Minimizing Packet Drop Due to Black Hole Attack in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Using Intrusion Detection System

Constance Nneka Eze, Chikani N.I, Nnaji B.Ugochukwu- April 2022 Page No.: 01-06

A black hole attack is a place in computer networking whereby incoming and outgoing traffic are silently discarded or dropped without notifying the source that the data sent was unable to reach its destination. A highly successfully black hole attack can prevent all data from reaching its destination and are undetectable. This attack is a significant threat to any wireless Ad-hoc Network because it causes isolation in the Network and does that untraced. The aim of this research work focus on minimizing black hole attack in wireless Ad-hoc Network. To do this, the effect of black hole attack on wireless Ad-hoc Network in terms of packet delivery ratio was first determined. This was done by comparing the packet delivery ratio when intrusion detection system was activated and when it was not activated. Next was to reduce the rate of packet loss as a result of black hole attack this was achieved by generating a packet transmission scheme, which will enable the nodes to gain authentication in the network before packets will be sent to them, thereby reducing the rate of packet loss. After this an intrusion detection system was implemented in all the node. Then a sequence number model and Wi-Fi mini point adapter method was used in modeling intrusion detection system and the corresponding throughput was achieved by calculating the amount of data transferred from source to destination in a given amount of time. All the above work was performed by simulation using PHP-MYSQL and MATLAB. The results obtained showed that the packet loss in ad-hoc wireless network under attack was reduced by 1% when compared by the work done by other researchers.

Page(s): 01-06                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 May 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7401

 Constance Nneka Eze
Department of Computer Engineering Enugu State Polytechnic Iwollo Enugu, Nigeria

 Chikani N.I
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Enugu State Polytechnic Iwollo Enugu, Nigeria

 Eruotor P. G.
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Enugu State Polytechnic Iwollo Enugu, Nigeria

[1] Deepail,R.,&Kapil, H.(2014) Detection and Prevention of gray hole and black hole attack in MANET: International Journal of Computers and Technology, 13,50305038.
[2] Gagandeep, Aashima, & Pawan, K. (2012). Analysis of Different Security Attacks in MANETS on Protocol Stack A-Review. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), 1, 269 – 275.
[3] Gurjar, A.A., & Dande, A.A. (2013). Black Hole Attack in MANETs: A Review Study. International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR), 2(3), 12- 14.
[4] Hicham, Z., Ahmed, T., Rachid, L., & Noureddine, I. (2013). Mitigating Black Hole attack in MANET by Extending Network Knowledge. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA),4. 152 – 158.
[5] Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, (2016) Overview of wireless Ad-hoc Network. Mitigating Routing Misbehavior in Ad Hoc Networks’’, Proc. 6th Annual International conference. Mobile Comp. and Net., Boston, MA. PP. 255 – 265. August 2000.51.
[6] Shikha (2014) Impersonation attack.. ‘’An Intrusion Detection Tool for AODV-BASED AD-HOC WIRELESS NETWORKs’’, Proc. Of the 20th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC’

Constance Nneka Eze, Chikani N.I, Nnaji B.Ugochukwu “Minimizing Packet Drop Due to Black Hole Attack in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Using Intrusion Detection System” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.01-06 April 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7401

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Testing Challenges for Mobile Applications: An evaluation and comparative analysis of different testing approaches

Ali Azgar, Sohel Rana, Saddam Hossain, Most. Jannatul Ferdous- April 2022 Page No.: 07-13

A mobile application, sometimes known as an app, is a form of software designed to operate on a mobile device such as a mobile phone or tablet and is commonly used to deliver user services similar to those accessible on PCs. Mobile applications have become an important part of our lives, allowing us to communicate with people all over the world while sitting at home. However, these applications do more than just connect people; they also provide information, entertainment, and a way to learn new things at any time and from any location. Mobile application testing is very important before releasing any apps. However, since multimode mobile platforms such as handsets, smartphones, tablets, pads, and wearable electronics are now available, various device fragmentations, iOS platforms, and various customer specifications, mobile application testing has recently become incredibly challenging. This article provides an overview of several mobile testing approaches as well as the most recent mobile app testing challenges. In addition, we provide a testing cycle in which mobile apps are sent to clients for feedback. In this article, we also performed a survey of current mobile app users on various bugs in real-world mobile applications, which will be used as a factor in future development.

Page(s): 07-13                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 May 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7402

 Ali Azgar
Dept. of CSE, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh

 Sohel Rana
Dept. of CSE, Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh

 Saddam Hossain
Dept. of CSE, Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

 Most. Jannatul Ferdous
Dept. of CSE, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh

[1] Muccini, Henry, Antonio Di Francesco, and Patrizio Esposito. “Software testing of mobile applications: Challenges and future research directions.” 2012 7th International Workshop on Automation of Software Test (AST). IEEE, 2012.
[2] Nimbalkar, Ravi Ramchandra. “Mobile application testing and challenges.” International Journal of Science and Research 2.7 (2013): 56-58.
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_application_testing.
[4] Satyanarayanan, Mahadev. “Fundamental challenges in mobile computing.” Proceedings of the fifteenth annual ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing. 1996.
[5] http://developer.android.com/reference/android/test/ AndroidTest-Case.html
[6] Beck, E., et al. “Experimental evaluation of techniques for usability testing of mobile systems in a laboratory setting.” Proceedings of OzCHI 2003, Brisbane, Australia. CHISIG, 2003.
[7] Villanes, Isabel Karina, Erick Alexandre Bezerra Costa, and Arilo Claudio Dias-Neto. “Automated mobile testing as a service (AM-TaaS).” 2015 IEEE World Congress on Services. IEEE, 2015.
[8] Huang, Junxian, et al. “Anatomizing application performance differences on smartphones.” Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services. 2010.
[9] Froehlich, Jon, et al. “MyExperience: a system for in situ tracing and capturing of user feedback on mobile phones.” Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Mobile systems, applications and services. 2007.
[10] Wac, Katarzyna, et al. “Studying the experience of mobile applications used in different contexts of daily life.” Proceedings of the first ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Measurements up the stack. 2011.
[11] Hornbæk, Kasper. “Current practice in measuring usability: Challenges to usability studies and research.” International journal of human-computer studies 64.2 (2006): 79-102.
[12] P. Dinda and et al. “The user in experimental computer systems research”. In Proc. of the Workshop,on Experimental Computer Science, (2007)
[13] Nie, Jin, and Xianling Hu. “Mobile banking information security and protection methods.” 2008 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering. Vol. 3. IEEE, 2008.
[14] Pousttchi, Key, and Martin Schurig. “Assessment of today’s mobile banking applications from the view of customer requirements.” 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2004. Proceedings of the. IEEE, 2004.
[15] Li, Ying, and Can Zhang. “Customer’s adoption decision analysis of mobile banking service.” 2010 International Conference on Management and Service Science. IEEE, 2010.
[16] Enck, William, et al. “A study of android application security.” USENIX security symposium. Vol. 2. No. 2. 2011.
[17] Ahmed, A.S., Salah, H.A. and Jameel, J.Q. 2020. Software Development for First Aid Decision Support System. Iraqi Journal of Science. 61, 1 (Jan. 2020), 202-214. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24996/ijs.2020.61.1.23.
[18] Altaie, A.M., Hamo, A.Y. and Alsarraj, R.G. 2021. Software Fault Estimation Tool Based on Object-Oriented Metrics . Iraqi Journal of Science. (May 2021), 63-69. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24996/ijs.2021.SI.2.7.
[19] Noori, K.S. and Fahad, A.A. 2020. Monitoring and Enhancement of Mobile System Performance. Iraqi Journal of Science. 61, 9 (Sep. 2020), 2418-2425. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24996/ijs.2020.61.9.28.
[20] Shaik A., Reddy C. R. K., Manda B., Prakashini. C and Deepthi. K. 2010. “Metrics for Object Oriented Design Software Systems: A Survey”, Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS), pp.190-198.
[21] Wukkadada, Bharati, Ramith Nambiar, and Amala Nair. “Mobile operating system: Analysis and comparison of Android and iOS.” International Journal of Computing and Technology 2.7 (2015): 273-276.
[22] Cotroneo, Domenico, et al. “Software aging analysis of the android mobile os.” 2016 IEEE 27th international symposium on software reliability engineering (ISSRE). IEEE, 2016.
[23] Rhmann, Wasiur, et al. “Software fault prediction based on change metrics using hybrid algorithms: An empirical study.” Journal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences 32.4 (2020): 419-424.
[24] Belachew, Ermiyas Birihanu, Feidu Akmel Gobena, and Shumet Tadesse Nigatu. “Analysis of software quality using software metrics.” International Journal on Computational Science & Applications (IJCSA) 8.4/5 (2018).
[25] Gupta, Dharmendra Lal, and Kavita Saxena. “Software bug prediction using object-oriented metrics.” Sādhanā 42.5 (2017): 655-669.

Ali Azgar, Sohel Rana, Saddam Hossain, Most. Jannatul Ferdous “Testing Challenges for Mobile Applications: An evaluation and comparative analysis of different testing approaches” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.07-13 April 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7402

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The Weighted Inverse Weibull Distribution

Adetunji K. Ilori, Damilare Matthew Oladimeji- April 2022 Page No.: 14-19

This paper introduces the Weighted Inverse Weibull distribution as inverse weighting of the Inverse Weibull distribution. Its various basic statistical properties were explicitly derived and the method of maximum likelihood estimation was used in estimating the model parameters. The model was applied to two real life data sets and its performance and flexibility was assessed with respect to existing distribution using the log-likelihood and Akaike Information Criteria as basis for judgment.

Page(s): 14-19                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 May 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7403

 Adetunji K. Ilori
Statistics Programme, National Mathematical Center, Abuja, Nigeria
Kaduna-Lokoja Expressway, Sheda, Kwali, Abuja, Nigeria

 Damilare Matthew Oladimeji
Department of Statistics, University of Abuja, FCT, Nigeria

[1] Alqallaf F., Ghitany M. E., Agostinelli C. (2015). Weighted Exponential Distribution: Different Methods of Estimations, Applied Mathematics and Information Sciences, 9(3), 1167-1173
[2] Cordeiro, G. M. (2011). The generalized inverse Weibull distribution, (May 2014).http://doi.org/10.1007/s00362-009-0271-3
[3] Fisher, R.A. (1934): The effects of methods of ascertainment upon the estimation of frequencies, Ann. Eugenics, 6, 13 – 25.
[4] Gupta, R. D., & Kundu, D. (2000). Generalized Exponential Distribution: Different Method of E stimations. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 00, 1–22. http://doi.org/10.1080/00949650108812098
[5] Kanpur, T. (2015). Marshall-Olkin generalized exponential distribution Marshall-Olkin Generalized Exponential Distribution. Metron, 73(JANUARY), 1317–333.
[6] Lee, E.T. and Wang, J.W. (2003). Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis 3rd Edition, JohnWiley and Sons, New York, ISBN: 9780471458555, Pages: 534.
[7] Rao, C.R. (1965): On discrete distributions arising out of methods of ascertainment In: Patil, G.P.(eds) Classical and Contagious Discrete Distributions. Statistical Publishing Society, Calcutta, 320 – 332.

Adetunji K. Ilori, Damilare Matthew Oladimeji “The Weighted Inverse Weibull Distribution” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.14-19 April 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7403

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Improving Power Availability of the National Power System Using Solar-Based Enhanced Distributed Generation Technology

Ofure Imomon, James Eke, Linus Anih, Dorathy Abonyi- April 2022 Page No.: 20-29

In this paper, I developed a standard for connecting a solar-based enhanced distributed generation technology to the national utility grid which is expected to improve the poor state of electric power supply in Nigeria. The photovoltaic system generated 250MW solar power which was injected into the national utility grid. The 250MW will be gotten from five locations in the country as each location will generate 50MW to the national utility grid. The photovoltaic system will utilize equipment such as photovoltaic modules, boost converters, inverter, Battery Energy Storage System (BESS), step-up transformers etc. which was interconnected together to feed the 132/33kV substation. The total number of photovoltaic modules, inverters, Battery Energy Storage System (BESS), step-up transformer etc. was also depicted. The total area needed for the installation of 50MW for one location as well as for the five locations for the solar based power was put into consideration for the work. The analysis on the effect of the solar module on the varying temperature with constant irradiance and constant temperature with varying irradiance was depicted. Furthermore, the Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) of the entire work were written. The simulation carried out in this work was done with MATLAB software. Finally, It was realised that additional 250MW was integrated into the Nigeria utility grid and was generated from five locations in Nigeria.

Page(s): 20-29                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 May 2022

 Ofure Imomon
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 James Eke
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 Linus Anih
University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

 Dorathy Abonyi
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

[1] CBN (1985), Central Bank of Nigeria Annual Reports and Statement of Account
[2] Council for Renewable Energy, Nigeria (CREN) (2009), Nigeria Electricity Crunch. available at www.renewablenigeria.org
[3] Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) (2007) Nigeria, Nigeria, retrieve from http://www.DPR.gov.ng Design on MATLAB Simulink software
[4] Duffie, J.A.; Beckman, W.A. (1980), Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes; John Wiley and Sons: New York, NY, USA.
[5] Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN) (2005), Renewable Energy Master Plan https://www.agreate.com/commercia-battery-energy-storage/aten-250kw-bess-battery-energy-storage-system https://www.tanfon.com/products/Solar-Off-Grid-System/Three-Phase-Solar-System/250kva-250kw-off-grid-solar-panel-system-with-battery-power-storage.html https://www.sungrowpower.com
[6] Huang, B.J.; Sun, F.S.(2007), Feasibility study of one axis three positions tracking solar pv with low concentration ratio reflector. Energy Convers. Manag. 48, 1273–1280
[7] Onyebuchi EI (1989), Alternative energy strategies for the developing world’s domestic use: A case study of Nigerian household’s final use patterns and preferences. The Energy Journal 10(3):121–138
[8] Panciatici P., Bareux G., and Wehenkel L., Sep. (2012), Operating in the fog: security management under uncertainty”, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 40–49.
[9] Schaap, A.B.; Veltkamp, W.B. (1993) Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 2nd ed.; Elsevier Science Publishers:
New York, NY, USA,; Volume 51, p. 521.
[10] The Nigerian Energy Support Programme (NESP) (2014). The Nigerian energy sector – an overview with a special emphasis on renewable energy, energy efficiency and rural electrification. Nigeria: The Nigerian Energy Support Programme; 2014.
[11] Villalva M. G., Gazoli J. R., and Filho E. R., “Modeling and circuit-based simulation of photovoltaic arrays,” in Power Electronics Conference, 2009. COBEP ’09. Brazilian, 2009, pp. 1244-1254.
[12] Weidong X., Dunford W. G., and Capel A., (1950-1956) “A novel modeling method for photovoltaic cells,” in Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2004. PESC 04. 2004 IEEE 35th Annual, 2004, pp. Vol.3.

Ofure Imomon, James Eke, Linus Anih, Dorathy Abonyi “Improving Power Availability of the National Power System Using Solar-Based Enhanced Distributed Generation Technology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.20-29 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/20-29.pdf

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Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Record Keeping in School Management and Administration for Effective Teaching and Learning

Lawal Haruna, Idris Na’umma Abdullahi- April 2022 Page No.: 30-33

The Advancement of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has brought about significant improvement in the efficiency of teaching and learning, administration and management of basic education schools. One of the areas that have been immensely revolutionized in developed nations and some developing natins in school is record keeping, where teaching and learning, and administrative records are kept through the use of computers and other ICTs. However, despite advancement in ICTs and their use in teaching and learning, records keeping and other school activities, the records keeping still faced many challenges in basic education schools more especially in developing countries, some of the challenges are poor record keeping, inadequate or absent of ICTs facilities, inadequate trained personal, attitude of some staff towards using ICTs for record keeping and other school activities, and inadequate supply of electricity among others. In addition, there are few studies on the role of ICTs in record keeping. Hence, this paper presents the methods of record keeping, categories of school records, benefit of record keeping, the role plays by ICTs in record keeping, challenges hindering the effective utilization of ICTs in school record keeping and proffered solution were also provided.

Page(s): 30-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 May 2022

 Lawal Haruna
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Nigeria

 Idris Na’umma Abdullahi
Department of Computer Science, School of Sciences, Federal College of Education, Kano, Nigeria

[1] Achuonye and nwiyi ( n.d ) Information and Communication Technology and Record keeping in Secondary Schools, International Journal of Research Development.
[2] Adebowale, O.F. and Osuji, S.N. (2008) Record keeping Practices of Primary School Teachers in Ondo State: Implication for Successful Implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme in Nigeria.
[3] Dare, M.O. (2002) Techniques for Effective Classroom Control and Management. Being a Paper Presented at a three days’ Workshop for Primary School Teachers organized by (SUBEB) Kano from 30th April- 2nd May 2007.
[4] Gilbert, O., Irene, D.J. and James, S. (2020) Relationship Between ICT Usage for Record Keeping and Principals Administrative Quality in Public Secondary Schools in Homabay County, International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS).
[5] Haruna, L. (2014) Computer Science in Universal Basic Education (UBE): Problems and Prospect, IISTE Information and Knowledge Management, Vol.4 (9).
[6] Haruna, L. (2010) Application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for the Attainment of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs).
[7] Haruna, L. (2011) Record Keeping and Computer in School Management for Effective Teaching and Learning
[8] Janguza, S.A (2007) The Strategies for Designing a Model Record of work, Scheme of Work and Lesson Plan. Being a paper Presented at a three days’ Workshop for Primary School Teachers organized by (SUBEB) Kano from 30th April- 2nd May 2007.
[9] Lateef, O.A. and Muniru, A.A. (2020) The use of Information and Communication Technologies for School Administration and Management in Ogun State-Nigeria
[10] Pierre, D.J. & Andala, H.O. (2020) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Integration and Teachers’ Classroom Pedagogy in Selected Secondary Schools in Nyanza District- Rwanda, Journal of Education, Vol. 3(3), 1-20.
[11] Sunday, A.O., Balogun, Z.B., Ajao, R.L. Olawale, S.S. (2020) Record Keeping as a Measure of Effective Administration in Secondary Schools: Planning Strategies. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Educational Planning and Administration, Vol.5(2).
[12] UNESCO (2002) Information and Communication Technology in Education- A Curriculum for Schools and Programme for Teacher Education Development. Paris: 14 UNESCO.
[13] Usman, L.B. (2008) Organization and Management of Nigerian Education, Lecture handout to NCE Students, Federal College of Education, Kano.
[14] Ziraba, A. (2009) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in the Management of Selected Secondary Schools in Central Uganda. M.Sc. Dissertation, Makerere University, Uganda

Lawal Haruna, Idris Na’umma Abdullahi “Role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Record Keeping in School Management and Administration for Effective Teaching and Learning” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.30-33 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/30-33.pdf

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Reducing Instability in Power Distribution Network Using Intelligent Control of System Load Frequency Changes

Onuoha I.S., Alor M.O., Ebere U.C.- April 2022 Page No.: 34-39

This work presents reducing frequency instability in power distribution network using intelligent control of system load frequency changes. The study reviewed literatures and identified that load changes affects frequency which causes transient instability. Empirical study of the Independence Layout Injection 15MVA Substation was performed from the data collected at Enugu State Electricity Distribution Company (EEDC). From the study it was observed that critical time which are the peak periods are 13:00; 17:00 and 21:00hrs respectively and hence need automatic control. This was achieved using mathematical and structural modeling approach which employed data collection, self defining equations, and neural network, to develop a load frequency controller and then tested with Simulink. The result showed that the controller was able to monitor the load flow in the during the identified peak periods to control the load and hence maintain stable frequency.

Page(s): 34-39                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 May 2022

 Onuoha I.S.
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 Alor M.O.
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 Ebere U.C.
Destinet Smart Technologies, Enugu, Nigeria

[1] Al-Amin Sarker and A K M Kamrul Hasan (2016) “Load Frequency Control in Power System” SEU Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2,
[2] Ashmoe PH Battebury DR, B. R. (1974). Frequency disturbances. Power-system model for large frequency disturbances proceedings of IEEE, 601- 8.
[3] Bahtti P, Ghoshal SP, Roy R. (2010). Load frequency stabilization. Load frequency stabilization by coordinated control of Thyristor controlled phase shifters and super conducting magnetic energy storage for three types of interconnected two-area power systems., 1111-24.
[4] Bevrani H, Hiyama T. (2009). On load–frequency regulation with time delays. On load–frequency regulation with time delays: design and real-time implementation., 292-300.\
[5] Chakrabarti S., and Srivastava S. (2015), “Power system load modelling under large and small disturbances using phasor measurement units data,” IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1316–1323.
[6] Hassan Haes Alhelou & Mohamad-Esmail Hamedani-Golshan & Reza Zamani & Ehsan Heydarian-Forushani & Pierluigi Siano, 2018. “Challenges and Opportunities of Load Frequency Control in Conventional, Modern and Future Smart Power Systems: A Comprehensive Review,” Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(10), pages 1-35, September.
[7] Isaac Adekunle Samuel; James Katende; Aremu Awosope Cladius Ojo; Ayokunle Awelewa (2017)” Prediction of Voltage Collapse in Electrical Power System Networks using a New Voltage Stability Index” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research 12(2):190-199
[8] Jayasankar V. Kamaraj N. Vanaja N. (2017) “Estimating voltage stability index for power system using artificial neural network and TCDC placement” Neuro computing; Vol 73, no 16-18, pp 1445-1452.
[9] Jiang en L, Yao W, Wu QH, Cheng SJ. (2012). Delaydependent stability. Delay-dependent stability for load frequency control with constant and timevarying delays, 932-41.
[10] Juang CF, LU CF. (2006). LFC by hybrid devolutionary fuzzy PI controller. Load–frequency control by hybrid devolutionary fuzzy PI controller, 196-204.
[11] Khodaba Khshian A, Hooshmand R. (2010). PID Controller design for AGC. A new PID controller design for automatic generation control of hydro power systems., 375-82.
[12] Milan, C. (1972). Linear regulator design. Linear regulator design for a load and frequency control, 2271-85.
[13] Okafor P.U., Eneh P.C.,Arinze S.N., (2017). “Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) Scheme For Eliminating Overshoot In Dc Servomotor”. International Journal of Advanced Research in IT and Engineering (ISSN: 2278-6244). Volume 6, Issue 3. Pp.14-30.
[14] Pan CT, Liaw CM. (1989). Adaptive controller for power system. An adaptive controller for power system load–frequency control IEEE Transactions on Power Systems., 122-8.
[15] Panda S. Chauhan S. (2014) “Voltage collapse prediction by Neuro fuzzy scheme” IJEE, Data Communicaiton, Vol 2, no 10; pp12-16.
[16] Rerkpreedapong D, Hasanovic A, Feliachi A. (2003). Robust load frequency control. Robust load frequency control using genetic algorithms and linear matrix inequalities., 855-61.
[17] Sharma A. Saxena B. Soni P. Gupta V. (2018) “Voltage stability assessment using artificial neural network”IEEEMA Engineer, Infinite Conference, pp 1-5.
[18] Shuda KR, Raju YB, Sekhar AC. (2012). Robust decentralized load frequency control of interconnected power system. Fuzzy C-Means clustering for robust decentralized load frequency control of interconnected power system with
[19] Xu J. Ren C. Qin W. Han X. and Wang P. (2016) “Voltage stability analysis based on adaptive fuzzy logic considering load fluctuation” IEEEE international conference on power system technology, pp 1-5.
[20] Youssef M., (2015) “Voltage Collapse Prediction for Egyptian Interconnected Electrical Grid EIEG” International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics 7(1):79-88; DOI:10.15676/ijeei.2015.7.1.6
[21] Valluru B.R., (1995), “C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic”; MTBooks, IDG Books Worldwide, Inc. ISBN: 1558515526.

Onuoha I.S., Alor M.O., Ebere U.C. “Reducing Instability in Power Distribution Network Using Intelligent Control of System Load Frequency Changes” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.34-39 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/34-39.pdf

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Simplified cocktail mix and PCR conditions for amplification of extracted DNA from common bacteria, fungi and algae isolates for Microbiological studies

O. O. Ajayi, A. Adekanmbi, M. Dianda and O. E. Fagade- April 2022 Page No.: 40-44

Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) methods have revamped environmental microbiology, providing data about targeted nucleic acids of specific microorganisms found within the environment. These data are useful for the characterization of the interacting processes of targeted microbial communities. They also assess contaminant microbes within the environment (water, air, fomites). Amplification of DNA for identification of bacteria fungi or algae commonly isolated in microbiological studies is a common and constant problem in molecular analysis this may be due to various unforeseen problems like the concentration of the DNA and the Primer, the annealing temperature used or the presence of contaminate in the PCR mixture etc This study was done to address such issues.
Here, we suggest suitable cocktail mixture protocols that can be successfully used to make high-quality qPCR and dPCR measurements of microorganisms in the environment yielding amplicons with good integrity, quality and concentrations that can be used for further analysis. DNA of varying concentrations from different samples were diluted using proposed ratios with water and used for PCR runs. The resulting amplicons were checked for their qualities and used for Sanger sequencing. The amplicons produced were of were of good quality and quantity which were successfully used for Sanger sequencing, giving sequences that were successfully blasted and found to be similar to sequences deposited in the NCBI repository with 90% similarity and above. The suggested protocols provide defined and direct mixing aliquots to be used in PCR mixtures for good amplification outcomes when working with DNA of varying concentrations.

Page(s): 40-44                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 May 2022

 O. O. Ajayi
Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Soil Microbiology unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan.

 A. Adekanmbi
Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 M. Dianda
Soil Microbiology unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan.
Laboratoire de microbiologie forestière (INERA/ DEF) BP 7047 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso

 O. E. Fagade
Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

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O. O. Ajayi, A. Adekanmbi, M. Dianda and O. E. Fagade “Simplified cocktail mix and PCR conditions for amplification of extracted DNA from common bacteria, fungi and algae isolates for Microbiological studies” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.40-44 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/40-44.pdf

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Analysis on Chemical Composition of Different Brands of Cement in Nigeria with Their Corresponding Setting Time

Nwokocha Prince U., Ogbodo Munachiso C.- April 2022 Page No.: 45-50

The quality and standard of cement available in the open market has been a thing of question, which necessitated this research that assessed different Portland cements commonly used in Nigeria within the southern region, in view of understanding the relationship between their chemical compositions and their corresponding setting time. Five brands of cement labelled sample A, B, C, D and E representing Dangote 3x R, Bua, Dangote 3x N, Unicem and Elephant supaset cement respectively were investigated. Chemical composition test was carried out using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the vicat apparatus was used for the setting time test. The chemical composition test result showed that the oxides composition of samples A, B and E met the British standard while for samples C and D the CaO, C3S and C2S content did not meet standard. The result further revealed that sample D has the highest percentage of C3S (73.58%) while sample C has the highest percentage of C2S (40.67%). The percentage of C3A is highest in sample E (9.04%) and sample B has the highest percentage of C4AF (10.76%). The setting time result showed that both the initial and final setting time of the cement samples are within the limit values that initial setting should be greater than 60mins and final setting time should be less than 600mins. Sample D has the fastest initial setting time of 70mins which is as a result of the C3S content that indicates that it will develop more early strength while sample E has the fastest final setting time of 405mins as a result of the C3A content which shows that it will generate more heat than other samples during the early stage of hydration. Sample C has the slowest initial and final setting time value of 105mins and 510mins respectively which is as result of the C2S content that shows that it will develop more late strength than any other sample. The correlation between C3A and gypsum indicates that sufficient amount of gypsum was added to delay the hydration of C3A, it was also observed that there was high correlation coefficient value of 0.9802 between chemical composition and setting time showing that there is a relationship between both. This shows that variation in chemical composition will cause a corresponding variation in setting time.

Page(s): 45-50                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 May 2022

 Nwokocha Prince U.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Ogbodo Munachiso C.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] ASTM. 1986. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Volume 04.01. Cement; Lime; Gypsum. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
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[3] BS 4550: Part 0: 1978. Method of testing cement. General Introduction on Cement. BSI, London.
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[7] Etim, I. (2014). The Cement War: An Alternative View. Vanguard, February 20, 2014. http://www. Vanguard News.com. Assessed on 5/10/2014.
[8] EN 196-1 2005, Methods of testing Cement – Part 1: Determination of strength, European Standard, pp. 1-36.
[9] EN 196-3 2005, Methods of testing Cement – Part 3: Determination of setting times and soundness, European Standard, pp. 1-18.
[10] EN 196-6 2005, Methods of testing Cement – Part 6: Determination of fineness, European Standard, pp. 1-24
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[12] Muibat, D. Y. (2009). Physico-Chemical Classification of Nigerian Cement. AU J.T. 12(3). pp. 164-174.
[13] Nwankwojike, B. N. Onwuka, O. S. and Ndukwe, E. C. (2014). An appraisal of different brands of Portland cement in Umuahia industrial market, Nigeria. Journal of Research Information in Civil Engineering, Vol 10, PP.39-44
[14] Yahaya, M.D. (2009). Physico-Chemical Classification of Nigerian Cement.Au J.T. 12(3) pp. 164-174.

Nwokocha Prince U., Ogbodo Munachiso C. “Analysis on Chemical Composition of Different Brands of Cement in Nigeria with Their Corresponding Setting Time” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.45-50 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/45-50.pdf

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Macro-propagation of Two Nigerian Varieties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) Using three Growth Media

Josephine U. Agogbua and Michael Folorunsho Odeyemi- April 2022 Page No.: 51-57

This study was conducted to investigate the sprouting potential of two varieties ((purple-skin with white-flesh – PSWF and cream-skin with yellow-flesh – CSYF)) of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) commonly grown and consumed in Nigeria. The tubers of the two varieties were cultivated in three substrates (hydroponics, sawdust and topsoil) to generate vines with assigned treatment groups – control (whole tuber), T1 (whole tuber with scarified buds), T2 (whole tuber split into two), T3 (whole tuber split into four) in a humidity chamber. Each treatment was replicated three times. The vines were grown for a study period of five weeks and the number and length of vines were recorded. It was observed that the different treatment levels showed variability for the cream and purple skinned, mean length of vines in topsoil (control 0,110; T1 0,105; T2 5.5,0; T3 0,18.3), in sawdust (control 0,0; T1 0,0; T2 0,0; T3 0,3), and in hydroponics (control 10.2,0; T1 17.7, 10.5; T2 3.6, 6; T3 0,0) respectively and number of vines in topsoil (control 0,4; T1 0,4; T2 1,0; T3 0,3), in sawdust (control 0,0; T1 0,0; T2 0,0; T3 0,3) and in hydroponics (control 5,0; T1 13,3; T2 8,8; T3 0,0) respectively. The result revealed that splitting of tubers and planting in topsoil and sawdust is not viable for the generation of vines for the two varieties as it gave little or no sprouts. The use of whole tubers or whole tubers with scarified buds planted in water is recommended since it produced the highest number of vines.

Page(s): 51-57                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 May 2022

 Josephine U. Agogbua
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Michael Folorunsho Odeyemi
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Adepoju, A., & Adejumo, B. (2015). Some proximate properties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) as influenced by cooking methods. Int. J. Sci. Technol. Res, 4(3), 146-148.
[2] Agboola, O. O., Oseni, O. M., Adewale, O. M., & Shonubi, O. (2018). Effect of the use of sawdust as a growth medium on the growth and yield of tomato. Annales of West University of Timisoara. Series of Biology, 21(1), 67-74.
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[4] Alam, M. K., Sams, S., Rana, Z. H., Akhtaruzzaman, M., & Islam, S. N. (2020). Minerals, vitamin C, and effect of thermal processing on carotenoids composition in nine varieties orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 92, 103582.
[5] Ambebe, T. F., Agbor, A. E. W., & Siohdjie, C. S. (2018). Effect of different growth media on sprouting and early growth of cutting-propagated Cordia africana (Lam.). International Journal of Forest, Animal and Fisheries Research, 2(1), 28-33.
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[9] Conz, R. F., Pereira, E. I. P., Naico, A., Andrade, M. I., & Six, J. (2022). Identifying available resources and agricultural practices useful in soil fertility management to support orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivation on smallholder farms in Mozambique. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 18(1), 58-72.
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[12] Heider, B., Struelens, Q., Faye, E., Flores, C., Palacios, J. E., Eyzaguirre, R., de Haan, S., & Dangles, O. (2021). Intraspecific diversity as a reservoir for heat-stress tolerance in sweet potato. Nature Climate Change, 11(1), 64-69.
[13] Kabirizi, J., Lule, P. M., Ojakol, J., Mutetikka, D., Naziri, D., Kyalo, G., Mayanja, S., & Lukuyu, B. A. (2017). Sweetpotato silage manual for smallholder farmers.
[14] Kannahi, M., & Buvaneswari, R. (2019). Review on micropropagation of musa accuminata l. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research (AJMR), 8(3), 147-163.
[15] Low, J., Ball, A., Magezi, S., Njoku, J., Mwanga, R., Andrade, M., Tomlins, K., Dove, R., & Van Mourik, T. (2017). Sweet potato development and delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 17(2), 11955-11972.
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[17] Mbusa, H., Ngugi, K., Olubayo, F., Kivuva, B., Muthomi, J., & Nzuve, F. (2018). Agronomic performance of Kenyan orange fleshed sweet potato varieties. Journal of Plant Studies, 7(2).
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[19] Mvula, N. G. (2019). Growth and yield response of sweet potato to nitrogen fertilization in soils of Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
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[21] Ntamwira, J., Sivirihauma, C., Ocimati, W., Bumba, M., Vutseme, L., Kamira, M., & Blomme, G. (2017). Macropropagation of banana/plantain using selected local materials: a cost-effective way of mass propagation of planting materials for resource-poor households.
[22] Panda, P. C., Mohanty, S. K., Bal, P., & Kamila, P. K. (2019). Macro-propagation of threatened plants of India and its conservation implications.
[23] Park, I., Yang, S., Kim, W. J., Noh, P., Lee, H. O., & Moon, B. C. (2018). The complete chloroplast genomes of six Ipomoea species and indel marker development for the discrimination of authentic Pharbitidis Semen (Seeds of I. nil or I. purpurea). Frontiers in plant science, 9, 965.
[24] Riaz, A., Younis, A., Ghani, I., Tariq, U., & Ahsan, M. (2015). Agricultural waste as growing media component for the growth and flowering of Gerbera jamesonii cv. hybrid mix. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 4(3), 197-204.
[25] Rouse, L. T. (2019). Influence of P Fertility on Sweetpotato Rooting During Containerized Transplant Production.
[26] Sakamoto, M., & Suzuki, T. (2020). Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration on the Growth of Hydroponic Sweetpotato. Agronomy, 10(11), 1708.
[27] Stahr, M., & Quesada-Ocampo, L. (2020). Assessing the role of temperature, inoculum density, and wounding on disease progression of the fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata causing black rot in sweetpotato. Plant Disease, 104(3), 930-937.
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[30] Yang, Z., Zhu, P., Kang, H., Liu, L., Cao, Q., Sun, J., Dong, T., Zhu, M., Li, Z., & Xu, T. (2020). High-throughput deep sequencing reveals the important role that microRNAs play in the salt response in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). BMC genomics, 21(1), 1-16.

Josephine U. Agogbua and Michael Folorunsho Odeyemi “Macro-propagation of Two Nigerian Varieties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) Using three Growth Media” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.51-57 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/51-57.pdf

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Update report and analysis on the global trends and progress of Covid -19 pandemic on 18th January, 2022 across different countries of the world

Joseph Oyepata Simeon, Olorunfemi Ayodele Festus, Sabastine Aliyu Zubairu, Joseph Opeyemi Tosin, Sebastine Blessing Sunday Sunday- April 2022 Page No.: 58-66

Background/Aim: there has been lots of curiosity and pandemonium caused by upsurge of Covid -19 to global level. Steady global observation is immensely necessary track progress and drawbacks. This study is aim at analysising the global trends and progress of Covid -19 pandemic as at 18th January, 2022 across different countries of the world.
Method: Data from one hundred and eighty one (181) countries and regions of the world. Information was gotten from United Nations Geoscheme, WHO. Data were collated and analyzed
Result: American continent appears to still be most affected by the virus with a high infection rate and even higher report of mortality. Europe is also affected but with better control of mortality, while African continents, with exception of South Africa, have are been less affected base on available data.
Conclusion: While there appears to be a conflicting approach on how best to manage and live with the virus, the new variants suggests that understanding and utilizing Africans biological survival mechanism may be the best way to regain near normal freedom

Page(s): 58-66                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 May 2022

 Joseph Oyepata Simeon
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gombe State University, Gombe State, Nigeria

 Olorunfemi Ayodele Festus
Festmed College of Education, Ajowa Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Sabastine Aliyu Zubairu
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University, Oye–Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

 Joseph Opeyemi Tosin
Department of Pharmacology, Lead City University Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria

 Sebastine Blessing Sunday
Department of Internal Medicine, State Specialist Hospital, Gombe State, Nigeria

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Joseph Oyepata Simeon, Olorunfemi Ayodele Festus, Sabastine Aliyu Zubairu, Joseph Opeyemi Tosin, Sebastine Blessing Sunday “Update report and analysis on the global trends and progress of Covid -19 pandemic on 18th January, 2022 across different countries of the world” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.58-66 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/58-66.pdf

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Assessment of Radiation Emission Levels in Industrial Sites of Ibadan Metropolis Nigeria

Chiaghanam N.O. PhD*, Esien- umo E.O. PhD, Asuquo C.F. BSc, Oladiran O.R BSc- April 2022 Page No.: 67-70

The increase in population of major cities in Nigeria has caused proliferation of industries around them especially Ibadan. Hence, the rate and the volume of the waste generated equally increases. This can be a source of environmental health hazard and possible radiation emission from each industrial site to the workers and close residential areas calls for a concern. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess radiation emission levels in industrial sites of Ibadan metropolis. The industrial sites are mainly located in Oluyole L.G.A of Ibadan. A portable radiation survey meter RDS-30 with serial number 270354 was used to quantify the exposure levels in the industrial sites. The absorbed dose rates were determined at 10 different industries of the study area. The highest stable point was observed while radiation survey meter was placed at the level of Gonad at 1metre above the ground level. The procedure was repeated three times at the same point in the industrial site. An average mean value and standard deviation were determined for each of the locations. Radiological hazard indices were calculated from the data obtained. The mean background reading was 0.09uSvh-1. The mean equivalent dose was 0.14 uSvh-1, the mean absorbed doe rate (ADR) was 142nGyh-1. The calculated annual exposure dose rate (AEDR) was 0.17mSvy-1. The corresponding estimated ECLR was 0.60X10-3. However, from the result of the study, it was observed that proper and continuous evaluation of dose level should be maintained to avoid any possible health effect of radiation

Page(s): 67-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 May 2022

 Chiaghanam N.O. PhD
Department of Radiography and Radiological Science, University of Calabar, Calabar- Nigeria

 Esien- umo E.O. PhD
Department of Radiography and Radiological Science, University of Calabar, Calabar- Nigeria

 Asuquo C.F. BSc
Department of Radiography and Radiological Science, University of Calabar, Calabar- Nigeria

 Oladiran O.R BSc
Department of Radiography and Radiological Science, University of Calabar, Calabar- Nigeria

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Chiaghanam N.O. PhD*, Esien- umo E.O. PhD, Asuquo C.F. BSc, Oladiran O.R BSc “Assessment of Radiation Emission Levels in Industrial Sites of Ibadan Metropolis Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.67-70 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/67-70.pdf

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Education and COVID-19: Facts, insights and vital lessons

David Gitumu Mugo (PhD)- April 2022 Page No.: 71-78

COVID-19, a severe and fatal human respiratory ailment caused by Severe Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The purpose of the paper was to explore the scientific findings regarding SARS-CoV-2, its epidemiology and impact to the education system. The study was a documentary analysis of virtual documents stored electronically for access through the internet, text books, archival repositories as well as encyclopedia. The key findings indicated that genomic features of the virus demonstrated close phylogenic relationships with other viruses important to human illnesses. This disapproved a public argument that the virus was a laboratory construct. Further the study demonstrated that the transmission of the virus was chiefly exponential resulting to rapid outbreak of the ailment throughout China and other parts of the habitable world. The containment measure adopted by governments and states was largely lockdown of operations in many sectors of the economy, including education. By highlighting facts and insights on interventions adopted globally, the paper was able to provide a deeper understanding of COVID-19 within an educational context. The lessons gathered from the period of the epidemic are highlighted and can be useful to educationists when handling an epidemic in the future.

Page(s): 71-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 May 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7404

 David Gitumu Mugo (PhD)
Karatina University, P.O.Box 1957-10101, Karatina, Kenya

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David Gitumu Mugo (PhD) “Education and COVID-19: Facts, insights and vital lessons” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.71-78 April 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7404

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The Composition and Vegetation Potention Study of Production Forest in Kphp Dampelas Tinombo Area, Pariasanagung Village, Dampelas Sub District of Donggala, Central Sulawesi Province

Imran Rachman- April 2022 Page No.: 79-84

The production forest area in the Dampelas Tinombo KPH (Forest Management Unit is an organization that works at the site level and is expected to be a prerequisite for the implementation of a sustainable and equitable forest management system) area which was included in the area of Parisan Agung Village, Dampelas District which was indicated to be damaged had an area of about 410 Ha, so that a study was needed on the composition and potential of production forest in Parisan Agung Village in order to plan the utilization and development of plantation forests that were aims to provide welfare for people living around forest areas without changing their main function. This research was carried out for 3 months starting from June to September 2018. The location of this research was in a production forest located in the Dampelas Tinombo KPHP Model area which was included in the Parisan Agung Village area, Dampelas sub district of Donggala, Central Sulawesi Province. The composition of forest vegetation types in Parisan Agung Village consisted of 28 types of vegetation. at the tree level in the plot as many as 165 individuals from 25 types of vegetation while the pole level vegetation as many as 140 individuals from 25 types of vegetation, at the sapling level as many as 145 individuals from 28 types of vegetation and seedling level as many as 154 individuals from 28 types of vegetation. While the potential volume of trees in the observation plot was 162.53 m3 from 165 individuals, the type of bayas had the highest volume with 13. 17 m3 and the volume of the pole level in the observation plot was 17.89 m3 from 140 individuals, the prupuk species had a volume of 17.89 m3. the largest with 1.63 m3

Page(s): 79-84                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7405

 Imran Rachman
Management and Conservation Interest, Forestry Study Program, Forestry Faculty, Tadulako University, Soekarno Hatta Street Km. 9 Palu 94118 Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

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Imran Rachman “The Composition and Vegetation Potention Study of Production Forest in Kphp Dampelas Tinombo Area, Pariasanagung Village, Dampelas Sub District of Donggala, Central Sulawesi Province” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.79-84 April 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7405

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Improving Power Availability of the National Power System Using Solar-Based Enhanced Distributed Generation Technology

Ofure Imomon, James Eke, Linus Anih, Dorathy Abonyi- April 2022 Page No.: 85-91

In this paper, the method for connecting a solar-based enhanced distributed generation technology to the national utility grid was developed, which is expected to improve the poor state of electric power supply in Nigeria. All countries in the world need an available power supply to improve its economy. The power sector is an important sector that requires good funding for the constant availability of electricity for its citizens. Nigeria has not yet met the population requirement as far as power availability is concerned. The utilization of solar photovoltaic generated electricity will improve the nation’s power supply and ensure power availability in the country. The study aims to improve the power availability of the national power system using solar-based enhanced distributed generation technology. The photovoltaic system generated 250MW solar power which was injected into the national utility grid. The 250MW was gotten from five locations in the country as each location generated 50MW to the national utility grid. The performance of power output from the photovoltaic array as well as the power output from the inverter into the grid and losses that arose from the solar photovoltaic system was analysed. The simulation carried out in this work was done with PVsys and AutoCAD software. From the analysis done using PVsys software, to analyse the annual performance of the photovoltaic system for the five locations, the system gave a percentage performance of 79.1percent for the photovoltaic system and the total energy the arrays will inject into the grid annually is 387.765GWh.

Page(s): 85-91                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2022

 Ofure Imomon
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 James Eke
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

 James Eke
University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 Dorathy Abonyi
Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

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Ofure Imomon, James Eke, Linus Anih, Dorathy Abonyi “Improving Power Availability of the National Power System Using Solar-Based Enhanced Distributed Generation Technology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-4, pp.85-91 April 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-4/85-91.pdf

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