 2022 Page No.: 325-327

This study aims to determine the motivational orientation and English language attitudes of medical laboratory technology study program students towards learning English. A total of 91 students, in semester 2 of the 2021/2022 academic year, were surveyed using the AMTB (Attitude, Motivation Test Battery), and a questionnaire adapted from Gardner (1985) to determine motivation and language attitudes. Methods: Data were collected by giving a questionnaire measuring motivation and attitudes towards English of students of Medical Laboratory Technology level 1 (one) semester 2, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Perintis Indonesia. Data were analyzed quantitatively and descriptively. Results: Based on research findings, The students studying in the Medical Laboratory Technology Study Program have shown good motivation. From the four aspects in the analysis, it can be seen that students have good motivation. In the integrative aspect, most students already have a good attitude towards learning English. The instrumental aspect thus shows quite positive results. Associated with attitudes towards lecturers who teach is also positive. So it can be concluded that students already have a good attitude and motivation in learning English, but still need development to achieve optimal learning results.

Page(s): 325-327                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 January 2023

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61218

 Nova Mustika
Universitas Perintis Indonesia

 Rafnelly Rafki
Universitas Perintis Indonesia

 Rinda Lestari
Universitas Perintis Indonesia

 Marisa
Universitas Perintis Indonesia

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[2] Gardner, R. C. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second-Language Learning. Rowley, Massachusets: Newbury House Publisher
[3] Sardiman, A. (2001). Interaksi dan Motivasi Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo
[4] Ushioda, E. (2014). Motivation in the 21th Century EFL Classroom: Language Learning and Professional Challenges. IATEFL CHILE XIII International Conference. Santiago.
[5] Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social Psychology and Language Learning: the Role of Attitudes and Motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
[6] Chalak, A., & Kassaian, Z. (2010). Motivation and Attitudes of Iranian Undergraduate EFL Students towards Learning English. GEMA OnlineTM Journal of Language Studies 10(2), 37-56.
[7] Tamimi, Atef Al &Shuib, Munir. 2009. Motivation and Attitudes Toward Learning English: A Study Of Petroleum Engineering Undergraduates At Hadhramout University of Sciences And Technology.GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies Volume 9(2) 2009. Retrieved from http://www.ukm.my/ppbl/Gema/abstract%20for%20pp%2029_55.pdf
[8] Tsuda, Sanae. 2003. Attitudes toward English Language Learning in Higher Education in Japan (2): Raising Awareness of the Notion of Global English.Intercultural Communication Studies XII-3. Retrieved from http://www.uri.edu/iaics/content/2003v12n3/06%20Sanae%20Tsuda.pdf

Nova Mustika, Rafnelly Rafki, Rinda Lestari, Marisa , “Motivation and Attitude Towards English among Medical Technology Laboratory Students Universitas Perintis Indonesia ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.325-327 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61218

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The Adoption of Social Media and Internet as a Tool for Improving SMEs Performance in Sierra Leone; A Case Study of SMEs in Freetown Central Business District (CBD)

Mr. Shekou Ansumana Nuni, Mr. Ansumana Feika – December 2022 Page No.: 328-334

Internet and social media has not only revolutionalised business activities but also created a new way of doing business. It has become the new trend among businesses including SMEs. It was on this ground that this study was done to investigate social media and internet as a tool for improving SMEs performance in Sierra Leone. The study specifically examined the factors that influence the adoption of social media and internet among SMEs in Sierra Leone and determined the influence that the use of social media and internet has on SMEs market accessibility The study adopted a descriptive research design that collected primary data from a sample of fifty (50) SMEs in Freetown using questionnaires. Data were analysed using SPSS v26. Findings from the study revealed the factors that influence SMEs to adopt internet and social media and the influence of social media and internet on SMEs accessibility. The study further revealed that social media and internet influences SMEs accessibility in many ways. Conclusively, social media and internet is an important tool for improving SMEs performance in Sierra Leone. The study therefore recommended that SMEs conduct a cost-benefit analysis, the SME owners have some basic education needed for the operation of the technologies and training programmes are required for getting the best out of the use of IT.

Page(s): 328-334                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 January 2023

 Mr. Shekou Ansumana Nuni
Institute of Public Administration and Management, University of Sierra Leone, Canada

 Mr. Ansumana Feika
Institute of Public Administration and Management, University of Sierra Leone, Canada

[1]Abdulsaleh, A. M. (2016). Factors Affecting Libyan SMEs Selection of Banks as Business Partners. Quarterly Journal of Business Studies, 2(4), 201-210.
[2] Ainin, S., Parveen, F., Moghavvemi, S., Jaafar, N. I., & Shuib, N. L. (2015). Factors influencing the use of social media by SMEs and its performance outcomes. 570-588.
[3] Al Halbusi, H., Alhaidan, H., Abdelfattah, F., Ramayah, T., & Cheahk, J.-H. (2022). Exploring social media adoption in small and medium enterprises in Iraq: pivotal role of social media network capability and customer involvement. TECHNOLOGY ANALYSIS & STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT, 1-18. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/09537325.2022.2125374
[4] Amoah, J., & Jibril, A. B. (2020). “Inhibitors of social media as an innovative tool for advertising and marketing communication: evidence from SMES in a developing country”. Innovative Marketing, 16(4), 164-179.
[5] Amoah, J., & Jibril, A. B. (2021). Social Media as a Promotional Tool Towards SME’s Development: Evidence from the Financial Industry in a Developing Economy. Cogent Business & Management, 8(1), 1-21. doi:10.1080/23311975.2021.1923357
[6] Amoah, J., Jibril, A. B., Luki, B. N., Odei, M. A., & Yawson, C. (2021). BARRIERS OF SMES’ SUSTAINABILITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A PLS-SEM APPROACH. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL KNOWLEDGE, 9(1), 10-24.
[7] Armelini, G., & Villanueva, J. (2011). Adding social media to the marketing Mix. IESE Insight, 9, 29-36.
[8] Aruwa, S. (2013). Financing Options for Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.
[9] Chikandiwa, S., Contogiannis, E., & Jembere, E. (2013). The adoption of social media marketing in South African banks. European Business Review, 25(4). doi:doi.org/10.1108/EBR-02-2013-0013
[10] Cooper, D., & Schindler, P. (2014). Business Research Methods (12th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill International Edition.
[11] Dahnil, M. I., Marzuki, K. M., Langgat, J., & Fabeil, N. F. (2014). Factors Influencing SMEs Adoption of Social Media Marketing. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 119 – 126.
[12] Erukusin, I., & Ekanem, K. (2014). THE EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS IMPACT ON SME PERFORMANCE. Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference, (pp. 1-13). Manchester, United Kingdom.
[13] Gbandi, E., & Amissah, G. (2014). FINANCING OPTIONS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN NIGERIA. European Scientific Journal, 10(1), 327-340.
[14] Islam, M., & Nasira, S. (2017). Role of Technology on Development of SME Bangladesh Perspective. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Management, 6(1). Retrieved from http://www.publishingindia.com
[15] Jagongo, A., & Kinyua, C. (2013). The Social Media and Entrepreneurship Growth (A New Business Communication Paradigm among SMEs in Nairobi). International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(10), 213-227.
[16] Jibril, A. B., Kwarteng, M. A., Chovancova, M., & Pilik, M. (2019). The impact of social media on consumer-brand loyalty: A mediating role of online based-brand community. Cogent Business & Management, 1-19. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2019.1673640
[17] Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53, 59—68. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003
[18] Laroche, M., Habibi, M. R., Richard, M.-O., & Sankaranarayanan, R. (2012). The effects of social media based brand communities on brand community markers, value creation practices, brand trust and brand loyalty. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1755-1765.
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[22] Rahayu, R., & Day, J. (2015). Determinant Factors of E-commerce Adoption by SMEs in Developing Country: Evidence from Indonesia. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 142-150.
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Mr. Shekou Ansumana Nuni, Mr. Ansumana Feika , “The Adoption of Social Media and Internet as a Tool for Improving SMEs Performance in Sierra Leone; A Case Study of SMEs in Freetown Central Business District (CBD) ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.328-334 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/328-334.pdf

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Relationship Between Parental Communication Styles and Adolescent Substance Use Among Senior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Muhammad Shafi’u Adamu, Bagudu Alhaji Adamu, & Binta Ado Ali – December 2022 Page No.: 335-341

This research work investigated the relationship between parental communication styles and substance use of adolescents among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive survey method involving the use of a questionnaire. The total population for the study was all substance-use adolescents in secondary schools in Kaduna State obtained from school records. For the study, three hundred and sixty-three (363) respondents were purposively selected from 12 randomly selected senior secondary schools in the three senatorial zones of the state, as 351 responded and returned the completed questionnaires representing 98.3 % The instruments used in the study were the 18-item parental communication measures adopted from life Skills Training questionnaire designed and standardized by Botvin (2007) and Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale adopted from Moberg’s (2011) Students’ Behaviour of Substance Use. Three objectives, three research questions and three null hypotheses were used and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between aggressive parental communication style and substance use of adolescents (r= 0.945. p= 0.000). There is no significant relationship between assertive parental communication style and substance use of adolescents among secondary school students with (r= -0.574, p = 0.000). The findings also showed a significant relationship between passive parental communication style and substance use of adolescents with (r=0.482, p = 0,001). It was recommended that parents, counsellors, psychotherapists, and stakeholders in education should be exposed to the adequate counselling strategies on the relationship between parental communication style and substance abuse of adolescents.

Page(s): 335-341                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 January 2023

 Muhammad Shafi’u Adamu
Department of Educational Psychology & Counselling, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

 Bagudu Alhaji Adamu
Department of Educational Psychology & Counselling, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

 Binta Ado Ali
Department of Educational Psychology & Counselling, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Katsina State, Nigeria

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Muhammad Shafi’u Adamu, Bagudu Alhaji Adamu, & Binta Ado Ali , “Relationship Between Parental Communication Styles and Adolescent Substance Use Among Senior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.335-341 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/335-341.pdf

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Border Security: A Culture in Crisis in South Western Nigeria?

Olanrewaju Abdulwasii OLADEJO – December 2022 Page No.: 342-353

A combination of public speculations and avalanche of media reportage are suggestive of fading culture of border security giving rise to evolving organized crimes along popular borders between Nigeria and Benin Republic. The study sought to establish veracity or otherwise of the claim with a view to signpost possible implications via security lens. Study adopted descriptive design and empirical evidence from analyzed data indicated faded culture of border security and affirmed six genres of organized crimes namely human trafficking, vehicle smuggling, smuggling of contraband goods, smuggling of small arms and light weapons, drug trafficking and migrant smuggling, perpetrated at varying degrees with contributory causes being border porosity, ignorance of the crimes, lucrativity of the crimes, poverty and unemployment. The nefarious practices were affirmed and noted to constitute a huge burden on the nation in different spheres, security sphere in particular. Thus, upgraded digitization of border security operations via incorporation of aerial surveillance, training on inter-agency collaboration, sensitization of border area dwellers, strategic recruitment of personnel and national rebirth advocacy to encourage legitimate dealings along the corridor to rebuild the culture of border security intelligence among border community dwellers and rekindle sense of patriotism in border security operatives were recommended

Page(s): 342-353                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 January 2023

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61219

 Olanrewaju Abdulwasii OLADEJO
Department of Peace, Security and Humanitarian Studies, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

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Olanrewaju Abdulwasii OLADEJO , “Border Security: A Culture in Crisis in South Western Nigeria? ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.342-353 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61219

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Nexus Between the Media and Countering Terrorism in Nigeria: A Discourse

Raphael Olugbenga ABIMBOLA, Ph.D. – December 2022 Page No.: 354-360

Terrorism has assumed a global dimension sparing no part of the world. Almost every part of the globe has had its unfortunate share of the menace of terrorism in this 21st Century. In the last two decades (2001-2021, terrorism has spread from the Middle-East to America, Europe, Africa and other parts of the world with successful deadly attacks resulting in humongous fatalities. Major actors in terrorism include the terrorist groups, their sponsors, governments’ security forces, the victims and the media. Because of the important role the media play in the public space, this discourse examines the symbiotic relationship between the media and terrorism with reference to Nigeria. Anchored on the theories of agenda-setting, news framing and priming, the paper examines the nature of terrorism, purpose of terrorism, causes of terrorism, terrorism and organized crime, symbiotic relationship between media and terrorism, and ultimately the role of the media in combating terrorism in the world in general and Nigeria in particular. Cases of some notable terrorist attacks as reported in the Nigerian media were cited as illustrations.

Page(s): 354-360                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 January 2023

 Raphael Olugbenga ABIMBOLA, Ph.D.
Department of Mass Communication, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

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Raphael Olugbenga ABIMBOLA, Ph.D. , “Nexus Between the Media and Countering Terrorism in Nigeria: A Discourse ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.354-360 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/354-360.pdf

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Effects of Life Skill Training on the Self Efficacy of Institutionalised Children

Mrs. Getzi Baby.T, Dr. Martha George PhD (N), Dr. S.S. Sharmila Jansi Rani PhD (N) – December 2022 Page No.: 361-364

This study investigates the effect of life skill training on the self-efficacy of institutionalized children and the post-experimental evaluation of one group only. In this study, 40 institutionalized children in 10th grade were selected. Tools: The self-efficacy tool developed by Mathur & Bhatnagar was used. After 5 weeks of treatment, the group received life skills training consisting of two sessions per week, each lasting 45 minutes. Following treatment, a post-test was administered to determine if life skills training increased the self-confidence of the institutionalized children. Results: Life skills training significantly increased the self-confidence of institutionalized children. Thus, life skills training is significantly effective

Page(s): 361-364                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 January 2023

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61220

 Mrs. Getzi Baby.T
Research Scholar, Department of Nursing, Himalayan University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India

 Dr. Martha George PhD (N)
Research Supervisor, Department of Nursing, Himalayan University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India

 Dr. S.S. Sharmila Jansi Rani PhD (N)
Research Co-Supervisor, Department of Nursing, Himalayan University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India

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[2] Borah P, Ahmed N, Kollipara S (2020) Assessment of Life Skills Among Early Adolescents: A Descriptive Study. Indian Journal of psychiatric nursing;17: 2-7.
[3] Chiteji, Ngina. (2010) “Time Preference, Cognitive Skills and Well Being across the Life Course: Do Noncognitive Skills Encourage Healthy Behavior?” American Economic Review, vol. 100, no. 2, May 2010, pp. 200–04. DOI. org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.100.2.200.
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[6] Jang, Kyeongmin, et al. (2021) “Effectiveness of Self-Re-Learning Using Video Recordings of Advanced Life Support on Nursing Students’ Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Skills Performance.” BMC Nursing, vol. 20, no. 1, Dec. 2021, p. 52. DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00573-8.
[7] Krishna Kumari Samantaray et.al (2019) A Comparative Study to Assess the Psychosocial Development Between Non-orphan And Orphan Children, A Comparative Study To Assess The Psychosocial Development Between Non-orphan And Orphan Children, European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, Volume 7, Issue 11, 2020pg 5013-5020.
[8] O’Leary, Ann. “Self-Efficacy and Health.” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 23, no. 4, 1985, pp. 437–51. DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(85)90172-X.
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[10] Shwetha. B (2015) The role of life skills training in developing emotional maturity and stress resilience among adolescents, The International Journal of Indian Psychology, volume 2, issue 4, doi: b00374v2i42015 http://www.ijip.in July-September 2015.
[11] Ushanandhini N (2017) A Study on Mental Health among Adolescent Orphan Children Living in Orphanages, Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5766 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0484 (Online) Vol.7, No.17, 2017 – Special Issue – Organized by Department of Social Work, Bishop Heber College.
[12] Vijaya ShivaputrappaAgadi. “A Study of Life Skills among Secondary School Students.” IOSR Journal of Research & Methods in Education (IOSR-JRME), 11(3), (2021): pp. 33-35.

Mrs. Getzi Baby.T, Dr. Martha George PhD (N), Dr. S.S. Sharmila Jansi Rani PhD (N) , “Effects of Life Skill Training on the Self Efficacy of Institutionalised Children ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.361-364 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61220

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The Concept of Forgiveness and its Social Cultural Significance among Tabwa People of Congo

Cyprien Nkoma Kamengwa, and Joyzy Pius Egunjobi – December 2022 Page No.: 365-369

Forgiveness is one of the hardest things to give and it is almost always given to those who don’t even deserve it. Some people don’t even like to think or even talk about it when someone hurts them. Holding on to anger and resentment can be an attitude adopted by some people in this world. On the other hand, some other people choose to practice forgiveness. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to discover the practice of forgiveness and its significance among people who have experienced hurt from others among some members of the Tabwa ethnic community (DRC). The study used a Transcendental Phenomenological Research design. Convenient sampling was used to select 10 participants aged between 20 to 60 from the Tabwa ethnic community. The study used an interview guide for data collection. A thematic approach was employed for data analysis. The results of the study indicated that the participants allocated a great importance to forgiveness. It was found that the practice of forgiveness had produced some positive emotional outcomes and behaviors such as peace, happiness, freedom, sense of humility among other values.

Page(s): 365-369                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 January 2023

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61221

 Cyprien Nkoma Kamengwa1
Department of Counseling Psychology, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

 Joyzy Pius Egunjobi

Psycho-Spiritual Institute of Lux Terra Leadership Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Amanze, U. (2021). Forgiveness and happiness. In S. McHugh & J. Carson (Eds.). Happiness in a Northern Town (pp. 126 – 138). London: Whiting & Birch Ltd.
[2] Castillo, V. (2019). An Investigation of Forgiveness in an Honor Culture (Master Thesis, Iowa University, Ames).
[3] Creswell, J.W. & Clark, V.L.P. (2018). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. (3rd Ed.) SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.
[4] Feigenblatt, D.F.W. (2011). Forgiveness and culture: an interdisciplinary dialogue. Journal of History and Social Sciences. 1 (1) 1-9.
[5] Hyland, T. (2017). Buddhism and Forgiveness. An Interview with Terry Hyland. ResearchGate.
[6] Jampolsky, G.G. (1999). Forgiveness : The Greatest Healer of All. Beyond Words. New York.
[7] Jiang, F., Yue, X., Lu, S. & Yu, G. (2014). Can you forgive? It depends on how happy you are. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1-8. DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12185.
[8] Judith, A. (2017). I forgive you. How Heart-Based Forgiveness Sets You Free. Doctor Resources. New York- USA.
[9] Lijo, K.J. (2018). Lijo KJ (2018) Forgiveness: Definitions, Perspectives, Contexts and Correlates. Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 8 (342). Doi:10.4172/2161-0487.1000342.
[10] Lin, C.T. (2021). With or Without Repentance: A Buddhist Take on Forgiveness. Ethical Perspectives, 28 (3) 263-285. Doi: 10.2143/EP.28.3.0000000.
[11] Metcalfe, M. & Briggs, K. (2020). The Freedom of Forgiveness Beyond Crisis: Interpersonal Strategies for Leaders. In S. Rawat, O.B. Boe, & A. Piotrowski (Ed.), Military Psychology Response to Post Pandemic Reconstruction. Jaipur, India: Rawat Publications.
[12] Muasa, P.W. (2022). The Big Five Personality Traits and Attitude towards the Same Gender Relationships among University Students in Nairobi County, Kenya. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 5 (7) 878-883.
[13] Report (2013). Forgiveness and Healing. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Catholic Council. Stepneyorman.
[14] Tucker, J., Bitman, R.L., Wade, N.G. & Cornish, M.A. (2015). Defining forgiveness: Historical roots, contemporary research, and key considerations for health outcomes. ResearchGate, 1-17. DOI:10.1007/978-94-017-9993-52.
[15] The European Institute for Gender Equality (2016). Gender Equality in Academia and Research. Vilnius, Lithuania.

Cyprien Nkoma Kamengwa, and Joyzy Pius Egunjobi , “The Concept of Forgiveness and its Social Cultural Significance among Tabwa People of Congo ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.365-369 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61221

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Protection of Personal Data in Transactions Using E-Commerce in the Perspective of Indonesian Law (An Overview)

Tubagus Muhammad Ali Ridho Azhari, Maria Grasia Sari Soetopo – December 2022 Page No.: 370-375

The need for legal protection guarantees for digital concepts is very much needed in the digitalization era, especially with the widespread use of the internet in Indonesia, which tends to increase to become very vulnerable to opportunities for criminal acts to occur, especially law enforcement on personal data leaks. There have been several cases of personal data leakage in several e-marketplaces in Indonesia. The existence of vulnerabilities in the e-commerce cyber security system in Indonesia against personal data leakage requires the Government to resolve law enforcement issues through the ratification of Law No. 27 of 2022 concerning the Protection of Personal Data as a legal umbrella if there is a problem of leakage of personal data to every citizen as an e-commerce user. Because of this phenomenon, this study aims to evaluate the protection of personal data in transactions using e-commerce from the perspective of Indonesian law. This study uses a normative legal evaluation approach and normative-empirical law with qualitative analysis. This study found that personal data protection regulations are still partial, so Law no. 27 of 2022 concerning the Protection of Personal Data does not yet have maximum legal force purely as a legal regulator for guaranteeing personal data security.

Page(s): 370-375                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 January 2023

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61222

 Tubagus Muhammad Ali Ridho Azhari
Department of Law, University of Pelita Harapan, Indonesia

 Maria Grasia Sari Soetopo
Department of Law, University of Pelita Harapan, Indonesia

[1] Zou H. Protection of personal information security in the age of big data. Proc – 12th Int Conf Comput Intell Secur CIS 2016. 2017;586–9.
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[5] Malia I. Sebelum BPJS Kesehatan, Ini 3 Kasus Kebocoran Data Konsumen E-commerce. IDN times. 2021;
[6] Mukhti Fajar, Achmad Y. Dualisme Penelitian Hukum Normatif dan Empiris. 2015;8(1):15–35.
[7] Rakhmawati NA, Rachmawati AA, Perwiradewa A, Handoko BT, Pahlawan MR, Rahmawati R, et al. Konsep Perlindungan Hukum Atas Kasus Pelanggaran Privasi Dengan Pendekatan Perundang-Undangan Dan Pendekatan Konseptual. Justitia J Huk Fak Huk Univ Muhammadiyah Surabaya. 2019;3(2):297–304.
[8] Kaimudin A. Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Tenaga Kerja Anak Dalam Perundang- Undang Di Indonesia. Yurispruden. 2019;2(1):37.
[9] Mangku DGS, Radiasta IK. Tanggung Jawab Negara terhadap Penembakan Pesawat MH17 berdasarkan Hukum Internasional. Pandecta Res Law J. 2019;14(1):25–33.
[10] Putra RDW, Indradjati RPN. Studi Deskriptif – Evaluatif Bentuk Tipologi Kawasan (Pembelajaran Dari Kota Surabaya). J Pengemb Kota [Internet]. 2021 Dec 28;9(2):124–42. Available from: https://ejournal2.undip.ac.id/index.php/jpk/article/view/9827
[11] Makarim E. Pengantar Hukum Telematika : Suatu Kompilasi Kajian. Jakarta : Raja Grafindo; 2005. 150 p.
[12] Tsamara N. Perbandingan Aturan Perlindungan Privasi Atas Data Pribadi Antara Indonesia Dengan Beberapa Negara. J Suara Huk. 2021;3(1):60.
[13] Ramadhani SA. Komparasi Pengaturan Perlindungan Data Pribadi di Indonesia dan Uni Eropa. J Huk Lex Gen. 2021;3(21):78.
[14] Palito J, Soenarto SA, Raila TA. Urgensi Pembentukan Pengaturan Perlindungan Data Pribadi Di Indonesia Serta Komparasi Pengaturan Di Jepang Dan Korea Selatan. J Supremasi Huk. 2021;17(1):28.

Tubagus Muhammad Ali Ridho Azhari, Maria Grasia Sari Soetopo , “Protection of Personal Data in Transactions Using E-Commerce in the Perspective of Indonesian Law (An Overview) ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.370-375 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61222

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The Impact of Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study on selected Small & Medium sized Enterprises in Bangladesh

Jahir Rayhan – December 2022 Page No.: 376-387

Human resource is known as an important part and parcel of an organization. In today’s world of wide spread industrialization and increasing demand on the organization to enhance the competitive position of workforce is a pervasive concern for employers and the employees too. Human Resource Management (HRM) function seeks to encapsulate and evaluate those factors exigently which is prevalent in the internal environment of organization affecting the degree of level of satisfaction and their commitment towards job. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of HR practices on job satisfaction in the context of small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Bangladesh. A total of 210 responses from 18 small and medium sized manufacturing firms were collected and analyzed objectively. It was found that HR practices have a significant association with job satisfaction. In addition, human resource planning were found to have positive impact on job satisfaction. It was also found that training and development has the greatest impact on job satisfaction. But, recruitment and selection, performance appraisals, compensation and rewards have very negligible impact on job satisfaction as their respective statistics are insignificant. Academicians, researchers, policy-makers, practitioners, students, local and foreign entrepreneurs of Bangladesh and other similar countries could benefit from this paper by exploring the association between HR practices and employee job satisfaction. The paper is divided into the following sections in order to fulfill the goal. The literature review and research gap are presented first, based on previous investigations. The research methods used in the study are then described. The analysis, results and discussions are reported in the paper’s third section. Finally, findings & recommendations with limitations, direction for the further study and conclusion are represented.

Page(s): 376-387                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2023

 Jahir Rayhan
Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Ishakha International University, Bangladesh.

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[3] Ahmed, R. U. (2015). A comparative research on job satisfaction and HRM practices: Empirical investigation of few commercial bank employees in Bangladesh. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 5(2). doi:10.5296/ ijhrs.v5i2.7765
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Jahir Rayhan , “The Impact of Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study on selected Small & Medium sized Enterprises in Bangladesh ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.376-387 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/376-387.pdf

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Health Insurance Coverage Among Women in Zambia

Evans Sankwa Chikumbe, Majory Chikumbe – December 2022 Page No.: 388-392

One of the factors affecting productivity among Zambian women is related to disease burden. Health insurance is meant to reduce costs when faced with costly medical attention. This study investigated factors that affected women in acquiring health insurance in Zambia. It employed the discrete choice models, called; Linear Probability, Logit and Probit Models to estimate the chances of a woman having health insurance. Instrumental variables were used to solve the problem of endogeneity with education. The results show that the level of education was the main driver and increased the probability of having health insurance. Age, marital status, being in a rural setup were all positively related to possessing a medical scheme. Further, women who have good communication in English were more likely to have health insurance.

Page(s): 388-392                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2023

 Evans Sankwa Chikumbe
School of Economics,University of Cape Town, South Africa

 Majory Chikumbe
Department of Economics and Finance, Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

[1] Adisu, B. W. etal. (2021). Health Insurance Coverage and Its Associated Factors Among Reproductive-Age Women in East Africa: A Multilevel Mixed-Effects Generalized Linear Model. ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research. https://doi.org/10.2147%2FCEOR.S322087
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[11] PwC Zambia, (2019). Zambia Insurance Industry Survey, Understanding the role and Benefit of Insurance. https://www.pwc.com/zm/en/assets/pdf/zambia-insurance-industry-survey-2020.pdf
[12] ZambiaInvest (2022). Zambia Insurance Sector Performances. https://www.zambiainvest.com/finance/insurance/ or www.twitter.com/zambia_invest
[13] Zambia Statistics Agency (2014). Zambia Demographic and health Survey Report, 2014; Secondary Data Analysis, UNICEF Zambia Country Office, Lusaka Zambia.

Evans Sankwa Chikumbe, Majory Chikumbe , “Health Insurance Coverage Among Women in Zambia ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.388-392 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/388-392.pdf

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Cost Management and Control of Building Projects in Nigeria; The Role of The Architect

Ikenna Michael Onuorah, and Bons N. Obiadi – December 2022 Page No.: 393-397

Building projects entail numerous closely connected tasks. The management of such tasks is highly difficult, which makes it challenging for clients. According to Shamsudeen, 2009, such intricate and interconnected operations lead to cost issues that call for efficient cost management and control procedures. One of the most crucial activities in a building project is cost management and control, which begins at the conceptual stage of every project by giving clients and the design team cost recommendations to help the design be completed within the allocated budget (Cunningham, 2015).
This research seeks to address the role of architects in cost management and control of building projects in Nigeria by thoroughly examining the following topics—cost management, cost control, the significance of cost management in a building project, a review of the members of the building team and their roles, and enumerating the statutory role and responsibilities of Architects in building projects in Nigeria.
Every client hopes for a building project to be completed on time and within budget. The biggest problem an architect faces is controlling and managing cost of building project’s during planning and execution to prevent cost overruns. This study focused on architects and their role in cost management and control of building projects in Nigeria. This study suggests that the architect, who serves as the prime consultant in building projects, takes the lead in cost management and control.

Page(s): 393-397                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2023

 Ikenna Michael Onuorah
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria.

 Bons N. Obiadi
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria.

[1] Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON) & the Nigerian Institute of Architects (NIA) (2011). Conditions of Engagement and Remuneration for Professional Architect’s Services. Issue of 21st September, 2011.
[2] F.L. Bennett. The Management of Construction: A Project Life Cycle Approach, Butterworth Heinemann, United Kingdom, 2003
[3] C. Charoenngam and E. Sriprasert (2001). Assessment of cost control systems: a case study of Thai construction organizations’, Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 8(5-6), 368-380.
[4] Chartered Institute of Building (2002) Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, Chartered Institute of Building, Ascot.
[5] Cunningham, T. (2015) Cost Control during the Pre-Contract Stage of a Building Project – An Introduction. Report prepared for Dublin Institute of Technology, 2015.
[6] Cunningham, T. (2017) Cost Control during The Construction Phase of the Building Project: – The Consultant Quantity Surveyor’s Perspective, Dublin Institute of Technology.
[7] Department of Finance (2008), Training Manual TM-CC Public Works Contracts – Contractors, Department of Finance, Dublin, on-line: http://constructionprocurement.gov.ie/wp-content/CWMFDocs/TM/TMCC.pdf [Accessed 16th March 2018].
[8] H. Kerzner. Project Management A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, 2003.
[9] Contract-management cost control: Retrieved April 3, 2018 from http://www.the-bcb.com/contract-management-cost-control.htm
[10] Project manager: Retrieved April 3, 2018 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_manager
[11] J. A. Brown. Construction Cost Control After Bidding, 22nd Annual AACE (American Association of Cost Engineers) meeting. 2003.
[12] Michael D. Dell’Isola (Nov 2002) The American Institute of Architect’s; Architect’s Essentials of Cost Management.
[13] M. Theodorakopoulos, C. Pasquire and P. Fitsilis, (2009), Investigating a new integrated cost management system within lean project delivery, Conference proceeding, COBRA 2009: RICS construction and building research conference, pp 10-11 September 2009, University of Cape Town
[14] Role of architect in controlling construction costs: Retrieved April 3, 2018 from https://www.constructionrisk.com/2011/02/role-of-architect-in-controlling-construction-costs/
[15] S. Shamsudeen. (2009), Effective cost control process for a contractor during post contract stage of infrastructure projects. Unpublished MSc thesis from Heriott Watts University, United Kingdom.
[16] Wikipaedia (The Free Encyclopedia) – Project Management. (2013). Retrieved April 3, 2018 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_management
[17] Wikipaedia (The Free Encyclopedia) – Project Manager. (2013). Retrieved April 3, 2018 from www.costmanagement.eu/blog-article/198-cost-management-explained-in-4-steps

Ikenna Michael Onuorah, and Bons N. Obiadi , “Cost Management and Control of Building Projects in Nigeria; The Role of The Architect ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.393-397 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/393-397.pdf

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Readdressing Rape Phenomenon in Yobe State: An Islamic Alternative

Dr. Adam Abdullahi Mohammed & amp; Dr. Adam Muhammad Abubakar – December 2022 Page No.: 398-404

Rape is regarded as the most aggressive and serious sexual offence. It is a very serious crime affecting the lives and general activities of victims and their families, socially, psychologically and mentally. In Nigeria, rape incidence for women and girls is on an increasing trend; because of the discriminatory nature of the application of its laws, and sometimes some forms of violence against women are even legalized. It is against this backdrop that this research aims at identifying the real factors of prevalence of rape phenomena in Yobe state, with an attempt to provide solutions from Islamic perspective. The research is an exploratory qualitative research that sourced cross sectional primary data collected through the use of structured questionnaire. Multistage purposive sampling method was employed in selecting the respondents for the study across the study area. Thematic Analysis was employed as the method of data analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and interpret the results of the thematic analyses of the data obtained. The findings of this research revealed that, lack of proper punishment for culprits is the major factor responsible of high rate of rape cases in Yobe state. It farther revealed that societal hatred against rape victims is the most common negative effect of rape phenomenon in the state. Finally, the recommended that public awareness campaigns should be carryout to address hindrances of prosecuting and punishing rape and other sexually related culprits in Yobe State.

Page(s): 398-404                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 January 2023

 Dr. Adam Abdullahi Mohammed
Department of Islamic Studies, Yobe State University Damaturu, Nigeria

 Dr. Adam Muhammad Abubakar
Department of Islamic Studies, Yobe State University Damaturu, Nigeria

[1] The Sharia Penal Codes Act (1999) section 28. The penal code (Nigerian Laws Cap 89 and 282). The Constitution Of The Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 as amended.
[2] Mary O. Esere, Adeyemi I. Idowu, Irene A. Durosaro and Joshua A. Omotosho, (2009) Causes and consequences of intimate partner rape and violence: Experiences of victims in Lagos, Nigeria’ Journal of AIDS and HIV Research Vol. 1(1)
[3] Amnesty International (2004b). Interview with “Folake”, Lagos State, November.
[4] Amnesty International (2004a). Interview with a human rights defender who campaigns to end violence against women in the family, Lagos State, November.
[5] Asifa Quraishi (1999) ‘her honour: an islamic critique of the rape provisions in pakistan’s ordinance on zina’ Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3. p 404 & p418
[6] Naaeke AY (2006). Breaking the silence about domestic violence: Communication for development in North Western Ghana. Gender Behaviour. 4(2): 782-796.
[7] Bunch C. (1997). The intolerable status que: Violence against women and girls. Prog. Nations 1: 41-45.
[8] Ezenwa C (2003). The role of medical practitioners in dealing with victims of domestic violence. In Legal Defense and Assistance Project (LEDAP), Domestic violence, zero tolerance, Lagos p. 63.
[9] Frank B. Wilderson III (2017): Reciprocity and rape: Blackness and the paradox of sexual violence, Women & Performance: a journal of feminist theory. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0740770X.2017.1282122
[10] Barr. Seun Temi Ojagbohunmi (July 2020): An in-depth report on rape and the nigerian justice system for the consent workshop. www.centreforknowledge.com
[11] National commission on the future of DNA evidence; understanding DNA evidence a guide for victim service providers.

Dr. Adam Abdullahi Mohammed & amp; Dr. Adam Muhammad Abubakar , “Readdressing Rape Phenomenon in Yobe State: An Islamic Alternative ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.398-404 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/398-404.pdf

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Factors Affecting the Performance of Climate-Smart Agriculture Project from the Perspectives of Agriculture Extension Workers: A Case Study of Nakuru County, Kenya.

Beatrice Chepkoech, Atsiaya Obwina Godfrey – December 2022 Page No.: 405-415

This study aims to analyze the factors influencing the performance of climate-smart agriculture projects for smallholder farmers in Nakuru County, Kenya. This cross-sectional study was conducted to discover the factors behind the slow performance of climate-Smart agriculture projects in adopting, mitigating, and increasing productivity, and therefore improving the livelihoods of smallholder farmers. The research was conducted in the 11 Sub-Counties of Nakuru County, Kenya. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire survey administered to 110 agriculture extension workers. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis. The results indicated that farmers’ factors, project, and political factors significantly affected the performance of the agricultural projects at variation of 83.3 % (R2 = 0.833). The study recommends that the government and all relevant stakeholders work jointly to improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers. It is especially important to ensure that smallholder farmers are equipped with self-help capabilities and allowed to participate in climate-smart agriculture project decision-making. In addition, it is critical to examine the issues of funding disbursement, improve the political environment in which CSA projects work, and project factors.

Page(s): 405-415                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 7 January 2023

 Tubagus Muhammad Ali Ridho Azhari
Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Egerton University, P.O Box 536-20115, Kenya

 Beatrice Chepkoech
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, P.O Box 536 -20115, Kenya

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[2] Adesina, O. S. & Loboguerrero, A. M. (2021). Enhancing Food Security Through Climate-Smart Agriculture and Sustainable Policy in Nigeria. Springer.
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[4] Amwata, D. A. (2020). Situational analysis study for the agriculture sector in Kenya. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change. Agriculture and Food Security.
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[6] Athukorala, W. (2022). Analysing Agriculture Extension Programmes. Using Randomised Control Experiments in Agricultural Policy Analysis. Springer, pp. 363–389.
[7] Ayugi, B., Eresanya, E. O., Onyango, A. O., Ogou, F. K., Okoro, E. C., Okoye, C. O., … & Ongoma, V. (2022). Review of meteorological drought in Africa: historical trends, impacts, mitigation measures, and prospects. Pure and Applied Geophysics. Springer, pp. 1–22.
[8] Banerjee, A., Niehaus, P. & Suri, T. (2019). Universal basic income in the developing world. Annual Review of Economics. Annual Reviews, 11, pp. 959–983.
[9] Birch, I. (2018). Agricultural productivity in Kenya: barriers and opportunities IDS.
[10] Chen, L. & Hu, P. (2021). Project management competency and project performance of Dam projects in China. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project Management, 5(2).
[11] Ciaccia, F. (2022). Technology Innovation in the Energy Sector and Climate Change. The Role of Governments and Policies,” in Interdisciplinary Approaches to Climate Change for Sustainable Growth. Springer, pp. 159–179.
[12] D’Alessandro, C., Molina, P. B., Dekeyser, K., & Rampa, F. (2021). The case of Nakuru County, Kenya.
[13] Deb Pal, B. & Tyagi, N. K. (2022). Scaling up climate-smart agriculture in South Asia: Synthesis report. Intl Food Policy Res Inst.
[14] Eichsteller, M., Njagi, T. & Nyukuri, E. (2022). The role of agriculture in poverty escapes in Kenya–Developing a capabilities approach in the context of climate change. World Development. Elsevier, 149, p. 105705.
[15] Endo, K. (2020). Kenya-National Climate Smart Agriculture Project: Environmental Assessment: Pest Management Plan on Locust Control Contingency Emergency Recovery Implementation Plan. World Bank Group.
[16] Etwire, P. M. et al. (2013). Factors Influencing Farmer’s Participation in Agricultural Projects The case of the Agricultural Value Chain Mentorship. Project in the Northern Region of Ghana. The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education.
[17] Etwire, P. M., Martey, E., & Goldsmith, P. (2021). Factors that drive peer dissemination of agricultural information: evidence from northern Ghana. Development in Practice, 31(5), 606-618.
[18] Evans, A. A., Florence, N. O. & Eucabeth, B. O. M. (2018). Production and marketing of rice in Kenya: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 10(3), pp. 64–70.
[19] Gesimba, P., & Njau, J. (2018). An Assessment of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies by Smallholder Agribusinesses in Mau Ranges, Nakuru County. St Paul’s university.
[20] Hailu, M. et al. (2020). Understanding factors affecting the performance of agricultural extension system in Ethiopia Ethiop. J. Agric. Sci., 30(4), pp. 237–263.
[21] Hornum, S. T. & Bolwig, S. (2021). A functional analysis of the role of input suppliers in an agricultural innovation system: The case of small-scale irrigation in Kenya. Agricultural Systems. Elsevier, 193, p. 103219.
[22] Hussain, S. et al. (2018). Structural equation model for evaluating factors affecting quality of social infrastructure projects. Sustainability. MDPI, 10(5), p. 1415.
[23] Iddrisu, A. (2015). The effects of input-credit project on output and income of farmers in the municipality of the northern region.
[24] IFAD (2017). Kenya Cereal Enhancement Programme-Climate Resilient Agricultural Livelihoods Window (KCEP-CRAL): Project Summary (June). Available at: https://www.ifad.org/documents/38711644/40046455/KCEP_CRAL_Supervision Report.
[25] Indahningrum, R. putri et al. (2020). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2507(1), pp.19.Availableat:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2019.02.027%0Ahttps://www.golder.com/insights/block-caving-a-viable-alternative/%0A???
[26] Kabubo-Mariara, J., & Kabara, M. (2018). Climate change and food security in Kenya,” in Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa. Routledge, pp. 55–80.
[27] Kalele, D. N. et al. (2021). Climate change impacts and relevance of smallholder farmers’ response in arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya. Scientific African. Elsevier, 12, p. e00814.
[28] Kalimba, U. B. and Culas, R. J. (2020). Climate Change and Farmers’ Adaptation: Extension and Capacity Building of Smallholder Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa,” in Global Climate Change and Environmental Policy. Springer, pp. 379–410.
[29] Kassie, M. et al. (2013). Adoption of interrelated sustainable agricultural practices in smallholder systems: Evidence from rural Tanzania, Technological forecasting, and social change. Elsevier, 80(3), pp. 525–540.
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[31] Kimutai, K. E. (2019). Factors affecting tax compliance in the agricultural sector in Kenya: a case of horticultural farmers in Naivasha, Nakuru County. KESRA/JKUAT-Unpublished research project.
[32] Kogo, B. K., Kumar, L. & Koech, R. (2021). Climate change and variability in Kenya: a review of impacts on agriculture and food security. Environment, Development and Sustainability. Springer, 23(1), pp. 23–43.
[33] Larsen, J. K. et al. (2016). Factors affecting schedule delay, cost overrun, and quality level in public construction projects. Journal of management in engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers, 32(1), p. 4015032.
[34] Leahy, T. & Alinyo, F. (2018). Leading farmer projects and rural food security, Uganda, in Food Security for Rural Africa. Routledge, pp. 129–145.
[35] Lokuruka, M. N. (2020). Food and nutrition security in east Africa (Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania): Status, challenges, and prospects. Food security in Africa. Intech Open London, UK.
[36] Mati, B. M. & Thomas, M. K. (2019). Overview of sugar industry in Kenya and prospects for production at the coast. Agricultural Sciences. Scientific Research Publishing, 10(11), pp. 1477–1485.
[37] Mayo, S. H. (2018). Factors Influencing Performance of Agricultural Projects: A Case of Bura Irrigation and Settlement, Tana River County, Kenya.
[38] Mogaka, B. O., Bett, H. K., & Karanja Ng’ang’a, S. (2021). Socioeconomic factors influencing the choice of climate-smart soil practices among farmers in western Kenya. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 5, 100168.
[39] Muhumuza, K. A. (2019). International Funding Mechanisms for Kenya’s Big Four: The Case of Food Security. United States International University-Africa.
[40] Musembi, F. P. (2015) “No Title.”
[41] Mutsotso, R. B., Sichangi, A. W. & Makokha, G. O. (2018). Spatial-temporal drought characterization in Kenya from 1987 to 2016.” Advances in Remote Sensing.
[42] Nederhand, J., & Klijn, E. H. (2019). Stakeholder involvement in public–private partnerships: Its influence on the innovative character of projects and on project performance,” Administration & Society. SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA, 51(8), pp. 1200–1226.
[43] Norton, G. W., & Alwang, J. (2020). Changes in Agricultural Extension and Implications for Farmer Adoption of New Practices. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy. Wiley Online Library, 42(1), pp. 8–20.
[44] Nyangwara, P. O. & Datche, E. (2015). Factors Affecting the Performance of Construction Projects: A Survey of Construction Projects in the Coastal Region of Kenya. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(10), pp. 1–43.
[45] Okeyo, B., & Wamugi, S. M. (2018). Climate Change Effects and the Resulting Adaptation Strategies of Smallholder Farmers in Three Different Ecological Zones (Kilifi, Embu and Budalangi) in Kenya. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, www. iiste. org ISSN, pp. 2224–3216.
[46] Okumu, B. (2021). CCAFS impact assessment of national policy engagement in Kenya and livelihood impact of uptake of climate-smart agriculture technologies and practices-2021.” CGIAR Reseach Program on Climate Change. Agriculture and Food Security.
[47] Patrick, E. M., Koge, J., Zwarts, E., Wesonga, J. M., Atela, J. O., Tonui, C., … & Koomen, I. (2020). Climate-resilient horticulture for sustainable county development in Kenya. Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation.
[48] Phiri, B. (2015). Influence of monitoring and evaluation on project performance: A Case of African Virtual University, Kenya. University of Nairobi.
[49] Productivity, A., & Security, F. (2019). Climate Resilient Agribusiness for Tomorrow Promoting Climate Resilient Food Systems for Increased Agricultural Productivity and Food Security.
[50] Raj, S., & Garlapati, S. (2020). Extension and advisory services for climate-smart agriculture,” in Global climate change: Resilient and smart agriculture. Springer, pp. 273–299.
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[53] Waithera, S. L. & Wanyoike, D. M. (2015). Influence of project monitoring and evaluation on performance of youth funded agribusiness projects in Bahati Sub-County, Nakuru, Kenya,” International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(11), p. 375.

Beatrice Chepkoech, Atsiaya Obwina Godfrey , “Factors Affecting the Performance of Climate-Smart Agriculture Project from the Perspectives of Agriculture Extension Workers: A Case Study of Nakuru County, Kenya. ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.405-415 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12/405-415.pdf

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Development and Validation of English-Igbo Soccer Terms: The Dynamic Equivalence Translation Approach

Monica Nnenne Okafor (Ph.D), and Uzoma Chimao – December 2022 Page No.: 416-423

The study set out to arrest the challenge of lack of equivalent terms in the Igbo language of soccer terms, a game that has gained the widest popularity in Nigeria, especially among the Igbo speaking population. The major aims of the study were to develop English-Igbo soccer terms through translation and to ascertain the validity and reliability indices of the terms translated. The primary source of data was a glossary of 387 soccer terms sourced from related literature. After translation and restructuring by experts, a research sample of one hundred face and content validated terms were obtained. The framework of analysis rested on Eugene Nida’s theory of Dynamic Equivalence. The one hundred face and content validated English-Igbo terms were subjected to reliability test using the Cronbach alpha scale, which showed a high reliability level. The major contributions made by this study were the development and validation of English-Igbo soccer terms. The study recommended, inter-alia, that the terms developed and validated should be standardized and adopted by the government of Nigeria and the Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture (SPILC).

Page(s): 416-423                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2023

 Monica Nnenne Okafor (Ph.D)
Department of English, Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, Nigeria

 Uzoma Chimao

Department of Igbo Language, Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo, Nigeria

[1] Akoda, W. (2002). Calabar: A Cross River metropolis, 1600-1960. Unpublished, Ph.D thesis carried out in the University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
[2] Basnett, S. (2008). Translation studies: New York: Routledge
[3] Berg, G. & Orlander, S. (2012). Freekicks, dribblers and wives and girlfriends: exploring the language of the people’s game. Moderna Sprak, 106(1), 11-46
[4] Dzhene-Quarshie, J. (2012). English loans in Swahili: Newspaper Language, Ghana Journal of Linguistics. 1(1), 35-56
[5] Ikoro, S.I. (2012). Development and Validation of giftedness identification instrument for Nigerian Primary Schools. Unpublished Ph.D thesis carried out in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria.
[6] Iwuchukwu, G. C. (2004). The role of language in education and technology acquisition: A case of Igbo. A doctoral degree thesis carried out in the Department of Linguistics, University of Calabar, Calabar Nigeria.
[7] llechukwu, D. I & Umeodinka, A. U. (2016). English-Igbo glossary creation of palm oil production and processing terms. Ogirisi: New Journal of African studies. 12, 169-189.
[8] Munday, J. (2001). Introducing translation studies. London:Routledge
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[10] Nzuanke, S.F (1994). A textual dimensional approach to translation: The case of signboards in Cameroon. An unpublished M. A thesis. University of Buea.
[11] Okafor, M. N (2015). Translating soccer terminology in Nigerian indigenous languages in the digital age; Aa focus on the Igbo language: An unpublished PhD thesis carried out in the Department of Linguistics and Communication Studies, University of Calabar. Calabar, Nigeria.
[12] Schultz, M. (2013). Translating the special language of football from English to Swedish: A study of terminology and metaphor. Frankfurt: Linne universitet.
[13] Uchechukwu, C. (2008). Igbo verb roots and their realization of the root schema within the football domain. In Levric, J (Ed.). The Linguistics of football, 23-38. Tubingen Gunter Narr.
[14] Ugwu N. G. (2018). Ensuring Quality in Education: Validity of Teacher made language: test in secondary schools in Ebonyi State. In Nwankwo, I.N (Ed). Education and national development issues. Book of reading in honour of professor Silas Omebe: pp 205-212
[15] Uzoagulu, A. E. (1998). Practical guide to writing research project report in tertiary institutions. Enugu: John Jacob’s classic publishers Ltd.
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[17] Williamson, K. & Blench, R. M. (2000). Niger Congo. In Heine, B & Nurse, D. (Eds). African Languages: An introduction pp 43-52. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Monica Nnenne Okafor (Ph.D), and Uzoma Chimao , “Development and Validation of English-Igbo Soccer Terms: The Dynamic Equivalence Translation Approach ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.416-423 December 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-6-issue-12//416-423.pdf

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Relationship Between Debt Experiences and Indebtedness of Employees in the Formal Sector in Kenya

Morris Irungu Kariuki PhD. – December 2022 Page No.: 424-432

This study examined the relationship between debt experiences and indebtedness of formal sector employees in Kenya. Positivism paradigm was used in this study. The study adopted a cross sectional and correlational descriptive research design. The study targeted about 2.4 million employees in the formal sector. Three stage sampling was done, first, cluster sampling and then, stratified sampling and finally random sampling. The study used primary data collected by use of self-administered questionnaires. A pilot test of the questionnaire was conducted on 40 respondents to check its validity and reliability. Using Cockran 1977 formula, 384 questionnaires were circulated. Of the returned 337, 292 questionnaires were considered usable. Cronbach’s alpha for likert type items was found reliable (over 0.7). Data analysis used IBM SPSS statistics 21 for descriptive and correlation analysis. Further, OLS Multiple regression models were used to examine the relationship between debt experiences and indebtedness. The findings reveal that debt experiences have a significant effect on indebtedness. The study recommends increased use of debt advice and counselling by formal sector employees in Kenya.

Page(s): 424-432                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2023

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61223

 Morris Irungu Kariuki PhD.
Lecturer, University of Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Agarwal, S., Amromin, G., Ben-David, I., Chomsisengphet, S., & Evanoff, D. D. (2010). Learning to cope: Voluntary financial education and loan performance during a housing crisis. The American Economic Review, 495-500
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[4] Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self regulation. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248-287.
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[6] Bryan, M., Taylor, M., & Veliziolis, M. (2010). Overindebtedness in Great Britain: An analysis using the wealth and asset survey and household debtors survey. University of Essex, UK: Institute of Social and Economic Research.
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Morris Irungu Kariuki PhD. , “Relationship Between Debt Experiences and Indebtedness of Employees in the Formal Sector in Kenya ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.424-432 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61223

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Impact of Government Expenditure on Agricultural Output in Nigeria

Igweze-Ekwunife, Athanasius Ebube and Okpala, Chidiogo Jane – December 2022 Page No.: 433-440

Agriculture is a very important sector in the Nigerian economy as it is the country’s major source of food. That notwithstanding, the support given to agriculture in terms of allocation has not been encouraging when comparing it to other sectors like mining, manufacturing, and oil. This study examines the impact of government expenditure on agriculture on agricultural output in Nigeria within the period 1986 to 2019. The specific objectives are to critically examine the impact of agricultural recurrent and capital expenditure, commercial bank credit on agriculture and agricultural labour on agricultural output using annual time series data sourced from World Development Indicator (WDI) and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin 2019. The variables used for the study are agricultural output, recurrent expenditure on agriculture, capital expenditure on agriculture, commercial bank credit to agriculture, foreign direct investment, domestic savings, and agricultural labour. The ordinary least square method is adopted to test for empirical evidence. The regression result shows that capital expenditure on agriculture, domestic savings, foreign direct investment, and commercial bank credit to agriculture have positive and statistically significant impact on agricultural output. The study recommends the need for execution of capital and infrastructural projects, mobilization of domestic savings through financial institutions and application of mechanized farm tools in order to increase agricultural output.

Page(s): 433-440                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2023

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61227

 Igweze-Ekwunife
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

 Athanasius Ebube
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

 Okpala, Chidiogo Jane
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

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Igweze-Ekwunife, Athanasius Ebube and Okpala, Chidiogo Jane , “Impact of Government Expenditure on Agricultural Output in Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-6-issue-12, pp.433-440 December 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2022.61227

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