Geochemical Treatment of Stream Sediment Data from River Ipala Drainage Basin, Guguruji, Southwestern Nigeria: Implication for Mineralization

Olusola A. Olaolorun – October 2021 Page No.: 01-07

Metallic mineralization has been suspected within an extensive drainage basin of River Ipala, Guguruji, of Egbe-Isanlu schist belt, Southwestern Nigeria. The area which has not been subjected to modern methods of mineral exploration as at the time of this research has no information available on the concentration and dispersion pattern of minerals in the basin. This study therefore focuses on the statistical treatment of the stream sediments data and its metallic prospects. Twenty-five composited stream sediments samples were analyzed for trace element concentrations. The statistical treatment of the data provided parameters such as descriptive statistic, correlation matrix and factor analysis of the variables. The Descriptive statistics provided mean, standard deviation and skewness of the distribution, while correlation matrix identified Au, As, Br, Cr, Sb, Sc, Cu, Ni, Zn, S, Ag, and Pb as associates with various loadings. Factor analysis yielded a five-factor model high loadings that accounted for 83.69% cumulative variance; four of which are mineralization related: Sc-Ni-Zn and Cu-Pb on one hand and single ore metals such as Au and Ag on the other, while the Br-S is lithology related. The study therefore identified areas with high elemental concentrations, and metallic associations that holds potential for Au and base metal deposits in the basin.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 29 October 2021

 Olusola A. Olaolorun
Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

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Adenugba Imaobong, Uko E.A. , Eneh, G.D.O., Ntekpere E. I., Ekutt, Maryam-Kathryn “Geochemical Treatment of Stream Sediment Data from River Ipala Drainage Basin, Guguruji, Southwestern Nigeria: Implication for Mineralization” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.01-07 October 2021  URL:

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The role of Toxoplasma gondii in Trigger an Autoimmune Disease

Qudus Wamidh Jamal, Thanaa Rasheed Abdulrahman, Huda Dhaher Al-Marsomy,Wasan W. AL-Bassam – October 2021 Page No.: 08-13

Latent Toxoplasmosis is known as world- wide disease or infection caused by an intracellular mandatory protozoan: Toxoplasma gondii which is consider one of the important pathogen that can persist intracellularly lifelong in different tissues in the human body. An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part, the identification of etiological factors which include causation or/and originationof the induction of autoimmune disease has remained obscure despite a very extensive effort to analyze different factors that may be associated with autoimmune disease such as; the molecular structure of the target antigens and effector mechanisms. This review aimed to focus on the relationship between toxoplasmosis and autoimmune disease.

Page(s): 08-13                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 29 October 2021

 Qudus Wamidh Jamal
Medical College/Al-NahrainUniversity /Medical Microbiology Department

 Thanaa Rasheed Abdulrahman
Medical College/Al-NahrainUniversity /Medical Microbiology Department

 Huda Dhaher Al-Marsomy
Medical College/Al-NahrainUniversity /Medical Microbiology Department

 Wasan W. AL-Bassam
Science College /Baghdad University /Biotechnology Department

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Adenugba Imaobong, Uko E.A. , Eneh, G.D.O., Ntekpere E. I., Ekutt, Maryam-Kathryn “The role of Toxoplasma gondii in Trigger an Autoimmune Disease” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.08-13 October 2021  URL:

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Analysis of Vertical Transmission Dynamics of Infectious Hepatitis B Virus: Mathematical Model Involving Vaccination and Treatment

Geu Ghai Kuei, J.K. Gatoto – October 2021 Page No.: 14-27

Hepatitis B has been a major global health menace for it’s a potentially life-threatening liver disease. Around two billion persons are living with this infectious disease across the world. It’s transmitted by infected individual to uninfected person either vertically (transmission before or during birth by carrier mother to the baby) or horizontally—transmission when the bodily fluid of an infected person comes into contact with the hepatitis B virus-free person. This can happen through the sharing of non-sterilized injection syringes, tattooing objects and through sexual intercourse. This particular project studied a mathematical model that combined both vaccination and treatment as a means to controlling the hepatitis B virus (HBV). In our mathematical model, equations are derived from the flow chart representing the HBV transmission dynamics. We determined the disease-free equilibrium (DFE) state, the endemic equilibrium (EE) state and the basic reproduction number . The stability of these points are determined and the results show that the disease-free equilibrium is both locally and globally asymptotically stable R0<1 i.e . The stability analysis of endemic equilibrium point also reveals that the point is locally and globally asymptotically stable, R0 > 1 i.e . The basic reproduction number R0 is computed using the next generation matrix method. The systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are non-linear are solved by numerical simulation. This was achieved by use of Runge-kutta method of order four with the help of MATLAB software and techniques. These results show that either of the method, treatment or vaccination, administered is effective in alleviating the spread of HBV disease, however, when both control strategies are combined, the disease is quickly controlled and ultimately brought to eradication.

Page(s): 14-27                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 29 October 2021

 Geu Ghai Kuei
Kenyatta University, Kenya

 J.K. Gatoto
Kenyatta University, Kenya

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Adenugba Imaobong, Uko E.A. , Eneh, G.D.O., Ntekpere E. I., Ekutt, Maryam-Kathryn “Analysis of Vertical Transmission Dynamics of Infectious Hepatitis B Virus: Mathematical Model Involving Vaccination and Treatment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.14-27 October 2021  URL:

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Thermal Transfer in MHD Convective Flow of Cu – H2O Nanofluid in a Porous Medium with Heat Generation/Absorption

Dr. Wisdom Hezekiah Achogo, Eleonu, Blessing Chikaodi, Nnoka, Love Cherukei – October 2021 Page No.: 28-34

The study investigated thermal transfer in MHD convective flow of Cu-H2O nanofluid in a porous medium with heat generation/absorption. A set of partial differential equations with copper nanoparticles were used. The partial differential equations were non-dimensioned with various dimensionless quantities in order to obtain forms whose solutions can be easily obtained. The partial differential equations were later transformed into ordination differential equations through a two term perturbation technique which were later solved using method of undetermined coefficient to obtain the exact solutions for the energy and momentum equations. Using the exact solutions; plots were done with the aid of standard parameters to estimate the variational effects of parameters that entered the flow field and from the plots; it was observed that thermal radiation decreased the temperature of the fluid. Heat generation/absorption parameter increased the temperature of the fluid. The effective thermal conductivity increased the temperature of the fluid. Peclet number decreased the velocity of the fluid. Reynolds number decreased the fluid velocity.

Page(s): 28-34                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 01 November 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61001

 Dr. Wisdom Hezekiah Achogo
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, P.M.B 5047 Rumuolumeni, Nigeria

 Eleonu, Blessing Chikaodi
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B 5936 Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Nnoka, Love Cherukei
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B 5936 Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Dr. Wisdom Hezekiah Achogo, Eleonu, Blessing Chikaodi, Nnoka, Love Cherukei “Thermal Transfer in MHD Convective Flow of Cu – H2O Nanofluid in a Porous Medium with Heat Generation/Absorption” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.28-34 October 2021  DOI:

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Reflecting on Early 21st Century Sustainable Livelihood Projects towards Enhancing Food Security and Resilience in Zimbabwe

Sifelani Ngwenya – October 2021 Page No.: 35-42

Food insecurity (FS) levels are escalating despite heavy investment in food security projects by governments and their complementing partners. This scenario undermines the Sustainable Development Goal of achieving Zero Hunger by the year 2030. This paper assesses the influence of projects implemented between 2000 and 2020 on food security and resilience in Zimbabwe’s agro-ecological regions IV and V. The study interrogated the participants’ perceptions and experiences, nature, and purpose, and impact (positive and negative) of implemented projects in the four districts of Zimbabwe. A qualitative research methodology was employed, and data was collected using interview questionnaires, observations, and focus group discussions. Agricultural extension officers, chiefs, councillors, Environmental Management Agency (EMA) officers, headmasters, Non-Governmental Organizations, Chief Executive Officers of Rural District Councils were part of the study sample. The selection of the sample was based on: expertise, experience, coordination, and involvement programs for more than two years, and proximity to communities. Main findings show that various forms of projects of varying magnitudes and effects have been implemented to build resilience, ensure FS, and socio-economically empower communities. However, most of these initiatives have failed to achieve their intended goals due to various factors. For example, lack of community buy-in, stakeholder exclusion, targeting inconsistencies, negative perception of the project, stakeholder commitment, and lack of knowledge development drive. In conclusion, this paper stresses the potential benefits of knowledge development, all-stakeholder commitment, and involvement in sustainable livelihoods projects in Zimbabwe.

Page(s): 35-42                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 03 November 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61002

 Sifelani Ngwenya

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Sifelani Ngwenya “Reflecting on Early 21st Century Sustainable Livelihood Projects towards Enhancing Food Security and Resilience in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.35-42 October 2021  DOI:

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Chemometrics in Water Quality Criteria and Appraisal

Chizoba Henrietta Unaeze, Rasaq Bolakale Salau, Johnson Olusanya Jacob, Muhammed Muhammed Ndamitso, Abdul Kabir Mohammed – October 2021 Page No.: 43-51

Water quality is extremely important for a number of reasons from the protection of marine organisms and the well being of marine ecosystems to the health of people in the region and the safety of industries such as aquaculture. As a result it is essential that environmental health in water body is monitored. Traditional monitoring methods include assessment of biological indices or direct measurements of water quality, which are based on in situ data collection and hence are often spatially or temporally limited. But the complexity of information requires new analysis techniques that allow us to identify the components and possible causes of spatial and temporal variability. An overview of the application of chemometric data analysis methods to complex chemical mixtures in various environmental media is presented. This paper presents a review of selected research given as examples of the application of principal components analysis and other statistical methods to identify contributions from multiple sources of contamination. This review identifies how these methods can be utilized to address water quality variability in order to foster a wider application of such techniques for water quality assessment and monitoring.

Page(s): 43-51                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 09 November 2021

 Chizoba Henrietta Unaeze
National Biotechnology Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria

 Rasaq Bolakale Salau
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 Johnson Olusanya Jacob
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 Muhammed Muhammed Ndamitso
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 Abdul Kabir Mohammed
North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, U. S. A

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Chizoba Henrietta Unaeze, Rasaq Bolakale Salau, Johnson Olusanya Jacob, Muhammed Muhammed Ndamitso, Abdul Kabir Mohammed “Chemometrics in Water Quality Criteria and Appraisal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.43-51 October 2021  URL:

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Global Spread of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A Challenging Threat to the Treatment of Bacterial Diseases in Clinical Practice

J. O. Olayiwola, D. A. Ojo, S. A. Balogun, O. E. Ojo- October 2021 Page No.: 52-60

The increase in the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae constitutes a threat not only to treatment of bacterial infection but also to public health problems. Resistance to carbapenems is mostly due to the production of carbapenemases, which are capable of hydrolyzing not only carbapenems but also other groups of antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, etc. The most common carbapenemases include veronica integron Metallo-β-lactamases types (VIM), imipenemase (IMP) types, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), oxacillinase-48 (OXA-48), and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), encoded by carbapenem resistant determining genes blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC, blaOXA-48, and blaNDM, respectively. Carbapenemase activity can be investigated by phenotypic assay however carbapenemase encoding genes can also be part of the routine assay for diagnosis of bacterial infection. In Africa, there is limited data on the prevalence and distribution of carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae in clinical studies except in East Africa where a few studies have been done in Kenya and Tanzania.

Page(s): 52-60                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 10 November 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61003

 J. O. Olayiwola
Department Microbiology, College of Biosciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria

 D. A. Ojo
Department Microbiology, College of Biosciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

 S. A. Balogun
Department Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

 O. E. Ojo
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria

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J. O. Olayiwola, D. A. Ojo, S. A. Balogun, O. E. Ojo “Global Spread of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A Challenging Threat to the Treatment of Bacterial Diseases in Clinical Practice ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.52-60 October 2021  DOI:

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Volatility in Nigeria Financial markets the impact of Share index on Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria. Hybrid Approach of GARCH-MIDAS, AND FIGARCH-MIDAS Regressions Models

MU Bawa, Dr. HG Dikko, Dr. Anil Shabri, Dr. J Garba and Dr. S Sadiku- October 2021 Page No.: 61-73

This Research considers the Comparison of forecasting performance between hybrid of GARCH-MIDAS and FIGARCH-MIDAS. The data employed for this study was secondary type in nature for all the variables and it is obtained from the publications of Central Bank of Nigerian bulletin, National Bureau of Statistics and World Bank Statistics Database dated, January ,2005 to Dec, 2019 for National Stock Exchange for all share index and seven macro-economic variables. Also, the result of ARCH-LM Test show that the presence of ARCH effects in the NSE series and Jarque- Bera Test indicated that the p-values for all variables are less than alpha level of significance (0.05). Hence, we would reject the null hypothesis that the data of all variables are normally distributed. Also, how we estimate the Fractional difference order, d, by Geweke and Porte-Hudak (GPH) method the results show that the value of d for the (NSE price) was found to be (0.043621) which falls within 0<d<0.5 indicating the presence of long-memory process of the data. The results show that based on the analysis of the table 6 above it is indicated that all variables have positive relationship with realized volatility except inflations rate that means increased in the variables can lead to attract more investor to invest in stock market with can be considered as a good proxy of the business cycle for the Economy development of Nigeria. Furthermore, based on the four models of the research we found that FIGARCH-MIDAS of forecast evaluations out- sample with shows that MSE (155.96) of RV+ PC have lest value than the remaining three models. Finally Based on the Table 38 we found that the models of RV+PC and PC are best models among the five models that’s FIGARCH-MIDAS are perform better than GARCH-MIDAS. With indicated the accommodated long memory with volatility are perform better than the model without long memory.

Page(s): 61-73                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 10 November 2021

 MU Bawa
Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

 Dr. HG Dikko
Reader Lecturer, Department of Statistics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

 Dr. Anil Shabri
Associated professor, Deptment of Mathematics School of Science UTM Johor.

 Dr. J Garba
Senior Lecturer, Department of Statistics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

 Dr. S Sadiku
Senior Lecturer, Department of Statistics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

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MU Bawa, Dr. HG Dikko, Dr. Anil Shabri, Dr. J Garba and Dr. S Sadiku “Volatility in Nigeria Financial markets the impact of Share index on Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria. Hybrid Approach of GARCH-MIDAS, AND FIGARCH-MIDAS Regressions Models” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.61-73 October 2021  URL:

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Speciation Distribution of Heavy Metals in Dutsen-Soyaya Shooting Range soil within the Nigerian Army Base Camp, Kachia, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Aghanwa, C.I., Nwaedozie, J.M. and Chukwu,J.U.- October 2021 Page No.: 74-81

In soil, heavy metals can be found in large quantities. Anthropogenic activities raise heavy metal concentrations in the soil, which are readily assimilated by food crops. Military training exercises such as shooting in a shooting range with bullets containing a mixture of heavy metals raise the concentration above the baseline over time, affecting military personnel and crops alike negatively. It is critical to determine the effect of shooting via military artillery operations on the soil heavy metal concentrations, mobility, and bioavailability on the shooting range by analyzing soil samples collected from selected areas of the shooting location. The speciation of heavy metals (Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co) and Zinc (Zn)) distributed in the Dutsen-Soyaya Shooting range soil within the Nigeria Army Base Camp, Kachia, Kaduna State, Nigeria was investigated. The concentration of these metals after undergoing sequential extraction procedures was analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The distribution fractions of these metals in the shooting range soil were as follows: Co: Residual > Organic > Fe – Mn Oxide > Bound to carbonate > Exchangeable. As: Fe – Mn Oxide > Residual > Organic > Bound to carbonate > Exchangeable. Cr: Exchangeable > Fe – Mn Oxide > Bound to carbonate > Organic > Residual. Ni: Fe – Mn Oxide > Exchangeable > Bound to carbonate > Residual > Organic. Mn: Residual > Fe – Mn Oxide > Bound to carbonate > Organic > Exchangeable. Pb: Residual > Organic > Fe – Mn Oxide > Exchangeable > Bound to carbonate. Zn: Fe – Mn Oxide > Bound to carbonate > Residual > Organic > Exchangeable. Cu: Residual > Bound to carbonate > Fe – Mn Oxide > Exchangeable > Organic. Although the total concentration of some of these metals (Co, As, Cr, Mn, Pb and Ni) were above the permissible limits by WHO standards, the toxic metals speciation showed that they were mostly predominantly concentrated in the non-bioavailable fractions of the shooting site soils.

Page(s): 74-81                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 14 November 2021

 Aghanwa, C.I.
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Nwaedozie, J.M.
Department of Chemistry, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

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Aghanwa, C.I., Nwaedozie, J.M. and Chukwu,J.U. “Speciation Distribution of Heavy Metals in Dutsen-Soyaya Shooting Range soil within the Nigerian Army Base Camp, Kachia, Kaduna State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.74-81 October 2021  URL:

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Effectiveness of PGPR Variety towards Quantity Improvement of Root Nodule in Mung Bean Cultivar (Vigna Radiata L.)

Lestari MP Alibasyah, Mahfudz, Bahrudin, Astija- October 2021 Page No.: 82-90

The enhancement of mungbean production has a vital role in supporting nutritious foods supply for human beings and sustaining soil productivity and fertility. Fixation bacteria that occupied symbiotically with legumes’ root was also addressed as a nodulating root bacteria founded in PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria). Rhizobacteria play a role as natural fertilizer is proficient at ameliorating N availability in the plant, which could keep up legume productivity. The rhizobacteria stimulation is affected by its harmonious with plant cultivar. This research is experimental research to pursue the appropriate PGPR isolate with mungbean cultivar using a comprehensive random layout with a factorial scheme. The treatment in this research used a combination of two factors, precisely a cultivar factor that consists of three samples, k1 (Vima 1 Cultivar), k2 (Vima 2 Cultivar), k3 (Vima 3 Cultivar) and PGPR, which consist of r0 (without PGPR), r1 (Bamboo root), r2 (Mungbean root) and r3 (Sensitive Plant root) with three repetitions for each treatment. The outcome of this research showed a significant difference between cultivar and PGPR type through the quantity of root nodules enhancement (p < 0.05). By the amount of root nodule, demonstrated that each cultivar has one kind of PGPR which escalate the number of root nodule with the highest is at K3R3 treatment in 4 weeks after planting, 6 weeks after produced and 8 weeks after a planted period with 17.67, 18.33 dan 41.33 nodules respectively.

Page(s): 82-90                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 18 November 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61004

 Lestari MP Alibasyah.
Postgraduate Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Tadulako University, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km 09, Palu 94118, Indonesia

Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km 09, Palu 94118, Indonesia

Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km 09, Palu 94118, Indonesia

Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km 09, Palu 94118, Indonesia

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Lestari MP Alibasyah, Mahfudz, Bahrudin, Astija “Effectiveness of PGPR Variety towards Quantity Improvement of Root Nodule in Mung Bean Cultivar (Vigna Radiata L.)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.82-90 October 2021  DOI:

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A Comparison of Exponential Smoothening and ARIMA Modelling of the Infertility Rate among Women in Zaria Metropolis)

Oyenike Mary Olanrewaju, Mukhtar Umar Shitu- October 2021 Page No.: 91-95

Infertility has recently become a socially destabilizing condition worldwide and it is considered as a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem has caused conflict and marital disharmony among couples due to stigma and other social discriminations. Although, infertility affects both men and women, the social and psychological trauma affects more women than men. The clinical pattern of infertility varies in different parts of the world, and Nigeria has recorded more cases in Africa. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility is often viewed as a low priority in national development policies and health strategies of the public hospitals. The lack of funding, effective allocation of available health resources and standard infrastructures by the government as well as by international sponsors to the public health sector remain a challenge in most of our societies today. This research compares the optimization of two time-series approaches namely, an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing in predicting infertility. The research evaluates the forecasting performance of the models using the post forecast summary statistics which includes; mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The result indicates that exponential smoothing out-performed the ARIMA model with a lower MAE (4.16), RSME (5.27) and MAPE (16.15). Although both models performed well, the selected model gave the optimal accurate prediction compared to the other model. The validity of the model was further checked by comparing the fitted values with the actual values.

Page(s): 91-95                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 26 November 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61005

 Oyenike Mary Olanrewaju
Computer Science Department, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina, Nigeria

 Mukhtar Umar Shitu
Computer Science Department, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina, Nigeria

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Oyenike Mary Olanrewaju, Mukhtar Umar Shitu “A Comparison of Exponential Smoothening and ARIMA Modelling of the Infertility Rate among Women in Zaria Metropolis)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.91-95 October 2021  DOI:

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Entrepreneurial Skills Improvement Needs by Self- Employed Technical College Automobile Technology Graduates in Delta State, Nigeria

Sylvester Chukwutem Onwusa (PhD), Friday Ikechukwu Nwaosa and Kelubia Daniel Isioma- October 2021 Page No.: 96-110

The study determined the entrepreneurial skills improvement needs by self-employed technical college automobile technology graduates in Delta State, Nigeria. The study was descriptive survey research design. Three research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study was conducted in Delta State, Nigeria. The population for the study was 76 respondents’ automobile technology self-employed graduates. There was no sampling because of manageable size of the population. A structured questionnaire was designed by the researchers and were used for data collection. The instrument was face and content validated by three experts, two from the Department of Automobile/Metalwork Technology and one from Measurement and Evaluation Unit of the Department of Educational Foundation- all in Nigeria University Nnsukka. The questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Instrument was trial – tested on 20 respondents who were not part of the population. Copies of the questionnaire was administered through personal contact to the respondents. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Kudar Richardson technique, was used for the study. The correlation coefficient calculated was 0.82. Copies of the instrument were administered to 76 participating automobile technology self-employed graduates and the return rate was 100%. The data collected for the study were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test statistics was employed to test the null hypotheses. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that automobile technology self-employed graduates need practical/technical skills, computer diagnostic skills and customer service skills in automobile technology venture to keep up to date with the modern cars service and repairs. This will as well improve the standard of living of self–employed automobile graduates in Delta State. Recommendations was made that the entrepreneurial skills identified in this study should be packaged and use to improve the students before graduation. It was also recommended that the entrepreneurial skills identified should be introduced as one of the compulsory subjects in all secondary schools in the country. Through this methods students who transcend into technical institutions to the university level, would have become conversant with the tenets of entrepreneurial demand. Furthermore, there should be regular seminar, workshops and conferences for improvement needs of graduates to strengthen and refocus on entrepreneurial education.

Page(s): 96-110                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 26 November 2021

 Sylvester Chukwutem Onwusa (PhD)
Department of Technology and Vocational Education, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Friday Ikechukwu Nwaosa
Department of Automobile and Metal Work Technology, Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education University of Nigeria Nnsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

 Kelubia Daniel Isioma
Department of Technical Education, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

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Sylvester Chukwutem Onwusa (PhD), Friday Ikechukwu Nwaosa and Kelubia Daniel Isioma “Entrepreneurial Skills Improvement Needs by Self- Employed Technical College Automobile Technology Graduates in Delta State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.96-110 October 2021  URL:

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Prevalence of Lumpy Skin Disease at District Veterinary Hospital in Sylhet District of Bangladesh

Faija Sadia Pory, Rayhan Mahmud Lasker, Md. Nazrul Islam, Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui- October 2021 Page No.: 111-115

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an acute viral disease of cattle with major economic impacts and recently emerged very common in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, temporal distribution, and risk factors for clinical LSD. The present study was performed in the District Veterinary Hospital, Sylhet during the period of January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 2762 cattle were examined where 377 cattle were found to be infected with Lumpy Skin Disease virus based on the clinical inspection, clinical history and owners complain . The results indicated that the overall prevalence of LSD was 13.65% (95% CI: 12.37-14.93%) in cattle. The incidence rate of the disease was discussed based on the effect of age, sex, breed and season. The temporal patterns indicate a higher number of LSD cases in May (46.99%) and June (48.69%). Moreover, the indigenous breed (15.34%) and adult cattle aged 1.5-3 years old (18.02%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher for LSD. There was no statistically significant (p<0.53) difference between the two sexes. So, it could be concluded that age, breed and time were found to be associated factors with the potential risk of LSD occurrence. Though, no serological test was conducted for the confirmatory diagnosis but this study will be helpful for future research on the subject under investigation.

Page(s): 111-115                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 27 November 2021

 Faija Sadia Pory
Intern. Faculty of Veterinary, Animal & Biomedical Sciences, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh

 Rayhan Mahmud Lasker
Intern. Faculty of Veterinary, Animal & Biomedical Sciences, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh

 Md. Nazrul Islam
Assistant Director, Department of Livestock Services (DLS), Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh

 Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui
Department of Anatomy & Histology, Faculty of Veterinary, Animal & Biomedical Sciences, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh

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Faija Sadia Pory, Rayhan Mahmud Lasker, Md. Nazrul Islam, Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui “Prevalence of Lumpy Skin Disease at District Veterinary Hospital in Sylhet District of Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-10, pp.111-115 October 2021  URL:

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