Identifying Covid-19 coping strategies among the parishioners of Our Lady of Guadalupe parish, Adams, Nairobi County, Kenya

Lawrence Terlumun Awua, Everlyn Oluoch-Suleh, and Elizabeth Ngozi Okpalaenwe- August 2022 Page No.: 01-06

This research paper assessed the coping strategies employed by the members of the Catholic Parish of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Adams, Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was supported with logotherapy theory of Viktor Frankl. The main objective of this study was to identify the strategies that are used in coping with Covid-19 among the members of the Catholic Parish of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Adams, Nairobi County. The study adopted embedded mixed method design. The target population was 1075 members of this parish. The sample size was 292 got through simple random sampling method techniques. The data collection was done through open and closed ended questionnaire and semi structured interview guide. The quantitative data was analysed by employing descriptive statistics analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Qualitative data was analyzed effectively in a narrative form using objective themes. The findings of this work, with the data collected from February 6-27, 2022, revealed that Covid-19 had both negative and positive influences on this community. Thus, the members of the Catholic Parish of Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish, Adams, Nairobi County, Kenya used different strategies to survive the Covid-19 attack

Page(s): 01-06                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Lawrence Terlumun Awua
Department of Psycho-Spiritual Institute of Lux Terra Foundation, Marist International University College, Nairobi, Kenya.

 Everlyn Oluoch-Suleh
Department of Psycho-Spiritual Institute of Lux Terra Foundation, Marist International University College, Nairobi, Kenya.

 Elizabeth Ngozi Okpalaenwe
Department of Psycho-Spiritual Institute of Lux Terra Foundation, Marist International University College, Nairobi, Kenya.

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Lawrence Terlumun Awua, Everlyn Oluoch-Suleh, and Elizabeth Ngozi Okpalaenwe “Identifying Covid-19 coping strategies among the parishioners of Our Lady of Guadalupe parish, Adams, Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.01-06 August 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-8/01-06.pdf

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Heart Disease Predictive Model Using Filter-Based Selection Techniques and Tree-Like Classifiers

Awe Oluwayomi, Aiyeniko Olukayode, Adedokun Olufemi Adewale, Funso Bukola Omolara, and Samuel Ruth Medinat- August 2022 Page No.: 07-11

The attribute selection is considered a major phase that eliminates redundant attributes thereby improving the accuracy of the predictive or diagnostic model. Designing a model with unrelated attributes may influence the accuracy or result in more memory space used during diagnosis or prediction. This paper examined the impact of the filter-based attribute selection technique on the heart disease diagnostic model. Three filter-based techniques: Relief-F, Information Gain and Chi-square were applied to the heart disease dataset. Five tree-like learning algorithms: ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser 3), C4.5 Decision Tree, Reptree (RP), Random Forest (RF), Classification and Regression Tree (CART) were applied to classify the reduced attributes. The experimental results in terms of accuracy, precision and recall showed that the relief-f attribute selection outperformed information gain and chi-square with the best predictive accuracy of 93.4983% in IDE, the precision value of 0.93500 in IDE and recall value of 0.93500 in IDE classifier.

Page(s): 07-11                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

 Awe Oluwayomi
Department of Computer Science, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria

 Aiyeniko Olukayode
Department of Computer Science, Lagos State University, Lagos State, Nigeria

 Adedokun Olufemi Adewale
Department of Computer Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

 Funso Bukola Omolara
Department of Computer Science Kogi State Polytechnic, Kogi State, Nigeria

 Samuel Ruth Medinat
Department of Computer Science Kogi State Polytechnic, Kogi State, Nigeria

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Awe Oluwayomi, Aiyeniko Olukayode, Adedokun Olufemi Adewale, Funso Bukola Omolara, and Samuel Ruth Medinat “Heart Disease Predictive Model Using Filter-Based Selection Techniques and Tree-Like Classifiers” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.07-11 August 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-8/07-11.pdf

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A study of free convective heat and mass transmission in the presence of heat source, variable viscosity, chemical reaction, and Soret effects via a porous medium

Hussaini Abdullahi, I.J. Uwanta and E. Omokhuale- August 2022 Page No.: 12-19

This manuscript addresses the impressions of Darcy-Forchheimer flow of hydromagnetic viscous incompressible fluid in a vertical infinite porous channel. The governing equations in dimensionless form is considered to the analysis. Implicit-finite difference scheme is employed to obtain the numerical solutions of the non-linear differential equations governing the flow. Relevance fluid flow quantities are found and portrayed graphically. Also, skin-friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are numerically examined. It is understood that velocity, temperature, and concentration of the fluid change substantially with Forchheimer parameter, variable viscosity parameter, thermal conductivity parameter, and chemical reaction parameter.

Page(s): 12-19                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7801

 Hussaini Abdullahi
Department of Mathematics, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

 I.J. Uwanta
Department of Mathematics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

 E. Omokhuale
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Federal University Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.

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Hussaini Abdullahi, I.J. Uwanta and E. Omokhuale “A study of free convective heat and mass transmission in the presence of heat source, variable viscosity, chemical reaction, and Soret effects via a porous medium” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.12-19 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7801

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Pre-image attack of the MD5 hash function by proportional logic

Aboubakar Nkouankou, Fotso Clarice, Wadoufey Abel, René Ndoundam- August 2022 Page No.: 20-25

Hash functions are important cryptographic primitives that map arbitrary length messages to fixed length message summaries such that: it is easy to compute the digest given a message, while invert the hash process (for example, finding a message that maps a summary of a specific message) is difficult. An attack against a hash function is an algorithm that nevertheless manages to invert the hash process. Hash functions are used in authentication, digital signature, and key exchange systems. The most widely used hash function in many applications is the Message Digest-5 (MD5) algorithm. In this paper we study the current state of the technique of realization of the preimage attack of MD5 using solver SAT, we try improvements in the process of encoding and resolution. An important part of our work is to use the methods of propositional logic to model the attack problem and to determine which heuristic leads to the best resolution. Our most important result is a new encoding of the addition to several operands which considerably reduce the time required for the SAT solvers to find a solution to coding’s previously known.

Page(s): 20-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 August 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7802

 Aboubakar Nkouankou
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
National Institute of Cartography, Cameroon

 Fotso Clarice
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon
National Institute of Cartography, Cameroon

 Wadoufey Abel
National Institute of Cartography, Cameroon
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

 René Ndoundam
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Cameroon

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Aboubakar Nkouankou, Fotso Clarice, Wadoufey Abel, René Ndoundam “Pre-image attack of the MD5 hash function by proportional logic ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.20-25 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7802

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Characterization of Polymer Blend (Polystyrene/High Density Polyethylene) Using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR)

U.V. Agbogo, S.Z. Kazaure, A.I Lawal and O.F. Akinola- August 2022 Page No.: 26-31

World’s population increases by the day, calling for more modern technological needs, polymer blending is the alternative in the realm of material science and engineering because today’s technology necessitates materials with amalgamated properties that are deficient in conventional class of polymers. In this research work, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polystyrene (PS) were blended in various percentage proportions, which are 100% HDPE 0% PS, and 50% HDPE/50% PS. Various characterization research was conducted to determine the properties of both the PB1 and PB2 using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). A water absorption test was also conducted on the prepared blends. The results revealed that the PB2 exhibits better properties than the PB1 due to more strength and water absorption

Page(s): 26-31                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 September 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7803

 U.V. Agbogo
Nigerian Army University, Biu.

 S.Z. Kazaure
Nigerian Army University, Biu.

 A.I Lawal
Kaduna State University, Kaduna.

 O.F. Akinola
Kaduna State University, Kaduna.

[1] Brydson, J. A. (2016). Plastic Materials, 8 th ed.pp. 277–598. ISBN: 9780323358248
[2] Hegberg, B. A., Brenniman., G.R., and Hallenbeck, W.H. (1992). Mixed Plastics Recycling Technology, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J.
[3] Justine, V. and Denis, R. (2015). Properties of recycled PS/SBR blends: Effect of SBR pretreatment
[4] Shannon Culbert, Cathleen Luo, Alison Park, Branden Spitzer, Jennifer Lynch, Elizabeth Chang “Development and characterization plastic composites” 2018 IEEE MMIT Undergraduate Research Technology Conference (URTC),1-4, 2018
[5] Yan shao, Zi-xuan Yang, Bo-wen Deng, Bo Yin, Ming-bo Yang (2018) “turning PVDF/PS/HDPE polymer blends to tri-continuous morphology by grafted copolymers as the compatibilizers” Polymer 140,188-197,2018
[6] Karoly Dobrovszky, Ferenc Ronkay “Effects of phase inversion on modeling shrinkage, mechanical, and burning properties of injection molded PET/HDPE and PS/HDPE polymer blends” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering 56 (11) 1147-1157,2017
[7] Momoh, P. O., Abrash S., El-shall M. S. and Mabrouki R (2006). Polymerization of ionized acetylene clusters into covalent bonded ions: evidence for the formation of benzene radical cation. Journal of the America Chemical Society. 57: 2032–2053.
[8] Chirawithayaboon, A. and Kiatkamjornwong, S. (2004). Compatibilization of high‐impact polystyrene/high‐density polyethylene blends by styrene/ethylene–butylene/styrene block copolymer. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 91: 742–755.
[9] J. Dudowicz Feed (2005). Phase Behavior of Polymer Blends, EdSpringer, Berlin, pp. 63–126.
[10] Tasnim, K. K., Mohamed, J., Valerie M. and Gerard J. (2002). Compatibilization of PE/PS and PE/PP blends: Effect of processing conditions and formulation
[11] Versna, R., Miroslav S., Nina V. P. and Fortelny I. (2007). Morphology and properties of SEBS block copolymer compatibilized PS/HDPE blends.
[12] D. R. Paul, C. B. Bucknall (2000). “Polymer Blends,” Wiley, New York.
[13] Brydson, J. A. (2016). Plastic Materials, 8th ed., pp. 277–598. ISBN: 9780323358248
[14] Lazarevic, D., Aoustin, E, Buclet, N., et al. (2010). Plastic waste management in the context of a European recycling society: comparing results and uncertainties in a life cycle perspective. 246–259. Resour Conserv Recy; 55: 246–259

U.V. Agbogo, S.Z. Kazaure, A.I Lawal and O.F. Akinola “Characterization of Polymer Blend (Polystyrene/High Density Polyethylene) Using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR)” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.26-31 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7803

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A Multi-Center Study to Measure the Performance of Antimicrobial Stewardship in 14 Hospitals Across Nigeria: Needs Assessment

Danjuma Kamlen ADDA, Obed Tiwah JOHN, Dr. Elkanah O. SAMBO, Dr. Abiodun EGWUENU, Dr. Ridwan YAHAYA, Dr. Josephine GATUA, Dr. Chinwe OCHU, Dr. Tochi OKWOR, Stella Inweregbu, Mohammed UMARU, Oscar Facknwie KAHWIR, Rijimra ANDE- August 2022 Page No.: 32-36

Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global health problem that is increasing worldwide. About 700,000 people die each year from antimicrobial resistant infections. This coupled with the high burden of infectious disease, a high population density, and weak health systems makes Nigeria a priority country for interventions targeted at reducing the occurrence of resistant infections and ultimately lowering the disease burden. One way to achieve this is by instituting Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) in our health facilities which aim at improving patient health outcome. The extent to which this has been achieved in Nigeria is unknown and this paper seeks to explore this. We conducted a cross sectional study on 14 hospitals selected from six states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in Nigeria. The study utilises a questionnaire designed and scripted into Open Data Kit (ODK) to assess the needs of an ASP in a hospital setting. We found that only a few hospitals have AMS structures in place 11(78.6%). In addition, patients are not engaged in AMS activities across hospitals which is a requirement for ASPs to be successful. Overall, the study has identified gaps in the AMS program which can be leveraged to improve AMS within hospital settings. Moreover, the results underscores the urgent need to establish and strengthen AMS programs in Nigeria to help reduce the disease burden and improve health outcomes of the population.

Page(s): 32-36                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 September 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7804

 Danjuma Kamlen ADDA
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba

 Obed Tiwah JOHN
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba

 Dr. Elkanah O. SAMBO
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba
Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria

 Dr. Abiodun EGWUENU
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

 Dr. Ridwan YAHAYA
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

 Dr. Josephine GATUA
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

 Dr. Chinwe OCHU
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

 Dr. Tochi OKWOR
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

 Stella Inweregbu
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

 Mohammed UMARU
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba

 Oscar Facknwie KAHWIR
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba

 Rijimra ANDE
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba

[1] Abubakar, U. Antibiotic use among hospitalized patients in northern Nigeria: a multicenter point prevalence survey. BMC Infect Dis. 2020; 20: 86 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-4815-4
[2] Adda, K.D., John OT, Toge, B. Ochu, C. et al. (2022). “Implementing Antimicrobial Stewardship Program In Pediatrics Across Six Hospitals In Six States In Nigeria: Needs Assessment” ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS).
[3] Chukwu, E.E., Oladele, D.A., Enwuru, C.A. et al. Antimicrobial resistance awareness and antibiotic prescribing behavior among healthcare workers in Nigeria: a national survey. BMC Infect Dis 21, 22 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05689-x
[4] Chukwuemeka M.U., Natalie S., Benedict N., Debra A.G. 2023. Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship Knowledge and Perception among Medical and Pharmacy Students in Nigeria, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Volume 6, Issue Supplement_2, October 2019, Page S679, https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz360.1703
[5] Fadare JO, Ogunleye O, Iliyasu G, Adeoti A, Schellack N, Engler D, et al. (2019). Status of antimicrobial stewardship programmes in Nigerian tertiary healthcare facilities: findings and implications. J Glob Antimicrob Resist; 17:132–6.
[6] Frost I., Craig J., Joshi J., Faure K., Laxminarayan R. DC Cent Dis Dyn Econ Policy; Washington: 2019. Access Barriers to Antibiotics; p. 26. [Google Scholar]
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[8] Iregbu, K. C., Osuagwu, C. S., Umeokonkwo, C. D., et al. Underutilisation of the Clinical Microbiology laboratory by physicians in Nigeria. Afr J Clin Exper Microbiol. 2020; 21 (1): 53-59. doi.org/10.4314/ajcem.v21i1.7
[9] Jacob P, Anucha A, Natalie S., Wanda C., Amal Al M, Syamhanin A, and Michael PS. Global Antimicrobial Stewardship with a Focus on Low- and Middle-Income Countries, 2020 Jul; 96: 621–629. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.126 Int J Infect Dis.
[10] Kallen MC, Ten Oever J, Prins J M, Kullberg BJ, Schouten J A, Hulscher M E J L. A survey on antimicrobial stewardship prerequisites, objectives and improvement strategies: systematic development and nationwide assessment in Dutch acute care hospitals , Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Volume 73, Issue 12, December 2018, Pages 3496-3504
[11] Manning, M. L., Septimus, E. J., Dodds Ashley, E. S., et al. Antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention—leveraging the synergy: A position paper update. Am J Infect Contr. 2018; 46: 364- 368. Doi.org/10/1016/j-ajic.2018.01.00
[12] NethMap 2017. Consumption of Antimicrobial Agents and Antimicrobial Resistance among Medically Important Bacteria in the Netherlands. http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/2017-0056.pdf.
[13] Nnadozie, N. N., Umeokonkwo, C. D., Maduba, C. C., et al. Antibiotic use among surgical inpatients at a tertiary health facility: a case for a standardized protocol for presumptive antimicrobial therapy in the developing world. Infection Prevention in Practice. 2020; 2 (4): 100078 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infpip.2020.100078
[14] O’Neill, J (2016). Tackling Drug-Resistance Infections Globally: Final Report and Recommendations; 2016. https://amr-review.org/sites/default/fles/16051
[15] Oduyebo, O. O., Olayinka, A. T., Iregbu, K. C., et al. A point prevalence survey of antimicrobial prescribing in four Nigerian tertiary hospitals. Ann Trop Pathol. 2017; 8 (1): 42–46.
[16] Umeokonkwo, C. D., Madubueze, U. C., Onah, C. K., et al. Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Prescription in a Tertiary Hospital in South East Nigeria: A call for improved antibiotic stewardship. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. https://doi.org /10.1016/ j.jgar.2019.01.013
[17] US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programmes, Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/ core-elements/hospital.html
[18] WHO. Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance 2014. http://www.who.int/drugresistance/documents/surveillancereport/en/.

Danjuma Kamlen ADDA, Obed Tiwah JOHN, Dr. Elkanah O. SAMBO, Dr. Abiodun EGWUENU, Dr. Ridwan YAHAYA, Dr. Josephine GATUA, Dr. Chinwe OCHU, Dr. Tochi OKWOR, Stella Inweregbu, Mohammed UMARU, Oscar Facknwie KAHWIR, Rijimra ANDE “A Multi-Center Study to Measure the Performance of Antimicrobial Stewardship in 14 Hospitals Across Nigeria: Needs Assessment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.32-36 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7804

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Implementing Antimicrobial Stewardship Program in Pediatrics Across Six Hospitals in Six States in Nigeria: Needs Assessment

Danjuma Kamlen ADDA, Obed Tiwah JOHN, Prof. Barnabas Toge, Dr. Chinwe OCHU, Dr. Tochi OKWOR, Dr. Abiodun EGWUENU, Dr. Ridwan YAHAYA, Dr. Josephine GATUA, Mohammed UMARU, Rijimra ANDE, Oscar Facknwie KAHWIR- August 2022 Page No.: 37-42

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of microorganisms to withstand treatment with antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial use in children tends to be higher than in adults, especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. In 2017, the percentage of antibiotics prescribed per patient encounter ranged from 26.8% to 71.1 with the highest proportion reported among children under five years of age, underscoring the need for AMS in pediatrics in Nigeria. A review of the literature on AMS in pediatrics across Nigeria show scanty studies. In view of this, the Centre for Initiative and Development (CFID) in collaboration with Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) through a grant from Pfizer conducted needs assessment in six healthcare facilities in six States of Nigeria. This was a hospital based cross sectional study conducted using well-structured questionnaire. The structured tools were administered to key hospital management in pediatrics department and data was analyzed using simple percentages. The study recorded low pediatrics AMS structures across all the six hospitals in six states. Results show that all the six hospitals do not produce antibiogram, Five hospitals 5(83.3%) do not have formal organizational structure for antimicrobial stewardship in pediatrics, most hospitals do not have formulary. Results also show that most hospitals do not have specific clinical guidelines for management of common infectious diseases in pediatrics. This reflects that pediatrics AMS practice is still in its infancy across hospitals in Nigeria. Findings from this study identifies useful drivers that will help to effectively implement pediatrics AMS in Nigeria. This study therefore, calls for urgent need of implementing antimicrobial stewardship in pediatrics across Nigeria which will be instrumental in spurring behavioral change towards rational dispensing and use of antibiotics in pediatrics and ultimately contribute towards reducing the risk of antimicrobial resistance development and spread of resistant bugs, improve pediatrics patient health outcomes and preserve the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in pediatrics age groups.

Page(s): 37-42                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 September 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7805

 Danjuma Kamlen ADDA
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba , Nigeria

 Obed Tiwah JOHN
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba , Nigeria

 Prof. Barnabas Toge
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba , Nigeria
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria

 Dr. Chinwe OCHU
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Nigeria

 Dr. Tochi OKWOR
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Nigeria

 Dr. Abiodun EGWUENU
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Nigeria

 Dr. Ridwan YAHAYA
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Nigeria

 Dr. Josephine GATUA
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Nigeria

 Mohammed UMARU
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Nigeria

 Rijimra ANDE
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba , Nigeria

 Oscar Facknwie KAHWIR
Centre For Initiative and Development (CFID) Taraba , Nigeria

[1] Adda, K.D., John OT, Elkana OS, B. Ochu, C. et al. (2022). “A Multi-Center Study To Measure The Performance Of Antimicrobial Stewardship In 14 Hospitals Across Nigeria: Needs Assessment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS).
[2] African Development Fund. Health systems development project (health iv): The Federal Republic of Nigeria. 2002. Availableat: https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Nigeria_-_Health_Systems_Developement_Proj-Appraisal_Reports.pdf. Accesed 15 Feb 2022.
[3] Asuzu MC. The necessity for a health systems reform in Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine & Primary Health Care. 2004;16:1–3.
[4] Barlam TF , Cosgrove SE , Abbo LM , MacDougall C , Schuetz AN , Septimus EJ , et al. Implementing an antibiotic stewardship program: guidelines by the In- fectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemi- ology of America. Clin Infect Dis 2016;62:e51–77 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.11.30.21267070
[5] Donà, D., Barbieri, E., Daverio, M. et al. Implementation and impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs: a systematic scoping review. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 9, 3 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-019-0659-3
[6] Ebiowei S.F Orubu, Faith O. Robert, Leonard Emuren, Boboye Ifie-Ombe. Antimicrobial stewardship among Nigerian children: A pilot study of the knowledge, attitude, and practices of prescribers at two tertiary healthcare facilities in Bayelsa State, medRxiv 2021. 11.30.21267070;
[7] Emelda E.Chukwu., Philip O.Oshun., Kazeem A.Osuolale., Vivian O.Chuka-Ebene., Abideen Salako., Ifeoma E.Idigbe., David Oladele., Rosemary A.Audu., Folasade T.Ogunsola Antimicrobial stewardship programmes in healthcare facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Needs Assessment. Volume 25, June 2021, Pages 162-170
[8] Fadare JO , Ogunleye O , Iliyasu G , Adeoti A , Schellack N , Engler D , et al. Sta- tus of antimicrobial stewardship programmes in Nigerian tertiary healthcare facilities: findings and implications. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019;17:132–6 .
[9] Gerber JS, Newland JG, Coffin SE, Hall M, Thurm C, Prasad PA, Feudtner C, Zaoutis TE. Variability in Antibiotic Use at Children’s Hospitals. Pediatrics. 2010;126(6):1067–73. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-1275.
[10] Herawati F, Ananta SC, Parwitha IAA, Ressandy SS, Rahmatin NL, Rachma- dini NA, et al. Interview-based cross-sectional needs assessment to advance the implementation of an effective antibiotic stewardship program in Indonesian hospitals. Health Policy OPEN 2020;1:10 0 0 02. doi: 10.1016/j.hpopen.2019.
[11] https://www.who.int/news/item/24-11-2021-who-releases-hiv-drug-resistance-report-2021
[12] https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antimicrobial-resistance
[13] https://www.who.int/news-room/questions-and-answers/item/antimicrobial-resistance
[14] Kombe G, Fleisher L, Kariisa E, Arur A, Sanjana P, Paina L, Dare L, Abubakar A, Baba S, Ubok-Udom E, Unom S. Nigeria Health System Assessment 2008, Maryland: Abt Associates Inc; 2009.
[15] Nigerian Center for Disease Control (NCDC) Country-led midterm joint exter- nal evaluation of IHR core capacities. NCDC; 2019. https://ncdc.gov.ng/themes/ common/docs/protocols/119 _ 1581414518.pdf [accessed 5 April 2021] .
[16] Omole VN, Ibrahim ZA, Gobir AA, Ibrahim MJ, Haliru L, Jimoh AA. An assessment of antibiotic use practices among caregivers of under-5 children in Kaduna Metropolis, Northwest Nigeria. Calabar J Health Sci 2022;6:44-50.
[17] US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Core Elements of Hos- pital Antibiotic Stewardship Programmes, Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/ core-elements/hospital.html [accessed 15 February 2022].
[18] Van der Meer JW, Gyssens IC. Quality of antimicrobial drug prescription in hospital. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001;7(Suppl 6):12–5. 11990686.
[19] World Health Organization (WHO) Joint external evaluation of IHR core capacities of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, mission report: June 11–20, 2017, Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO

Danjuma Kamlen ADDA, Obed Tiwah JOHN, Prof. Barnabas Toge, Dr. Chinwe OCHU, Dr. Tochi OKWOR, Dr. Abiodun EGWUENU, Dr. Ridwan YAHAYA, Dr. Josephine GATUA, Mohammed UMARU, Rijimra ANDE, Oscar Facknwie KAHWIR “Implementing Antimicrobial Stewardship Program in Pediatrics Across Six Hospitals in Six States in Nigeria: Needs Assessment” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.37-42 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7805

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Design and Analysis of an Automatic Power Changeover with Backup

Patrick Effraim, Mr. Napoleon Addison, Mr. Abayemah Alphonus Bayor- August 2022 Page No.: 42-49

The stability of the power supply in Ghana and another part of Africa is a major concern to the community and shop owners. The need for alternative power supply support and switching of load between two power sources. The system will eliminate the need for manual intervention by sensing the main gridline supply and switching to a backup source. Automation charger over to the backup source will eliminate the delay and provide efficiency in production. The system will automatically switch back when main gridline power is restored back. the system uses a microcontroller as the main automatic changing over the process and other component consists of a power supply circuit consisting of a step-down transformer, rectifier, filter capacitor, voltage regulator, and sg3525 which perform the oscillation convention from DC to AC Renewable energy sources generating direct current will require inverters to produce the alternating current necessary for domestic and industrial use The design, construction, testing of this circuit, is satisfactorily in switching from mains supply to generator/renewable energy source(s) and vice versa

Page(s): 42-49                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 September 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7806

 Patrick Effraim
Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department Accra Institute Of Technology Accra, Ghana

 Mr. Napoleon Addison
Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department Accra Institute Of Technology Accra, Ghana

 Mr. Abayemah Alphonus Bayor
Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department Accra Institute Of Technology Accra, Ghana

[1] Amuzuvi, C. K. and Addo, E. (2015), “A Microcontroller-Based Automatic Transfer Switching System for a Standby Electric Generator”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 85 – 92. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/122096
[2] Jerry C. Whitaker (ND). Electronic Handbook. (Cyclic Redundancy checks, CRC Press/Institute of Electronics Engineering, IEEE Press) page 1030 – 1031.
[3] Jonathan Gana Kolo (2007). Design and Construction of an Automatic Power Changeover Switch. AUJ. T. II (2): 113 – 118 (October 2007).
[4] M. A. Mazidi and J. G. Mazidi (2000). The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded System: Prentice Hall Inc.
[5] Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill (ND). The art of electronics, Cambridge university press, second edition.
[6] Ogbugo Arinze, (Jan. 2009). “Changeover with Automatic Transfer Switch”, Academic Research International Journal vol 1. No. 3
[7] Theraja B.L. and Theraja A.K. (2000). Electrical technology. S. Chand and Company Limited
[8] David E. Johnson, John L. Hillburn, Johnny R. Johnson, Peter D. Scott (ND). Basic electronics circuit analysis. John Wiley and son sons, Inc. Fifth edition.
[9] Mano, M. Morris and Kime, Charles R., (2004) “Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 3rd Edition’’, Pearson Prentice-Hall.
[10] Hyde, Daniel C., (1997) “CSCI 320 Computer Architecture Handbook on Verilog Hdl”.
[11] Brown, Stephen and Vranesic, Zvonko, “Fundamentals of Digital Logic with Verilog Design”, McGraw-Hill.
[12] Ciletti, Michael D., (2003) “Advanced Digital Design with Verilog Hdl”, Prentice Hall.
[13] Thompson, (2012) “Introduction to FPGA Technology: Top 5 Benefits”, National Instruments, USA.
[14] A. H. G. Al-Dhaher, (2004) “Manual Changeover Switch Box” Int. J. Engng Ed. Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 52±60
[15] Ezema L.S, Peter B.U, Harris O.O, “Design of Automatic Change-over Switch with Generator Control Mechanism”, Part-1: Natural and Applied Sciences, ISSN-L: 2223-9553, ISSN: 2223-9944, Vol. 3, No. 3, November 2012.
[16] Christian C Mbaocha and Kalu Constance, (2015)” Field Programmable Gate Array Power Changeover System” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 4, Issue 08, August-2015

Patrick Effraim, Mr. Napoleon Addison, Mr. Abayemah Alphonus Bayor “Design and Analysis of an Automatic Power Changeover with Backup” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.42-49 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7806

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Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Ground Water Quality in and around Oil Refinery near by Nagpur City in India

Dr. D.G. Battalwar and Hitendra Dhargave- August 2022 Page No.: 50-59

This paper is intended to be a study concerning ground water quality at Refinery in Nagpur city, Maharashtra. Regional and seasonal variation of some physico-chemical parameters such as nutrients salts, total phosphorus , in addition , temperature, pH, conductivity , dissolved oxygen ,chemical oxygen (COD), Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS) were determined for the estimation of pollution load during January to December 2011.The sampling points were selected on the basis of their importance .A monitoring network was set at representative site in the whole studied area and water samples were taken regular basis for laboratory analysis . Important variations have occurred in the investigated area as a result of oil refinery works and discharge of waste water. All the calculated ground water quality parameters in studied lakes showed fair water quality rating in autumn season which then change to medium in winter seasons and higher during rainy seasons. The situation is alarming and degradation is in continues process, therefore immediate action is required for its better management

Page(s): 50-59                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 September 2022

 Dr. D.G. Battalwar
Department HOD, GYAN ENVIRO, Nagpur, India

 Hitendra Dhargave
Department HOD, GYAN ENVIRO, Nagpur, India

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Dr. D.G. Battalwar and Hitendra Dhargave “Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Ground Water Quality in and around Oil Refinery near by Nagpur City in India” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.50-59 August 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-8/50-59.pdf

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Identifying Objects in Real-Time at the Lowest Framerate

Md. Mamun Hossain, Md. Ashiqur Rahman, Humayra Ahmed- August 2022 Page No.: 60-63

The practice of finding instances of semantic objects of a certain class, including people, cars, and traffic signs, in digital photos and videos is known as object identification or detection. Due to the development of high-resolution cameras and their widespread usage in everyday life, the detection is one of the most difficult and rapidly expanding study fields in computer science, particularly in computer vision. For automatic object recognition, several researchers have experimented with a variety of techniques, including image processing and computer vision. In this research, we employed a deep learning based framework YOLOv3 using Python, Tensorflow, and OpenCV to identify objects in real time. We do a number of tests using the COCO dataset to verify the effectiveness of the suggested strategy. The results of the experiments show that our suggested solution is resource and cost effective since it uses the fewest frames per second.

Page(s): 60-63                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 September 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7809

 Md. Mamun Hossain
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Md. Ashiqur Rahman
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Humayra Ahmed
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

[1] J. Redmon and A. Farhadi, “Yolov3: An incremental improvement,” 2018. [Online]. Available: https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.02767
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Md. Mamun Hossain, Md. Ashiqur Rahman, Humayra Ahmed “Identifying Objects in Real-Time at the Lowest Framerate” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.60-63 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7809

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Comparative Analysis of Anti-Proliferative Effect of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) and Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomatoes) on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Male Albino Rats

Chukwu-Eze U.S., Mairiga J.P., Ijeomah A.U., Enemali, M.O., Ukeagbu, M.C., Maiva E.P., Kasar, S., Iwuozor, C.R- August 2022 Page No.: 64-70

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a debilitating condition that enlarges the prostate and surrounding tissues mostly in men in their 50’s. This inflammatory process can lead to uncontrolled passage of urine, incomplete urine flow, dribbling at the end of urine stream, hematuria and inability to ejaculate. Zingiber officinale (Zo) and Solanum lycopersicum (Sl) are known to have anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effect on the prostate. A completely randomized experimental design was used for this study. A comparative analysis of the two plant extracts were carried out against the standard drug dutasteride (Brand name: Tamsudart) on male albino rats for 30 days. The animals were grouped into six. Analysis of Prostate Specific Antigen, C-reactive protein, Serum electrolytes, and stress markers such as malondialdehyde were assayed, and the prostate weight checked. The positive control group were slightly elevated p<0.05, the standard drug and Zingiber officinale (Zo) extract group had a significant reduction of tumour, while the Solanum lycopersicum (Sl) group was not significant. The cocktail group of 100mg Zo and 100mg Sl were effective in reducing prostate size. The combination of the two plants as a cocktail gave a synergistic effect in reducing prostate size but singly Zo had a better outcome than Sl. This study is tailored towards averting surgical procedures like open prostatectomy and Trans urethral resection of the prostate with attendant complications. The study is therefore of immense health care and economic benefit to especially third world nations where poverty, health care facilities and human resource are grossly inadequate or completely absent as evident in this post-pandemic era

Page(s): 64-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 September 2022

 Chukwu-Eze U.S.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Nigeria

 Mairiga J.P.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Nigeria

 Ijeomah A.U.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Nigeria

 Enemali, M.O.
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Ukeagbu, M.C.
Department of Biology, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Maiva E.P.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Nigeria

 Kasar, S.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Nigeria

 Iwuozor, C.R
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, Nigeria

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Chukwu-Eze U.S., Mairiga J.P., Ijeomah A.U., Enemali, M.O., Ukeagbu, M.C., Maiva E.P., Kasar, S., Iwuozor, C.R “Comparative Analysis of Anti-Proliferative Effect of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) and Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomatoes) on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Male Albino Rats” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.64-70 August 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-8/64-70.pdf

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Profitability and comparative analysis of commercially formulated and self-compounded feeds among small-scale poultry farmers in Ila Local Government Area, Osun state, Nigeria

Okunola Solomon Olufemi*, Olapade Ogunwole Folayimi, and Adesiyan Olusegun Israel- August 2022 Page No.: 71-77

The study undertook a comparison between methods of feed formulation among small-holder farmers because most poultry products in Nigeria come from this segment. Most poultry farmers were females (51.7%) because their male counterparts were into other aspects like arable farming and palm wine tapping in the study area. All (100%) had one form of education. Most respondents kept a relatively large family used as labor supplements. Age was significant at (p<0.10) and Access to facilities expansion was significant at (p<0.05) but they were positively signed while Education was also significant at (p<0.05) and had a negative sign. The cost of operation like the (Average Total Cost (A TC), Average Total Fixed Cost (TFC) and Average Total Variable Cost (TVC)) were higher for the farmer using commercially formulated feeds but the profitability parameters like the Gross Margin (GM) and profit were also higher for an average farmer using commercially formulated feeds. Although the two systems were profitable, using commercially formulated feeds gives more prospects for expansion which is needed in the poultry sub-sector of the Nigerian agriculture.

Page(s): 71-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 September 2022

 Okunola Solomon Olufemi
Department of Agricultural Economics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

 Olapade Ogunwole Folayimi
Department of Agricultural Economics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

 Adesiyan Olusegun Israel
Department of Agricultural Economics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

[1] Adeyemo G.O, Olughobo A.D and Adebiyi O.A (2010). The effect of graded levels of dietary methionine on the hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9(2): 158 – 161.
[2] Adisa B. O. and Akinkunmi J. A., 2012. Assessing Participation of Women in Poultry Production as A Sustainable Livelihood Choice in Oyo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, Available online at www.ijpaes.com 2(2):73-82.
[3] Alders, R.G and Pym R.A.E. (2008). Village poultry: Still important to mil- lions eight thousand years after domestication. Proceedings of the 23rd World’s Poultry Congress, Brisbane, Australia, July 2008. CD-ROM.
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[6] Bishop, R. (2013). The manufacturers’ role in feed quality and safety: A discussion on methods used in feed manufacturing processes to assure feed hygiene and safety. Equine Applied and Clinical Nutrition: Health, Welfare and Performance, pp 381 – 389.
[7] Biwott, K. Kaitho, R. Gachuiri, C. Wahome, R. and Tanner, J. (1998). Effects of levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production and body weights of lactating dairy cows. ILRI conference paper. Available from: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/1584/Biwott%20et%20al%201998- Concentrate%20supplementation-UON.pdf? Sequence=1
[8] Corson, D. Waghorn, G. Ulyatt, M. and Lee, J. (1999). NIRS: Forage analysis and livestock feeding. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association, 61, pp. 127–132.
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[10] Elson, H.A. (1992). Evaluation of economic aspects of housing systems for Layer.Proc.4th world Poult. Cong., 2:503-508.
[11] FAO and WHO (2008). Animal Feed Impact on Food Safety. Report of the FAO/WHO Expert Meeting. October 8-12, 2007, Rome. Available from: http://www.who.int/foodborne_disease/resistance/Report_AnimalFeed_Oct07.pdf .
[12] Makkar H.P.S.(2016). Animal nutrition in a 360-degree view and a framework for future R and D work: towards sustainable livestock production (2016) Anim Prod Sci 56: 1561-1568. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15265.
[13] Muller, C. Botha, J. and van Niekerk, W. (2007). The effect of concentrate supplementation on the milk yield of Jersey cows on a pasture based diet. Elsenburg Joernaal, 4, pp. 10-12.
[14] Ogunfowora O (1994). ‘’Structure, Costs and Rations in Feed Mills.” Paper Present at the Feed Mill Management Training Workshop. April 10-May 2, 2004. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
[15] Okeke E. N., Oloba O. G., and Oyelami B. A., 2018. Rural Dwellers’ Involvement in Livestock Farming in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology. Vol. 3, Issue 3, Pp 2250-2257. Published by IJEAB, https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.6.41 ISSN: 2456-1878 www.ijeab.com
[16] Okunola S.O, (2019): Waste Management and its environmental effects on poultry enterprises in Ogbomoso North and South Local Government Areas of Oyo State. International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences 7(2) https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?id=44583
[17] Okunola S.O. and Olagunju F.I (2019). Energy Use and Agribusiness Activities of Peri- Urban and Rural Farming Households in Selected States of South-Western Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VI, Issue IX, September 2019 | ISSN 2321–2705 .www.rsisinternational.org Page 62
[18] Oluyemi J (1998). Poultry Production in Warm Wet Climate. Ibadan, Nigeria: Macmillan Publishers.
[19] Roy, B. Ranvig, H. Chowdhury, S. Rashid, M. and Chwalibog, A. (2004). Evaluation of compound broiler feeds manufactured in Bangladesh. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 16:11. Available from: http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd16/11/roy16093.htm

Okunola Solomon Olufemi*, Olapade Ogunwole Folayimi, and Adesiyan Olusegun Israel “Profitability and comparative analysis of commercially formulated and self-compounded feeds among small-scale poultry farmers in Ila Local Government Area, Osun state, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.71-77 August 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-8/71-77.pdf

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Machine Learning in Healthcare: Breast Cancer Detection Using Graph Convolutional Network

Sadah Anjum Shanto, Gourab Kanti Paul, Romzan Ali Mohon, Satyajit Sarker, Marjana Sariat Mahir, Syed Sanaul Haque- August 2022 Page No.: 78-86

Machine learning is a vast field of research. The idea is to build a machine learning-based cad system for breast cancer detection using mammogram image data. At first, we use supervised classification techniques in our mammogram image data and then feed the classified data into the GCN model for detection. We investigated that the GCN model can give better accuracy than traditional machine learning models. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers that women suffer the most. But breast cancer can be detected early. The vast amount of research shows that if breast cancer is successfully detected early, the patient life can be 99% saved early. A screening mammogram is the other most useful thing in the detection of breast cancer. According to researchers, with the help of mammograms breast cancer can be detected three years earlier before the start of cancer symptoms. Graph Convolutional Neural Network (GCN) is a new field of convolutional machine learning. Unlike CNN, GCN follows a non-Euclidian approach which can show better results in image classification. We aim to investigate the GCN model into breast cancer mammogram image data, that it can give better accuracy than traditional machine learning models. After evaluating our proposed GCN algorithm to four others, we discovered that GCN achieved the accuracy of 81 percent.

Page(s): 78-86                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 September 2022

 Sadah Anjum Shanto
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Gourab Kanti Paul
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Romzan Ali Mohon
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Satyajit Sarker
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Marjana Sariat Mahir
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Syed Sanaul Haque
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Sadah Anjum Shanto, Gourab Kanti Paul, Romzan Ali Mohon, Satyajit Sarker, Marjana Sariat Mahir, Syed Sanaul Haque “Machine Learning in Healthcare: Breast Cancer Detection Using Graph Convolutional Network” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.78-86 August 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-8/78-86.pdf

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Environmental Risk Assessment of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Soil Among Small Scale Automobile Repair Workshops in Brownfields Urban of Damaturu Lga, Yobe State, Nigeria

Ma’aji. A. M., Yunus, M. M, and Shua’ibu, A.B- August 2022 Page No.: 87-95

In this study, the environmental risk of some selected heavy metals in soil among small-scale automobile repair workshops in brownfields urban of Damaturu LGA, Yobe state, Nigeria was assessed. The specific objectives of the study were to assess the presence of selected heavy metals in the soil; compared the concentration of heavy metals with European council for European communities (EC), World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) standards for soil quality. Soil samples were collected from selected automobile workshops site along Maiduguri, Gujba, Potiskum and Gashua roads respectively at the depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-25cm. A simple random sampling method was adopted for the study. Analysis were carried out using mean, standard deviation and ANOVA. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples (mgkg-1) ranged from 24.49+4.18-58.18+2.60, 3.32+1.12-7.85+0.42, 19.29+2.42-40.09+1.74, 53.54+20.08- 173.74+8.51, 20.95+0.83 – 46.93+2.28 for Pb, As, Se, Fe and Cd respectively. All the values recorded for the selected heavy metals in the samples were within the permissible limit recommended by WHO/FAO except selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd) which were found to be above the permissible limit. The concentration of lead (Pb) was found to be significant (P˂0.05) at depth 5-10cm (36.26b). So also, the concentration of Cd and As in Maiduguri road was found to be significant (P˂0.05) at a depth 20-25cm (32.72b) and 10-15cm (7.13b) respectively while no significant difference was observed in Gashu’a road between the whole soil depth (P˃0.05) recorded respectively. There is a significant differences (P >0.05) in the concentration of Se in both road at some certain soil depth. The concentration of Fe was found to be significant (P˂0.05) at both road except in Potiskum road. The results indicated that soil qualities varied between slightly contaminated to highly polluted status. This showed that the heavy metal contamination of the soils do not call for any alarm; however, it is recommended that, proactive measures must be taken to minimize accumulation of these metals in the soil; health and environmental talks should also be given occasionally to automobile operators to be more safety conscious and embrace environmentally friendly practices that will enhance their performance and work operations

Page(s): 87-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 September 2022

 Ma’aji. A. M
Department of Basic Science, Yobe State College of Agriculture, Science and Technology, Gujba, Nigeria

 Yunus, M. M
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria

 Shua’ibu, A.B
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Mai Idriss Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria

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Ma’aji. A. M., Yunus, M. M, and Shua’ibu, A.B “Environmental Risk Assessment of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Soil Among Small Scale Automobile Repair Workshops in Brownfields Urban of Damaturu Lga, Yobe State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.87-95 August 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-8/87-95.pdf

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Levels of Essential Elements in Selected Persea Americana Varieties as Potential Minerals

Kithure J.G.N., Nyandieka I. J. – August 2022 Page No.: 96-100

Persea americana is a Scientific Name for Avocados. They are a good source of micronutrients like iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and copper because of their high concentration of these vital trace elements. These are essential to the human body because they boost the immune system and carry out processes including respiration, cell synthesis, and transcription. This study aimed at assessing the levels of essential trace elements, which include; zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, and copper in the selected two avocado varieties, (Hass and Fuerte). The metal elements were examined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). In Hass avocados, magnesium concentrations were found to be 0.1197 ±0.0107 mg/g, manganese 0.0077±0.0017 mg/g, iron 0.0368±0.0044 mg/g, zinc 0.0209±0.0029 mg/g), and copper 0.0019±0.0001 mg/g. The magnesium level was 0.1434±0.0069 mg/g, manganese 0.0058±0.0006 mg/g, iron 0.0252±0.0041 mg/g, zinc 0.02102±0.0013 mg/g, and copper level was 0.0017 0.0005 mg/g in the Fuerte avocado variety. According to these findings, the avocado varieties did not have significantly different quantities of critical elements. The avocado fruit varieties studied were able to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) requirements for manganese and copper minerals and half the RDA for zinc and iron. From the study, it was shown that a fresh piece of avocado of mass 200 g can provide more than half the RDA for manganese, zinc, iron, and copper essential elements. We recommend avocado inclusion in the diet as it provides essential trace elements for the human body hence reducing the rise of non-communicable diseases.

Page(s): 96-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 September 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7807

 Kithure J.G.N.
Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. BOX 30197, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya

 Nyandieka I. J.
Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. BOX 30197, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Bergh, B.; Ellstrand, N. Taxonomy of the avocado. Calif. Avocado Soc. Yearb. 1986, 70, 135–145.
[2] Dreher, M. L., & Davenport, A. J. (2013). Hass avocado composition and potential health effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 53(7), 738-750. doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.556759.
[3] Bhuyan, D.J., Alsherbiny, M. A., Perera, S., Low, M., Basu, A., Devi, O. A., …& Papoutsis, K. 2019). The odyssey of bioactive compounds in avocado (persea americana) and their health benefits Antioxidants, 8(10), 426.
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[8] Karing’u, K.N., Isaboke, H.N. and Ndirangu, S.N. (2021), “Transaction costs and participation in avocado export marketing in Murang’a County, Kenya”, Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 221-240.
[9] United State Agence for International Development (2017), Horticultural Validated Report 2016-2017, Government Printer, Nairobi.
[10] Amare, M., Mariara, J., Oostendorp, R. and Pradhan, M. (2019), “The impact of smallholder farmers’ participation in avocado export markets on the labour market, farm yields, sales prices, and incomes in Kenya”, Land Use Policy, Vol. 88, p. 104168.
[11] Food and Nutrition Board. (2011). Institute of Medicine, National Academies.

Kithure J.G.N., Nyandieka I. J. “Levels of Essential Elements in Selected Persea Americana Varieties as Potential Minerals” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.96-100 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7807

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Causes and Implications of Ethical Challenges Increased in Online Teaching and Learning

Ismail Olaniyi MURAINA, Moses Adeolu AGOI, Benjamin Oghomena OMOROJOR, Akeem Ademola ADEDOKUN, & Rasheed Olatunde AJETUNMOBI- August 2022 Page No.: 101-104

The geometrical growth and sudden transformation of technologies as a result of Covid-19 have provided an evolutionary means of learning online with sophisticated and enabling devices with a click. Teaching and learning online, though enabling flexibility and interactivity between the teacher and students, yet requires regulations and policies that coordinate and balance different expectations of learners and teachers. These standards and values called ethics are to be adhered to achieve the desired online goals, while avoidance of them would be mounted to immoral attitudes and behaviours that weaken online activities. The study discusses and identifies ideal ethics expected in online teaching and learning from all online activities stakeholders. It further explains how violating the regulations and policies would weaken the effective and efficient running of training, skills, and lectures online. The interview instrument was used to collect data from the students in form of focus groups, while students were asked open-ended questions using Google form on social media platforms. To ensure validity and reliability of the instruments, researcher colleagues validated the content and structure of the instruments before being subjected to reliability statistics to ensure a high-reliability index. The administration was done within three weeks. The results gotten were collated and analyzed with charts and pictorials for easy interpretation and visualization. The results establish that online participants should always respect and strictly adhere to codes and conducts that will give room for convenient teaching and learning and also encourage a high rate of retention in learners. To sum up, policies and regulations to run smooth teaching and learning online should always be read to involve participants each time to access learning online as a prerequisite to accessibility

Page(s): 101-104                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 September 2022

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7808

 Ismail Olaniyi MURAINA
Department of Computer Science, College of Information and Technology Education, Lagos State University of Education, Lagos Nigeria

 Moses Adeolu AGOI
Department of Computer Science, College of Information and Technology Education, Lagos State University of Education, Lagos Nigeria

 Benjamin Oghomena OMOROJOR
Department of Computer Science, College of Information and Technology Education, Lagos State University of Education, Lagos Nigeria

 Akeem Ademola ADEDOKUN
Department of Computer Science, College of Information and Technology Education, Lagos State University of Education, Lagos Nigeria

 Rasheed Olatunde AJETUNMOBI
Department of Computer Science, College of Information and Technology Education, Lagos State University of Education, Lagos Nigeria

[1] Ahmad, Farooq (2020). The Ethics of Online Education, https://www.Google.com
[2] Amanda (2021). Discussing Ethical Issues in Online Teaching, https://www.Google.com
[3] Monella, (2021). The Good, the Bad, and the Ethical Issues of Online Education, https://www.Google.com
[4] Anderson, B., & Simpson, M. (2007). Ethical issues in online education. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 22(2), 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680510701306673
[5] Pulat, M. & Barutçu-Yıldırım, F. (2021). Online counseling and ethics: A systematic review of empirical research. The Journal of Clinical and Mental Health Counseling, 1(2), 1-12.
[6] Toprak, Elif; Aydın, Sinan; Ozkanal, Berrin & Kaya, Secil (2021). E-Learning and Ethics: Equal Opportunity in Access to Learning Environments. Conference Paper, September 2021
[7] Salhab, Reham; Hashaikeh, Sherine; Najjar, Eman; Wahbeh Dua’a; Affouneh, Saida & Khlaif, Zuheir (2021). A Proposed Ethics Code for Online Learning During Crisis. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET) October, 16(20), 238-254
[8] Ken Masters, David Taylor, Teresa Loda & Anne Herrmann-Werner (2022). AMEE guide to ethical teaching in online medical education: AMEE Guide No. 146, Medical Teacher, DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2022.2057286
[9] Sudan, Satish Kumar (2021). Meaning, Nature and Scope of Ethics, Lecture note prepared for BA students in Philosophy class
[10] Bušíková, Alena & Melicheríková, Zuzana (2013). Ethics in E-Learning. IADIS International Conference e-Learning 2013
[11] Aldosemani, Tahani I. (2020). Towards Ethically Responsive Online Education: Variables and Strategies from Educators’ Perspective. Journal of Education and Learning; Vol. 9, No. 1; 2020
[12] Hakimi, Laura; Eynon, Rebecca & Murphy, Victoria A (2021). The Ethics of UsingDigital Trace Data in Education: A Thematic Review of the Research Landscape. October, Review of Educational Research 91(5), 671 – 717 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543211020116
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[14] Waterhouse, Shirley & Rogers, Rodney (2004: August). The Importance of Policies in E-Learning Instruction
[15] OECD (2020). Strengthening online learning when schools are closed: The role of families and teachers in supporting students during the COVID-19 crisis 24 September 2020. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/strengthening-online-learning-when-schools-are-closed-the-role-of-families-and-teachers-in-supporting-students-during-the-covid-19-crisis-c4ecba6c/

Ismail Olaniyi MURAINA, Moses Adeolu AGOI, Benjamin Oghomena OMOROJOR, Akeem Ademola ADEDOKUN, & Rasheed Olatunde AJETUNMOBI “Causes and Implications of Ethical Challenges Increased in Online Teaching and Learning” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.101-104 August 2022  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.7808

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A Study on Effect of Yeast Factory Industrial Wastewater on Physico – Chemical Properties of Soil near Sandila, India

Dr. Mishu Singh- August 2022 Page No.: 105-108

The uncontrolled disposal of yeast factory wastes is not properly designed in most areas. The most common practice followed is evaporation pools or direct discharge for drying on soil which causes severe harm and damages the soil properties affecting its quality and, subsequently deteriorating the quality of groundwater and surface water of the adjoining areas. India being an agriculture-based country has a great demand for water for irrigation purposes. The use of wastewater for irrigation purposes is quite a common practice in India resulting accumulation of toxic substances on the soil. So far there is a lack of reliable information regarding the long-term effects of YFW application on agricultural land. This study assesses the effects of YFW disposal on underlying soil properties in the wider disposal.

Page(s): 105-108                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2022

 Dr. Mishu Singh
Department of Chemistry, Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Govt. Girls P.G. College, Lucknow, India

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Dr. Mishu Singh “A Study on Effect of Yeast Factory Industrial Wastewater on Physico – Chemical Properties of Soil near Sandila, India” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-8, pp.105-108 August 2022  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-7-issue-8/105-108.pdf

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