Industrial Propagation of Cymbidium Sp. by Bioreactor Technique

Tran Van Minh- July 2022 Page No.: 01-06

Micropropagation of orchid plant for conservation and development is needing. Traditional propagation of Cymbidium sp. requires energy cost, many labor, large area for growing, slow growth and development, and high cost input. It is a need to find new effective ways for in vitro propagation, and plant cell technology via bioreactor techniques effort the demands. Protocorm like bodies were used as planting materials. Somatic embryo callus were initiated on medium MS + BA (0.1 mg/l) supplemented with NAA (1 mg/l) or 2,4D (1 mg/l). Somatic cell suspension were cultured for initiation and for proliferation. on medium MS + BA (0.1mg/l) supplemented with 2.4D (1 mg/l) and NAA (1 mg/l). The volume of somatic cell suspension for bioreactor cultivation was 20%. Somatic embryo suspension were cultured in bioreactor for initiation and proliferation on the medium MS + BA (0.1mg/l) supplemented with 2.4D (1 mg/l) or NAA (1 mg/l). Embryogenic suspension was stimulated on the medium MS + BA (0.5 mg/l) + NAA (0.1 mg/l). In vitro shoots of Cymbidium sp. were regeneration on the medium MS + BA (0.1 mg/l). Plantlets were enhanced growth and development in immersion-bioreactor cultivation by sinking/rising floated 1min/6hrs. Temperature, light intensity and stirring in stirring-bioreactor cultivation were favoured at 26+2oC, 11,1-22,2 μmol/m2/s, and 30 rpm. Micropropagation of Cymbidium sp. by bioreactor technique was set up to produce 5,600 platlets per one liter of somatic embryogenesis suspension

Page(s): 01-06                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 August 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7701

 Tran Van Minh
International University, Vietnam National University HCM, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
National Key Lab for Plant Cell Biotechnology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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Tran Van Minh “Industrial Propagation of Cymbidium Sp. by Bioreactor Technique” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.01-06 July 2022  DOI:

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Trends in Smart Packaging Technologies for Sustainable Monitoring of Food Quality and Safety

K.G. Kaushani, N. L. Rathnasinghe, N. Katuwawila, R.A Jayasinghe, A.H.L.R. Nilmini, G. Priyadarshana- July 2022 Page No.: 07-30

Food packaging has a significant impact on food preservation, thus prolonging the shelf-life and maintaining sustainable food quality and safety throughout the food supply chain and even during storage. Consumer desire for reliable, sustainable, organic, healthy, and unique products with “clean” labeling has risen as a result of technological advancement. Food packaging innovation is mainly described by the advancement of smart packaging technologies such as active and intelligent packaging. Active packaging is the use of active ingredients in more sustainable packaging materials to expand storability while ensuring product safety and quality. Intelligent packaging systems are developing to become more economical, efficient, and integrated matrices to deliver new packaging ideas that maintain the state of the packed food to deliver information on the product quality during shipping and storage. This review will provide a detailed overview of recent significant advancements and trends in the evolution of smart packaging

Page(s): 07-30                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 August 2022

 K.G. Kaushani
Department of Materials and Mechanical Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Homagama, Sri Lanka

 N. L. Rathnasinghe
Department of Materials and Mechanical Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Homagama, Sri Lanka

 R.A Jayasinghe
Department of Civil and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Homagama, Sri Lanka

 A.H.L.R. Nilmini
Department of Materials and Mechanical Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Homagama, Sri Lanka

 G. Priyadarshana
Department of Materials and Mechanical Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Homagama, Sri Lanka

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K.G. Kaushani, N. L. Rathnasinghe, N. Katuwawila, R.A Jayasinghe, A.H.L.R. Nilmini, G. Priyadarshana “Trends in Smart Packaging Technologies for Sustainable Monitoring of Food Quality and Safety” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.07-30 July 2022  URL:

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An Appraisal of Indices of Eutrophication of Surface Water of Some Parts of River Benue in Makurdi Metropolis, North-Central, Nigeria

Peter Agorye Adie, Margaret Onma Egwurube, Moses Terhile Iortile- July 2022 Page No.: 31-37

Physical, chemical and biological parameters of surface water (river Benue) Makurdi, were evaluated to determine the eutrophication potential and make logical inference on the fate of surface water system. Sampling was from five (5) strategic sites along river Benue and standard methods were used for the measurement of nitrate, phosphate, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, conductivity, total dissolved oxygen (TDS), potassium and algae count as indices of eutrophication. The results showed low levels of nutrients and microbial activities. The values of some eutrophication parameters in the sites were as follows: BOD mg/L (Coca-Cola 0.30±0.00, Kyabis hotel 0.43±0.03, Wadata 0.88±0.03, Abattoir 0.90±0.10, BSU 0.62±0.03). Nitrate mg/L (Coca-Cola 1.86±0.13, Kyabis hotel 0.73±0.03, Wadata 0.68±0.05, Abattoir 0.40±0.03, BSU 0.89±0.04). Phosphate mg/L (Coca-Cola 0.04±0.00, Kyabis hotel 0.05±0.00, Wadata 0.05±0.00, Abattoir 0.08±0.00, BSU 0.05±0.00). Findings revealed that many of the eutrophication parameters studied were within threshold levels, as they were within permissible limits of the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria, and therefore the river is not under immediate threat of accumulation of phytoplankton and nutrients. However, traditional practice of dumping of wastes into water bodies must be reversed to ensure the river does not become eutrophicated in the nearest future.

Page(s): 31-37                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 August 2022

 Peter Agorye Adie
Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P. M. B. 102119, Makurdi, 970101, Nigeria

 Margaret Onma Egwurube
Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P. M. B. 102119, Makurdi, 970101, Nigeria

 Moses Terhile Iortile
Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P. M. B. 102119, Makurdi, 970101, Nigeria

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Peter Agorye Adie, Margaret Onma Egwurube, Moses Terhile Iortile “An Appraisal of Indices of Eutrophication of Surface Water of Some Parts of River Benue in Makurdi Metropolis, North-Central, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.31-37 July 2022  URL:

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Psychoanalysis Study of Character 001 (Oh-II Nam) in The Film Series Squid Game

Yosephina Indah Esian Nefo, Nawiroh Vera- July 2022 Page No.: 38-43

The research aims at analyzing the character 001 in the film Series Squid Game by using Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic study. The research theme is about the personality psychology of the main character Oh-Il Nam. It will be analyzed using the theory of communication psychology from Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis study which includes the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. It is a qualitative research type and the results of the analysis will be presented in a descriptive narrative way. The research results show that the Id in the character 001 is an egoistic attitude and he wants to save himself. The ego in the character 001 is fair in reality which is based on the principle of reality and morals. The character 001 does something more important than satisfying his own needs. When it is the Superego it upholds the moral aspect, it is shown that he always says thank you at the end of the sentences he says, and in the other Superego, it upholds polite behavior he always puts forward. From the three personalities of the Id, the Ego, and the Superego which is represented in the character 001 in the film series Squid Game, it can be concluded that the comparison among the three personalities is balanced. In other words, the personality of the character 001 is comparable to the Id, the Ego, and the Superego.

Page(s): 38-43                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 August 2022

 Yosephina Indah Esian Nefo
Department of Communication Science, Budi Luhur University, Indonesia

 Nawiroh Vera
Department of Communication Science, Budi Luhur University, Indonesia

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Yosephina Indah Esian Nefo, Nawiroh Vera “Psychoanalysis Study of Character 001 (Oh-II Nam) in The Film Series Squid Game” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.38-43 July 2022  URL:

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In Vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of The Leaf Extracts of Cactus Plant (Opuntia Ficus Indica)

Shehu Abba, Abdullahi Muhammad, Abdullateef Abdullahi Ibrahim, Muhammad Sulaiman Kurawa, Mu’azu Alkali Adamu, Abubakar Bilyamini Mu’azu- July 2022 Page No.: 44-47

Opuntia ficus-indica has been reported to be used in folk medicine due to its diverse pharmacological effects. Maceration method was employed in the determination of antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects of the plant leaf using Three (3) different solvents (methanol, ethanol and aqueous). The following isolates; S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumonia, E. coli and S. typhi were tested using agar well diffusion method. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of the plant extract was carried out through the determination of total antioxidant capacity assay and reducing power assay. Hence, the leaf extracts showed various levels of activity on the different test organisms; The methanolic leaf extract showed highest antibacterial activity against all tested organisms followed by ethanolic extract and finally aqueuos extract with least antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial isolates as showed in S. pneumoniae methanol extracts (17.5±0.66mm), ethanol extract recorded 15.2±0.76mm in S. aureus, and aqueuos extract showed 10.7±0.76mm in both E. coli and S. typhi. On the other hand, the minimum inhibitory concentration in methanolic extract indicated least value in K. pneumoniae with 6.2±0.03 mg\mL, followed by ethanolic extract with 12.4±0.32mg\ml in S. typhi, and aqueuos extract with 29.5±0.12mg\mL in E. Coli. The ability of the methanolic extract to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ and Cu2+to Cu+ in reducing power assay and total antioxidant capacity respectively using ascorbic acid as a standard reveal it’s antioxidant property. The present study suggests that the methanolic leaf extract of Opuntia ficus-indica may contain compounds that can form the basis for the development of a chemopreventive agent against free radical damage and development of novel antibacterial chemotherapeutic agent.

Page(s): 44-47                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 August 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7703

 Shehu Abba
Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano State, Nigeria

 Abdullahi Muhammad
Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano State, Nigeria

 Abdullateef Abdullahi Ibrahim
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Borno State, Nigeria

 Muhammad Sulaiman Kurawa
Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, P.M.B. 3011, Kano State, Nigeria

 Mu’azu Alkali Adamu
Department of Biochemistry, College of Agricultural Science, P.M.B.1104, Gujiba, Yobe State, Nigeria

 Abubakar Bilyamini Mu’azu
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Yobe State University, Damaturu, P.M.B.1144, Yobe State, Nigeria

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Shehu Abba, Abdullahi Muhammad, Abdullateef Abdullahi Ibrahim, Muhammad Sulaiman Kurawa, Mu’azu Alkali Adamu, Abubakar Bilyamini Mu’azu “In Vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties of The Leaf Extracts of Cactus Plant (Opuntia Ficus Indica)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.44-47 July 2022  DOI:

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Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity and soil corrosivity in Okerenkoko, Warri-Southwest, Delta State, using one-dimensional resistivity inversion

Okiotor M. Edirin, Eze U. Stanley, Owonaro B. Jennifer, Saleh A. Saleh, Eriunu O. Meshack- July 2022 Page No.: 48-55

Thirty (30) Vertical electric soundings (VES) were acquired in Okerenkoko community Warri-Southwest, Delta State, to evaluate the protective capacity and soil corrosivity of the area which falls within the oil producing communities in the Niger Delta. Evaluation of longitudinal conductance of the area showed areas with poor (< 0.1 mho), weak (0.1-0.19 mho), good (0.7-4.9 mho), very good (5-10.0 mho) and excellent (> 10.0 mho) protective capacities. The study has shown that the protective capacity of most parts of the community were rated excellent, very good and good, hence aquifers in these areas are protected from contamination by oil spillage in the event of pollution, while areas with weak and poor protection capacity are susceptible to groundwater contamination from surface spills and other near surface phenomena. Soil corrosivity evaluation from VES data indicated the presence of slightly corrosive, moderately corrosive and practically noncorrosive materials in the subsurface. The areas with slight and moderate corrosivity are prone to pipeline failure. Therefore, environmental management programs should be considered in the area for the protection of the aquifer system in the community. This study serves as a useful guide for location of subsurface aquifers and their protection capacity distributions throughout the study area. This will assist in planning of exploration programs for sitting of groundwater production wells in the area.

Page(s): 48-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 August 2022

 Okiotor M. Edirin
Department of Marine Geology, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Warri South, Delta State, Nigeria

 Eze U. Stanley
Department of Earth Sciences, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria

 Owonaro B. Jennifer
Department of Marine Geology, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Warri South, Delta State, Nigeria

 Saleh A. Saleh
Department of Petroleum Engineering and Geosciences, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Nigeria

 Eriunu O. Meshack
Department of Marine Geology, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Warri South, Delta State, Nigeria

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Okiotor M. Edirin, Eze U. Stanley, Owonaro B. Jennifer, Saleh A. Saleh, Eriunu O. Meshack “Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity and soil corrosivity in Okerenkoko, Warri-Southwest, Delta State, using one-dimensional resistivity inversion” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.48-55 July 2022  URL:

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A Hybrid Method: Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering Algorithm with Classification Techniques for Effective Heart Disease Prediction

Farha Akhter Munmun, Sumi Khatun- July 2022 Page No.: 56-60

Prediction of heart disease is challenging because countless data are collected for clinical data analysis, but all this information is not equally important for making the right decisions. We have proposed a hybrid method: Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering algorithm combined with conventional classification techniques such as K-Nearest Neighbors (K-NN), Decision Tree (J48), and Naïve Bayes which aims to reduce the prediction time by clustering the patients having almost similar symptoms of heart failure. This approach minimizes the forecasting time based on clusters of patients instead of individual patients. Moreover, a comparison between the classification techniques and our approach is depicted based on precision, recall, F1 score, accuracy, and prediction time. The accuracies of the classifiers (K-NN-66.67%, J48-83.33%, and Naïve Bayes83.33%) of our system have slightly decreased compared with the conventional methods (K-NNN-69.128%, J48-83.8926%, and Naïve Bayes-87.248%) but the prediction time was significantly low (K-NNN-230ms, J48-203ms, and Naïve Bayes-195ms).

Page(s): 56-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 August 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7704

 Farha Akhter Munmun
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Sumi Khatun
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Farha Akhter Munmun, Sumi Khatun “A Hybrid Method: Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering Algorithm with Classification Techniques for Effective Heart Disease Prediction” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.56-60 July 2022  DOI:

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Influence of the examination-oriented model on students’ performance in literature classrooms in secondary schools in Kenya

Korir Jonah Kiplagat, Dr. Lorna Wafula, Prof. Khaemba Ongeti- July 2022 Page No.: 61-65

The Kenya education system is an examination-oriented model in which examination results determine a student’s path. The teaching and learning activities are geared towards rote learning so students can memorise content to pass the national examination. This paper discusses the influence of the examination-oriented model on students’ performance in literature in secondary schools. The study was conducted in Nandi Central, Nandi County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive design where the form four students and teachers in Nandi Central Sub-County formed the target population. The researchers used simple random sampling to select schools and teachers and develop four students to participate in the study. Instruments of data collection included: Questionnaires, interview schedules and observation checklists. Piloting of the study was done in two schools that were not included in the research. Data collected were analysed using a descriptive design per the study objectives. Data was presented in frequency tables, descriptions, and percentages. The results of this study revealed that the secondary school Literature syllabus was not implemented as stipulated by the KICD due to; insufficient time to cover the syllabus; hence teachers were forced to resort to the examination-oriented teaching model. The examination-oriented model puts pressure on teachers and learners for excellent results. The researcher concluded that the examination-oriented model led to rote learning in literature. Students spent most of the time doing a series of examinations. It was recommended that the examination-oriented model be replaced by other student-centred teaching approaches, such as performance, which includes engagement that involves recitations, narrations and song and dance. Implementation can be carried out in poetry, oral literature, and drama.

Page(s): 61-65                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 August 2022

 Korir Jonah Kiplagat
School of Education, Moi University, P.O box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya

 Dr. Lorna Wafula
School of Education, Moi University, P.O box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya

 Prof. Khaemba Ongeti
School of Education, Moi University, P.O box 3900, Eldoret, Kenya

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Korir Jonah Kiplagat, Dr. Lorna Wafula, Prof. Khaemba Ongeti “Influence of the examination-oriented model on students’ performance in literature classrooms in secondary schools in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.61-65 July 2022  URL:

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A Comprehensive Comparison between Cloud Computing and Mobile Edge Computing

Farha Akhter Munmun, Adeeba Anis, Md. Shohrab Hossain- July 2022 Page No.: 66-71

Cloud computing provides a user-convenient, low-expense, and powerful computing platform for sharing resources like online storage, applications, and software through the internet. But with the exponential growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and massive amounts of private data in the network, the centralized and conventional architecture of cloud computing has become a bottleneck because of limited bandwidth and resources. At the same time security is also an open concern for cloud computing. Hence, Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is an extended architecture of cloud computing that enables data processing and storing at the edge of mobile networks. Instead of having some unique features (distributed architecture, parallel processing, low latency), MEC has also brought some security threats and challenges. In this paper, a comprehensive comparison between cloud computing and MEC has been presented in terms of features and security threats. Also, the security mechanisms for handling the threats are analyzed.

Page(s): 66-71                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 August 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7705

 Farha Akhter Munmun
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology

 Adeeba Anis
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology

 Md. Shohrab Hossain
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology

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Farha Akhter Munmun, Adeeba Anis, Md. Shohrab Hossain “A Comprehensive Comparison between Cloud Computing and Mobile Edge Computing” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.66-71 July 2022  DOI:

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Agriculture as A Business: An Analysis of Arable Crop Farming Practices in Edo State, Nigeria

Gbenga Festus Koledoye, Olumide Ayeniyo and Billy Oluwale- July 2022 Page No.: 72-76

The study analyzed the practices of selected arable crop farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it determined their participation in arable crops cultivation practices and identified the types of records kept with a view to determining their business orientation. A two stage sampling procedure, comprising of purposive and snowball was used to select 196 respondents with access to a minimum of 2 hectares of farmland but only 179 respondents were used for the analysis. Data were collected through the use of interviews and analyzed with logistic regression model. Results showed that farmers were averagely aged with a mean of 37.2 years. The average farming experience was 15.8 years. Farmers engaged in arable crop production practices such as land preparations, planting, weeding, and fertilizer application among others. However, only the cost of hired labour records was kept while cost of other input resources was not accurately documented. Farm size (wald = 3.81), access to labour (wald = 2.52) and access to credit (wald = 5.19) determined their level of participation in arable crop production. The study concludes that farmers practice agriculture as an art and not as a business. This is because business involves adequate records keeping in order to ascertaining profitability

Page(s): 72-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 August 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7706

 Gbenga Festus Koledoye
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Olumide Ayeniyo
Department of Business Administration, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Billy Oluwale
African Institute for Science Policy and Innovations, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria

[1] Adedokun, A. S; Ogunyemi, O. I and Lawal, B. J (2018). Sustainable Agricultural Practices and Arable Farmers Productivity in Lagos State, Nigeria.Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 20 (2): 103-112.
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[10] Ijoma, J.C. and Ibezim, G.M. (2010). Factors Influencing interest of youth in agriculture in Ideato North Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria. Proceedings of 44th annual conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN). Held at LagokeAkintola University of technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso. October 2010 Pg 185-188.
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[14] Mohammed, B. T and Abdulquadri, A. F (2012). Comparative analysis of gender involvement in agricultural production in Nigeria. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 4(8), 240-244.
[15] Ololade, R.A and olangunju, F.I (2013). Determinants of access to credit among rural farmers in Oyo state, Nigeria. Global journal of science frontier research Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences 13(2): 50-58.
[16] Onya, S.C; Ugochukwu, G.C and Ejiba, I.V (2018). Farm-Level Determinants of Access to Land by Arable Crop Farmers in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension, 8 (1): 50-55
[17] Osabuomen, J. I and Okoedo-Okojie, D.U (2011). Analysis of the effect of arable crop production practices among farmers on environmental degradation in Edo State, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 3 (2):353-360.
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[20] Sikod, F (2007). Gender Division of Labour and Women’s Decision-Making Power in Rural Households in Cameroon. Africa Development, Vol. XXXII, No. 3: 58–71
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[22] Simpa, J.O (2014). Technical efficiency of yam producers in Kogi State, Nigeria using conventional and non-conventional parameters, Unpublished M. Tech Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.

Gbenga Festus Koledoye, Olumide Ayeniyo and Billy Oluwale “Agriculture as A Business: An Analysis of Arable Crop Farming Practices in Edo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.72-76 July 2022  DOI:

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Role of machine learning in Data Science: A detailed study

Revathi S- July 2022 Page No.: 77-81

The machine learning empowers data science to reduce human efforts and become a most valuable asset for business needs through pattern recognition, prediction, analysis and efforts. Now-a-days, organizations really emphasize using data to improve their product needs, where machine learning makes the day of Data Scientist easier by automating the task, and by analyzing enormous amount of data which proves that Data scientist should have in-depth knowledge of Machine learning to improve their prediction process. Machine learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence, a set of algorithms which trains machine or computers the ability to predict the data on their own. In this paper, a detailed overview of different structures of Data Science and address the impact of machine learning on steps such as Data Collection, Data Preparation, Training the model, Model Evaluation and Prediction. Also, a study on detailed 3 keys on machine learning algorithms such as Classification, regression and clustering is been discussed in this paper

Page(s): 77-81                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 August 2022

 Revathi S
Researcher/Data Scientist

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Revathi S “Role of machine learning in Data Science: A detailed study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.77-81 July 2022  URL:

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Application of Queuing Theory in Hospital System: Ante Natal Care Unit Mubi

Nathan Nachandiya, Bulama H. James, Titus Z. Fate & Ngozi Francisca- July 2022 Page No.: 82-88

Ante Natal Care (ANC) is a medication provided to pregnant women after pregnancy. This treatment entails register provision, physical review, doctor’s appointment, pharmacy services, laboratory screening, and general health education. Primary Health Care (PHC) delivers certain services to pregnant women. Area of interest to the researchers was the time spent by women during the ANC. Many women remained in the hospital the entire day and some finally went home unattended. This paper attempts to explore the reasons responsible for the hospital’s waste of time and its potential health consequences for these fragile pregnant women. The researchers have analyzed the waiting time, service time and overall time spent in a queue. The data was analyzed using TORA package and the result reveals an average arrival rate (lambda) of 31.00, service time (Mu) = 5.00 at the Registration/ File retrieval unit; an average arrival rate (Lambda) of 5.00, Mu = 4.00 at the BP, Weight, Temperature check unit; an average arrival rate (Lambda) of 5.00, Mu = 4.00 Consulting with Doctor; an average arrival rate (Lambda) of 4.00 , Mu = 32 at the Health Talk unit and finally average arrival rate (Lambda) of 29.00, Mu = 5.00 at the Pharmacy. This analysis revealed that reasonable amount of time is spent by these women on queue, and service discipline of First in First out (FIFO) is not always observed, the researchers then recommends a modified Single Queue – Multiple – Serial Server for the PHC which increased the service rate and also encouraged support by other staff during the Ante Natal services

Page(s): 82-88                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 August 2022

 Nathan Nachandiya
Computer Science Department, Adamawa State University, Mubi.

 Bulama H. James
Computer Science Department State Polytechnic, Yola.

 Titus Z. Fate
Information Technology Department, Nigerian Army University Biu.

 Ngozi Francisca
Computer Science Department, Nigerian Army University Biu

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Nathan Nachandiya, Bulama H. James, Titus Z. Fate & Ngozi Francisca “Application of Queuing Theory in Hospital System: Ante Natal Care Unit Mubi” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-7, pp.82-88 July 2022  URL:

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