Review on Leaf Plant Disease Classification Using Machine Learning Techniques

U. I. Ismail, M. K. Ahmed- November 2021 Page No.: 01-05

Agriculture plays a vital role in the world economy. It basically provides job opportunities for the teaming population, eradicates poverty and contributes to the growth of the economy. Hence the need for improved effort for classifying diseases in plant from its leaf is important as it leads to increase in crop yield. Machine learning methods had being used in leaves plant diseases classification. This paper reviews various techniques used for plant leaf disease classification, and found that Most of the researchers used Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms for plant disease classification which they concluded that (SVM) is not suitable for large dataset and it does not perform very well when the dataset has more noise, also the target class will be overlapping. To overcome this difficulties a proposed methodology with different approaches to Machine learning was suggested; Deep learning is a sort of machine learning in which a model figures out how to accomplish classification tasks in a direct way from pictures, Neural network will be train using Fine-tuning techniques on different neural networks architectures and at the end comparisons will be done to find out the best neural networks that will be the best for providing an improved solution for leaf plant disease classification by checking their performance best on their accuracy and confusion matrix.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 29 November 2021

 U. I. Ismail
Department of Computer Science Federal University of Kashere, Gombe Nigeria

 M. K. Ahmed
Department of Computer Science Gombe state University, Gombe Nigeria

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U. I. Ismail, M. K. Ahmed “Review on Leaf Plant Disease Classification Using Machine Learning Techniques” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.01-05 November 2021  URL:

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The Implication of Health Human Capital Investment on Nigeria Economic Growth

Eche Nwachukwu Austine, Akeem Adetokun (PhD), Anaeto Abigail & Salawu Abdulkamaru (PhD)- November 2021 Page No.: 06-13

The study assessed the impact of health care investment on Nigeria economic growth (1985-2019). The utilized annual time series data on selected variables; real gross domestic product (RGDP), public health expenditure (PEH), infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR), malarial prevention rate (MPR) a proxy for morbidity rate, life expectancy rate (LFE) and labour force participation rate (LFP) were collected from the statistical Bulletin of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), world fact book and indexmundi. The data were checked for stationarity and ARDL bound cointegration test. As such, ARDL approach was utilized in the analysis of the data. Findings from the result showed that PEH, IMR, MMR and MPR exerts negative influence on economic growth in the short term, while LFE and LFP exerts positive influence on economic growth in the short term. Consequently, the result showed that in the long run, PEH exert positive influence, though insignificant. Whereas the effect of other variables IMR, MMR, MPR, LFE, and LFP exerts the same level of influence on economic growth as in the short run. The granger causality test revealed that unidirectional causality runs from PEH to RGDP and from RGDP to PEH. Diagnostic tests such as Normality, serial correlation tests, heteroskedasticity test were carried out on the model output to establish the robustness or otherwise of the models. It was found that the residuals were normally distributed and no serial correlation is present lending credence to the robustness of the work and its ability to make correct forecast. The study recommended that government and stakeholders in health sector should adopt appropriate mechanism that can guarantee and ensure adequate investment in health sector, because Nigeria health sector has the capacity to attract inflow of revenue through health tourism.

Page(s): 06-13                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 02 December 2021

 Akeem Adetokun (PhD)
Department of Banking and Finance, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna

 Anaeto Abigail
Department of Banking and Finance, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna

 Salawu Abdulkamaru (PhD)
Department of Banking and Finance, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna

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Eche Nwachukwu Austine, Akeem Adetokun (PhD), Anaeto Abigail & Salawu Abdulkamaru (PhD) “The Implication of Health Human Capital Investment on Nigeria Economic Growth” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.06-13 November 2021  URL:

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Development of Coastal Protection Structure in Karawang Coastal Area of Indonesia

Eny Budi Sri Haryani, Roberto Pasaribu, Liliek Soeprijadi, Anthon Anthonny Djari, Chrisoetanto P. Pattirane- November 2021 Page No.: 14-22

This research is a case study on the coast of Karawang Regency, West Java Province, which is part of the North Coast of Java. In the coastal area of Karawang, it was previously planned to build a port, but it was canceled and shifted to another regency. How is the condition of the Karawang coast? Has it undergone physical changes and is it risky if a port is built, and do it need some coastal protection strutures to protect it from damage? What kind of coastal structures are suitable to protect the coast of Karawang? These question are at the same time a problem that will be raised in this study. The objectives of this research are: (1) to plan a coastal protection structure for the coast of Karawang; (2) to determine the type and structure of coastal protection structures that are suitable for the Karawang coast. Research data in the form of primary and secondary data, with primary data covering topography, bathymetry, tides, currents, obtained by validation through Ground Check Points (GCP), and secondary data covering wind, and socioeconomic. Analysis of the data through simulation and determination of the selected coastal structures, with the result that the appropriate coastal protection structures are breakwaters and groynes, because they can reduce the overflow of waves that occur, so that the coast is protected from the onslaught of damaging waves.

Page(s): 14-22                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 06 December 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61101

 Eny Budi Sri Haryani
Study Program of Marine Engineering, Institute of Transportation and Logistics Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Roberto Pasaribu
Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Karawang, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia

 Liliek Soeprijadi
Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Karawang, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia

 Anthon Anthonny Djari
Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Karawang, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia

 Chrisoetanto P. Pattirane
Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Karawang, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia

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Eny Budi Sri Haryani, Roberto Pasaribu, Liliek Soeprijadi, Anthon Anthonny Djari, Chrisoetanto P. Pattirane “Development of Coastal Protection Structure in Karawang Coastal Area of Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.14-22 November 2021  DOI:

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Detection of Heart Abnormalities Using Signal Processing

Robinson, Mbato and Kabari, Ledisi G.- November 2021- Page No.: 23-27

The heart is the center of life. It pumps and distributes blood to every other part of the body. Thus, it holds a strategic position in the body and must be in perfect condition at all times to perform these operations. The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is used to demonstrate the circuit activity of the heart. However, ECG signals can be difficult to interpret especially from non-health professionals. In this work, we developed a model that can detect and interpret the characteristics of an ECG signal, hence, identifying non-linearity of the heart. Fast Fourier Transform was used to filter our ECG readings dataset and remove unwanted signals, before the signals were used for classification and calculation of heart rate using peak values/intervals. The dataset contained about 218,000 ECG readings, including gender and age grades of the patients. Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) was adopted in this approach. The system was implemented using MATLAB software. The overall efficiency of the model is 95%, which outperforms other existing models. This system could be beneficial to the research community on signal processing.

Page(s): 23-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 December 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61102

 Robinson, Mbato
Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Kabari, Ledisi G.
Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Robinson, Mbato and Kabari, Ledisi G., “Detection of Heart Abnormalities Using Signal Processing” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.23-27 November 2021 DOI:

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Economic Efficiency of Small holder Swamp Rice Farmers across Gender in Anambra State, Nigeria. An application of Stochastic Production Frontier Function

Emma-Ajah, J .A, Ume, S I, Ucha, S.O and Chukwu, M. F- November 2021 Page No.: 28-36

: Economic efficiency of small holder swamp rice farmers across gender in Anambra State, Nigeria was studied. The objectives of the study were to determine the level of economics efficiency and its determinants across gender and identify and analyze the constraints to swamp rice production in the study area. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 swamp rice farmers (60 males and 60 females). Mean, maximum likelihood method and factor analysis were employed to address the objectives of the study. The result of mean economic efficiency of the male group (0.65) was higher than that of the female group (0.61). The cost of production of swamp rice to both male and female was affected by prfert (price of fertilizer), cptal (capital) and larent (Land rent). The determinant factors to economic efficiency that cut across both gender were educa (educational level), farmexp. (farming experience) and memorg (membership of organization), while only Accredit (credit) was to male farmer group. The problems of poor access to credit, poor access to post harvest technology, poor access to improved varieties and high cost labour cut across both gender. Policies to ensure farmers’ access to credit, educational programme, improved rice varieties and labour saving devices were proffered.

Page(s): 28-36                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 08 December 2021

 Emma-Ajah, J .A
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Ume, S I
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Ucha, S.O
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Chukwu, M. F
Department of Marketing, Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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Emma-Ajah, J .A, Ume, S I, Ucha, S.O and Chukwu, M. F “Economic Efficiency of Small holder Swamp Rice Farmers across Gender in Anambra State, Nigeria. An application of Stochastic Production Frontier Function” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.28-36 November 2021  URL:

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Challenges and Opportunities of COVID-19 Lockdowns on Livelihoods of Residents in the High-density Suburbs of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Sifelani Ngwenya, Lulamani Ngwenya- November 2021 Page No.: 37-43

The term ‘lockdown’ has become a commonly used phrase globally. COVID-19 related lockdowns sought to curtail human movements to stop the spread of the virus. Consequently, these measures have had varying ramifications on people’s livelihoods. Interrogating these measures provides a fertile ground from which new lessons, best practices can be deducted, to inform and model future containment measures. This paper examines the lockdown-induced challenges and opportunities on livelihoods, based on experiences from Zimbabwe’s six wards of Bulawayo, in the first half of the year 2020. This study adopted a mixed method approach. Desktop review, and in-depth personal interviews were used to collect data from a randomly selected sample of sixty (60) key informants (KIs) comprising of the self-employed, formally employed, and unemployed residents were drawn from six (6) wards. Data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 version and reported through descriptive statistics, the percentage, and frequency distribution. Main findings show that: lockdowns implemented in various countries were modelled on the stringent Chinese mass quarantines. These quarantines were characterized by bans, restrictions, shutdowns, enforcement, working remotely. Other important findings were that lockdowns disrupted and collapsed small and emerging businesses, led to job losses and other livelihoods, and disrupted social life. Despite these drawbacks, the lockdown period provided new opportunities, the motivation to adopt and adapt to new survival skills, such as livelihood diversification, financial preparedness, and frequent utilization of modern technologies to construct livelihoods. The paper unravels the need to offer various assistance packages to businesses and vulnerable communities to sustain, and keep them afloat; plan, and implement public awareness activities to inform communities on anticipated hazards. These will help prepare businesses, and communities for disasters of varying magnitudes, and embrace, consultation and all-stakeholder participation in designing, planning, and implementing new initiatives, to ensure unit of purpose, commitment, and buy-in.

Page(s): 37-43                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 10 December 2021

 Sifelani Ngwenya
Department of Development Studies, Bulawayo Cohort, Zimbabwe

 Lulamani Ngwenya
Department of Development Studies, Bulawayo Cohort, Zimbabwe

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Sifelani Ngwenya, Lulamani Ngwenya “Challenges and Opportunities of COVID-19 Lockdowns on Livelihoods of Residents in the High-density Suburbs of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.37-43 November 2021  URL:

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Conversion of Waste Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook. F) Leave in to Bio Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCS) Application

Ogobiri Godwin, Anyalebechi Onyebuchi- November 2021 Page No.: 44-48

A double chamber microbial fuel cells technology has been applied on defective leave of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentialis Hook.F) through the conversion of its waste leave into Bioelectricity. Adopting method of research fabrication described by Karmau etal (2017) the result of the voltage of 4.5V against 0.3V from the 2.5kg sample, current density (j) of 113A/m2 and power (p) of 2.0W in 120hours. The result present linearity in increase in voltage, power density, current density and power. It is likely that a slight increase in the system temperature enhanced a corresponding decrease in internal resistance of the electrolyte leading to ionic mobility and conductance as concentration increase with leave decomposition. Therefore, processing of waste or defective fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentialis Hook.F) leave via Microbial fuel cell application can be a good source of green electricity generation and a good step on its waste management.

Page(s): 44-48                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 10 December 2021

 Ogobiri Godwin
Department of Physics, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Anyalebechi Onyebuchi
Department of Physics, University of Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria

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Ogobiri Godwin, Anyalebechi Onyebuchi “Conversion of Waste Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook. F) Leave in to Bio Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCS) Application” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.44-48 November 2021  URL:

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Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Annona senegalensis from rainforest of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

Yakubu, Ameenu, Haruna, Idris, Maidaula, Abdussalam Tijjani- November 2021 Page No.: 49-54

Annona senegalensis belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to possess wide range of bioactivities. The leaves of A. senegalensis have been traditionally used as stimulant and a pain reliever. This study aims to determine the presence of some of the bioactive molecules in the leaves of this plant, and further investigate the antimicrobial activity of the extract against certain bacteria. The crude methanolic extract of the leaves was tested for phytochemicals, and revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinone and cardiac glycosides, and triterpenoids. The crude methanolic extract was purified using column chromatography techniques. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis of the isolated compounds revealed the presence of C–H, C=O, O–H and C=C functional groups, which are characteristics of the compounds in the secondary metabolites. The antimicrobial screening of the crude methanol extract was carried out on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumonia, using agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial screening showed that the extract was active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The solvent extract was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus with zones of inhibition of 20mm and 18mm at a concentration of 100mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the crude extract carried out against the test microorganisms were within the range of 12.5 – 25mg/ml while the minimum bactericidal concentration was within the range of 25 – 50mg/ml. The result from this study justifies the use of the leaves of Annona senegalensis in treatment of microbial diseases.

Page(s): 49-54                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 14 December 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61104

 Yakubu, Ameenu
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

 Haruna, Idris
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

 Maidaula, Abdussalam Tijjani
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

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Yakubu, Ameenu, Haruna, Idris, Maidaula, Abdussalam Tijjani “Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Annona senegalensis from rainforest of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.49-54 November 2021  DOI:

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An Effective Deep Learning Model for COVID-19 Detection from Chest X-Ray

Simon Emmanuel Ikoojo, Deme Chuwang Abraham, Nentawe Gurumdimma- November 2021 Page No.: 55-59

A new viral disease that easily spreads was in December 2019 discovered in Wuhan city in China and was named by the World Health Organization (WHO) as COVID-19. The symptoms can be either mild or severe and mostly in older people who have hypertension, diabetes, and heart or lung disease. Early screening has proved to be effective in reducing the spread and the RT-PCR test is been employed for testing which is expensive and time-consuming. Deep learning using CNN on Chest X-rays can be used to detect the infection.
In this paper, three deep learning models (VGG16, Xception, and InceptionV3) were proposed for detecting COVID-19. These models were pretrained using images from ImageNet with the proposed Inception model achieving the highest accuracy of 98.28%. The f1-score for Xception, VGG, and Inception approaches are 98%, 95%, and 95% respectively. The proposed approaches achieved a precision score of 100%, 100%, and 96% in classifying COVID-19 cases for Inception, Xception, and VGG16 respectively.

Page(s): 55-59                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 16 December 2021

 Simon Emmanuel Ikoojo
Department of Computer Science, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

 Deme Chuwang Abraham
Department of Computer Science, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

 Nentawe Gurumdimma
Department of Computer Science, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

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[2] Jaiswal, A., &Bist, A. S. (2020). Analysis of Deep Learning algorithms on COVID-19 Radiography Database. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(11), 1268-1275.
[3] Prakash, K. B., Imambi, S. S., Ismail, M., Kumar, T. P., &Pawan, Y. N. (2020). Analysis, Prediction and Evaluation of COVID-19 Datasets using Machine Learning Algorithms. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering Research, 8(5).
[4] Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Gu, X. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet , 395, 497–506.
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[8] Wang, W., Xu, Y., R. Gao, R. L., Han, K., Wu, G., & Tan, W. (2020). Detection of sars-cov-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA, 323(18), 1843–1844.
[9] Fang, Y., Zhang, H., Xie, J., Lin, M., Ying, L., Pang, P., & Ji, W. (2020). Sensitivity of chest ct for covid-19: Comparison to rt-pcr. Radiology, 296(2), 115–117.
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[16] Zhang, J., &Xie, Y. (2020). COVID-19 Screening on Chest X-ray Images Using Deep Learning based Anomaly Detection. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.12338.
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[18] Loey, M., Smarandache, F., &Khalifa, N. E. (2020). Within the Lack of Chest COVID-19 X-ray Dataset: A Novel Detection Model Based on GAN and Deep Transfer Learning. Symetry, 12. 651. 10.3390/sym12040651.
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Simon Emmanuel Ikoojo, Deme Chuwang Abraham, Nentawe Gurumdimma “An Effective Deep Learning Model for COVID-19 Detection from Chest X-Ray” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.55-59 November 2021  URL:

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Exact Solution of Linear Volterra integro-differential Equation of First Kind Using Abaoub-Shkheam Transform

Abejela S. Shkheam, Ali E. Abaoub, and Yousuf A. Huwaydi- November 2021 Page No.: 60-64

We employ Abaoub – Shkheam transformation to solve linear Volterra integro-differential equation of the first kind, we considered the kernel of that equation is a deference type kernel. Moreover, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the equation under some conditions in the Banach space and fixed-point theory. Finally, some examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed technique.

Page(s): 60-64                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 16 December 2021

 Abejela S. Shkheam
Mathematical Dept., Faculty of Science, Sabratha University, Sabratha, LIBYA

 Ali E. Abaoub
Mathematical Dept., Faculty of Science, Sabratha University, Sabratha, LIBYA

 Yousuf A. Huwaydi
3Mathematical Dept., School of Basic Sciences, the Libyan Academy, Tripoli, LIBYA

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[2] A. Abaoub, and A. Shkheam, Utilization Abaoub-Shkheam transform in solving linear integral equation of Volterra, International Journal of Software & Hardware Research in Engineering (IJSHRE) ISSN-2347-4890 Volume 8 Issue 12 December 2020.
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Abejela S. Shkheam, Ali E. Abaoub, and Yousuf A. Huwaydi “Exact Solution of Linear Volterra integro-differential Equation of First Kind Using Abaoub-Shkheam Transform” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.60-64 November 2021  URL:

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An Appropriate Non Linear Regression Model for Assessing Community Policing and Violent Crimes Reduction

Arimie, C. O., Biu, O. E., Odu-Ndom, N. K.- November 2021 Page No.: 65-73

An appropriate non-linear regression of the relationship between a response variable and the predictor variables was considered using Probit, Logit and Poisson Log-linear regression. The study focused on analysis of crime rate before and after engagement of Onelga Security Peace Advisory Committee (OSPAC) in Ogba, Ndoni, Egbema Local Government Area (ONELGA) of Rivers State using 220 questionnaires administered to households in twenty-five communities in the LGA by convenience sampling method. Descriptive statistics, ranks, percentage analysis and non-linear regression techniques were methods of analysis used. Microsoft Excel, SPSS 23 and Minitab 18 statistical Software were used. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was used to compare the models. The results showed that Probit and Logit regression models identified the covariates of killing and rape cases as the major crime before engagement of OSPAC since both coefficients have significant effect at 5%. No independent variables have significant effects on response variables after the engagement of OSPAC, except the constant coefficient [ Bo] which implies violent crime reduction in the community. It was concluded that the Logit regression model is more suitable for modelling response variable on the covariates and community policing intervention has an impact on violent crime reduction.

Page(s): 65-73                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 18 December 2021

 Arimie, C. O.
Department of Radiology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Biu, O. E.
Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Odu-Ndom, N. K.
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] Akinrefon, A. A., Adeniyi, O. I., Adejumo, A., Olawale, A. O., Ubong, B. A. (2016). Analysis of Criminal Cases in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Social Science Studies, 2(3): 131-143.
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[12] Hanachor, M. E. and Wordu, E. N. (2021). “Community Policing activities of civilian militia in Rivers State, Nigeria: Implications on Community Development. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSRJHSS), 26(04): 35 – 42.
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Arimie, C. O., Biu, O. E., Odu-Ndom, N. K. “An Appropriate Non Linear Regression Model for Assessing Community Policing and Violent Crimes Reduction ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.65-73 November 2021  URL:

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Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) and GIS in Beira Lake, Sri Lanka

K. Nishanthi, R. Dushanan- November 2021 Page No.: 74-81

The impact of anthropogenic disturbances on urban lakes can be significant due to their size, depth, and stagnancy. Increased population, urbanization, and modernization are causing sewage disposal issues and contamination of surface waters bodies. The study established three goals to determine the current state of selected physio-chemical parameters in Beira lake’s surface and deep water. Creating a map to demonstrate the distribution of water quality parameters identifies the correlation between water quality parameters and calculatesthe water quality index. The interpolation map for each parameter was created using the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method. The weighted arithmetic water quality index approach calculates the water quality index of the Beira lake’s surfaces and deep water. Pearson linear correlation shows the relationship between water quality parameters, including temperature, salinity, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. According to the weighted arithmetic WQI technique, it can say that the quality of Beira lake is unfit for drinking and irrigation. It is incredibly polluted and receives an “E” rating. The findings reveal a strong positive relationship between electrical conductivity and salinity and TDS with salinity and electrical conductivity. It can be concluded that Beira lake is in terrible condition and that water treatment will be costly. As a result, immediate action is compulsory to prevent the inflow of contaminated water and restore the lake’s overall water quality.

Page(s): 74-81                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 20 December 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61105

 K. Nishanthi
Department of Wetland Management, Sri Lanka Land Development Corporation, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka

 R. Dushanan
Department of Chemistry, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

W. A. Wurtsbaugh, H. W. Paerl, and W. K. Dodds, “Nutrients, Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms Along the Freshwater to Marine Continuum,”WIREs Water, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1–27, 2019, doi: 10.1002/wat2.1373.
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K. Nishanthi, R. Dushanan “Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) and GIS in Beira Lake, Sri Lanka ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.74-81 November 2021  DOI:

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Mitigating the Effect of Latency Constraints on Industrial Process Control Monitoring Over Wireless Using Predictive Approach

Ulagwu-Echefu A., Eneh .I.I., Chidiebere U.- November 2021 Page No.: 82-87

This paper presents mitigating the effect of latency constraints on industrial process control monitoring over wireless using predictive approach. The study reviewed many literatures on the challenges of quality communication services in control system industries and identified latency as the major constraint which is caused by the behaviors of Remote Telemetry Unit (RTU) and Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The system was implemented with neural network toolbox in Mathlab and then simulated. The result showed real time data monitoring performance of 22.05ms which is very good and within the in ISA100.11a, IEC 61850 and IEEEE 802.15 standards for industrial communication systems.

Page(s): 82-87                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 22 December 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61106

 Ulagwu-Echefu A
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 Eneh .I.I.
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 Chidiebere U.
Destinet Smart Technologies, Nigeria

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[24] AgbarajiChukwudi Emmanuel H.C. Inyiama (2015) “A SURVEY OF CONTROLLER DESIGN METHODS FOR A ROBOT MANIPULATOR IN HARSH ENVIRONMENTS “ European Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol. 3 No. 3, 2015 ISSN 2056-5860
[25] Ulagwu-Echefu A., Eneh .I.I.,Chidiebere U. (2021)”Enhancing Realtime Supervision And Control Of Industrial Processes Over Wireless Network Architecture Using Model Predictive Controller” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VI, Issue IX, September 2021|ISSN 2454-6194

Ulagwu-Echefu A., Eneh .I.I., Chidiebere U. “Mitigating the Effect of Latency Constraints on Industrial Process Control Monitoring Over Wireless Using Predictive Approach” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.82-87 November 2021  DOI:

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Impact of Heat Island on Human Comfort in Lafia Urban Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Ebuga, Emmanuel Attah, Angbo, Yakubu Bayi, and Obadiah Bashayi- November 2021 Page No.: 88-94

An urban heat island is the name given to describe the characteristics warmth of both the atmosphere and surface in cities (urban areas) compare to their (non-urbanized) surroundings. The annual mean air temperature of a city with 1million people or more can be 1.8-5.4oF (1-3oC) warmer than its surroundings. The impact of this increase has been a major concern in urban areas where heat could be extremely high. The rising temperature in Lafia town centre than the surrounding environment is derive from urbanization and human activities in Lafia town, the nature of the soil type that belongs to the Benue formation resulting from the deposit of the Benue trough. The land on the region of Lafia is low and sandy, and the climate is hot and humid due to temperature rise in the environment from the hot sun heat reflection on the sand and its subsequent radiation at night has increased heat intensity thereby contributing significantly as one of the reasons of the likely Urban Heat Island (UHI). Therefore, the study was set to analyse the change in Urban Heat Island (UHI) over the last sixteen (16) years and how it impact on human comfort in the town of Lafia. The study used both primary and secondary data. The observed values of urban and suburban sites were represented by the temperature from the urban site Nasarawa State Relevant Technology College (NSRTC station) and the average substation stations of Collage of Agriculture Science and Technology (CAST station) respectively. Simple descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis techniques were adopted. The study reveals increasing temperature duration in Lafia from 1998-2007. Temperature increase of 1-2oC was observed from the data collected in Lafia for the periods under study. The study recommend among others evolving green space planning strategies as a mitigation of the effect of urban heat island in Lafia and also planning measures for the town development to include the need for generous provision of land management and land cover, leisure parks/plazas and spacious building pattern.

Page(s): 88-94                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 22 December 2021

 Ebuga, Emmanuel Attah
Department of Estate Management, Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia, Nigeria

 Angbo, Yakubu Bayi
Department of Estate Management, Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia, Nigeria

 Obadiah Bashayi
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Isa Mustapha Agwai I Polytechnic, Lafia, Nigeria
(Formerly Nasarawa State Polytechnic)

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Ebuga, Emmanuel Attah, Angbo, Yakubu Bayi, And Obadiah Bashayi “Impact of Heat Island on Human Comfort in Lafia Urban Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.88-94 November 2021  URL:

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Optical Properties of CuAl2S Alloyed Thin Films Prepared Using Enhanced Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Method

Joseph Ijeoma Onwuemeka, Ph.D., Okechukwu Kelechi Nwofor Ph.D. and Ngozi Patricia Ebosie, M.Sc.- November 2021 Page No.: 95-99

The synthesis of CuAl2S alloyed thin films, have been deposited using enhanced successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR).  The substrates were  prepared by soaking them in aqua regia for 48hours, washed with detergent, rinsed in de-ionized water and were allowed to dry in air. The complexing agent used was 3M of aqueous solution of ammonia (NH4OH), 1.0M solution of hydrated copper sulphate (CuSO4:5H2O) was used as cation source and 2.3M solution thiourea (SC(NH2)2)as anionic source and 0.5M of aluminum sulphate(Al2(SO4)3 as the alloying source material. The deposition of CuAl2S alloyed thin films were carried out at room temperature of 230C. The films were annealed at varying times of 1hour-2hours and varying temperatures of 1000C-2500C. The structural properties of the films were determined using XRD for crystal structures and SEM for morphological studies. The XRD patterns of CuAl2S of samples C and D grown under the same conditions but different annealing temperatures of 1500C and 2000C and annealing times of 1hr and 2hrs respectively, have one diffraction peak each at 2θ =24.940 and 2θ=24.93with the grain sizes of the alloys of 3.5674nm and 3.5688nm respectively. The atomic concentrations were determined using EDX. The add-atoms of Cu, Al and  S found on sample C are 3.33mol/dm3, 2.14mol/dm3 and 3.27mol/dm3 respectively. EDX for sample D, the concentrations of the add-atoms of Cu, Al and  S are 1.97 mol/dm3, 2.09mol/dm3 and 3.42mol/dm3 respectively. The transmittance was measured by UV-double beam spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 200nm to 1200nm.Other optical properties such as absorbance, reflectance, absorption coefficient, optical constants, optical conductivity, dielectric constants, and optical band gaps were determined, using relevant equations. The band gaps were determined from the graph of (αhv)2 against the photon energy, hv, by extrapolation of the straight portion of the curves where (αhv)=0. The band gaps of samples A, B, C, D and E are 3.74±0.05eV, 3.69±0.05eV, 3.66±0.05eV, 3.62±0.05eV and 3.60±0.05eV respectively with p-type property. Due to the high transmittance exhibited in the visible and near infrared regions of electromagnetic spectrum by the films, it can be found useful as effective material for transparent conducting electrodes for photo-electronic applications, solar control coatings, tint on eyeglasses, poultry house warmer, sensors for gaseous substances and solar cell fabrications.

Page(s): 95-99                                                                                                                  Date of Publication: 22 December 2021

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2021.61107

 Joseph Ijeoma Onwuemeka, Ph.D.
Department of Physics Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

 Okechukwu Kelechi Nwofor Ph.D.
Department of Physics Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

 Ngozi Patricia Ebosie, M.Sc.
Department of Chemistry Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

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Joseph Ijeoma Onwuemeka, Ph.D., Okechukwu Kelechi Nwofor Ph.D. and Ngozi Patricia Ebosie, M.Sc. “Optical Properties of CuAl2S Alloyed Thin Films Prepared Using Enhanced Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Method” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-6-issue-11, pp.95-99 November 2021  DOI:

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