Detecting Malaria Susceptibility in Patients Using Fingerprint Pattern

Mairiga, J.P., Habibu, Tanimu, Okon, E., Chukwu-Eze U.S. – January 2023 Page No.: 01-09

In most malarious regions of the world, detection of the malaria parasite caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a primary concern due to inadequate or non-existence of appropriate health facilities. This study aimed to detect malaria susceptibility in patients using fingerprint patterns. Giemsa’s staining and live scan techniques were used for sample collection. A total of 165 individuals confirmed with different degrees of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were enrolled. The most extensive fingerprint pattern was the loops (51.36%), followed by the whorls (32.12%) and arches (16.36%). The level of parasitaemia was 140 (84.85%) one plus “+”, 20 (12.12%) two pluses“++” and 5(3.03%) three pluses “+++”. The age groups were 27.88% (18-22 years), 30.91% (23-27 years), 14.51% (28-32 years), 14.51% (33-37 years), 7.27% (38-42 years) and 4.81% (43-47 years) respectively. Our findings revealed a high degree of parasitaemia in patients with loop fingerprint pattern, both in gender and across age groups. Though the distribution of the fingerprint pattern against malaria susceptibility (X2 = 0.850, p> 0.932), gender (X2= 5.695, p> 0.058) and age group (X2 = 13.53, p> 0.195) were not significant, individuals with loop fingerprint pattern were more prone to malaria susceptibility. A paired sample t-test analysis of fingerprint patterns revealed significant differences in the age group of patients (p<0.002), malaria parasitaemia (p<.001) and gender (p<.001). This study however lays a foundation for further studies on the use of fingerprints in detecting susceptibility to infectious clinical diseases.

Page(s): 01-09                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 January 2023

 Mairiga, J.P.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. P.M.B. 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State Nigeria

 Habibu, Tanimu
Department of Biochemistry, School of Sciences, Jain, (Deemed to be University), Bangalore – 560 011, India

 Okon, E.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. P.M.B. 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State Nigeria

 Chukwu-Eze U.S.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. P.M.B. 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State Nigeria

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Mairiga, J.P., Habibu, Tanimu, Okon, E., Chukwu-Eze U.S. “Detecting Malaria Susceptibility in Patients Using Fingerprint Pattern ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.01-09 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/01-09.pdf

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Framework for Telecommunications Infrastructure Sharing

Frankline Makokha- January 2023 Page No.: 10-14

Telecommunication Infrastructure sharing is no longer an optional course of action to be adopted by service providers and industry regulators, for it has evolved into a public policy issue. This is due to the impact it has on the telecommunication sector ecosystem and the environment. Two broad categories of Telecommunication Infrastructure sharing, active and passive sharing, are implemented by various types of sharing, namely, equipment and resource sharing, collocation, leasing, hosting and national roaming. Successive implementation of these sharing types is anchored on key Telecommunication Infrastructure sharing principles, namely, Mutual Negotiation, Non-Discriminatory Offers, Technical Feasibility, Cost Effectiveness and Environmental Considerations. Development of a robust policy on sharing of Telecommunication Infrastructure therefore requires adherence to a framework that takes into consideration all concepts and fundamental principles of Telecommunication Infrastructure sharing. All these are dependent on the Network Infrastructure Open Access theory whose building blocks are open access regulation and open access network model

Page(s): 10-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 January 2023

 Frankline Makokha
University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Frankline Makokha “Framework for Telecommunications Infrastructure Sharing” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.10-14 January 2023  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2022.71101

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Evaluation of Selected Organic Acids in some common Fruits Cucumber, Water Melon, Soursop in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Adekunle Adebo Ajayi, Ibukun Caroline Vining-Ogu, Xavier Chizimuzo Akalonu, Jeremiah Garba Danladi, Tamunotonye Abel Briggs – January 2023 Page No.: 15-18

The effects of storage on selected organic acid in some commonly consumed natural fruit juices were examined. The fruits (cucumber, water melon, soursop, grape, orange, lemon, and lime) were randomly selected and their juice extracted and store at 250 C. Analysis for acetic, citric and lactic acid were done for 5 days using standard method of analysis. The acetic, citric and lactic acid concentrations showed days dependent increase in all the natural fruits juice from days 1-5. However, acetic, citric and lactic concentrations increased mostly in lime juice on days 3 and 4. While on day 5, all the organic acids gave highest concentrations in orange juice compared to other fruit juices. This study revealed that continuous storage of fruit at room temperature might increase the concentration of organic acid in it.

Page(s): 15-18                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 February 2023

 Adekunle Adebo Ajayi
Biochemistry Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Ibukun Caroline Vining-Ogu
Biochemistry Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Xavier Chizimuzo Akalonu
Biochemistry Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Jeremiah Garba Danladi
Biochemistry Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 Tamunotonye Abel Briggs
Microbiology Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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Adekunle Adebo Ajayi, Ibukun Caroline Vining-Ogu, Xavier Chizimuzo Akalonu, Jeremiah Garba Danladi, Tamunotonye Abel Briggs “Evaluation of Selected Organic Acids in some common Fruits Cucumber, Water Melon, Soursop in Ebonyi State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.15-18 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/15-18.pdf

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Integrating Imaging Bioinformatics in Ophthalmology

Hadi Khazaei, Danesh Khazaei, Kaneez Abbas, Davin Ashraf, John D Ng.- January 2023 Page No.: 19-28

Imaging informatics collates the multitude of information into data; allowing research to occur, driving data quality, and ultimately improving patient care. Imaging informatics increases the efficiency of imaging workflows by enhancing productivity and making information accessible to multiple users simultaneously. Consistency of critical data is essential for marrying information together through the process, to save the radiologist time, for consistency, billing, and research.

Page(s): 19-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 February 2023

 Hadi Khazaei
Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, 97239

 Danesh Khazaei
Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, 97239

 Kaneez Abbas
Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, 97239

 Davin Ashraf
Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, 97239

 John D Ng.
Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, 97239

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Hadi Khazaei, Danesh Khazaei, Kaneez Abbas, Davin Ashraf, John D Ng. “Integrating Imaging Bioinformatics in Ophthalmology” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.19-28 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/19-28.pdf

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Review On Malaria Vaccines: The Panacea for Africa

Chibuikem Nnamdi Akalazu and Omolade Olayinka Okwa – January 2023 Page No.: 29-33

Plasmodium speciesare protozoa parasites responsible for clinical manifestations associated with malaria. The most prevalent are P. falciparum (Africa), P. vivax (Americas), P. ovale, P. malariae and P. knowlesi. Malaria control in Africa has been an endless battle. Global mortality for malaria in 2020 was 627,000 deaths with a significant portion of these occurrences in little children resident in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, medical breakthroughs in vaccine technology have shown recorded success in highly endemic regions of Africa. The most promising being RTS,S- ASO1, R 21, PFSPZ with the R21 meeting the 75% efficacy threshold set by WHO and the RTS,S endorsed for widespread administration in high transmission areas. The success of these vaccines is largely due to their Pre-erthrocytic, erythrocytic and liver stage mode of action against the parasite. The circumsporozoite proteins (CSP) which are the most secreted antigens from the sporozoite stage of the Plasmodium parasite is the ideal biomolecule to serve as focus for heightened immune alertness in the circulatory and hepatic systems of Man. CSP in conjunction with several adjuvants and proteins serve to maintain a significant antibody titre over a period of months post vaccination hence drastically reducing the chances of malaria associated morbidities or mortality. This feat perhaps heralds a glimmer of hope on the possibilities of malaria eradication when integrated control options are employed in the fight against malaria.

Page(s): 29-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 February 2023

 Chibuikem Nnamdi Akalazu
Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Nigeria.

 Omolade Olayinka Okwa
Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Nigeria.

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Chibuikem Nnamdi Akalazu and Omolade Olayinka Okwa “Review On Malaria Vaccines: The Panacea for Africa ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.29-33 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/29-33.pdf

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Factors that Influence the Practice Orientation of Doctor and Patients: A Case of Federal Medical Center Yola, Nigeria

Olayide T. Ezekiel, Desmond B. Bisandu, Angyu J. Tsoukan- January 2023 Page No.: 34-44

The extent and types of communication during the consultation and the nature of the doctor-patient relationship are all significantly influenced by the Doctor’s clinical practice style.At the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yola, Nigeria, a study on the doctor-patient relationship was conducted to determine how beliefs, attitudes, religion, and orientations affect the relationship between expectant women and obstetrics and Gynecologist. Pregnant women between 18 and 50 and older made up the study population, which was conducted using an empirical method (quantitative and qualitative). Data was acquired from administered questionnaires that examined how patients and clinicians perceived one another. Individual interviews and personal observations were also conducted. On Tuesdays and Thursdays during anti-natal days and other days for individuals with women-related concerns, an average of 40 interviewers were conducted; this was done in 3 weeks. The average age of the participating doctors was 36 years old (standard deviation: 0.828), with 80% being men and just 20% being women. They had been practicing for an average of 10 years. Eighty percent of the doctors were oriented on providing care on them. About 40% of medical professionals occasionally lack time to discuss patients’ opinions and issues. Most individuals who were either doctors or patients (46.7% and 43.3%, respectively) thought that communication barriers harmed their interactions. Nearly 46.7% and 45.6% of doctors and patients disagreed that religion and cultural humility impact doctor-patient relationships. It was once again discovered to be difficult among the doctors and patients surveyed that the patient prefers self-medication, with roughly 53.3% and 32.3% agreeing. According to the findings of this study, the doctor-patient interaction at the federal medical center in Yola, Nigeria, is significantly impacted by communication barriers.

Page(s): 34-44                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 February 2023

 Olayide T. Ezekiel
Department of Information Systems, School of Information Technology and Computing, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Nigeria

 Desmond B. Bisandu
Department of Computer Science, University of Jos, Nigeria

 Angyu J. Tsoukan
ICT Directorate, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

1. Abiola, T., Udofia, O., and Abdullahi, A.T., (2014). Patient‑doctor relationship: The practice orientation of doctors in Kano, Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 17 (2), 241-247.
2. Bányai, G., Dombrádi, V., Katona, C., Boruzs, K., Dezső, G., Nagy, A. and Bíró, K., 2021. Preference for patient-centered communication among the citizens of the Visegrad countries. Patient Education and Counseling, 104(12), pp.3086-3092.
3. Beltran-Aroca, C.M., Ruiz-Montero, R., Labella, F. and Girela-López, E., 2021. The role of undergraduate medical students training in respect for patient confidentiality. BMC medical education, 21(1), pp.1-11.
Chan, C.M., and Azman, W.A. (2012). Attitudes and role orientations on doctor-patient fit and patient satisfaction in cancer care, Singapore Medical Journal, 53, 52-56.
4. Drossman, D.A., Chang, L., Deutsch, J.K., Ford, A.C., Halpert, A., Kroenke, K., Nurko, S., Ruddy, J., Snyder, J. and Sperber, A., 2021. A Review of the Evidence and Recommendations on Communication Skills and the Patient–Provider Relationship: A Rome Foundation Working Team Report. Gastroenterology, 161(5), pp.1670-1688.
5. Eklund, J.H., Holmström, I.K., Kumlin, T., Kaminsky, E., Skoglund, K., Höglander, J., Sundler, A.J., Condén, E. and Meranius, M.S., 2019. “Same same or different?” A review of reviews of person-centered and patient-centered care. Patient Education and Counseling, 102(1), pp.3-11
6. Fiakpa, E.A., 2020. Measuring Employee Satisfaction using Total Quality Management Practices: An Empirical Study of Nigerian General Hospitals (Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University).
7. Fritzsche, K., Schweickhardt, A., Monsalve, S.D., Zanjani, H.A., Goli, F. And Dobos, C.M., 2020. Doctor-patient communication. In Psychosomatic medicine (pp. 45-69). Springer, Cham
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16. Robinson, G., 2022. Rolling with defences: A space to think: An exploration of a bounded reflective group for approved mental health professionals (Doctoral dissertation, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust/University of Essex)
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Olayide T. Ezekiel, Desmond B. Bisandu, Angyu J. Tsoukan “Factors that Influence the Practice Orientation of Doctor and Patients: A Case of Federal Medical Center Yola, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.34-44 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/34-44.pdf

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Spatial Assessment of Air Quality and Meteorological Parameters of the Surrounding Area of Active Dumpsite in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

Alilonu E.C., Obafemi A.A. and Eludoyin O.S. – January 2023 Page No.: 45-57

The study assessed the air quality and meteorological parameters of the surrounding area of active dumpsites in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. The air quality and meteorological parameters were sampled based on the distance of 0m, 100m, 200m, 300m, 400, and 500m from the dumpsite using standard instrument. The WHO standard was compared with the values of the air quality parameters obtained in the study area. Similarly, meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction were recorded using weather tracker at the same distance. Readings were taken in the morning (7-9am), afternoon (12-2pm) and evening (4-6pm) once in a week for a year. Dust Track DRX aerosol monitor was used to measure PM2.5, PM10 and TSP while aeroqual multigas monitor 500 Series was used to measure NO2, SO2, CO, H2S, VOC, O3, and NH3. Descriptive statistics were used for the data analysis. Results showed that In Mile 3 Market dumpsite, it was observed that the wind speed was 0.98 m/s while temperature was 32.65 °C and relative humidity was 85.67%. However, findings revealed that the concentration of SO2 was higher in the dumpsite around Mile 3 Market and Rumuomasi than other dumpsites whereas the relative humidity was highest around Eneka/Igwuruta dumpsite. The study concluded that the air quality and meteorological parameters varied from place to place. Also, distance from the dumpsite was highly influential in determining the level of air quality in the study area.. It is thus recommended among others that environmental education about air quality pollution is required so that residents can understand the effects of landfill sites in the neighbourhood empirically.

Page(s): 45-57                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2023

 Alilonu E.C.
Institute of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Obafemi A.A.
Institute of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Eludoyin O.S.
Institute of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Alilonu E.C., Obafemi A.A. and Eludoyin O.S. “Spatial Assessment of Air Quality and Meteorological Parameters of the Surrounding Area of Active Dumpsite in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.45-57 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/45-57.pdf

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Design and Implementation of Automatic Smart Trash Bin for People with Disability

Akankpo, A.O., Adeniran, A.O., Ayedun, F., Umoh, U. A., and Tom, J.G. – January 2023 Page No.: 58-64

Dustbin Monitoring System is an automatic system, a new advancement in technology that can be used by all levels of society, particularly for people with disabilities. In this research, an automatic waste bin was designed and constructed using a series of components and electronics units such as Arduino circuit board, sensors and relays of different types and was programmed using C++. The system will notify the user when the fill level is reached to make cleanup or garbage collection. The system was designed with two ultrasonic sensors, one buzzer, LEDs, an Arduino microcontroller and a servo motor. This was achieved by placing one of the ultrasonic sensors in front of the trash can which measures the distance between the dustbin and the user, at the required distance (10m) the dustbin will open and close when the user walks in front and away from the dustbin while; the other ultrasonic sensor is placed at the base of the cover to buzz the buzzer and switches on the LED’s when the fill level is reached. Interfacing of components and coding of the microcontroller was also implemented due to the purpose of the system.

Page(s): 58-64                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 February 2023

 Akankpo, A.O.
Department. of Physics, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 Adeniran, A.O.
Department. of Physics, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 Ayedun, F.
Department of Physics, National Open University of Nigeria.

 Umoh, U. A.
Department. of Physics, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 Tom, J.G.
Department. of Physics, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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14. Thompson, E. E., Ozuomba, S. and Adeniran, A.O., (2020). “A Survey of Electronics Heartbeat, Electronics Body Temperature and Blood Pressure Monitoring System. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies, August 2020. Vol.6. Issue 8.
15. Vinoth, K, Senthil, K., and Krishna, K. (2017), Smart Garbage Monitoring and Clearance System using Internet of Things. IEEE International Conference on Smart Technologies & Management, August 2017 www.iosrjournals.org.

Akankpo, A.O., Adeniran, A.O., Ayedun, F., Umoh, U. A., and Tom, J.G. “Design and Implementation of Automatic Smart Trash Bin for People with Disability ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.58-64 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/58-64.pdf

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Determination of Wound Healing Activities of A Simple Ointment Base Formulated from the Stem-Bark Extract of Jatropha Curcas Plant

Egbunefu, C. O., Iyama, W.A., Timothy, M. N. and Gbode, L. N., Emejuru, W.S.- January 2023 Page No.: 65-68

The study investigated the efficacy of an herbal ointment formulated from Jatropha curcas stem-bark extract for wound healing activity. The ointment batches that were made from different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5g/10g) of Jatropha curcas stem-bark extract were topically applied to the wounds inflicted on thirty (30) albino rats and the rate of wound closure was assessed by the measurement of the wound area. These ointments formulated from Jatropha curcas stem-bark extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) higher level of wound healing in a dose-related manner in the albino rats. The ointment batch containing the highest concentration of the sample extract (1.5g/10g ointment) exhibited the highest rate of wound closure and healing when compared to the blank ointment-treated. The ability of stem-bark extract of Jatropha curcas to wound heal and care indicates that its potential can be properly utilized in the production of commercial ointments for wound care and treatment of skin infections. The dose increase is an added advantage to the healing property of this herbal ointment but preservative potentials remains a challenge. There is also ardent need to apply this formulation on humans as to assess the efficacy.

Page(s): 65-68                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 February 2023

 Egbunefu, C. O.
Rivers State College of Health Science and Management Technology, Oro-Owo, Rumueme, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Iyama, W.A.
Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Timothy, M. N.
Rivers State College of Health Science and Management Technology, Oro-Owo, Rumueme, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Gbode, L. N.
Rivers State College of Health Science and Management Technology, Oro-Owo, Rumueme, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Emejuru, W.S.
Rivers State College of Health Science and Management Technology, Oro-Owo, Rumueme, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

1. Abdelgadir, H.A. & VAnsteden, J. (2013). Ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology and toxicity of Jatropha Curcas L. (Euphobiaceae): A review of South Africa Journal Botony. 88, 204-218.
2. Egbunefu, C.O., Iyama, W.A. & Gbode, Y.L (2022). Phytochemical Evaluation and Characterization of Methanol Extracts from the stem-bark of Jatropha Curcas plant. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 10 (1), 324-332.
3. Egbunefu, C.O., Iyama, W.A. & Taylor, S.P (2021). Safety Evaluation of Wister albino rats treated with Methanol Extracts of Jatropha Curcas leaf for anti-diarrhoeal activities. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 6 (1), 199-209.
4. Egbunefu, C.O., Iyama, W.A. & Uzor, L.U. (2020). Anti-diarrhoeal activity of Methanol Extract from Jatropha Curcas leaf on castor-oil induced Dierrhea in Wister Albino Rats. Journal of Public Health and Environmental Pollution, 4 (3), 039 – 044.
5. Esimonu, C.O., Nworu, C.S. & Jackson, C.L. (2009). Cutaneous wound healing activity of Herbal ointment containing the leaf extract of Jatropha Curcas L. (Euphobiacase). Internal Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, 1 (4), 1-4
6. Igbinosa, O.O., Igbinosa, E.O. & Aiyegoro, O.A. (2009). Anti-microbial Activity and Phytochemical screening of Stem-bark extracts from Jatropha Curcas (linn). Africa Jounral of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 3 (2), 058 – 062.
7. Igoli, J.O., Ogayi, O.G., Tor-Anyim, T.A. & Igoli, N.P. (2005). Effect of Phostoxin Treatment on Biochemical and Physical Properties of Stored Cowpea. Tix 3236 (vigia sensensis). Unpublished M.Sc Project. University of Port Harcourt.
8. Kamal, S., Mammoham, S. & Birendra, S. (2011). A review on chemical and medicobiological applications of Jatropha Curcas. Inter.Res. J. Pharmacy, 4, 61– 66.
9. Maiti, A., Dewanyee, S. & Mandal, S.C. (2017). In Vivo evaluation of antidiarrheal activity of the seed of swietemia macrophyllia king (Meliacease). Trop.D. Pharm. Res., 6 (2), 111-716
10. Nwala, C.O., Akaninowor, J.O. & Monanu, M.O. (2013e). Nutritional Studies on Rats fed diets formulated from treated and raw samples of Jatropha Curcas seed. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 2 (11), 14-19
11. Nwala, C.O., Akaninwor, J.O. & Monany, M.O. (2013b). Use of Extracts of Jatropha Curcas Leaf Formulated in a simple ointment base in wound healing activities, how safe is it? International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 2 (61), 53-57.
12. Nwala, C.O., Akaninwor, J.O. & Monany, M.O. (2013). Phytochemical Screening and Wound Healing activities of extracts of Jatropha Curcas leaf formulated in simple ointment base. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 2 (6), 72-75.
13. Obute, G.C. (2005). Ethanomedicinal Plant Resources of South-Eastern Nigeria. University of Port Harcourt, Choba.
14. Sharma, S.k. & Singh, H. (2012). A reviw on pharmacological significance of genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae). Chinese J. Integrative Med., 18, 868 – 880.

Egbunefu, C. O., Iyama, W.A., Timothy, M. N. and Gbode, L. N., Emejuru, W.S. “Determination of Wound Healing Activities of A Simple Ointment Base Formulated from the Stem-Bark Extract of Jatropha Curcas Plant” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.65-68 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/65-68.pdf

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A Framework for Museum Transformation Using AR-VR Technologies to Support Tourism

Rehman Ullah Khan, Muhammad Nur Aliff Haiqal – January 2023 Page No.: 69-74

Due to the classical display of artefacts and infrastructure, museums and cultural heritages have several problems. The museums cannot engage the new generation (Gen Z). Similarly, these organisations cannot align themselves with tourism, the world’s most popular and fastest-growing service. The classical display also creates problems in reading and understanding the information, and the visitors have no interaction with the artefacts. Therefore, the visitors are getting a boring experience and ultimately fewer visitors and less income. To address all these problems, we have designed and developed an immersive and collaborative framework for the museums using advanced technologies, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR). The results show that this system can engage the new generation, promote tourism, and provide an immersive and interactive experience.

Page(s): 69-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 February 2023

 Rehman Ullah Khan
Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

 Muhammad Nur Aliff Haiqal
Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

1. Barbieri, L., Bruno, F., & Muzzupappa, M. (2017). Virtual museum system evaluation through user studies. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 26, 101-108.
2. Bernama. (2021). Museums see 70% drop in revenue due to pandemic. FMT. https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2021/12/07/museums-sees-70-drop-in-revenue-due-to-pandemic/
3. Brooke, J. (2013). SUS: A Retrospective. Journal of Usability Studies, 8(2), 29-40.
4. Johnson, H. (2020). Arts and Culture in a’New Normal’. The Psychologist, 33, 98-99.
5. Kersten, T. P., Tschirschwitz, F., & Deggim, S. (2017). Development of a virtual museum including a 4D presentation of building history in virtual reality. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing Spatial Information Sciences, 42, 361.
6. Kristianto, K., Dela, K., Santoso, H., Thamrin, J. M., & Panunggangan, K. (2018). Implementation of gamification to improve learning in museum. Journal of Engineering Science Research, 2(1), 71-76.
7. Martín-Gutiérrez, J., Mora, C. E., Añorbe-Díaz, B., & González-Marrero, A. (2017). Virtual technologies trends in education. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science Technology Education, 13(2), 469-486.
8. Mills, S., & Noyes, J. (1999). Virtual reality: an overview of user-related design issues. Interacting with computers, 11(4), 375-386.
9. Mulders, M., Buchner, J., & Kerres, M. (2020). A framework for the use of immersive virtual reality in learning environments. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(24), 208-224.
10. Preziosi, D., & Farago, C. (2019). Grasping the world: The idea of the museum. Routledge.
11. Sarawak Tourism Board. (2022). Cat Museum. Online. https://sarawaktourism.com/attraction/cat-museum/
12. Waltl, C. (2006). Museums for visitors: Audience development-A crucial role for successful museum management strategies. Intercom, 2006, 1-7.

Rehman Ullah Khan, Muhammad Nur Aliff Haiqal “A Framework for Museum Transformation Using AR-VR Technologies to Support Tourism ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.69-74 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/69-74.pdf

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Survismetric Evaluation of Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Diethyl Ether And Hexane At Varying Temperatures

Grace A. Cookey, Ngozi J. Maduelosi, Brave L. Tambari – January 2023 Page No.: 75-80

This study was designed to use survismeter to exploit the mixing behavior of a weak polar solvent (diethyl ether) and non-polar solvent (hexane) in varying compositions of diethyl ether and temperature. The densities and viscosities of binary mixed solvents of diethyl ether and hexane were evaluated at temperatures of 303, 313, 323 and 333 K and over varying compositions of diethyl ether using a single capillary pycnometer and Mansingh Survismeter respectively. The excess molar volumes (VE), excess viscosities (ɳE) and excess Gibb’s free energy (GE) of activation for viscous flow of the binary mixtures at the different temperatures were evaluated from the experimental parameters using Redlich Kister equation. The results show negative values of VE and GE at all mole fractions and temperatures. The ɳE values are positive at 303 and 313 K but negative at 323 and 333 K at all compositions respectively. These observations have been interpreted based on the molecular interactions between the components of the solvent mixtures and structural changes resulting from these interactions.

Page(s): 75-80                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 February 2023

 Grace A. Cookey
Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Ngozi J. Maduelosi
Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Brave L. Tambari
Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

1. Arvind R. Mahajan and Sunil R. Mirgane (2013). Excess molar volumes and Viscosities of Binary mixtures of n-octane, n-Decane, n-Dodecane, and n-Tetradecane with n-octan 2-ol.at 298.15K. Journal of Thermodynamics, 2013, ID 571918
2. Amalendu Pal and Anil Kumar (2006). Excess molar volumes and viscosities for binary mixtures of alkoxypropanols with 1-alkanols at 298.15 K. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 123, 146-151.
3. Baskaran, R., and Kubandran T. R. (2007). Prediction of Transport Properties of Aniszldehyde-Benzene Mixture at varying Temperatures. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 157, 6-1.
4. Dikio E. D. (2012). Density, Dynamic and Derived properties of Binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol with pyridine at temperatures of 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15K. Int J. Electrochem. Sci., 7, 11101-11122.
5. Ezekiel Dixon Dikio, Gloria Vilakazi, Patrick Ngoy (2013). Density, dynamic viscosity and derived properties of binary mixtures of m-xylene, o- xylene and p- xylene with pyridine at T=293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 177, 190-197.
6. Elliot, R. J. and Lira, C. T. (2012). Introductory chemical engineering thermodynamics. Pearson education lncorporated, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, America. 2nd edition. 390-555
7. Grace Agbizu Cookey, Ayasen Jermaine Kemeakegha (2020). Excess volumes of binary mixtures of ethyl acetoacetate and C4-C7 aliphatic esters at 298.15K. Chemistry Research Journal, 5, 195-202.
8. J. D. Pandey, Prakash Chandra, Rupali Sethi and Vinay Sanguri (2013).Estimation of Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Liquid Mixtures on the Basis of Statistical Mechanical Theories. International Journal of Thermodynamics, 16, 10-19.
9. Lakshmi; B. J., Gowrisankar, M., Rambabu, C. & Ramachandran, D. (2014). Volumetric ultrasonic and viscometric studies of binary liquid mixtures of N-ethyl aniline + chlrobenzene, + bromobenzene, + 1, 2-dichchlorobenzene + 1, 3-dichlorobenze + 1, 2, 4-trichlorobenze at 303.15 and 308.15 K. Korea Journal of Chemical Engineering, 31, 881-895
10. Maduelosi, N.J, Abia, A.A and Nwokobia, F.U,(2014). Study of The Intermolecular Interactions Of Mixed Solvents Of Tetrahydofuran And Propylene Carbonate For Magnesium Ion Battery, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6, 67-71.
11. Maduelosi, N.J and Abia, A.A.(2015). Solvent Properties of Binary Mixtures of Tetrahydrofuran and Propylene Carbonate Solvents.American Journal of Chemistry and Application, 2, 86-88
12. Man Singh (2016). Survismeter, Science of Vision and Intervention, 2nd Edition, 46. Segment Books, New Delhi.
13. Man Singh., (2007). Proceedings of second International Survismeter on Analytical Science NCEAC, University of Sindh, Jamshoro Parkistan
14. Nallani Satyanarayana and Jaana Veeraswamy (2008). Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Binary Liquid Mixtures of n-methylacetamide with alkyl (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl) Acetates at 308.15 K. Rasayan Journal of Chemistry, 1, 602-608.
15. Puneet Kumar Pandeya, Vrijesh Kumar Pandeya, Anjali Awasthib, Anil Kumar Nainc, Aashees Awasthia (2014). Study of intermolecular interactions in binary mixtures of
16. 2-(dimethylamino) ethanol with methanol and ethanol at various temperatures. Thermochimica Acta, 586, 58-65.
17. Saleh M. A., Habibullah M., Ahmed Shamsuddin M., Uddin Ashraf M., Uddin S. M. H. and Uddin Afsar M. (2006). Excess molar volumes and viscosities of some alkanols with cumene. Physics and Chemistry of Liquids, 44, 31-43.
18. Salman S. A., Khfaji S. A., Hussain K. I, A-l-Dulaimy Z. A., Abbas A. M and Al-Heetimi D. T. A (2018). Novel Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Mixtures of Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol with some Alcohols at 298.15 K. Rasayan Journal of Chemistry, 11, 589-596
19. Shahla Parveen, Maimoona Yasmin, Manisha Gupta, and Jagdish Prasad Shukla, (2010). Thermoacoustical and Excess properties of binary mixtures of ethyl butyrate with methanol and vinyl acetate. International Journal of Thermodynamics 13, 59-66.
20. Riddick, J. A., Bunger, W. B. and Sakano, T. K. (2012). Oganic Solvents: Physical Poptisan Method of Purification. Journal of American Chemical Society, 109, 1987.
21. Robbert J. K., Huayang Z., Ramesh R. R. (2012). Solubility, Density and Solution Thermodunamics of NaI in different pure solvents and binary mixtures. Journal of Chemical Engineering, 57, 3563-3572

Grace A. Cookey, Ngozi J. Maduelosi, Brave L. Tambari “Survismetric Evaluation of Excess Properties of Binary Mixtures of Diethyl Ether And Hexane At Varying Temperatures ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.75-80 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/75-80.pdf

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Computational Difficulty of Factoring Large Integers Using Generalize System Equations

Samaila Abdullahi, Sadiq Shehu, Tukur Shehu – January 2023 Page No.: 81-94

The RSA algorithm is the foundation of a cryptosystem, which permits public key encryption and is frequently used to establish a secure connection, particularly when it is delivered over an unprotected network such as the internet. Let and be unbalance prime, we offer two novel attacks in this paper using prime power modulus N = prqs. Our first results are based on the RSA equation  ex2-φ(N)y2= 1 e,N  and x,p,q,φ(N) are public key and private key tuples respectively. If  P ≤q ≤λ1/r+1N1/r+1, then x < √ 1/2 (N-(2λr/r+1 Nr/r+1 1/r+1 N1/r+1))and y2/x2 can be obtained among the convergent of the continued fractions expansion  of  e/N-(2λr/r+1 Nr/r+1 1/r+1 N1/r+1) which lead to the factorization of moduli N. In second part we consider the generalize system of equation using the proper approximation of φ(N) which allowed us to factored the prime power moduli Ns=prsqs simultaneously in polynomial time.

Page(s): 81-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2023

 Samaila Abdullahi
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sokoto State University, Sokoto Nigeria

 Sadiq Shehu
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sokoto State University, Sokoto Nigeria

 Tukur Shehu
Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto Nigeria

1. Batina, L.,et al., (2007). Public-key cryptography on the top of a needle. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pages 1831-1834.
2. Boneh, D. and Durfee, G. (1999). Cryptanalysis of RSA with private key less than Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT’99, 3(6), 1-11.
3. Chen, C.-Y., Hsueh, C.-C., and Lin, Y.-F. (2009). A generalization of de Weger’s method. In Information Assurance and Security, IAS’09. Fifth International Conference on, volume 1, 344-347.
4. Coppersmith, D. (1997). Small solutions to polynomial equations, and low exponent RSA vulnerabilities. Journal of Cryptology, 10(4):233-260.
5. De Weger, B. (2002). Cryptanalysis of RSA with small prime difference. Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing, 13(1):17-28.
6. Diffie, W. and Hellman, M. (1976). New directions in cryptography. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 22(6):644-654.
7. Blomer J. and May A. (2004). A generalized Wiener attack on RSA, In Public Key Cryptography – PKC 2004, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1-13.
8. Lenstra, A. K., Lenstra, H. W., and Lovasz, L. (1982). Factoring polynomials with rational coefficients. Mathematische Annalen, 261(4):515-534.
9. Maitra, S. and Sarkar, S. (2008). Revisiting wieners attack new weak keys in RSA. International Conference on Information Security, 228-243.
10. May, A. (2003). New RSA vulnerabilities using lattice reduction methods. PhD thesis, University of Paderborn.
11. Asbullah M. A. and Ariffin, M. R. K. (2015). New attacks on RSA with modulus using continued fractions. Journal of Physics, Conference Series, Volume 622, No. 1, IOP Publishing.
12. Rivest,R. L., Shamir,A., and Adleman, L. (1977). A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems. Communications of the ACM, 21:120–126.
13. Nitaj, A. (2013). Diophantine and Lattice Cryptanalysis of the RSA Cryptosystem. Artificial Intelligence,Evolutionary Computing and Metaheuristics,139-168.
14. Nitaj, A., Arin, M. R. K., Nassr, D. I., & Bahig, H. M. (2014). New Attacks on the RSA Cryptosystem. Progress in Cryptology-AFRICACRYPT. Springer International Publishing, 178-198.
15. Okamoto, T. and Uchiyama, S. (1998). A new public-key cryptosystem as secure as factoring. International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, 308-318.
16. Wiener, M. J. (1990). Cryptanalysis of short RSA secret exponents. Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, 36(3):553-558.

Samaila Abdullahi, Sadiq Shehu, Tukur Shehu “Computational Difficulty of Factoring Large Integers Using Generalize System Equations ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.81-94 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/81-94.pdf

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Inquiry and Documentation of the “Ancient Khizirpur Fort” and Deciding about its Upbringing and Conservation for the Next Genesis

Shahriar Hasan Mridha Ratul, Md Mahmudur Rahman Howlather, Afnan Hossain- January 2023 Page No.: 95-114

Water Fort is one of the most important and first military structures of Bengal in Mughal Era. This water fort is different from the palace fort. In other words, although there is a presence of different dimensions in the palace fort, there is no splash in the water fort. However, the forts that have the slightest presence of any other structures are not of the Mughal period. This structure dates back to the later colonial period. Such ancient Khizirpur fort and Idrakpur fort are a combination of such versatile structures. An observation tower can only be seen in the Khizirpur fort in question. Subaddar Mir Jumla built 09 water forts in Bengal to defend Mughal Dhaka. Such as- Idrakpur Fort, Kalagachiya Fort, Sonakanda Fort (Subarnakandi Fort), Hajiganj Fort (Ancient Khizirpur Fort), Dapa Fort, Fatullah Fort, Pagla Fort, Beg Murad Fort, Jinzira Fort etc. All of these forts are riverine. That is located on the banks of the river. Water forts play a direct role in naval control.Which is a direct structure to ensure maritime security. And it’s a very strong defense. Whose victory is certain.Water forts are growing with geometric linear management in mind. Only 03 of these forts survive. One of which is the ancient Khizirpur fort. There should be no doubt that Khizirpur fort is Hajiganj fort. Because the name of the place has changed only with time, so the naming of Hajiganj has been achieved from the naming of Khizirpur. Many people think that the present Hajiganj fort is a Mughal period fort with which Khizirpur fort has no connection. But no one can show any evidence in this regard. Rather, this Hajiganj fort is one of the linear and geometric water forts that can be seen and found to defend the city of Dhaka. At that time the name of this area was Khizirpur so the name of the fort was Khizirpur fort. However, many people think that there may be more installations around those forts.Which could be a large fortified city. A large fort surrounded by a small fort.
Many research works have been inserted in this paper. One of the ancient water forts, namely the ancient Khizirpur fort which is now known as Hajiganj fort has been described in detail. In the beginning, hands were given to determine the location and actual location of the water fort. Then the history of this fort has been highlighted. Extensive architectural documentation of the historic Khizirpur water fort has been done. This documentation is accompanied by the necessary photographs and drawings. It also sheds light on how to restore this water fort and sustain it for the future. In this article, historical issues, problem solving, key points for preserving these ancient patterns have been discussed in a great way. And so this structure will be ready for the coming days. In this way, every historical place should be prepared for the future. And in this way, their identity will be presented to the people of the future with historical values.

Page(s): 95-114                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2023

 Shahriar Hasan Mridha Ratul
Principal Architect, Mridha’s Drawing House, 518, Sonabibi Road, Sonakanda, Bandar, Narayanganj, Mridha Bari, Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Md Mahmudur Rahman Howlather
Principal Architect, Md Mahmudur Rahman Howlather, Noksha Architecture, House-2, Road-1, Level-5, Lotif Real State,katasur,Mohammadpur,Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Afnan Hossain
Student, Department of Architecture, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

1. Muazzam,H.,”Banglapedia,National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh”
2. Finding Hajiganj Fort Co-ordinates,GPS Co-ordinates,Google Earth-pro.Com
3. Dhrubo Alam and Fatiha Polin,”Mughal Dhaka and Its River Fortification System”, The Daily Star, Thursday, December 29, 2022
4. Swarup Chandra Roy, “Subarnagramer Itihash”
5. Writer Mirza Nathan, His Book “Baharisthan-i-Ghayebi”
6. Fazal, A., Akbarnama, tr. by H. Beveridge, vol. I & II (Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1972)
7. science Tamra21.blogspot.com

Shahriar Hasan Mridha Ratul, Md Mahmudur Rahman Howlather, Afnan Hossain “Inquiry and Documentation of the “Ancient Khizirpur Fort” and Deciding about its Upbringing and Conservation for the Next Genesis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.95-114 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/95-114.pdf

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A Mathematical Measure to Fight Against Malaria and Exterminate Anopheles Mosquitoes

Atanyi Yusuf Emmanuel, H.K Oduwole, Utalor Kate Ifeoma – January 2023 Page No.: 115-200

Modelling the effects of three natural predators on the aquatic and adult anopheles’ mosquitoes in the control of malaria transmission was aimed at eradicating anopheles’ larva, pupa and adult anopheles’ mosquito by introduction of natural predators “copepods, tadpoles and purple martins” (organism that eat up mosquito at larva, pupa, and adult stages), so that there should not be anopheles’ adult mosquito for malaria transmission in our society. This new proposed model is a control flow diagram of predator-prey interaction model in mosquito life-cycle that considers an open population of mosquito and predators. The population is sub-divided based on mosquito life-cycle and natural predators. Under a mosquito life-cycle, the population is divided into four compartments, Egg compartment E(t), Larva compartment L(t), Pupa compartment P(t), and Adult compartment A(t), and natural predators, it is divided into three compartments, namely; Copepods C_P (t), Tadpole〖 T〗_P (t) and Purple martins P_M (t). These models provide understanding for control of malaria in our environments, especially when the models are based on the ecology of the vector population and sound understanding of variables and parameters relevant for transmission. The model equations were derived using the model variables and parameters. The stability analysis of the free equilibrium states were analyzed using equilibrium point, elimination, substitution methods, idea of Beltrami’s and Diekmann’s conditions. From the stability analysis of steady state, we observed that the model free equilibrium state is stable, this implies that the equilibrium point or steady state is stable and the stability of the model(3.13.1) – (3.13.8) means, there will not be anopheles adult mosquito in our society for malaria transmission and from the idea of Beltrami’s and Diekmann’s conditions we observed that the Determinant of the Jacobian matrix is greater than zero(Det⁡〖{j}〗>0),Trace of the Jacobian matrix is less than zero(Tr{j}<0) and the basic reproduction number is less than one ( R_0<1) which implies that the model disease free equilibrium state is stable. Hence the number of larva that transform to pupa is almost zero and the number of pupa that develop to adult is minimal and number of adult that escape to vector stage are inconsequential, that means the life-cycle could be broken at the larva, pupa, and adult stages with the introduction of natural predators, with the natural implication there will not be anopheles adult mosquito for malaria transmission and we also use maple for symbolical and numerical solution and presented the results graphically. The contribution of this research work to knowledge is to bring out the control flow diagram of prey-predator interaction, mathematical models, Identify the ability to control and eradicate malaria through stability analysis and numerical experiments showing the effect of the introduction of three natural predators on the larva, pupa and adult stages of the adult Anopheles mosquito( biological inoffensive method) which will contribute to the eradication of adult anopheles’ mosquito, which will also lead to the elimination of malaria in our society.

Page(s): 115-200                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2023

 Atanyi Yusuf Emmanuel
Department of Mathematics, Federal University of Lafia, PMB 146, Lafia, Nigeria

 H.K Oduwole
Department of Mathematics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi,PMB 1022, Keffi, Nigeria

 Utalor Kate Ifeoma
Mathematical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria

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Atanyi Yusuf Emmanuel, H.K Oduwole, Utalor Kate Ifeoma “A Mathematical Measure to Fight Against Malaria and Exterminate Anopheles Mosquitoes ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) volume-8-issue-1, pp.115-200 January 2023  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrias/DigitalLibrary/volume-8-issue-1/115-200.pdf

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