Production of Citric Acid from Aspergilus Niger

Nikolas Keith – December 2022 Page No.: 01-04

Citric acid is a commercially important product used in several industrial processes. Solid state fermentation was used in this work to produce citric acid by using a locally isolated Aspergillus niger, from spoilt solidified pap (eko). About 25g of plantain peel was gelatinized and 100m1 of nutrient solution was added. Aspergillus niger spores of about 5×108 was added. The set-up was incubated for 15 days at room temperature. 1ml of the filtrate resulting from the fermentation was taken on 6th day, 8th day and 15th day into a test-tube. Pyridine and acetic anhydride were added and heated in water bath at 32°C for 30 minutes. The absorbance was taken using 420nm as wave length.
The concentration of the citric acid produced by the locally isolated Aspergillus niger on 6th day, 8th day and 15th day of incubation were 4.22g11, 2.29g/1, and 14.77g/1 respectively.
This result, which demonstrate the viability of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt solidified pap (eko) using plantain peel as a substrate can be of interest to possible future industrial applications.

Page(s): 01-04                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 December 2022

 Nikolas Keith
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom

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[5]. 7 David .R, 2005. Phsysical Constants of organic compounds, Florida. Dhandayuthapani.K And Kumar. S, 2008. Production of citric acid from Banana peels By Aspergillus niger, India.
[6]. Ige, T., & Adewale, S. (2022a). Implementation of data mining on a secure cloud computing over a web API using supervised machine learning algorithm. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 13(5), 1–4.
[7]. Ige, T., & Adewale, S. (2022b). AI powered anti-cyber bullying system using machine learning algorithm of multinomial naïve Bayes and optimized linear support vector machine. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 13(5), 5–9.

Nikolas Keith “Production of Citric Acid from Aspergilus Niger ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.01-04 December 2022  URL:

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Soil Resistivity, its Impact on Optimum Depth of Electrodes in Earthing System– Case Study University of Port Harcourt Residential Staff Quarters

Engr. Theophilus E. Edeko, and Dr. Eseosa Omorogiuwa- December 2022 Page No.: 05-12

A well-designed earthing system plays a vital role in any Electrical Facility.
Soil resistivity measurement is an important parameter when designing earthing system. However, it is a known fact that the resistance of an earth electrode which is a component of earthing system is heavily influenced by the resistivity of the soil in which it is driven to. A knowledge of the soil resistivity at the intended site, and how this varies with parameters such as moisture content, temperature and depth, provides a valuable insight into how the desired earth resistance value can be achieved and maintained over the life of the installation with the minimum cost and effort. One of the main objectives of earthing electrical systems is to establish a common reference potential for the power supply system, building structure, plant steelwork, electrical conduits, cable ladders and trays and the instrumentation system. To achieve this objective, a suitable low resistance connection to earth is desirable. In this research paper, soil resistivity was investigated in three different residential staff quarters of University of Port Harcourt Choba, Abuja and Delta Campuses during the wet and dry season of 2022 using the relevant IEEE standards and International best practices for determining Electrical substation and residential buildings earthing system designs. To determine the optimum depth of grounding electrodes that will have the acceptable values of earth resistance and resistivity for earthing system designs, the Wenner four pin method of measuring soil resistivity was employed. The findings of this research paper show the optimum depth the grounding electrodes will get to in order to obtain the best earth resistance and resistivity values that is suitable for substation and residential earthing system designs. The outcome of this study is also useful for purposes of estimating the number of grounding electrodes, ground resistance and potential gradients including step and touch voltages of substation grounding installations around the three locations of study in university of Port Harcourt residential staff quarters.

Page(s): 05-12                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2023

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.71201

 Engr. Theophilus E. Edeko
Institute of Engineering, Technology & Innovation Management (METI), Faculty of Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Dr. Eseosa Omorogiuwa
Institute of Engineering, Technology & Innovation Management (METI), Faculty of Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

[1] Dwarka Prasad, H.C Sharma 2012 soil resistivity and earthing system.
[2] Jinliang He, Rong Zeng, et al (2003) “Seasonal Influences on Safety of Substation Grounding System”,
[3] M.O. Oyeleye and T. D. Makanju (2020) Soil Resistivity Adequacy assessment
[6] Wenner, F.C (1915), “A method of measuring Earth Resistivity”, U.S Bureau of standards, scientific paper 258, pp 469-478
[7] Dawalibi, Barbeito, Measurements and computations of the performance of grounding systems buried in multilayer soils, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery (2002)
[8] A. Gabriel, O. Kehinde, Assessment of soil resistivity on grounding of electrical systems a case study of north east zone, Nigeria, J. Acad. Appl. Stud. (2011) 28–38.
[9] AEMC Instrument (2018) Understanding ground resistance testing. Workbook edition7. pp. 1-39 Accessed online from:
[10] Rainfall Data: Courtesy of https://

Engr. Theophilus E. Edeko, and Dr. Eseosa Omorogiuwa ” Soil Resistivity, its Impact on Optimum Depth of Electrodes in Earthing System– Case Study University of Port Harcourt Residential Staff Quarters” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.05-12 December 2022  DOI:

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Application of Therapeutic Architectural Principles in the Design of Drug Rehabilitation Centre for Nigeria

Abubakar Aliyu, Adamu Mohammed Babayo, Musa Hamza- December 2022 Page No.: 13-19

In order to achieve lifetime abstinence from illicit drugs and psychoactive substances, drug de-addiction and rehabilitation now endeavors to provide emotional support along with medical care, rather than aiming at removal of physical dependences on drugs only. When a drug addict is released from a Detention Camp, he/she is reintegrated back to the society as liability with high temptation to relapse, due to the ineffectiveness of the detention strategy and gross inadequacy of drug treatment and rehabilitation services in Nigeria, as Programs like Detoxification, Psychotherapy and Meditation are absent. The purpose of this study therefore is to explore the principles of therapeutic architecture towards designing a therapeutic environment, with a view to support the new treatment trend for drug addicts and thugs in Bauchi state- Nigeria. The method applied in this study is basically qualitative, using Multiple Case Study approach. Cross Case Analysis was used to analyze the data collected. This study identified 12 principles of Therapeutic Architecture and was able to determine the best mode of application for the design of the Rehabilitation Centre. The findings of this study showcase Architecture in aiding therapy for drug addicts and thugs, by creating a therapeutic environment that addresses the problem of relapse and inadequacy of the treatment facility in the study area, which ensures reintegration of addicts back to the society within the shortest possible time with minimal professional intervention.

Page(s): 13-19                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2023

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.71202

 Abubakar Aliyu
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi-Nigeria

 Adamu Mohammed Babayo
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi-Nigeria

 Musa Hamza
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi-Nigeria

[1] Sulaiman, B. J. (2012 June). Drug abuse as a prerequisite for violence in Nigeria: A case study of north-east zone. Paper presented at International Policy Brief conference, Ibadan Nigeria.
[2] Halliru, T. (2013). Political violence and youth gangs in Bauchi state. Journal of Research in National Development, 11(2).
[3] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), (2018). Drug Use Survey in Nigeria: Response to drugs and related organized crime in Nigeria. European Union, Vienna.Nuruddeen, U. and Usman, S. A. (2018). Barriers Affecting the Adoption of Building Information Modelling in Construction Consultancy Firms in Abuja, Nigeria: International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS) Volume (5) 13-17
[4] Gyong, J.E. & Tanimu, B. (2010). A sociological assessment of national drug law enforcement agency’s (NDLEA) strategies of arrest and detention in Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3):127-132.
[5] Velsen, K.V (2011). Retrieved from ArchDaily: design of rehabilitation-center-groot klimmendaal-koen-van-velsen
[6] Huisman, E., Morales, E., Hoof, J. v., & Kort, H. (2012). Healing environment: A review of the impact of physical environmental factors on users. Building and Environment.
[7] Morgenthaler, H. R. (2015). The Meaning of Modern Architecture: Its Inner Necessity and an Empathetic Reading. London. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
[8] John, B. (2014) Adaptive Healing: Exploring therapeutic architecture and the integration of addiction rehabilitation into the Cape Flats, Mitchells Plain. (Master’s Thesis, University of Cape Town (2014).
[9] John, L. & Tammy, A. (2017). How to do it … Short-term, homelike rehab. Paper presented at Issues of Mcnight’s Long Term Care Conference. Retrieved December 1, 2017 from: How to do it … Short-term, homelike rehab – McKnight’s Long Term Care News
[10] Vaaler, A. E., Morken, G., & Linaker, O. M. (2005). Effects of different interior decorations in the seclusion area of a psychiatric acute ward. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 59, 19-24
[11] Potthoff, J. (1995). Adolescent satisfaction with drug/alcohol treatment facilities: Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 41, 62–73.
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[13] Alameri, S. (2018). Architecture of Drug Addiction Rehabilitation. Abu Dhabi University. UAE: Researchgate Publication.
[14] Nanda, U., Eisen, S., Zadeh, R. S., & Owen, D. (2010). Effect of visual art on patient anxiety and agitation in a mental health facility and implications for the business case. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 185, 386–39
[15] HAMZA, M., ADAMU, M. B., USMAN, A. J., & USMAN, B. W. (2022). Evaluation of Mixed-Mode Strategies in Office Buildings of the Tropical Savanna Climate. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 7(3)

Abubakar Aliyu, Adamu Mohammed Babayo, Musa Hamza ” Application of Therapeutic Architectural Principles in the Design of Drug Rehabilitation Centre for Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.13-19 December 2022  DOI:

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Analysis of Chemical Composition of Three Variants of Potash in North Central Nigeria: Implication on Public Health and Attainment of SDG No. 3

Dr Amos Bulus Cirfat, Dr.Zipporah Pewat Duguryil, Dr. Henry David Katniyon- December 2022 Page No.: 20-23

Despite the relevance and use of potash for cooking various types of food over a long period of time in north central Nigeria, a serious gap exist in the non-analysis north central Nigeria. There has been a worrisome trend of increase in carcinogenic ailments in Nigeria. The research analysed the chemical components of three types of potash variants: red (Jan kanwa), white (Farin Kanwa) and Brown (Tokan Sanyi) potash. The samples were analysed for presence or otherwise of some heavy metals (Lead (Pb) Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni)). Three samples of potash were obtained from Benue, Nassarawa and Plateau states. The metals were analysed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAAS). The results were compared with the World Health Organisation standard. The three samples were subjected to digestion and qualitative and quantitative analysis carried out on them. Ions tested for in the qualitative analysis include: Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, and CO32. Percentage purity of the samples were also calculated. From the analysis the alkali concentration of red, white and brown potash was found to be 0.344, 0.272 and 0.795 moldm3 respectively. Their percentage purity was found to be 38.53, 30.46 and 89.04% respectively. The concentration of lead in the three samples (Red = 0.156, white = 0.076 and Brown 0.058 mg/L) These are higher than the WHO standard of 0.05mg/L. The concentration of Fe for the three samples of potash was (red = 4.192, white = 31.329 and Brown = 2.072). This was found to be well above the WHO standard of 1.0mg/L useful: The concentration of Mn in the three samples were found to be (red=ND, white = 0.118, brown =ND). The Ni was not detected in all the three samples. Based on this result it was recommended among others that since potash has very high percentage impurities, there is need for its purification before consumption.

Page(s): 20-23                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2023

 Dr Amos Bulus Cirfat
Department of Biology, Chemistry and Early Childhood, Federal College of Education, Pankshin, Plateau State, Nigeria.

 Dr.Zipporah Pewat Duguryil
Department of Biology, Chemistry and Early Childhood, Federal College of Education, Pankshin, Plateau State, Nigeria.

 Dr. Henry David Katniyon
Department of Biology, Chemistry and Early Childhood, Federal College of Education, Pankshin, Plateau State, Nigeria.

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Dr Amos Bulus Cirfat, Dr.Zipporah Pewat Duguryil, Dr. Henry David Katniyon ” Analysis of Chemical Composition of Three Variants of Potash in North Central Nigeria: Implication on Public Health and Attainment of SDG No. 3 ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.20-23 December 2022  URL:

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Influence of breeds, physiological status and feed components on Haematological parameters of goats in Bali, Taraba State

Y.E. Waba and S.T Mbap, D.J.U. Kalla and Y.P.Mancha- December 2022 Page No.: 24-31

The study evaluated the influence of breeds, physiological status and diets on haematological parameters of West Africa Dwarf (WAD) and Sahel goats at the Teaching and Research farm of the Federal Polytechnic Bali, Taraba state. A total of twenty-four does and their corresponding progenies of the two breeds were used for this study. Blood samples were collected from each animal to evaluate the haematological parameters, which lasted for 12 calendar months. The animals were fed of components feeds (Gmelina and cassava peel meal, Gmelina and cowpea husk, Ficus and cassava peal meal and, Ficus and cowpea husk) as treatments (T1-T4 respectively).The parameters considered were, , Haemoglobin (HGB), Pack cell volume (PCV), Red blood cell (RBC), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular (MCH), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), White blood cell (WBC), Lymphocytes (LYM), Neutrophils (NEUT), Eosinophils (EOSIN), Monocytes (MONO) and -Basophils (BASO). The Data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), using (Statistix, version 8.0, 2009) statistical package. The overall results of haematological parameters by breed, physiological status and diet were 8.699, 34.525, 9.632, 28.654, 5.971, 33.655, 9.282, 4.575, 3.042, 0.728, 0.467 and, 0.436, for HGB (g/dl), PCV (%),RCB (×106), MCV (Fl), MCH (pg), MCHC (%),WBC (×106), LYM(%), NEUT(%), EOSIN (%),MONO (%) and BASO(%)respectively. Base on the present findings therefore, it is concluded that, haematological parameters are useful measures of physiological statuses are quite variable. The study has provided useful body of information/knowledge on the reproductive biology of the two goat breeds of the study area, which hitherto was not available. These indices should therefore be used with caution for any rigorous interpretation.

Page(s): 24-31                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 January 2023

 Y.E. Waba
Department of Animal Health and Production, Federal Polytechnic Bali Taraba State, Nigeria

 S.T Mbap
Department of Animal Health and Production, Federal Polytechnic Bali Taraba State, Nigeria

 D.J.U. Kalla
Department of Animal Production, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, University Bauchi, Nigeria

Department of Animal Production, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, University Bauchi, Nigeria

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Y.E. Waba and S.T Mbap, D.J.U. Kalla and Y.P.Mancha ” Influence of breeds, physiological status and feed components on Haematological parameters of goats in Bali, Taraba State” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.24-31 December 2022  URL:

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Work-Family Conflict, Emotional Stress, and Mindful Parenting Based on Parents’ Occupational Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study in Indonesia

Liza Wahyuni, Syarifah Rauzatul Jannah, Marthoenis- December 2022 Page No.: 32-35

Background: Work-family is prevalent among working parents. The conflict is associated with various factors including the parental mental health, and stress levels, all of which influence children’s caring and parenting behavior. This study explores the work-family conflict, emotional distress (anxiety and depression symptoms, and parenting stress) of working parents with children.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 224 working parents with children and adolescents aged 1 to 19 years old. Data were collected at Children Education Institutions during August 2022 by filling out sociodemographic forms for parents and children, including age, education, length of the marriage, job characteristics, gender, number and age of children, measurement of work-family conflict, anxiety/depression symptoms, parenting stress, and mindful parenting.
Results: The study found that the majority of parents who had been married for an average of 6.85 years had an average number of children of 2.53 with pre-school and school age (32.2%), fathers had an average age of 38 years with tertiary education (32.1%), working hours of an average of 40.14 hours per week, type of full employment (21%), permanent job schedule (24%), and earn 3 million per month (37.5%), while mothers had an average age of 33 years with tertiary education (43.8%), working hours of an average of 38.38 hours per week, type of part-time job (20.1%), shift work schedule (24.1%) and earn < 3 million per month (37.1%).
Conclusion: Parents’ occupational characteristics contributed to work-family conflict and emotional pressure, namely anxiety, depression, and parenting stress, which impact the practice of caring and parenting to their children.

Page(s): 32-35                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 January 2023

 Liza Wahyuni
Master Program of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia

 Syarifah Rauzatul Jannah
Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia

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Liza Wahyuni, Syarifah Rauzatul Jannah, Marthoenis ” Work-Family Conflict, Emotional Stress, and Mindful Parenting Based on Parents’ Occupational Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study in Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.32-35 December 2022  URL:

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Implications of Primary School Teacher’s Levels of Awareness About Social Media Based Instructional Platforms for Extended Learning

Fakuade Olubusayo Victor (Ph.D), Olaniyan Ademola Olatide (Ph.D), Prof. Ayotola Aremu – December 2022 Page No.: 36-43

This study investigated primary school teachers’ levels of awareness about social media based instructional platforms for extended learning. The research design used in this study was a descriptive survey and to achieve this objective, two research questions was formulated to guide the study. A standard questionnaire was used as the main data collection tool. Seventy-six (76) Primary school teachers randomly selected from five public primary schools in Ado Local Government of Ekiti-State, Nigeria. The data collected from respondents were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and descriptive analysis. The finding revealed that many of the respondents are aware of various social media platforms used in teaching, there existed a significant relationship between primary school teachers’ awareness based on the existence of social media platforms and usage of social media platforms for extended learning (r= 0.0219: p<0.05). It was also indicated that Primary school teachers’ level of awareness about social media instructional platform was below average. Teachers are therefore implored to familiarize themselves with these social media platforms and not restrict themselves to the platforms that were for social engagement but rather get used to social platforms specifically designed for learning.

Page(s): 36-43                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 January 2023

 Fakuade Olubusayo Victor (Ph.D)
Learning Expert, Department of Distance, Open and eLearning, Kampala International University, Uganda

 Olaniyan Ademola Olatide (Ph.D)
Senior Lecturer, School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Kampala International University

 Prof. Ayotola Aremu
Professor of Educational Technology, Department of Science and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan.

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Fakuade Olubusayo Victor (Ph.D), Olaniyan Ademola Olatide (Ph.D), Prof. Ayotola Aremu “Implications of Primary School Teacher’s Levels of Awareness About Social Media Based Instructional Platforms for Extended Learning ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.36-43 December 2022  URL:

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Impact of Slash and Burn Agricultural Practice on Selected Towns of Owerri West Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria

Dr. R.F. Njoku, Dr. C.C. Ejiogu, and Duru, C.C.- December 2022 Page No.: 44-52

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of slash and burn farming practices on cultivated soils in a few communities in the Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted. Farmerland were selected at random from Owerri West Local Government Area. Soil sample were collected at a depth of 0-15cm from six different point before and after slash and burn using soil auger, bagged and labelled for laboratory analysis. The soil samples were then analyses: bulk density (BD), moisture content, total porosity, particles distribution, pH, exchangeable magnesium and calcium, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, exchangeable bases and acidity, effective cation exchange capacity and percentage base saturation. pH, Organic Carbon (OC), Organic Matter (OM), and Nitrogen contents in soil of the various research locations ranged from 3.38-6.66 (4.030.25), 1.18-6.66 (2.530.28), 2.04-6.16 (4.050.27), and 0.11-0.38 (0.250.02) percent, respectively. Available Phosphorus (Av.P) varied from 3.55-7.28 (5.550.36) mg/g, Ca ions varied from 0.05-2.64 (0.480.17) mg/g, and Mg ion concentrations varied from 0.15-0.63 (0.280.04) Cmol/kg. Base Saturation (BS) varied from 10.18-94.33 (30.717.21) percent. Acidity and Al ions, as well as K and Na ions, ranged from 0.06-0.77 (0.130.04), 0.53-0.88 (0.660.03), 0.40-4.83 (3.520.29), and 0.00-2.62 (1.700.20) Cmol/kg. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was 2.57-11.00 (8.000.55) Cmol/kg, while Mn ions were 1.10-19.20 (5.391.25) mg/g. Fe ions ranged from 70.60 to 233.00 mg/g (113.598.02), Cu ions from 0.50 to 1.10 mg/g (0.750.04), and Zn ions from 3.33-6.70 mg/g (5.750.17). Chemical parameter concentrations differed between the burned and unburned sampling areas. The mean (SE) concentrations of pH, KCl, OC, OM, and Available P at the burnt areas were 4.0 (0.34), 3.21 (0.17), 2.95 (0.48), 4.42 (0.22), and 5.82 (0.58) mg/g, respectively.. At the burnt areas, mean concentrations of BS, Fe, Zn, CEC, and Mn ions were 31.53 (11.40) percent, 109.12 (7.52) mg/g, 5.41 (0.27) mg/g, 8.58 (0.73) Cmol/kg, and 5.11 (1.80) mg/g, respectively, and 29.89 (9.54) percent, 118.06 (14.56) mg/g, 6.10 (0.14) mg/g, 7.41 ( Cu, Acidity, and Al ion concentrations were 0.800 (0.06) mg/g, 3.91 (0.43) Cmol/kg, and 1.75 (0.32) Cmol/kg, respectively, in burnt locations. Only the mean Zn concentration differed substantially (Sig. Fvalue=0.036) between the burnt and unburnt areas at the p0.05 level using ANOVA. There were also correlation coefficients between the chemical parameters of burned and non-burned soils. Soil sample from Obinze and Ihiagwa after slash burn was slightly acidic whereas that of Eziobodo was within a preferable range for plants. Soil samples from Obinze and Ihiagwa has a low percentage of organic matter and nitrogen and could be conducive for some acid-sensitive crops. However, future research work should investigate the Effects of soil temperature on some soil properties and plant growth.

Page(s): 44-52                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 January 2023

 Dr. R.F. Njoku
Department of Environmental Management Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B, Owerri Nigeria.

 Dr. C.C. Ejiogu
Department of Environmental Management Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B, Owerri Nigeria.

 Duru, C.C.
Department of Environmental Management Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, P.M.B, Owerri Nigeria.

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Dr. R.F. Njoku, Dr. C.C. Ejiogu, and Duru, C.C. ” Impact of Slash and Burn Agricultural Practice on Selected Towns of Owerri West Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.44-52 December 2022  URL:

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Growth response of Rhizophora racemosa G. Meyer seedling in artisanal refining impacted mangrove vegetation, following the application of N.P.K 15:15:15 inorganic fertilizer

M. Yabrade, F.B.G. Tanee, G. C. Obute- December 2022 Page No.: 53-58

The growth response of Rhizophora racemosa seedlings was monitored in a designated artisanal refining-impacted mangrove vegetation in Delta State, Nigeria; following the application of different quantities of N.P.K 15:15:15 inorganic fertilizer. An area of 12.5 m x 6.25 m, was mapped out, demarcated into four treatment Plots-A1 (1000g N.P.K), A2 (1500g N.P.K), A3 (Natural attenuation) and A4 (2000g N.P.K), with a double control (non-polluted) Plot-B, sited 6km away. After treatment, the plots were left fallow for 30 days, after which propagules of Rhizophora racemosa were planted. Vegetative parameters such as leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, plant height, plant girth, leaf length/leaf width ratio, leaf area, plant dry weight, shoot dry weight and root dry weight were observed after 25, 50, 75 and 100 days of planting. Results showed that, the double control Plot-B, recorded the best performance in plant growth parameters among all the treatment options and was significant at P < 0.05. In the remediated plots, Plot- A4, recording the overall best performance and Plot-A2 recording the worst performance. The result indicates that, the application of appropriate quantities of N.P.K 15:15:15 inorganic fertilizer in artisanal refining-polluted mangrove vegetation, is capable of enhancing the growth performance of Rhizophora racemosa seedlings, hence N.P.K 15:15:15 inorganic fertilizer, can be used as remediation material in large scale mangrove remediation projects in the Niger.

Page(s): 53-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 January 2023

 M. Yabrade
Department of Marine Environment and Pollution Control, Faculty of Marine Environmental Management, Nigeria Maritime University Okerenkoko, Delta State, Nigeria

  F.B.G. Tanee
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  G. C. Obute
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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M. Yabrade, F.B.G. Tanee, G. C. Obute ” Growth response of Rhizophora racemosa G. Meyer seedling in artisanal refining impacted mangrove vegetation, following the application of N.P.K 15:15:15 inorganic fertilizer” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.53-58 December 2022  URL:

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Variation Characteristic of Ultraviolet Light and Air Temperature at A Tropical Location in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Usman, A; Sunday, J.A and Olaore, K.O – December 2022 Page No.: 59-61

In this study, characteristic variation of ultraviolent light and air temperature were observed, this research work critically analyses some specific days with field data at an experimental site near the Physics/Electronics Unit Laboratory Ilorin, Nigeria between ultraviolet light and air temperature. For the field observations, an instrumented Meteorological Weather Smart System was set up at an experimental site near the Physics/Electronics Unit Laboratory Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin for a period of two weeks (18th March-1st April, 2019). The ultraviolet light and air temperature measurement from the Weather Smart System were recorded every 10 seconds and averaged over 2 minutes interval. The sampled data was then stored in the datalogger storage module. After the removal of spurious measurement values, the data stored was further reduced to hourly averages using the Microcal Origin (version 7.0) data analysis software. The results showed that the measured ultraviolent light, UV during the daytime increases until 1200 hrs with maximum value of about 450 Wm-2 and minimum value of about 9 Wm-2 at 800 hrs (DOY 85). The measured air temperature, Ta value of 32.6 0C observed at 1200 hrs (DOY 85), represented the maximum value for the entire period of the study. The value of 193 Wm-2 was observed at1100 hrs (DOY 81), represented the minimum value for the entire period of the study due to the cloudy condition of the sky which reduces the amount of incoming solar radiation reaching the earth surface.

Page(s): 59-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 January 2023

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.71203

 Usman, A
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physics/ Electronics Unit), Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria

 Sunday, J.A
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physics/ Electronics Unit), Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria

 Olaore, K.O
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physics/ Electronics Unit), Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin, Nigeria

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Usman, A; Sunday, J.A and Olaore, K.O “Variation Characteristic of Ultraviolet Light and Air Temperature at A Tropical Location in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.59-61 December 2022  DOI:

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Isolation and Characterization of some Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Soil Contaminated with Auto Mechanic Used Oil

M. D. Makut, R A. Ogiri, I.K. Ekeleme, J. E. Owuna, J. Eke and S. O. Obiekezie – December 2022 Page No.: 62-67

The disposal of used hydrocarbon can be more environmentally damaging than crude oil pollution itself. This study focused on the isolation and characterization of some hydrocarbon degrading bacteria isolated from soil contaminated with auto mechanic used oil in Keffi. The bacteria were isolated using standard microbiological technique and identified using Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The highest total bacteria count was recorded from worrkshop 4 (3.02 ±0.08) and the least was from shop 2 (1.61 ± 0.01). The different bacteria species identified were Bacillus thuringiensis, Proteus terrae, Pseudomonas synxantha, Flavobacterium columnare and Acinetobacter beijerinckii. The total viable count of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria was Pseudomonas synxantha with (1.88 ± 0.03 cfu/g ). The effect of temperature on utilization of used hydrocarbon from mechanic workshops showed that highest utilization was observed at temperature of 32℃ were Pseudomonas synxantha utilized 14.01±2.01mg/ml. At temperature of 34℃, the highest utilization was also by Pseudomonas synxantha with 9.38±0.28mg/ml and the lowest was by Proteus terrae 3.00±0.14mg/ml. At 38℃ the highest utilization was observed by Bacillus thuringiensis 3.95±0.01mg/ml and the lowest was Pseudomonas synxantha 2.11±0.08mg/ml. the utilization of used hydrocarbon after one month showed that highest utilization was obtained after 3 weeks by Bacillus thuringiensis 9.60±0.18mg/ml and the lowest utilization were recorded by Proteus terrae 4.20±1.01mg/ml. From this study it was observed that different bacteria can utilize used hydrocarbon that contaminate soil.

Page(s): 62-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 January 2023

 M. D. Makut
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

 R A. Ogiri
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

 I.K. Ekeleme
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

 J. E. Owuna
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

 J. Eke
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

 S. O. Obiekezie
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Nasarawa State University, P.M.B 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

[1] Akoachere, J. T. K., Akenji T. N., Yongabi F. N., Nkwelang, G and Ndip, R. N (2008) Lubricating Soil-degrading bacteria in soils from filling stations and auto- mechanic workshops in Buea, Cameroon: occurrence and characteristics of isolates. African Journal of Biotechnology 7 (11), 1700-1706
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[17] Muhammad, R.G., Machido, D.A, Ado, S.A., Atta.H.I, Bello I.A (2019).A Comparism of the Effect of Some Organic Wastes on the Rate of Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Spent Engine Oil Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometer. Journal of Agriculture & Agricultural Technology; 19 (1) 36-56
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M. D. Makut, R A. Ogiri, I.K. Ekeleme, J. E. Owuna, J. Eke and S. O. Obiekezie “Isolation and Characterization of some Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Soil Contaminated with Auto Mechanic Used Oil ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.62-67 December 2022  URL:

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Proximate Analysis and Elemental Composition of Some Spiced and Unspiced Food Products Around Bwari Area Council Abuja, FCT

Jibrin Noah Akoji, Abdullahi Lami Karimatu, Onawo Mohammed Amina – December 2022 Page No.: 68-76

This study was carried out to investigate the Proximate Analysis and Elemental Composition of some Spiced(Spiced millet powder, Spiced dried okra, Spiced Swallow made from unripe plantain and wheat powder, Spiced bean powder) and Unspiced(Millet powder, dried okra, Bean powder and Swallow made from unripe plantain and wheat powder) Food Products from Bwari Area Council Abuja Using AOAC standard methods for the determination of Moisture content, Ash content; crude protein, Crude fibre, Carbohydrate e.t.c. Mineral composition and some trace element were also determined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometric method and Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP AES). The average value of the moisture content, the protein content, the fat content, the ash content, the crude fibre, and carbohydrate of all the analysed spiced samples ranged as follows; (7.50-12.00%), (2.19-14.70%), (0.13 -4.36 %), (0.49 – 16.16%), (3.36- 6.64%), (69.92 % – 87.72 %) respectively. Also, the average elemental composition of the samples are in the range of; Fe(11.62 – 27.99 mg/kg), Mg(26.29 – 82.18 mg/kg), Zn(4.20 – 20.45 mg/kg), Ca(45.97-103.23 mg/kg), Mn(1.729 – 18.734) respectively. The moisture contents of the samples were found to be low thus making them to have a longer shelf life and less open to degeneration and spoilage by the action of mold and other microorganism which flourish well at higher moisture contents. The protein and carbohydrate contents were relatively high compared to other food samples. The mineral and trace metals composition were within the acceptable standards required by the body. This food samples have enough nutritional value to contribute to our health and solve the problem of malnutrition in Nigeria.

Page(s): 68-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 January 2023

DOI : 10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.71204

 Jibrin Noah Akoji
Department of Chemistry, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria

 Abdullahi Lami Karimatu
Department of Chemistry, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria

 Onawo Mohammed Amina
Unique shis Green Products Ltd, Abuja Nigeria

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Jibrin Noah Akoji, Abdullahi Lami Karimatu, Onawo Mohammed Amina “Proximate Analysis and Elemental Composition of Some Spiced and Unspiced Food Products Around Bwari Area Council Abuja, FCT ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-7-issue-12, pp.68-76 December 2022  DOI:

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