Public Debt and Domestic Private Investment: A Crowding Effect in Nigeria

Charity I. Anoke , Stephen I. Odo, Ph.D, Bernard E. Nnabu, Ph.D – March 2021 – Page No.: 01-08

: This study investigated the relationship between public debt and domestic private investment in Nigeria from 1980 – 2018. The objectives of the study are: determine the extent to which external debt significantly impacts on domestic private investment in Nigeria, examine if there is any significant impact of domestic debt on domestic private investment in Nigeria; ascertain the extent at which debt servicing significantly impact on domestic private investment in Nigeria and explore if there is any significant causal relationship between public debt and domestic private in Nigeria. The paper applied the following statistical and econometric tests: stationarity test, co integration test, VECM test and VEC Granger causality. Results indicated that external debt has negative significant impact with domestic private investment, domestic debt has negative significant effect on domestic private investment. Debt servicing has a negative insignificant impact on domestic private investment. And there is no directional causality between public debt and domestic private investment. Some of the implications of the results is significant unproductive influence of public debt on domestic private investment, as such most borrowed fund are not invested in choice investment. Sourcing fund for private investment is compromised by high level of government involvement in loanable fund, meaning that since domestic borrowing is mostly done by government due to their trusted repayment plan, domestic private investors will be left with unattainable or difficult conditions that will not allow access to those credit facilities. The researcher concluded that public debt crowds out domestic private investment in the long run in Nigeria within the period of the study.

Page(s): 01-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 March 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5301

 

 Charity I. Anoke
Department of Economics, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

 Stephen I. Odo, Ph.D
Department of Economics, Godfrey Okoye University, Nike, Enugu

 Bernard E. Nnabu, Ph.D
Department of Economics, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

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Charity I. Anoke, Stephen I. Odo, Ph.D, Bernard E. Nnabu, Ph.D “Public Debt and Domestic Private Investment: A Crowding Effect in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.01-08 March 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5301

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The influences of the socio-demographic factors on residents’ attitudes towards tourism impacts: A case study of Pasikkuda, Sri Lanka

Vyddiyaratnam Pathmanandakumar – March 2021 Page No.: 09-16

This study explains how the socio-demographic factors influence residents’ attitudes towards tourism impacts in Pasikkuda. A questionnaire survey was conducted to examine the effectsof socio-demographic factors on residents’ attitudes towards the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural impacts of tourism. The survey was conducted with a stratified random sampling of 124 residents in Pasikkuda. The study found that residents’ socio-demographic factors had an important influence on perceptions of tourism impacts. The results indicate that the socio-demographic factors have both a positive and a negative effect on people’s attitudes towards the impact of tourism. The residents who believe that tourism is profitable and important to economic development are aware of substantial positive impacts but don’t vary from others as to the negative effects of tourism. The attitudes of residents are greatly influenced by factors such as the educational background, place of birth, and years of residency in the community. The respondents with fewer years of residency expressed a more positive attitude towards the impact of tourism. Finally, residents’ attitudes towards tourism impacts in Pasikkuda led to prepare the residents’ profile. Comprehensive education and awareness campaigns will be an effective way to boost the tourism industry’s understanding among the residents in Pasikkuda.

Page(s): 09-16                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 March 2021

 Vyddiyaratnam Pathmanandakumar
Department of Geography, Eastern University, Sri Lanka

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Vyddiyaratnam Pathmanandakumar “The influences of the socio-demographic factors on residents’ attitudes towards tourism impacts: A case study of Pasikkuda, Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.09-16 March 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/09-16.pdf

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The Influence of Age and Gender on Human Resources Training and Employee Job Performance

Emenike Umesi Ph.D., MBA. CEM®- March 2021 Page No.: 17-21

The determination of the influence of age and gender on the relationship between human resources training and job performance of workers in the hospitality industry is the purpose of the study. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, two research hypotheses were adopted for the study. The instrument used for the study is a questionnaire which was the tool for collecting data from a sample of (250) workers engaged in rendering services in the hospitality sector in the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Analysis of variance and independent t – test were the statistical tools used to analyze the data collected from the study. The results of the study indicated that age has a significant influence on the relationship between employee training and job performance. The study also indicated that gender also has a significant influence on the relationship between employee training and performance. The study based on these findings concluded that age and gender should be given due consideration when employee training is being planned in order to achieve optimal employee’s performance (productivity, service quality, and job satisfaction).

Page(s): 17-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 March 2021

 Emenike Umesi Ph.D., MBA. CEM®
Visiting Senior Lecturer, Global Distance Learning Institute, Abuja, Nigeria

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Emenike Umesi Ph.D., MBA. CEM®, “The Influence of Age and Gender on Human Resources Training and Employee Job Performance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.17-21 March 2021  DOI : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/17-21.pdf

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Compliance with the 2008 Fire Code of The Philippines (RA 9514): Basis for Intervention

Jhon Louie A. Pintac, Diomedes R. Pechora, Victoria O. Ligan- March 2021 Page No.: 22-30

This research intended to establish the extent of citizen’s compliance with Republic Act 9514–the 2008 Fire Code of the Philippines, and introduce intervention strategies for its implementation. The study was a univariate-descriptive approach that utilized secondary data, a consolidated accomplishment report on fire safety evaluation and inspection by the fire stations in Davao City from 2016 to 2018. A total of 115,089 data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to realize the objectives of the study. Results showed that only the business and mercantile structure owners have the highest percentage of compliance at about 45 percent, compared to the rest of the structure owners. Moreover, the data exposed a decreasing trend in the Fire Safety Inspection Certificates (FSIC) issuances from 2016 to 2018, which suggested that more and more building owners did not comply with the fire code every year. Overall, the data implied a high risk of fire occurrences in the city, considering the high percentage of non-compliance with the fire code. Hence, the researcher calls for adopting the proposed intervention strategies recommended in this study to optimize compliance with RA 9514.

Page(s): 22-30                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5302

 Jhon Louie A. Pintac
Professional Schools, The University of Mindanao, Davao City-Philippines

 Diomedes R. Pechora
Professional Schools, The University of Mindanao, Davao City-Philippines

 Victoria O. Ligan
Professional Schools, The University of Mindanao, Davao City-Philippines

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Jhon Louie A. Pintac, Diomedes R. Pechora, Victoria O. Ligan, “Compliance with the 2008 Fire Code of The Philippines (RA 9514): Basis for Intervention” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.22-30 March 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5302

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Enhancing Performance of the Building Construction Industry through Quantitative Risk Analysis and Risk Response: A Case of Exchequer Funded Building Construction Projects in Machakos County, Kenya

John Malu Nzioki, Dr. Mary Nyawira Mwenda – March 2021 Page No.: 31-39

In Kenya, the building construction sector has been facing a myriad of challenges leading to project failures. This research study determined how construction projects are influenced by risk management in Machakos County. This research focused on quantitative risk analysis and risk response as the main objectives and its influence on performance of construction projects in Machakos County. This study was guided by uncertainty theory. 585 National Contraction Authority registered contractors were the target population and a sample size of 232. The sample size was calculated from formula taken from Kothari which was representative of the whole population. The study used descriptive research survey design. The data was analysed and presented in frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation were tabulated and analysed from quantitative data. Fishers test was computed to examine the variable relationships. The finding led to the conclusion that quantitative risk analysis and Risk Response had a significance influence on performance of construction Projects by factor [0.412 and 0.271] with (P = 0.000). (P=0.000<0.05) The p<0.005 therefore the null hypothesis was rejected meaning that there was positive relationship between Quantitative Risk Analysis and Risk Response. The study recommends further research to be done in other areas in Kenya in order to establish whether the explored factors can be generalized to influence the performance of construction projects.

Page(s): 31-39                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2021

 John Malu Nzioki
MA Project Planning and Management Candidate, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Mary Nyawira Mwenda
Lecturer, School of Open and Distance Learning University of Nairobi, Kenya

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John Malu Nzioki, Dr. Mary Nyawira Mwenda “Enhancing Performance of the Building Construction Industry through Quantitative Risk Analysis and Risk Response: A Case of Exchequer Funded Building Construction Projects in Machakos County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.31-39 March 2021  URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/31-39.pdf

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Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Latent Determinants of E-government Adoption: An Evidence from Kenya’s Public Sector

Christopher Ogola- March 2021 Page No.: 40-44

Recently, e-government has attracted attention of many scholars. This has led to a growing scholarly literature on the importance and the factors that facilitate e-government implementation. However, despite the increased interest in e-government adoption, there is lack of information about the latent factors that affect e-government in the public sector. Most of the research has focused on observable determinants such as availability of resources, training and support. The latent determinants of e-government adoption therefore remain highly unknown in the existing literature. Due to this research gap, this study conducted an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with an aim of identifying the latent determinants of e-government adoption, with a reference to the Kenya’s public sector. The findings indicated that perceived trust, compatibility, usefulness and satisfaction are the latent determinants that influence e-government adoption in the public sector.

Page(s): 40-44                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2021

 Christopher Ogola
Department of Management, School Of Business and Management, Mount Kenya University, Kenya

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Christopher Ogola “Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Latent Determinants of E-government Adoption: An Evidence from Kenya’s Public Sector” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.40-44 March 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/40-44.pdf

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Putting the Brakes on Gendered Mishaps during COVID-19 Pandemic: Safeguarding the Health and Rights of Women and Girls in Bangladesh

Zawad Ibn Farid, Isna Haque Sheoti, Muhammad Awfa Islam, Sawban Ibn Farid- March 2021 – Page No.: 45-52

The surge of Covid-19 pandemic had forced the governments all around the world to declare lockdown and other preventive measures to limit the spread of the virus. Although the outcome of such initiatives has positively contributed towards communities, it has also taken a disproportionate toll on women and girls in terms of their health and rights. The finding of this study is premised upon the interpretation of information from different relevant secondary sources. This review article explores the situation of women and girls during Covid-19 in a developing country like Bangladesh. The findings of the study suggest that, women and girls are the worst sufferer of COVID-19 pandemic. The societal constructed gender roles along with historical inequality and systematic disenfranchisement have added to their vulnerability substantially during this dire time. Women and girls have suffered both socially i.e., domestic violence; economically i.e., unemployment; and physically i.e., unaddressed sexual and reproductive health needs. However, the article also suggests plausible solutions to overcome the undesirable situation through undertaking a holistic approach towards safeguarding the health and rights of women in Bangladesh. Measures like economic empowerment through stimulus package, social protection through safety net programs along with need based innovative interventions from government, non-government and private agencies are expected to put a break on the ongoing gendered mishaps and augment the position of women and girls in the society.

Page(s): 45-52                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5304

 

 Zawad Ibn Farid
Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

  Isna Haque Sheoti
Department of Population Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

  Muhammad Awfa Islam
Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

 Sawban Ibn Farid
Department of International Relations, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

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Zawad Ibn Farid, Isna Haque Sheoti, Muhammad Awfa Islam, Sawban Ibn Farid, “Putting the Brakes on Gendered Mishaps during COVID-19 Pandemic: Safeguarding the Health and Rights of Women and Girls in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.45-52 March 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5304

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Social Stratification in the choice and use of Public Bus Transport among Travellers from Eastern Province to Lusaka- Zambia and vice versa

Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe- March 2021 Page No.: 53-69

Social stratification categorizes society into social classes. The choice to use either a luxury Public Bus Transport or an ordinary lower-class Public Bus Transport is purely individual. But social analysis traces the choice to the social class to which an individual belongs. The objective of this study was to explore views and opinions over choice of Public Bus Transport of travellers from Eastern Province to Lusaka-Zambia. The Study was conducted between June 2019 and November, 2020. Data collection was done through observation and a single-interview-per-participant. A total of 26 participants participated in the study. Participants were sourced from luxury Public Buses and ordinary lower-class buses travelling to Lusaka from Eastern Province and vice versa. The study found that travellers who chose and used luxury Public Buses cited efficiency, comfort, safety, reliability, and convenience as qualitative factors behind their choice. Travellers riding ordinary lower-class public buses cited an atmosphere for kinship relationships that prevailed in lower-class buses, cost negotiability, flexibility of drivers to stop anywhere, anytime when a traveller submitted a request and that lower-class public buses provided a sense of freedom and liberty for individual’s self-expression. So long social stratification exists; the upper class will continue to enjoy privileges of comfort, safety, convenience of transportation for sound health and general well-being, self-fulfilment and cost-effectiveness. The lower class on the other hand, unless, they make bold and defying decisions, their choice of Public Bus Transport shall linger around unreliable, congested, second-class Public buses with poor ventilation, uncomfortable seats hence they risk poor health, injuries, costly travel expenses due to unnecessary bus delays and increased stress.

Page(s): 53-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2021

 Jordan Tembo
Kalindawalo General Hospital, P.O.Box 560008, Petauke, Zambia

 Patricia Mambwe
Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Rusangu University, Monze, Zambia

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Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe, “Social Stratification in the choice and use of Public Bus Transport among Travellers from Eastern Province to Lusaka- Zambia and vice versa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.53-69 March 2021  URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/53-69.pdf

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The Role of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in combatting the Effects of Climate Change among Small-scale Farmers – The case of Zambia

Jonah Kondowe – March 2021 Page No.: 60-69

This study set out to explore the role of SADC in combatting the effects of climate change among small-scale farmers using the case study of Zambia. The methodology adopted was an explorative qualitative design. A qualitative thematic analysis that involved building a thematic coding frame based on the key research question was used to analyse the study. The findings show that SADC has developed and implemented a series of projects to help small-scale farmers combat the effects of climate change. SADC also established the Plant Genetic Resources Centre (PGRC), among other initiatives relating to mapping out related projects in soliciting funds. Therefore, this research recommends: integrating SADC programmes with government programmes at the national level to ensure that all agricultural extension officer’s capacities are built and developing a regional authority responsible for generating climate finance.

Page(s): 60-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 April 2021

 Jonah Kondowe
M.A. Governance and Regional Integration
Pan African University, Institute of Governance, Humanities and Social Sciences (PAUGHSS) in Cameroon, Yaoundé

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Jonah Kondowe , “The Role of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in combatting the Effects of Climate Change among Small-scale Farmers – The case of Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.60-69 March 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/60-69.pdf

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Adaptive Collaborative Management (ACM) Model In Waste Management in Makassar City

Azri Rasul, Moh. Thahir Haning, Rakhmat, Muh. Akmal Ibrahim- March 2021 Page No.: 70-77

This study aims to analyze and to describe waste management in Makassar City from the ACM perspective, seen from the twelve dimensions of ACM, namely bridging organizations, conflict, enabling condition, incentives, knowledge, leadership, learning, networks, organizational interactions, strength empowerment, shared responsibility, and trust. The goal of this study is also to find an ACM model in waste management in Makassar City.This research used a qualitative approach applying a descriptive method. Sources of data are obtained from key informants who are directly related to waste management (primary), and from various literature, articles, journals.. Methods of data collection were observation, interviews and literature review. Data analysis techniques were carried out by (1) data condensation, (2) data display, and (3) conclusion overview/verification.The results showed that 1) five of twelve dimensions studied needed serious attention to be optimized since they have a major influence on the success of ACM, namely the dimensions of liaison organization, possible condition, knowledge, leadership, and learning. Meanwhile, the other dimensions had run even though it was not optimal. 2)The finding of the paper is the design of the ACM n approach model to be used in solving solid waste problems in Makassar City.

Page(s): 70-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5303

 Azri Rasul
Department of Administrative Science, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Hasanuddin University

 Moh. Thahir Haning
Department of Administrative Science, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Hasanuddin University

 Rakhmat
Department of Public Administration, Graduate Program, Hasanuddin University

 Muh. Akmal Ibrahim
Department of Public Administration, Graduate Program, Hasanuddin University

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Azri Rasul, Moh. Thahir Haning, Rakhmat, Muh. Akmal Ibrahim, “Adaptive Collaborative Management (ACM) Model In Waste Management in Makassar City ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.70-77 March 2021  DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5303

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Practices of Pentecostal Assemblies of God Church Theology that Address Gender Based Violence (GBV) in Zambia: A Case Study of Bread of Life Main Pentecostal Church in Lusaka District

Mutata Deborah Kamwengo and Oliver Magasu- March 2021 Page No.: 78-85

The researcher sort to establish practices of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God church theology that address Gender Based Violence. The study was exploratory in terms of design. The study sample consisted of two (2) Pastors, two (2) church elders, four (4) church deacons, two (2) representatives from the Evangelical Fellowship of Zambia (EFZ)- a mother body of all Pentecostal churches in Zambia and ten (10) lay members from the church under study. Purposive and convenient sampling techniques for participants were used to sample participants from the population under study. The key finding of the study was that the church’s intervention in addressing Gender Based Violence (GBV) came through couples’ meetings, premarital and post-marital counselling, participation in campaigns against GBV and being an active voice against GBV. Based on the findings, this study recommends that the church should introduce awareness and rehabilitation programmes specially designed to help both perpetrator and the victim of GBV. Secondly, the researcher recommends that the Church should employ strategic plans to curb the vice by forming more support groups with the help of the government in order to address GBV. As a suggestion for future research, the study recommended that a study in the future be undertaken to determine the success and challenges of the Church’s anti-GBV activities.

Page(s): 78-85                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2021

 Mutata Deborah Kamwengo
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

 Oliver Magasu
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

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Mutata Deborah Kamwengo and Oliver Magasu, “Practices of Pentecostal Assemblies of God Church Theology that Address Gender Based Violence (GBV) in Zambia: A Case Study of Bread of Life Main Pentecostal Church in Lusaka District” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.78-85 March 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/78-85.pdf

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“UNESCO Policy of Education for all’: Advancing access to inclusive education practice in special education in Imo State, Nigeria”

Umeh Ngozi Chuma, Nnadi Ine, & Osuji Emma- March 2021 Page No.: 86-94

This study investigates barriers to inclusive education practices as it affects children with disabilities in Imo state based on ideas of the social model of disability. Specifically, the study explores the fundamentals of successful implementation of inclusive education. Two research questions have been formulated. Identified government owned special basic schools within the 3 senatorial zones in Imo state is selected for the study. The zones include, Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe. The study participants generally, include children with disabilities, teachers, inclusive education consultants and policy makers- involving particularly officials of the Imo State Universal Basic Education Boards- IMSUBEB in the sampled state. Descriptive and qualitative survey will be used for the study. Questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussions will be used to gather data.

Page(s): 86-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5308

 Umeh Ngozi Chuma
Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

 Nnadi Ine
Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

 Osuji Emma
Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

References are not available.

Umeh Ngozi Chuma, Nnadi Ine, & Osuji Emma, ““UNESCO Policy of Education for all’: Advancing access to inclusive education practice in special education in Imo State, Nigeria”” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.86-94 March 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5308

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Trade Liberalisation and Economic Growth, an Emperical Analysis

Helder Eduardo Pinto Afonso – March 2021 – Page No.: 95-101

The issues in the achievement of an economic performance are underpinned by the success of different actions that are employed by the nations and its regional groups. In line with this goal, different economic schemes are applied to address the needs of growth performance. Therefore, it is important to understand the different challenges that can affect economic performance of a country and the issues of trade liberalization. This research examines the influence of openness to trade and growth performance. Thus, in this scenario the paper looked at different papers that analyses countries trading policies and the various strategies under liberalisation plan and its effect on economic growth. The empirical findings from various studies indicated that trade openness canaffect negatively economic growth, although, it showed that having a strong manufactural sector and industry, may create a positive impact on growth.

Page(s): 95-101                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5305

 

 Helder Eduardo Pinto Afonso
Institute of Governance, Humanities and Social Science, the Pan African University

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[45] Yeboah, O., Naanwaab, C., Saleem, S., & Akuffo, A. (2012). Effects of Trade Openness on Economic Growth: The Case of African Countries. Agribusiness, Applied Economics and Agriscience Education- NC A&T, 4-7.
[46] Yusuf, M., Malarvizhi, A., & Khin, A. (2013). Trade Liberalization Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management, 43-47.
[47] Zahonogo, P. (2016). Trade and economic growth in developing countries: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Trade, 41-56.

Helder Eduardo Pinto Afonso “Trade Liberalisation and Economic Growth, an Emperical Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.95-101 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5305

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A Comparative Investigation of Bangladesh and African Sub Continent Countries Pre-Primary Education

Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan – March 2021 – Page No.: 102-107

Purpose of Comparative Education Research: Comparative education research helps to understand educational processes between the countries where the analysis is carried out. Mainly comparative education research helps understand other countries’ education systems. It also helps to draw some lessons to improve the education system. Besides, Comparative education research, many cases may generate new knowledge and contribute to the theory. Comparative education research contributes to improving the desired aspects of the education process through three specific following ways:
1. Understanding the countries themselves
2. Using the knowledge gained from the examples of the two countries to generalize to others and contributing to the theory Understanding the countries themselves
Through the use of comparative analysis, African sub continent countries will appreciate their education program. The conditions of the educational cycle and the other essential elements of comparative education research should be described. Besides, they should also consider each other’s structures and gain lessons to develop their systems. In particular, the government authority can often use comparative education research findings as evidence to identify its potential areas for improvement. They should build on others’ related perspectives to adapt them to their issues to incorporate appropriate solutions.

Page(s): 102-107                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5306

 Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan
Southwest University Chongqing, China

[1] Barnett, W.S. (2008). Preschool education and it’s lasting effects: Research and policy implications. National Institute for Early Education Research Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
[2] Berlinski, S.; Galiani, S.; &Gertler, P., (2006), The effect of pre-primary education on primary school performance. The Institute of Fiscal Studies, London, UK, Retrieved on 23/05/2018 fromhttps://www.ifs.org.uk/wps/wp0604.pdf
[3] Bray, M., Adamson, B., & Mason, M. (Eds.). (2007).Comparative education research: Approaches and methods. Comparative Education Research Centre; Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6189-9
[4] Crossley, M., and Watson, K., (2003), Comparative and International Research in Education Globalisation, context and difference. London and New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
[5] Daka, H., Chipindi, F.M. & Mwale-Mkandawire, M. (2020). The relationship between assessment practices and students’ academic performances. A case of undergraduate students at the medical school of the university of Zambia, 2008 – 2016. Zambian Journal of Educational Management, Administration and Leadership, 1, (1), 143-156. ISSN: 2706-7416 (Print).
[6] DPE (2015), Annual Primary School Census – 2015, DPE, MoPME Retrieved on 18/05/2018 from: http://dpe.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/dpe.portal.gov.bd/publications/f2501e16_4f57_467b_8c67_48a5855f88fe/Final%20Draft%20APSC2015.pdf
[7] DPEd (2013), Primary Teacher Education, DPEd Professional Education, Diploma in Primary Education, National Academy for Primary Education (NAPE), Mymensingh, Bangladesh
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[16] Patricia Broadfoot, (2000),Comparative Education for the Twenty-First Century: retrospect and prospect. Comparative Education Vol. 36, No. 3, pp.357-371.
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[18] Thomas, M. A.M., Serenje-Chipindi, J & Chipindi, F.M. (2020), Comparing course syllabi from A to Z: Examining the contexts, content, and concerns for social foundations of education in Australia and Zambia. In A. E. Mazawi & M. Stack (Eds.). Course syllabi in faculties of education across the world: Bodies of knowledge and their discontents (pp 38–50). Sydney: Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-1-3500-9425-3 (hardback) 978-1-3500-9427-7 (online).
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Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan “A Comparative Investigation of Bangladesh and African Sub Continent Countries Pre-Primary Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.102-107 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5306

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Disablers in the Implementation of Performance Management System in the Zambian Public sector

Maxwell Phiri, Francis Simui & Gift Masaiti- March 2021 Page No.: 108-114

In this study we explored the disablers in Management System in Zambia’s public service. The study applied qualitative research methodology with a Case study design. The study comprised of 30 purposively selected Zambia public service workers as participants. The study used semi-structured interviews to generate evidence. The study findings revealed that the implementation of the Performance Management System (PMS) had a number of disablers that greatly affected the quality of service delivery in the public service. The most common barriers included low level of feedback rate, lack of commitment from top management, lack of adequate funding, lack of time, leadership style, constant change of leader, lack of trust, unfairness in the performance managements system, lack of reward system, lack of training in performance management system, lack of effective coordination, ineffective supervision and cultural beliefs. Thus, if the Public service is to improve on its performance, there is need to combine available resources and competencies to overcome disablers consistent with the theory of Resource-Based View. Unless managers of public service realize the importance of understanding and applying the resource based view theory in order to mobilize and deploy available resources, performance management practices will remain inappropriately implemented.

Page(s): 108-114                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5307

 Maxwell Phiri
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Francis Simui
School of Education, University of Zambia

 Gift Masaiti
School of Education, University of Zambia

[1] Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 99–120.
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[20] Simui, F., Namangala, B., Tambulukani, G., and Ndhlovu, D. (2018). Demystifying the process of ODL policy development in a dual-mode context: lessons from Zambia. Journal of Distance Education. 2018. Routledge, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2018.1457946.
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Maxwell Phiri, Francis Simui & Gift Masaiti, “Disablers in the Implementation of Performance Management System in the Zambian Public sector” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.108-114 March 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5307

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The Oral Aesthetic in Barbara Kimenye’s Kalasanda

Felix Ayioka Orina and Christine Namayi – March 2021 – Page No.: 115-119

Barbara Kimenye is recognized as one of East Africa’s influential writers with her novels and novellas focusing on concerns and styles drawn from her immediate context: East Africa. Through her works, it is not only possible to bring out the flexibility and elasticity of oral traditions but also ways in which the European tradition of the novel and African modes of expression complement each other. Kimenye’s Kalasanda fuses the two traditions to achieve a specific intended effect on and reaction from the reader that she targets. The present study, therefore, is not only an attempt to reveal the universal credentials of the oral traditions but also to show how specific oral tradition features may be determined by both context and the author’s aesthetic aspirations.

Page(s): 115-119                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 April 2021

 

 Felix Ayioka Orina
Kibabii University, Department of Eljmc, Kenya

 Christine Namayi
Kibabii University, Department of Eljmc, Kenya

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Felix Ayioka Orina and Christine Namayi, “The Oral Aesthetic in Barbara Kimenye’s Kalasanda” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.115-119 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/115-119.pdf

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New cloth in an old overcoat: A content analysis of the National Archives of Zimbabwe Act [Chapter 25:06] to the management of electronic records in Zimbabwe

Godfrey Tsvuura, Kudzai. D. Mbawuya, Patrick Ngulube- March 2021 Page No.: 120-128

This study content analyses the National Archives of Zimbabwe Act (1986) to the management of electronic records in Zimbabwe. It is a fact that electronic records management has been adopted in Zimbabwe as a way to mitigate the challenges experienced in paper records management. This adoption has been coded as a revolution in which whether we like it or not, it has come, dominated and challenged the traditional paper record-keeping system. The objective of the study is to analyse whether the National Archives of Zimbabwe Act of 1986 as amended under Act 22 of 2001 is in tandem with current electronic records management practices. The study adopts a content analysis approach in which the National Archives of Zimbabwe Act was analysed. Qualitative data drawn from the analysis were organised into broad themes and the content reported in a narrative form. The researchers use an emergent framework to code and categorise the data and group them into themes. The study found out that the National Archives of Zimbabwe Act does not address advent of electronic records management in terms of legislative and policies. The study recommends that the policy makers should first address issues of legislation and policies for effective management of electronic records. The study deepens the understanding of electronic records management from which policy makers in Zimbabwe can take a cue to deal with the management of e-records. It is hoped that this study would help records managers and archivists, policy makers and the government of Zimbabwe to articulate and consider the amendment of the National Archives of Zimbabwe Act to cover management of electronic records.

Page(s): 120-128                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 April 2021

 Godfrey Tsvuura
Department of Information Science and Records Management, Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Zimbabwe Open University

  Kudzai. D. Mbawuya
Department of Information Science and Records Management, Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Zimbabwe Open University

  Patrick Ngulube
School of Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Studies, University of South Africa

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[5] Chinyemba, A., & Ngulube, P. (2005). Managing records at higher education institutions: a case study of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus. South African Journal of Information Management 7(1). http://general.rau.ac.za/infosci/raujournal/default.asp?to=peervol7nr1(Accessed 2015 August 25).
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Godfrey Tsvuura, Kudzai. D. Mbawuya, Patrick Ngulube, “New cloth in an old overcoat: A content analysis of the National Archives of Zimbabwe Act [Chapter 25:06] to the management of electronic records in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.120-128 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/120-128.pdf

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Socio-Economic Factors and Sustainability of Women Empowerment Groups in Pastoralist Communities in Kenya: A Case of Tiaty Sub-County, Baringo County

Mwanja Eric Muhia, Dr. Mary Nyawira Mwenda – March 2021 Page No.: 129-140

Sustainability of women empowerment projects in the pastoralist communities is a significant element of societal development. It is true that women play key roles in providing the family with daily basic needs. However, it is through the establishment of institutions such as women groups that women and other agencies including the government can propagate the empowerment initiative. This study measured the effect of social economic factors on sustainability of women empowerment projects in the pastoralist communities in Kenya. The study focused on the influence of income generating activities, social capital, cultural orientation and education level on how they impact sustainability of women empowerment groups among pastoralist communities in Kenya and was carried out among women groups in Tiaty Sub County; Baringo County. Using descriptive research design 384 out of 3568 women in 182 registered women were sampled. In addition, five key informants including; area chiefs, representatives of financial institutions, and the Tiaty sub-county Social Services department were interviewed. Key Informant Interview (KII) guides and structured questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data and qualitative data respectively. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze quantitative data while qualitative data was organized and analyzed by themes. Using Pearson correlation coefficient, the findings established a direct and positive relationship between sustainability of women empowerment groups and independent variables; Income generating activities at R=0.934, Social capital at R=0.835. Further inference showed the proportionate contribution of independent variables factors towards sustainability of women empowerment groups at 87.23% (0.9342) from Income generating activities and 69.72%(0.8352) from Social capital respectively. Additionally the composite mean and standard deviation for income generating activities and social capital was M=3.92;SD=1.058, M=3.87;SD 0.859, respectively. This study observed that the income generating activities showed the highest Pearson correlation coefficient towards sustaining women empowerment groups. This study recommends; training women on income generating activities to aid in their empowerment and sustainability of groups, enacting proper legislation to accord equal opportunities to pastoralist women, sustaining programs to challenge male dominance in pastoralist and training women leaders on skills to ensure their groups are well run and managed.

Page(s): 129-140                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 April 2021

 Mwanja Eric Muhia
Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management at the University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Mary Nyawira Mwenda
Lecturer, School of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

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[36] OECD (2018). The Impact of Legal Frameworks on Women’s Economic Empowerment around the World: challenges and good practices.
[37] Mugenda O. M & Mugenda A. G (2008). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi, Acts Press.

Mwanja Eric Muhia, Dr. Mary Nyawira Mwenda , “Socio-Economic Factors and Sustainability of Women Empowerment Groups in Pastoralist Communities in Kenya: A Case of Tiaty Sub-County, Baringo County” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.129-140 March 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/129-140.pdf

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Zimbabwe in Covid-19 Lockdown: The Benefits and Shortcomings of Online Learning in Open Distance e-learning Institutions of Zimbabwe

Mukomana Saziso, Prof Sylod Chimhenga, Dr John Mpofu- March 2021 Page No.: 141-145

During the lockdown period for Covid-19, online learning has been the best platform to keep learners/lecturers engaged and safe by maintaining social distancing. Through online learning, students often face a number of challengesto their full participation in coursework units. The online environment also presents challenges for many academic staff that increasingly require higher levels of technological competency and proficiency on top of their regular academic workload. This study adopted the qualitative research paradigm in which a case study design was used. The design was considered appropriate because it enabled the researchers to interact with the participants in their natural settings on the phenomenon in its original form. The study was confined to Zimbabwe Open University, Bulawayo Regional Campus students and tutors only and it sought to establish the challenges learners experience in using the online learning platform during the Covid-19 lockdown. The findings show that participants still lack the knowledge on what online learning is all about and the different types of media used and how to use them in different environments.

Page(s): 141-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 April 2021

 Mukomana Saziso
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Teacher Education

  Prof Sylod Chimhenga
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Disability Studies and Special Needs Education

  Dr John Mpofu
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Media studies

[1] Arasaratnam, L. A. & Northcote, M. (2017). Community in Online Higher Education: Challenges and Opportunities. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 15(2), 188-198.
[2] Baker, G. (2010). The impact of instructor immediacy and presence for online student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. The Journal of Educators Online, 7(1), 1-30. Retrieved from http://www.anitacrawley.net/Articles/BakerPaper.pdf
[3] Bates, A. W. (2020). Advice to those about to teach online because of the corona-virus. 9 March. https://www.tonybates.ca/2020/03/09/advice-to-those-about-to-teach-online-because-of-the-corona-virus/ . Accessed 30 April 2020.
[4] Cresswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and Conducting mixed method research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[5] Duran, A., Cornejo, J., & Flores, J. (2017). Competitive advantages with the use of ICT (moodle) in the new curriculum at the University of Guadalajara, México. Competition Forum, 15(2), 319-323.
[6] Gomez, P.; Barbera, E. & Fernández, F. (2016). Measuring teachers and learners’ perceptions of the quality of their online learning experience. Distance Education, 37(2), 146-163. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2016.1184396 accessed 22June 2020
[7] Ioannou, A. Demetriou, S. & Mama, M. (2014). Exploring factors influencing collaborative knowledge construction in online discussions: student facilitation and quality of initial postings. The American Journal of Distance Education, 28, 183-195.
[8] Kwon, K., & Park, S. J. (2017). Effects of discussion representation: Comparisons between social and cognitive diagrams. Instructional Science, 45(4), 469-491. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251- 017-9412-6
[9] Oroma, J. O., Wanga, H., & Fredrick, N. (2012). Challenges of e-learning in developing countries: The Ugandan experience. In Proceedings of INTED2012 Conference, 5th-7th March. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.4754.1448
[10] Sife, A., Lwoga, E., & Sanga, C. (2007). New technologies for teaching and learning: Challenges for higher learning institutions in developing countries. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 3(2).

Mukomana Saziso, Prof Sylod Chimhenga, Dr John Mpofu, “Zimbabwe in Covid-19 Lockdown: The Benefits and Shortcomings of Online Learning in Open Distance e-learning Institutions of Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.141-145 March 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/141-145.pdf

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Challenges faced by Combined Schools in Masaiti district which hinders the provision of Quality Education

Mufalo Mutau Setwin, Sanny Mulubale, Gistered Muleya, Simui Francis – March 2021 – Page No.: 146-154

This paper discusses challenges faced by combined schools in Masaiti district which hinders the provision of quality education. A mixed methods concurrent triangulation model was used in the study. The study was conducted in all the 8 purposively sampled combined schools in Masaiti district on the Copperbelt province of Zambia. The study sample had 138 respondents comprising 77 females and 61 males. Teachers and pupils were randomly selected while school administrators and the Ministry of General Education officials were purposively sampled. Focus Group Discussions, semi-structured interviews & mixed questionnaires were the research instruments used during data collection. Pupils, school administrators and the Ministry of General Education officials were interviewed while teachers responded to a questionnaire. Qualitative data was thematically analysed while quantitative data was analysed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study revealed that all combined schools in Masaiti district faced many challenges which hindered the provision of quality education to learners. Some of these challenges were; lack of teaching and learning materials, inadequate infrastructure, sexual harassment among learners, lack of parental involvement in school activities, inadequate qualified teachers and long distances covered by learners to school among others. Due to these challenges, it was revealed that these schools were recording very poor final examination results at junior secondary school level more especially in Social Studies from the time they were upgraded in 2017. But little was being done to mitigate these challenges. Based on the research findings therefore, the study recommended that the Ministry of General Education should collaborate with parents and other relevant stakeholders in order to mitigate these challenges by providing necessary teaching/learning materials and embark on construction of school infrastructure which will improve the provision of quality education in combined schools.

Page(s): 146-154                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 April 2021

 

 Mufalo Mutau Setwin
Mishikishi secondary school, Masaiti, Zambia

  Sanny Mulubale
School of Education, University of Zambia

  Gistered Muleya
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

  Simui Francis
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

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Mufalo Mutau Setwin, Sanny Mulubale, Gistered Muleya, Simui Francis “Challenges faced by Combined Schools in Masaiti district which hinders the provision of Quality Education” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.146-154 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/146-154.pdf

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Variations in Social Media Use and Narcissism Conduct among Students in Colleges of Education on the Copperbelt, Zambia

Harry Jordan Silomba, Professor Sophie Kasonde Ng’andu- March 2021 Page No.: 155-160

This study investigated the variations in social media usage with regard to Narcissism conduct among students in colleges of education. The study utilised the survey method to solicit data from a sample of five hundred and seventy-nine (579) college students who were drawn from three (3) public and three (3) private colleges of education on the Copperbelt. Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI 12) were utilised to determine student’s social media use and narcissistic behaviour. The findings indicated that Facebook and WhatsApp were the commonly used platforms and that their adoption depended upon demographic variables of gender, age, year of study and college status. The study also finds a high degree of narcissism in students that leads to troubling levels. Therefore, the study suggests early screening, accompanied by effective counselling interventions to inculcate a sense of self-worth.

Page(s): 155-160                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 April 2021

 Harry Jordan Silomba
Lecturer, Educational Psychology, Mufulira College of Education Zambia

 Professor Sophie Kasonde Ng’andu
Senior lecturer, Department of Psychology Sociology and Special Education, University of Zambia

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Harry Jordan Silomba1*, Professor Sophie Kasonde Ng’andu “Variations in Social Media Use and Narcissism Conduct among Students in Colleges of Education on the Copperbelt, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.155-160 March 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/155-160.pdf

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Influence of School Location and Interest in Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Mathematics Niger State Nigeria

Dr. A.Musbahu; Oluyemo A. A; Jesse. V. S; Alhassan D. Safo & Dr. I. Amos- March 2021 – Page No.: 161-167

This study assessed the influence of school location and interest on secondary school students’ academic achievement in mathematics in Niger state, Nigeria. Correlation Survey design was adopted for the study. The target population for this study consisted of 5,368 (2,705 males and 2,663 females) JSS 1 students in the 2012/2013 academic session from 92 public and private Junior Secondary Schools in Zone ’B’ of Niger State. The sample of this study consisted of 361 (265 students in urban area and 96 students in rural areas) and multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was employed in the selection. Two instruments were developed for the study which consisted of an Inventory on Students’ Interest in Mathematics (ISIM) and a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). Descriptive statistics (mean and Standard Deviation), biseria correlation and its associated simple regression of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method were used to establish relationship between the variables and to test null hypothesis at the 0.05 level of significance. The instruments were validated and the reliability coefficient was established using the test-retest method. The data obtained were analyzed using mean with the criterion mean set at 2.5. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between interestand urban students’ achievement in mathematics; and significant relationship between interest and rural students’ achievements in Mathematics test. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended amongst other things that Government should provide incentives that will attract qualified teachers in having interest in teaching in the rural areas and parents in rural areas should help their children to maintain interest in mathematics. This can be done through adopting good strategies.

Page(s): 161-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 April 2021

 

 Oluyemo A. A
Niger State College of Education, MINNA, Niger State, Nigeria

 Jesse. V. S
Niger State College of Education, MINNA, Niger State, Nigeria

 Alhassan D. Safo
Niger State College of Education, MINNA, Niger State, Nigeria

 Dr. I. Amos
Niger State College of Education, MINNA, Niger State, Nigeria

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[7] Anikweze, C. M. (2010).Measurement and evaluation for teacher education. Enugu: SNAAP Press Ltd.
[8] Emaikwu, S. O. (2011) Assessment of the Impact of Students’ Mode of Admission into University and their Academic Achievement in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 1(3), 151-164
[9] Musa A. Bala D. &Umar M. (2016).Gender differencesin achievement goals and performancein English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria.Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org. ISSN 2222-1735 (paper) ISSN 2222-2X. VOL.7. NO. 27, 201.165
[10] Nnenna, G. E. (2018). Influence of gender and school location on senior secondary school students’ achievement in Biology in Agbani Education zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735, ISSN 2222-288X. Volume 9, No. 21 2018, 45-51
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[13] Okorie, E. &Ezeh, D. N (2016). Influence of gender and location on students’ achievement in chemical bonding. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.

Dr. A.Musbahu; Oluyemo A. A; Jesse. V. S; Alhassan D. Safo & Dr. I. Amos “Influence of School Location and Interest in Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement in Mathematics Niger State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.161-167 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/161-167.pdf

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Needs Analysis on the Competence of Secondary School Mathematics Teachers: Springboard for a Teacher Training Module

Rey Avila Mangarin, Liezel V. Chan – March 2021 – Page No.: 168-177

The purpose of this quantitative non-experimental descriptive-comparative research was to generate a Teacher Training Program for Mathematics Teachers based on an Input-Output (IO) Model addressing the needs competence of Mathematics teachers in a certain Division of DepEd Region XI. Online survey on the Needs Analysis utilizing google form was conducted considering complete enumeration and in the analysis of data mean, t-test, and ANOVA were used. The results showed of all seven dimensions, two are in high level competence which are planning instruction and managing instruction; while the other five are in very high level which are: improving personal competence, specifying objectives for instruction, diagnosing and evaluating learning, delivering instruction, and administering instructional facilities and equipment. Further, it was found out that there was no significant difference on the competence of Mathematics teachers when analyzed by length of service, position, educational attainment, and age. The Teacher Training Program proposed is a two-week self-management learning program utilizing the Planning and Managing Instruction Effectively: A Self-Regulated Module formulated by the researcher.

Page(s): 168-177                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5309

 

 Rey Avila Mangarin
Student, MAEd Teaching Mathematics, The University of Mindanao

 Liezel V. Chan
Dean, College, UM Panabo College

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Rey Avila Mangarin, Liezel V. Chan “Needs Analysis on the Competence of Secondary School Mathematics Teachers: Springboard for a Teacher Training Module” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.168-177 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5309

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Revisiting Indigenous Institutions for Leadership Revival in Africa

Johnson Olawale BAMIGBOSE, Omowumi BOBOYE – March 2021 – Page No.: 178-182

The crisis of governance in Africa has call forpublic outcry over the years. This crisis has eventually led to several challenges including leadership mistrust, climate change, economic recession, youth unemployment, violent conflicts, corruption, sustainable housing, transportation and cities, demography and the youth question, food security, population and city planning quagmires. Quite disturbing is the continual dependence on their colonial masters to champion the path of development even in the 21st century global arena. Hence, development continues to be a mirage in the desert as a result of weak and corrupt political leadership associated with the continent. Based on the foregoing, this paper dwelling on the descriptive and analytical methods revisited the indigenous institutions of Yoruba Obaship as a lesson for leadership revival in Africa. This becomes imminent as the present governance structure has failed to fully address the identified development conundrums. Indigenous institutions should be seen as what can be tagged “Tiwa N Tiwa” and so the lessons garnered can be used in reviving the culture of political leadership in the land. In the same vein, structural-functionalism approach was adopted to explain the imperativeness of indigenous leadership as subjects pay more loyalty to their belief system compare to the over-bloated modern democracy. The paper recommends a revivification of indigenous leadership styles, collaborative governance by both democratic and traditional institutions and incorporation of the indigenous virtues into the political leadership among others.

Page(s): 178-182                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 April 2021

 

 Johnson Olawale BAMIGBOSE
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

  Omowumi BOBOYE
Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

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Johnson Olawale BAMIGBOSE, Omowumi BOBOYE “Revisiting Indigenous Institutions for Leadership Revival in Africa” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.178-182 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/178-182.pdf

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Assessment of Sorghum/Soybean Farmer’s Perception on the Benefits of Strip Intercropping Techniques In Tofa Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria

IMAM A. B, Ogundele O. T, Elachi M. S, Bogunmbe A. A- March 2021 Page No.: 183-187

The study assessed sorghum/soybean farmer’s perception on the benefits of strip intercropping techniques in Tofalocal government area of Kano State, Nigeria.Data for the study was obtained through the use of structured questionnaire administered on seventy-five(75) respondents. Two specific objectives were raised; to determine the benefit derived by sorghum/soybean strip intercropping farmer before adoption and after adoption in terms of output and to describe sorghum/soybean farmers’ perceptions on other benefits of strip intercropping techniques and sources of information regarding the techniques. Result of study shows that100% ofthe respondents practiced sorghum/soybean strip intercropping techniques at 4:4 crop arrangements where TGX-1835-10E and TGX-1448-2E soybean varieties and CSR01, SK, ICSV400 and GAYA EARLY sorghum varieties were used for the period of 4 years, giving rise to 2-rotations.The study revealsed that there was high increase in the level of output gotten by the farmer, soil fertility restored, incidences of pest and disease infestation reduced and reduction in maturity periods of crops. The problems reportedwere that of the first and third sorghum varieties given (SK and ICSV400 sorghum varieties) in which the former displays a misfit to their ecology and the latera short stalk and small seeds similar to their local varieties, and also constraint of not having basic farm inputs to carry out their farming activities was also reported and a meager cases of insect pest infestation. Conclusively, this technique is highly beneficial to the farmers in the study area. It is therefore recommended that inputs should be made available to these farmers before the rainfall season.

Page(s): 183-187                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 April 2021

 IMAM A. B
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

 Ogundele O. T
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

 Elachi M. S
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

 Bogunmbe A. A
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

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[5] James. A.O (2006). Improve Agronomic Practices of Maize, Sorghum and Millet. Unpublished Paper Presented at a Seminar for Kano and Kaduna State Extension agents IITA Local Government Desk Officers on Gatsby Project Held at IITA Kano Station 16th May 2006
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[7] Singh, B.B. ,andAjeigbe H.A. (2001). Breeding Improved Cowpea Varieties for Different Cropping Systems and Agro-ecologies in West Africa. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings.5: 35-41.

IMAM A. B, Ogundele O. T, Elachi M. S, Bogunmbe A. A, “Assessment of Sorghum/Soybean Farmer’s Perception on the Benefits of Strip Intercropping Techniques In Tofa Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.183-187 March 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/183-187.pdf

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Effect of political extremism on the link between the feeling of threat to group’s image and intergroup hostility: The case of the expressions Tontinards and Sardinards in the Cameroonian context

Gustave Adolphe MESSANGA, Sabine Flore NGASSOM PENTCHEU, & Sonia NPIANE NGONGUEU- March 2021 – Page No.: 188-193

This study analyzes the effect of political extremism on the link between the feeling of threat to group’s image and intergroup hostility. It tests the hypothesis that political extremism has a moderating effect on the link between the feeling of threat to group’s image and intergroup hostility. Research methodology consisted on the administration of the scales of political extremism (Dono et al.,2018), threat to group’s image, and intergroup hostility (Schaafsma & Kipling, 2012) to 397 participants, including 221 Bamiléké and 176 Béti whose age varies between 17 and 59 years (M = 28.05; S.D. = 8.32). The results of the statistical analyzes provide empirical support for the hypothesis of the study. We conclude that this study contributes to the literature on the explanatory factors of intergroup hostility by revealing that the link between that construct and threat to group’s image is moderated by political extremism.

Page(s): 188-193                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5310

 

 Gustave Adolphe MESSANGA
Department of Philosophy-Psychology-Sociology, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Sabine Flore NGASSOM PENTCHEU
Department of Philosophy-Psychology-Sociology, University of Dschang, Cameroon

 Sonia NPIANE NGONGUEU
Department of Philosophy-Psychology-Sociology, University of Dschang, Cameroon

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Gustave Adolphe MESSANGA, Sabine Flore NGASSOM PENTCHEU, & Sonia NPIANE NGONGUEU “Effect of political extremism on the link between the feeling of threat to group’s image and intergroup hostility: The case of the expressions Tontinards and Sardinards in the Cameroonian context” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.188-193 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5310

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Role of Institutional Capacity Factors and Technological Practices in Implementation of Food Security Projects in Hamisi Sub-County, Vihiga County, Kenya

Asige Mmaitsi Lawrence & Obushe Dennis Omuse – March 2021 – Page No.: 194-201

This paper sought to establish the role of organizational capacity factors and technological practices in implementation of food security projects in Hamisi Sub-County, Vihiga County, Kenya. Specific objectives of the study were to establish the extent to which institutional capacity and technological practices influence implementation of food security projects in Hamisi Sub-County. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study .The study was conducted in all the 24 producer groups in the sub-County. Questionnaires and interview guides were used as main data collection instruments. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis process. The results showed that institutional capacity and technological practices influenced the successful implementation of the projects in the sub-County to a great extent. It was further noted that institutional capacity has a very strong significant correlation with successful implementation of food security initiatives in the sub-County. In regard to technological practices, it was further established that they had a very strong significant correlation with the successful implementation of food security initiatives. The results show that most of the efforts were failing due to poor institutional capacity factors and also low application of targeted technological applications aimed at driving these projects to success. It is therefore recommended that success in food security initiatives depend on institutional capacity and application of effective technological practices. Key stakeholders should endeavor to strengthen the above factors for effective implementation of these initiatives in the study area.

Page(s): 194-201                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5311

 

 Asige Mmaitsi Lawrence
Department of Social Studies, School of Arts, Humanities ,Social Sciences and Creative Industries
Maasai Mara University, Narok County, Kenya

 Obushe Dennis Omuse
Department of Social Studies, School of Arts, Humanities ,Social Sciences and Creative Industries
Maasai Mara University, Narok County, Kenya

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Asige Mmaitsi Lawrence & Obushe Dennis Omuse “Role of Institutional Capacity Factors and Technological Practices in Implementation of Food Security Projects in Hamisi Sub-County, Vihiga County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.194-201 March 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5311

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Reasons why female adults are choosing to undergo Chinamwali– the initiation ceremony for girls in Petauke, Zambia

Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe – March 2021 – Page No.: 202-206

Societies preserve their norms, values, behaviours, customs and beliefs through various cultural ceremonies. Chinamwali the initiation ceremony for girls among the Nsenga cultural grouping in Zambia has been in existence for centuries. Pubertal girls are initiated during chinamwali to prepare them for adulthood and expected social roles they will play. In recent years, chinamwali is rapidly becoming popular among adult females- a stray from the ordained norm. Mothers with children, eagerly enrol to be trained. The objective of this study was to find out reasons prompting adult females to enrol in the cultural school yet their ages are far beyond the adolescent age- band. The study used a cross-sectional study design with a qualitative approach. Using the single-interview per participant, 12 respondents participated in the study. The study found that female adults enrolled for chinamwali training to end stigma and discrimination associated with not being initiated. Some did so out of frustration and anger following scandalization by their ex-sexual partners that they lacked cultural knowledge and skills to impress a man in bed. Others enrolled in the traditional school as part of marriage preparation. Still some chose to receive instructions and skills necessary to assist them save their crumbling marriages. Chinamwali is receiving remarkable appreciation from the women folk in Petauke- Zambia. Conservative information on gender roles and the wide-ranging in-depth sexuality lessons and demonstrations among others are catching the ear of adult females. Motivated to experience social change in their lives, these new mature cultural students willingly, at a huge sacrifice, pause by laying aside all parental responsibilities temporarily, by going back to their roots to be coached traditional principles.

Page(s): 202-206                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5312

 Jordan Tembo
Kalindawalo General Hospital, P.O.Box 560008, Petauke, Zambia

 Patricia Mambwe
Departments of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Rusangu University, Monze, Zambia

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Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe “Reasons why female adults are choosing to undergo Chinamwali– the initiation ceremony for girls in Petauke, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.202-206 March 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5312

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Desertification and Its Implications On farmers-Herders Conflicts in Nigeria: An Analytical Appraisal

Muktar Bashir – March 2021 – Page No.: 207-211

The paper appraised the scourge of farmers-herdsmen conflict in Nigeria. The growing desertification and the effects of climate change have further increased the drive for the herdsmen to move further southward in search of grazing land and pasture for their livestock. The conflict has been one of the thorny security issues encroaching the corporate existence of the country particularly due to an aborted attempt by the federal government to establish the ‘RUGA’ settlement as a panacea. The paper used documentary sources to discuss and analyse the issues surrounding the causes and solutions to the problem. It was found that unless the federal government and other stakeholders make necessary steps especially reviving, reforming and remodelling the 1965 Northern Region Government’s Grazing Reserve System as well as afforestation programs, the menace would continue to remain a threat to the corporate survival of the country.

Page(s): 207-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 April 2021

 Muktar Bashir
Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1] Adisa, R.S. (2012). Land Use Conflict between Farmers and Herdsmen – Implications for Agricultural and Rural Development in Nigeria, Rural Development – Contemporary Issues and Practices. http://www.intechopen.com/books/rural-development-contemporaryissues-and-practices/land-use-conflictbetween-famers-and-herdsmenimplications-for-agricultural-and-rural-development-in. Accessed 10 June 2020.
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[3] Akujobi, C.T., Ebitari, S. &Amuzie, H.O. (2016).Arable land resource conflict in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Development,7(1-2), 39-65.
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[5] Bello, A (2013) Herders and farmers conflicts in North-Eastern Nigeria: Causes, Repercussions and Resolutions. University Farm Research, Yobe state University, Damaturu, Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary studies Rome: MCSER-CEMAS Sapienza University of Rome, 2 (5).
[6] Bello, M. (2015). How to Solve the Fulani Herdsmen Versus Farmers Clashes in Nigeria by MIYETTI Allah, Premium Times Online Newspaper, 14 October 2015 Available at: Accessed 10 June 2020
[7] Blench, R. (2004). National resources conflict in North-Central Nigeria: A handbook and case studies. MallamDendo Ltd.
[8] Crisis Group, (2018). Stopping Nigeria’s Spiralling Farmer-Herder Violence.https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/west-africa/nigeria/262-stopping-nigerias-spiralling-farmer-herder-violence. Accessed: 11th June 2020.
[9] Djire, M., Polack, E. and Cotula, L. (2014). Developing Tools to secure land rights in West Africa: a ‘Bottom Up’ approach. Land Acquisitions and Rights. In: International Institute for Environment and Development. http://pubs.iied.org/17216IIED.html?c=land. Accessed 21 June 2020.
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[14] Godwin, A (2018) Amnesty International Reveals How Many Nigerians Fulani Herdsmen Killed in 2018’ Daily Post News of 30 January 2018. Available at: Accessed on 7 July 2018. Duru, Peter (2016). 10,500 Persons
[15] Displaced in Herdsmen Farmers Clash in Nigeria. Vanguard online Newspaper, 29 February 2016 Available at: Accessed 6 June 2018.
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[20] Oberschall, A. (1978). Theories of social conflict. Annual Review of Sociology, 4:291-315.
[21] Oyama, S. (2018). Reverse thinking and African potentials to combat desertification in the West African Sahel: Applying local greening techniques born from drought and famine in the 1970s. African study monographs. Supplementary issue, 57: 95-120. https://doi.org/10.14989/233010.
[22] Reenberg, A., Nielsen,T.L. & Rasmussen,K. (1998). Field expansion and reallocation in the Sahel: Land use pattern dynamics in a fluctuating biophysical and socio-economic environment. Global Environmental Change8(4): 309–327.
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[24] Suleiman, A;Victor, E &Binta, M (2017).The menace of cattle rustling and banditry in North-west Nigeria: Acase study of katsina state. Journal of Research and Method in Education (IOSR-JRME).ISSN:2320-737X. Vol.7, Issue 6 Ver. VIII pp 40-47. www.idsrjournal.org
[25] Turner, M.D. (1999). Labor process and the environment: The effects of labor availability and compensation on the quality of herding in the Sahel. Human Ecology, 27(2): 267–296.
[26] Wezel, A. & Haigis, J.(2002). Fallow cultivation system and farmers’ resource management in Niger, West Africa. Land Degradation and Development, 13: 221–231.
[27] World Bank (2012). World Development Indicators 2012. World Bank, Washington D.C.

Muktar Bashir “Desertification and Its Implications On farmers-Herders Conflicts in Nigeria: An Analytical Appraisal” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.207-211 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/207-211.pdf

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The Impact of Rape on Rape Victims and the Characteristics of Rapists in Sri Lanka

Prof. M.W. Jayasundara – March 2021 – Page No.: 212-220

In Sri Lanka, the women were regularly protected in the past by their family members and the comminity. But owing to the modernization and social changesin the country,the status previously enjoyed by womenspecially as regards to their protection has changed. Within this senario as men, the womentoo have started movingmostly alone in the society.In consequence some men seek sexual gratification in socially unaccepted manners. Thus, the rape of women has increased rapidly for the last two decade. The rape rate has plunged forwards from 6.8 in 2001 to 8.2 to in 2019. The increse in the number of rape incidents in the country has created a real conundrum for women as well as for the peaceful existance of the whole society.
This study was carried out with the objective of identifying the nature and causes of rapes and the impact of rapes on the victimsin the society at large. Further, the nature of the rapists was also amain concern of this study. The data were collected by conducting semi-structured interviewes and case studies with 60 victimes of rape, selected from twelve districts consisting of 3 to 8 victimes from each district in Sri Lanka. The study has revealed that less educated women between 16 to 25 years of age haveoften becom victims of rape than in the other age categories. However, thewomen over 65 years of age had become victims. The mentally retarted and the disabled women have often been the easy praysfor rapists and those who were alone at home during the day time also had become the victims of rape. Of the perpetrators 85% were known to the victims and their relatives, their lovers and neighbours had also been found among them. Ignorance,deception, loneliness and isolation at home, walking alone shady roads, physical or mental disabiltities were the main casuses to have fallen victims of rape.Among the perpetrators 20%(n=12) were alcohol abusers while 13.3% (n=8) were drugs and alcohol abusers.
The study suggests that the provision of proper protection for women who walk alongthe solitary roads and the women who stay all alone at home minimize the number of rape victims. Further young women should be educated with respect to the impact of forced sexual intercourse and deception by men for their mere sexual gratifiction.

Page(s): 212-220                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5313

 

 Prof. M.W. Jayasundara
Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

[1] Abbey, A. (2019) Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault: A Common Problem among College Student. In ncbi.nlm.nih.gov//pmc/articlesPMC 4484270/ Retrieved 31.12.2020
[2] Adler, F., Mueller, G.O.W., Laufer, W.S. (1995) Criminology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
[3] Adler, P.A., Adler, P. (2007) Sociological Odyssey. USA: Thomson Wadsworth Bull R., Cooke, C., Hatcher R., et.al. (2006) Criminal Psychology a beginner’s guide. Oxford: One World Publications.
[4] Curran, D.J., Renzetti C.M. (1994) Theories of Crime. USA: Allyn and Bacon
[5] Livingston, J. (1992) Crime and Criminology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
[6] McNamara, R.H., (2014) Juvenile Delinquency: Bridging Theory to Practice.New York: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
[7] Mealey, L. (2003) Combatting Rape: Views of an evolutionary psychologists.
[8] In R. Bloom & N. Dess (Eds.), Evolutionary Psychology and Violence (pp. 83-113). Westport, CT: Praeger.
[9] Penal Code of Sri Lanka (1883) Colombo: Ceylon Government Press.
[10] Qadri, S.M.A. (1977) AHMAD SIDDIQUE’S Criminology: Penology and Victimology. Lucknow: Eastern Book Company.
[11] Radhakrishnan, S., Moore, C.A. (1957) A Source Book in Indian Philosophy.NJ: Princeton University Press.
[12] Reports of the Inspector General of Police, 2001-2019.
[13] Siegel, L.J. (2010) Criminology: Theories, Patterns and Typologies. USA: Wadsworth.
[14] Thornhill, R., & Palmer, C. (2000) A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion. Cambridge: MIT Press.
[15] Vold, Bernard (1986) Theoretical Criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[16] Wales, A., Hemmens, C. (2011) Introduction to Criminology. USA: Sage Publication Inc.

Prof. M.W. Jayasundara “The Impact of Rape on Rape Victims and the Characteristics of Rapists in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.212-220 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5313

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Affirming the Differently Abled on the Indian Silver Screen: A study of Black and Hichki

Mouli Sarkar – March 2021 – Page No.: 221-224

This paper attempts to focus on two contemporary Indian movies on the relation between the differently challenged persons, particularly women, and the social dynamics, Black (2005), and Hichki (2018). Seen against the tradition of Indian Cinema, in particular, and of popular culture in this subcontinent, in general, such productions crucially depart from the conventional cultural tradition by foregrounding the so-called disabled persons as fighters against the socio-cultural receptions of the subject body and codes of ‘normalcy’. They are further set within the contemporary human rights movements. This study in social science of the relation between normalcy, power and culture in the above mentioned two movies is, therefore, framed within the theoretical discourse of Disability and Cultural Studies and look forward to a democratic society based on equality, freedom and justice.

Page(s): 221-224                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5314

 Mouli Sarkar
Assistant Lecturer of English, Bengal Institute of Polytechnic (Affiliated to WBSCTVESD, Kolkata) Birbhum, West Bengal

[1] Barker, Clare, Stuart Murray. “Disabling Postcolonialism: Global Disability Cultures and Democratic Criticism.” The Disability Studies Reader. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. London and New York: Routledge, 2013. 61-73.
[2] Black. Dir. Sanjoy Leela Bansali. Perf. Amitabh Bachchan, Rani Mukherjee. Prod. Sanjay Leela Bhansali and Anshuman Swami. 2005. Film.
[3] Byrne, David. Social Exclusion. Jaipur, New Delhi: Rawat Pub., 2015.
[4] Davis, Lennard J. Introduction. The Disability Studies Reader. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. London and New York: Routledge, 2013.
[5] Das Gupta, Chidananda. The Cinema of Satyajit Ray. National Book Trust, 2001.
[6] Hichki. Dir. Siddharth P. Malhotra. Perf. Rani Mukherjee. Prod. Maneesh Sharma. 2018. Film.
[7] Mitchell, David T. and Sharon L. Snyder. 2000. Narrative Prosthesis: Disability and the Dependencies of Discourse. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
[8] Moylan, Tom. Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination. Bern:Peter Lang, 2014.
[9] Moylan, Tom. Introduction to the Classics Edition. Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination. By Tom Moylan. Bern: Peter Lang, 2014. ix-xxviii.
[10] Ray, Satyajit. Deep Focus: Reflections on Cinema. Ed. Sandip Ray. Foreword. Shyam Benegal. Harper Collins Pub, 2011. Print.
[11] Roulstone, Alan, Carol Thomas and Nick Watson. “The changing terrain of disability studies”. Routledge Handbook of Disability Studies. Ed. Carol Thomas, Alan Roulstone and Nick Watson. London and New York: Routledge, 2012. 03-11.
[12] Said, Edward. “In the Shadow of the West.” Power, Politics and Culture: Interviews with Edward Said. Ed. Gauri Viswanathan. London: Bloomsbury, 2005. 39–52.
[13] Shildrik, Margrit. “Critical Disability Studies: Rethinking the Conventions for the Age of Postmodernity.” Routledge Handbook of Disability. Eds. Nick Watson, Alan Roulstone, and Carol Thomas. London and New York: Routledge, 2012. 30-41.
[14] Williams, Raymond. “Cinema and Socialism.” Politics of Modernism: Against New Conformists.Ed. Tony Pinkey. London and New York: Verso, 2007. 107-118.

Mouli Sarkar “Affirming the Differently Abled on the Indian Silver Screen: A study of Black and Hichki” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.221-224 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5314

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The Necessity of Vocational Training as a Tool for Empowering Rural Women in Ward Five, Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe

Florence Jura – March 2021 – Page No.: 225-231

The study evaluated the necessity of vocational training as a tool for rural women empowerment. Specifically, the study targeted women in Ward 5 of rural areas in Mashonaland East. The research adopted an interpretivist research philosophy and a qualitative research approach with which case study research design was used. Data was generated through face-to-face interviews and questionnaire using convenience sampling. The targeted population were the women in one of Mashonaland East`s rural constituencies. The study found that rural women remain side lined from participating in vocational training due to distance barriers, socio-economic status, education, beliefs systems and socialisation systems. Results also show that vocational training was of much significance in their empowerment as rural women. Acquiring skills like gardening skills had helped women to start their own livelihood projects to the benefit of the country. One of the main recommendations of the study was that there was need to move away from the donor syndrome to a more sustainable paradigm which has long lasting benefits.

Page(s): 225-231                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 April 2021

 Florence Jura
Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe

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Florence Jura “The Necessity of Vocational Training as a Tool for Empowering Rural Women in Ward Five, Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.225-231 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/225-231.pdf

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Open Sources Library Software Usage and Performance of Higher Education Institutions

Abdulmalik Bappah Mahmood – March 2021 – Page No.: 232-238

The introduction of digital technology has accelerated the library’s subscription to online resources including e-journals, e-books, and reference management software in higher education institutions. The open source library software in particular has deepened the availability of electronic resources and extends the boundaries of academic research. The aim of this study is to investigate in impact of open source library software usage on the overall performance of higher education institutions. A cross sectional research design was used and data was collected from 252 respondents. The data was analysed with SPSS carrying out correlation and regression analysis. Result of the study indicates that, high level usage of open source library software has significant impact on the performance of Higher education institutions. This indicates that adoption of open source library software tends to beneficial and impact positively on the performance of both students and faculties in higher education institutions in developing countries as it would help in designing education policies and programmes. It is therefore recommended that more resources should be provided for ICT infrastructure and skilled manpower for the implementation and use of Open Source Library Software among guarantee appropriate Librarians.

Page(s): 232-238                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5315

 

 Abdulmalik Bappah Mahmood
Department of Library, Federal College of Education, Yola, Nigeria

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Abdulmalik Bappah Mahmood “Open Sources Library Software Usage and Performance of Higher Education Institutions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.232-238 March 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5315

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Treasury Single Account Compliance: Accounting Practices for Effectiveness and Sustainability in Institutions

Raji Gbolagade Mojeed & Adekola Adeola Adebayo, Opadotun Tunde Adewumi – March 2021 – Page No.: 239-247

This study considered treasury single account compliance as an accounting practice for effective and sustainability in institutions. The general objective is on how treasury single account could plug leakages within the system, while the specific objective would be on how treasury single account could dovetail into a transparent reportage in a system. Legitimacy theory and public finance management theory adopted for the treasury single account, therefore foresees that government will implement policies to guarantee the society and that agencies are complying by disclosing all transactions in treasury single account. This study was based on the data from both primary source and empirical works of previous researchers. The questionnaires were administered to the bursary staff of The Polytechnic in Ibadan. The questions were on the five-point Likert type questions, with a choice of strongly agree to strongly disagree. The data gathered were analyzed using chi-square statistical packages for social sciences. Data were gathered from the questionnaires analyzed using chi-square in SPSS, and findings revealed that treasury single account compliance have a significant effect in the effective accounting practices and sustainability in institution. This paper concluded that loss of revenue has a multitude of collision on effects, including the fact that lower revenue means that less money will be available to provide facilities for sustainability. Therefore, this paper recommends that, the effectiveness of treasury single account compliance (TSAC) should be broadminded for the sustainability in institutions. There should be seal for both transparency and accountability to block the leakages within the system. The permissible laws should be appraised and adapted where mandatory training should be offered to appropriate bursary staff of The Polytechnic Ibadan to guarantee effective operation.

Page(s): 239-247                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5316

 Raji Gbolagade Mojeed
Department of Accountancy, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria

 Adekola Adeola Adebayo
Department of Accountancy, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria

 Opadotun Tunde Adewumi
Department of Accountancy, Adeseun Ogundoyin Polytechnic, Eruwa, Nigeria

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Raji Gbolagade Mojeed & Adekola Adeola Adebayo, Opadotun Tunde Adewumi “Treasury Single Account Compliance: Accounting Practices for Effectiveness and Sustainability in Institutions” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.239-247 March 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5316

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A literature review of adult lifelong learning in Bangladesh for the medium of knowledge of society

Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan, Yuke Shen, Kamrul islam – March 2021 – Page No.: 248-255

This study sought to investigate the historical background taking place the buildup concept of lifelong learning in Bangladesh and the learning society. It makes the knowledge center medium a possible institutional standard for the implementation of adult lifelong learning in Bangladesh. Implications of the knowledge center as a standard for lifelong learning in Bangladesh are explain by means of the container of representation on similarities as well as comparison with China. Eventually, lifelong knowledge education from the current study of the Asia-Pacific region are reviewed with regard to the advancement of strategic objectives aim to deliver adult and lifelong learning in Bangladesh point of view through and across the medium knowledge of society.

Page(s): 248-255                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5317

 Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan
Faculty of Education, Southwest University Chongqing, China

 Yuke Shen
Faculty of Education, Southwest University Chongqing, China

 Kamrul islam
Md Entrepreneurship Education Wenzhou University, China

[1] Ahmed, M. (2009) The State and Development of Adult Learning and Education in Asia and thePacific Regional Synthesis Report (Hamburg: UIL).
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[8] Delors, J. (Chair) (1996) Learning: The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the InternationalCommission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (Highlights) (Paris: UNESCO),http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001095/109590eo.pdf (accessed on 1 April 2014).
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Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan, Yuke Shen, Kamrul islam “A literature review of adult lifelong learning in Bangladesh for the medium of knowledge of society” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.248-255 March 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5317

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Gender Roles in D. E. K. Krampah’s Mbofra Mfa Adwene: A Feminist Critique

Esther Asare, Ernest Nyamekye – March 2021 – Page No.: 256-263

Literary writers have always been influenced by their environment. They consciously or subconsciously include society’s take on gender issues in their writings. In many societies, males and females are assigned different roles based on their gender, which they play in consonance with their age limits. Literary writers tend to hide behind language to portray gender stereotypes in literary works. For some time now, feminism has been a well-used literary criticism approach. It has been used as a tool to criticize gender roles, especially the representation of women in literary works in general. Feminist literary critics argue that the representation of women in most literary works shows a large equality gap between males and females. These inequalities are often measured in literature by diction, characterization, setting and other rhetorical devices. Substantial data in the literature show that whereas male writers often write to present the position of women in society and their social expectations, most of which are related to marriage, female writers accordingly, present the different female responses to these social norms and the objection of the position of women in society. Following these trends of analysis, this paper analyzes the kind of gender roles that some Akan male writers assign to their male and female characters to ascertain whether males and females are indeed presented as equals in literary texts. The paper adopts a radical feminist approach to literary criticism and analyses D. E. K. Krampah’s novel, Mbofra Mfa Adwene(1970).

Page(s): 256-263                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 April 2021

 

 Esther Asare
University of Cape Coast, Department of Ghanaian Languages and Linguistics

 Esther Asare
University of Cape Coast, Department of Arts Education

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Esther Asare, Ernest Nyamekye “Gender Roles in D. E. K. Krampah’s Mbofra Mfa Adwene: A Feminist Critique” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.256-263 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/256-263.pdf

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A Review of resilience effects of single mother entrepreneurs and lifestyle

Ika Indrawaty Hamzah, Farouk Djermani, Idris M. Ben Omran – March 2021 – Page No.: 264-271

There is a need for single mothers to raise the ability to survive to face the complex challenges in their life. These challenges could be seen in work, finance, childcare, and social support. Therefore, developing self-resilience to solve problems and face challenges seems necessary to lead to a productive, healthy life. One way to be taken is to become an entrepreneur who initiates a business to guarantee the family’s economic stability. Several factors are seen to be contributing to the success of single mothers’ entrepreneurial activities, such as skills, training, motivations, and initiatives. This study focuses on the effects of the role of the entrepreneurial resilience and lifestyle of single mothers. Therefore, this study recommends that single mothers deserve assistance in their entrepreneurial journey in order to increase their independence and elevate the self-resilience to livelihood obstacles.

Page(s): 264-271                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 April 2021

 Ika Indrawaty Hamzah
College of Arts and Sciences, School of Education and Modern Languages,

 Farouk Djermani
Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010

 Idris M. Ben Omran
Othman Yeop Abdullah Graduate School of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010

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Ika Indrawaty Hamzah, Farouk Djermani, Idris M. Ben Omran “A Review of resilience effects of single mother entrepreneurs and lifestyle” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.264-271 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/264-271.pdf

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Assessment of Preservice Science Teachers’ Support for Teaching Practice in the Context of Two Teachers’ Colleges in Zimbabwe

C. Mutseekwa and T.D. Mushoriwa – March 2021 – Page No.: 272-278

Using three objectives this study sought to: examine the extent to which mentors provided guidance to pre-service teachers, establish the support type and assess colleges’ support provision.An exploratory sequential mixed methods research design was used to guide the collection and analysis of data. Data were sourced from 18 Science teacher educators and 108 final year Science student teachers through a semi-structured questionnaire, follow-up interviews, focus groups and documents. The findings show that support was in the form of (a) science-teaching theory (b) support materials such as handouts and handbooks with tips on lesson planning and other teaching practice requirements (c) placement in schools for practice (d) provision of mentors (e) occasional workshops and (f) clinical supervision. However, support that targeted science students’ unique requirements was largely found lacking, suggesting the need for practices such as field-based methods courses and educative mentoring that foster closer collaboration between colleges and schools.

Page(s): 272-278                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

 

 C. Mutseekwa
Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura Zimbabwe

 T.D. Mushoriwa
Midlands State University, Gweru Zimbabwe

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C. Mutseekwa and T.D. Mushoriwa “Assessment of Preservice Science Teachers’ Support for Teaching Practice in the Context of Two Teachers’ Colleges in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.272-278 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/272-278.pdf

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Students’ Perceptions on the Role of Christian Religious Education in Promoting Social Cohesion in Kenya

Lydiah Njoki Wachira – March 2021 – Page No.: 279-288

The purpose of this study was to investigate Secondary School Students’ perceptions on the role of Christian Religious Education (CRE) in Promoting Social Cohesion in Kenya. The study objective looked at students’ characteristics;specifically age and gender in relation to their perspectives on the role of Christian Religious Education on promotion of social cohesion in society.. This objectives was supported by a corresponding hypothesis. Review of related literature based on students’ characteristics and social cohesion was carried out. The study used descriptive survey method which employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study targeted form four secondary school studentswho took CRE as one of their subjects of study in Nairobi County, CRE teachers and education officers in the County. The target population was 5550 CRE students, 160 CRE teachers and 8 education officers. From this population a sample of 550 CRE students, 25 CRE teachers and 4 education officers participated in the study. The questionnaire was the main research instrument used to collect data from the students while interview schedules were used to collect data from teachers and education officers. The study findings were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative data was processed and analysed and summarised into frequency tables and percentages. Qualitative data was subjected to content analysis from which relevant information was extracted. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study established that CRE was perceived as an important tool in the promotion of social cohesion in the society. The study further established that students’ age (p=0.030) displayed a significant level of influence on their perspectives and attitude on the role of CRE in social cohesion. However, the students’ gender, did not have such a significant influence. The study recommended as follows; enhancing CRE as a tool for promoting social cohesion, strengthening its teaching methods for social cohesion and integrating the teaching of religious values across all the subjects in the secondary school curriculum. For further research, the study recommended replicating the study in other counties and having a comparative study between rural and urban Counties with a view of finding out if the results would remain the same given the fact many rural counties were occupied by people belonging to one ethnic group while Nairobi is cosmopolitan.

Page(s): 279-288                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5318

 Lydiah Njoki Wachira
University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Lydiah Njoki Wachira “Students’ Perceptions on the Role of Christian Religious Education in Promoting Social Cohesion in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.279-288 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5318

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Consequences of Pre-Marital Sex among Female Undergraduate Student

Alade, T. T. Ph D, Owoeye, S. T, Bamidele, T. O – March 2021 – Page No.: 289-292

The study investigated the consequences of pre-marital sex among female undergraduate students. In many societies, unmarried, single youths are sexually more active than what is commonly realized. There are several factors which encourage the pre-marital sexuality in cities; such as higher mobility and migration of younger people to towns and cities in search of jobs, massive urbanization resulting proliferation of slums, growing population, unemployment, influence of modern mass-media and information technology, better life-style, changing modes and erosion of traditional customs and social norms. The researchers used survey design of the descriptive type of research for the study. The research instrument used for this study was a self – structure closed ended questionnaire designed by the researchers. The sample size of four hundred (400) respondents was used for the study. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques was used for the study. The face, content and construct validity of the instrument was ensured by given draft copies to experts for vetting. The reliability of the instrument was ensured by using the split half method of reliability, a coefficient of 0.78 was obtained. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between vesico-vigina fistula (VVF) and pre-marital sex among undergraduate. It was also concluded that there was significant relationship between ectopic pregnancy and pre-marital sex among undergraduate students. The researchers recommended that management of institutions of learning should organise a seminar or orientation proramme to their female most importantly the newly admitted ones, as this will help to reduce the prevalence of pre-marital sex among them. Female undergraduate students should try to avoid multiple sexual partners in order to avoid ectopic pregnancy.

Page(s): 289-292                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5319

 Alade, T. T. Ph D
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education,
Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti (BOUESTI)

 Owoeye, S. T
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education,
Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti (BOUESTI)

 Bamidele, T. O
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education,
Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti (BOUESTI)

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[3] Assouni-Mindjah, Y. A., Essiben, F., Foumane, P., Dohbit, J. S. & Mboudou, E. T. (2018). Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in a population of Cameroonian women: A case-control study. PLoSONE 13(12), e0207699.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207699.
[4] Bray-Madoue, G., Saleh, A., Serge, R. I,, Tchari A. & Kolombo, D. (2016). Grossesse extra-utérine: Aspects épidémiologiques et Pronostic maternel à l’Hôpital de district de N’djamena sud (Tchad). Kisangani Méd. 6(1),111–116.
[5] Olatunji, M. P. (2019). Consequences of pre-marital sex among undergraduate students of university of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere campus. A project (unpublished) submitted to the department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[6] Sprecher, S. (2014). Evidence of change in men’s versus women’s emotional reactions to first sexual intercourse: a 23-year study in a human sexuality course at a midwestern university. Journal of Sexual Res, 51(4), 466–72.
[7] Stamatakos, M., Sargedi, C. & Konstantinos, K. (2014). Vesicovaginal Fistula: Diagnosis and Management. Indian journal of surgery, 76(2), 131-136.
[8] Hurissa, B. F, Tebeje, B, Megersa, H. (2014). Prevalence of Pre-marital Sexual Practices and Associated Factors among Jimma Teacher Training College Students in Jimma Town, South West Shoa Zone, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Women’s Health Care 4: 221. doi:10.4172/2167-0420.1000221
[9] Raji, M.O., (2018). Knowledge, effect of vesico vaginal fistula (VVF) and satisfaction with VVF repair related services in a fistula repair facility in North Western Nigeria. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research 5 (9), 11-I6.

Alade, T. T. Ph D, Owoeye, S. T, Bamidele, T. O “Consequences of Pre-Marital Sex among Female Undergraduate Student” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.289-292 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5319

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The Impact of Hospitality and Tourism Marketing on Nigeria Economy: Empirical Analysis

Ifediba, Emmanvitalis Emeka Ph.D, Abada, Uchechukwu Daniel Ph.D, ACIB – March 2021 – Page No.: 293-300

The impact of hospitality and tourism on the GDP of a nation cannot be over-emphasized. However, tourism is expected to be a significant contributor to country’s GDP in the future and have impacts on infrastructural development. This study investigated the impact of hospitality and tourism marketing on Nigeria economy. The area of study covers (2) tourist center’s each from Lagos State and Cross River State in Nigeria. The study employed primary data collected in ensuring that valuable data were obtained for the data analysis. A total number of one hundred and twenty (120) copies of questionnaire were administered to staff of the selected tourist Centre’s for which (80) returned were used for analysis. After cleaning and sorting the copies of the accepted questionnaire they were fed into the statistical package for social science (SPSS). The questionnaire was structured in line with the research objectives, questions and hypothesis of the study. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to confirm formulated hypotheses. Among the finding were that hospitality and tourism has poor contribution on Nigeria economy GDP. Also, tourism marketing skills of Nigeria is below average. The study concluded that if tourism sector is properly harnessed it will generate reasonable revenue to government, and recommended that government should provide adequate funds through budgetary allocation and financial aids to tourism Management for effective promotion of tourism in the states

Page(s): 293-300                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

 

 Ifediba, Emmanvitalis Emeka Ph.D
Department of Marketing Madonna University Nigeria, Okija Campus.

 Abada, Uchechukwu Daniel Ph.D, ACIB
Department of Banking And Finance Madonna University Nigeria, Okija Campus.

[1] Aiyamenkhue, E. (2010). Tourism in Nigeria: challenges and prospects. Lecture delivered at the 6th Benin National Merit Award. 27th December.
[2] Aremu, A. B. and Lawal, L. O. (2018). Tourism development and sustainable economic development: Evidence from Southwestern Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, 2(1), 1- 9.
[3] Arome, V., Adah, G., and Victoria M. (2018). Marketing Communications and Tourism: Paradigm For Sustainable Development In Ekiti State Nigeria. Journal of Good Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa, 4(1):80-88
[4] Ashikodi, T.I. (2010). Tourism Development in the coastal region of Nigeria: Economics of Tourism development a shift from oil dependence. From http://www.worldculturelink.org
[5] Chukwuka, C.O. (2013). Economic development of Nigeria: the role of tourism. Unpublished
[6] Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D., Wanhill, S. (2008). Tourism Principles and Practice (4th ed,) Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
[7] Eneji, M, Odey, F and Bullus, M, (2016) Diversification of Nigeria’s Economy; Impact of tourism on sustainable development in Nigeria, International journal of research in Humanities and social sciences vol. 3, Issues 5, ISSN 2394-6288.
[8] Enemuo, O.B. and Oduntan, O. C. (2012). Social impact of tourism development on host communities of Osun Oshogbo Sacred Grove. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(6), 30- 35.
[9] Godfrey, K. & Clarke, J. (2000). Tourism development Handbook London: Continuum Ltd
[10] International Center for Investigative Reporting (ICRI) (2017). Nigeria Announces, ‘Visa on Arrival’ Policy for Foreign Investors. Available from: https://icirnigeria.org/. Accessed 10/10/2017
[11] Khuoje, N. (2013). Africa’s Tourism set to boost economic growth. http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/africa Available: November 2013.
[12] Kolb, B.M. (2006). Tourism Marketing for Cities and Towns. Oxford: Elsivier Limited.
[13] Munzali, D. (2011). Tourism development in Nigeria: challenges and prospects for resource diversification. Available from: https://www.scribd.com/doc/53329130. Accessed 10/03/2018.
[14] Ojo, and John, S. (2014). Managing tourism for socio-economic development in Nigerian Local Government: A case study of Idanre Local Government. Journal of African Studies and Development, 6(2), 29-35.
[15] This day (2017). Nigeria Eases Entry Visa for Foreigners. Available from https://www.thisdaylive.com. Accessed 9/7/2017
[16] WEF (2013). Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013: Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job Creation. Geneva: World Economic Forum
[17] WTTC, (2014). Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 2014: NIGERIA. London: World Travel and Tourism Council Publications. Retrieved on 25th of September, 2014, from www.wttc.org
[18] Yusuff, M. A. and Akinde, M. A (2015). Tourism development and economic growth nexus Nigeria’s Experience. European Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. 3(4) 1-10

Ifediba, Emmanvitalis Emeka Ph.D, Abada, Uchechukwu Daniel Ph.D, ACIB “The Impact of Hospitality and Tourism Marketing on Nigeria Economy: Empirical Analysis” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.293-300 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/293-300.pdf

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Neo-Albanianism: a product of historical factors of the 20s and 30s in the early twentieth century

Ali Mysliu, PhD Student, Christopher Leazer, MSc – March 2021 – Page No.: 301-304

This article analyzes a series of historical, economic, cultural, religious, and political factors of the period of the early twentieth century in which Albania of this period was located. The period between the two world wars is analyzed as the most difficult period in the political plan for Albania and the Albanian state as the period when the independence gained in 1912 begins to consolidate. This is also the period of connection and development of one of the most important directions in socio-political thought of the 30s in the XX century. This article shows that neo-Albanianism was as much a continuation of the Albanian Renaissance, as it was a novelty and new historical conditions of that period. We have tried to show that neo-Albanianism is a product of Albanianism in the new historical conditions.

Page(s): 301-304                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

 Ali Mysliu, PhD Student
Department of Civic Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Elbasan, Albania

 Christopher Leazer, MSc
Department of Literature and Journalism, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Elbasan, Albania

[1] Castellan, G., 1992. History of the Balkans. Boulder: East European Monographs.
[2] Jacques, E.E., 1995. The Albanians. McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers
[3] Altermatt, U., 2002. Etnonacionalizmi në Europë. Phoenix
[4] Sulstarova, E., 2003. Ligjërimi nacionalist në Shqipëri: rilindja kombëtare, komunizmi dhe paskomunizmi. Aferdita
[5] Maloki, K., 2005. Refleksion Kritikë, analiza dhe mendime. Prishtinë 2005
[6] Koka, V., 1985. Rrymat e Mendimit Politico-shoqëror në Shqipëri ne vitet 30-të të shekkulit XX. Shtëpia Botuese e Librit Universitar, Tiranë
[7] Sinani, Gj., 1999. Filozofi e Historisë. Shtëpia Botuese e Librit Universitar, Tiranë
[8] Plasari, A., Kulla, N., 2003. The Works of Branko Merxhani. Plejad

Ali Mysliu, PhD Student, Christopher Leazer, MSc “Neo-Albanianism: a product of historical factors of the 20s and 30s in the early twentieth century” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.301-304 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/301-304.pdf

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Increased Income of the Head of Cassava Farmers Working in the Cracker Industry in Meeting Basic Needs

Sudarmi, Edy Haryono, Nani Suwarni, Febry Eko Santoso – March 2021 – Page No.: 305-310

This research examines the increase in income of the cassava farmer’s heads who work in the cracker industry in Srikaton Village, Seputih Surabaya District, Central Lampung Regency. The method used in this research is descriptive, with a population of 25 heads of cassava farmer families who are overall respondents in the research. Data collection techniques in this study are observation, interviews and documentation. The study results indicate that: 1) The area of agricultural land cultivated by the head of a farmer family reaches an average of 0.51 ha. 2) A total of 16 (64%) heads of families Cassava farmers have income below average. 3) 25 farmer family heads work in the cracker industry and earn ≤ IDR 2,250,596. 4) The 25 farmer family heads who work in the cracker industry experience increased income with the highest percentage increase in 548%. 5) The 25 farmer family heads who work in the cracker industry can meet their basic needs.

Page(s): 305-310                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

 Sudarmi
Department of Geography Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

 Edy Haryono
Department of Geography Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

 Nani Suwarni
Department of Geography Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

 Febry Eko Santoso
Department of Geography Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia

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[15] Orengo, Hector A, & Petrie, Cameron A. (2018). Multi‐scale relief model (MSRM): a new algorithm for the visualization of subtle topographic change of variable size in digital elevation models. 43(6), 1361-1369.
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[17] Sahide, Muhammad Alif K, & Giessen, Lukas. (2015). The fragmented land use administration in Indonesia–Analysing bureaucratic responsibilities influencing tropical rainforest transformation systems. 43, 96-110.
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[19] Ye, Hanlin, Guo, Huadong, Liu, Guang, Guo, Qing, Zhang, Lu, & Huang, Jing. (2019). Temporal sampling error analysis of the Earth’s outgoing radiation from a Moon-based platform. 40(18), 6975-6992.

Sudarmi, Edy Haryono, Nani Suwarni, Febry Eko Santoso “Increased Income of the Head of Cassava Farmers Working in the Cracker Industry in Meeting Basic Needs” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.305-310 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/305-310.pdf

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Basic School Teachers’ Conceptions of Assessment in the Sissala East Municipality

Shani Osman, Anthony Bordoh and Isaac Eshun – March 2021 – Page No.: 311-324

This study employed a sequential explanatory mixed-method design to examine basic school teachers’ classroom assessment conceptions in the Sissala East Municipality in the Upper West Region of Ghana. In particular, the study examined the types of classroom assessment conceptions of teachers and their demographic characteristics that influence their assessment conceptions. Quantitative data gathered from 203 respondents were analyzed using mean, standard deviations and Pearson product-moment correlation. In the follow-up qualitative phase, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 12 participants and the data subjected to interpretive thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the participants demonstrated positive conceptions of assessment as a means for ensuring student and school accountability as well as improving teaching and learning, with assessment for student accountability yielding the highest mean value. Also, the findings revealed that the relationships among student accountability, school accountability and improvement were moderate and that these levels have a positive effect on one another. It was recommended, among other issues, that teachers need to note that assessment is acceptable if motivated by a particular reason, whether it is for improvement, student accountability, or school accountability.

Page(s): 311-324                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5320

 

 Shani Osman
Department of Social Sciences, Tumu College of Education, Tumu, Ghana

 Anthony Bordoh
Department of Social Studies, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 Isaac Eshun
Department of Social Studies, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

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[57] Yates, A., & Johnston, M. (2017). The impact of school-based assessment for qualifications on teachers’ conceptions of assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 1-17. doi:10.1080/0969594X.2017.1295020
[58] Yetkin, R. (2017). Pre-service English teachers’ conception of assessment and their future assessment practices in a Turkish context. Master’s thesis. Hacettepe University.
[59] Yetkin, R. (2018). Exploring prospective teachers’ conceptions of assessment in Turkish context. European Journal of Education Studies, 4(5), 133-146. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1230554
[60] Yidana, M. B. & Anti Partey, P. (2018). Economics teachers’ conceptions of classroom assessment: A study of senior high schools in the Central and Ashanti Regions of Ghana. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 6(10), 153 – 174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss10.1176

Shani Osman, Anthony Bordoh and Isaac Eshun “Basic School Teachers’ Conceptions of Assessment in the Sissala East Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.311-324 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5320

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Effects of Intrinsic Motivation on Basic School Teachers’ Attitude towards Work in the Bolgatanga Municipality

Alfred Alunga Anovunga, Foster Segnefar Maale – March 2021 – Page No.: 325-331

The study explored the effects of intrinsic motivation on basic school teachers’ attitude towards work in the Bolgatanga Municipality of Ghana. The major objective of the study was to assess the level of intrinsic motivation among basic school teachers in the Bolgatanga Municipality and to find out the effects of intrinsic motivation on basic school teachers’ attitude towards work. The survey method was used for the study. Data for the study was collected from eighty (80) sampled Junior High School (JHS) teachers (52.5% males and 47.5% females) in the 50 public basic schools within the Bolgatanga Municipality using purposive and convenient sampling techniques. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) and the Teacher Attitude Inventory (TAI) were modified and used as research instruments for data collection. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Test was used to establish the relationshipbetween basic school teachers’ intrinsic motivation and attitude towards work. The results revealed that there was a negative and significantly moderate correlation between teachers’ level of intrinsic motivation and their attitude towards work. It was recommended among others that periodic assessments of teachers’ intrinsic motivation towards work should be carried out for the sole purpose of addressing the hindrances that militate against teachers’ intrinsic motivation.

Page(s): 325-331                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5321

 Alfred Alunga Anovunga
Department of Counselling Psychology, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

 Foster Segnefar Maale
Institute for Distance and e-Learning (IDeL), University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

[1] Adelman, H. S. (1978). The concept of intrinsic motivation: Implications for practice and research with the learning disabled. Learning Disability Quarterly, 1, 43 – 54.
[2] Agboke, Anuoluwapo, (2018), 10 right attitudes toward work. [Online] Available: www.hintng.com/10-right-attitudes-toward-work (August 6, 2018).
[3] Belcher, Lynda Moultry, (2019), Five attitudes that are important in workplaces. [Online] Available: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/five-attitudes-important-workplaces-19114.html (March 11, 2019).
[4] Bianca, Audra, (n.d), Employee attitude vs. job performance. [Online] Available: http://work.chron.com/employee-attitude-vs-job-performance-6610.html.
[5] Boamah, R. (2014). The effect of motivation on employees’ performance: Empirical evidence from the Brong-Ahafo Education Directorate (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
[6] Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & Pierce, W. D. (2001). Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues. The Behaviour Analyst, 24, 1 – 44.
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[14] Issifu, F. (2014). Exploring employee attitude and productivity at Electricity Company of Ghana, Ashanti-East(Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
[15] Mario, C. (2019). Theories of Self Determination. In: Farazmand A. (eds) Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_3710-1.
[16] Munyua, K. M. (2017). Influence of intrinsic motivation on job performance and organizational commitment among the employees: Case of K-Unity, Kiambu County (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
[17] Musa, A. &Bichi, A. A. (2015).Assessment of prospective teachers’ attitudes towards teaching profession: The case of Northwest University, Kano-Nigeria. Journal of Research &Method in Education, 5 (3), 1: 17 – 24.
[18] Parvez, M. &Shakir, M. (2013).Attitudes of prospective teachers towards teaching profession. Journal of Education and Practice, 4 (10), 172 – 178.
[19] Raza, M. Y., Akhtar, M. W., Husnain, M., & Akhtar, M. S. (2015).The Impact of Intrinsic Motivation on Employee’s Job Satisfaction. Management and Organizational Studies, 2 (3), 80 – 88.
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[21] Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T. A. (2007). Organizational behaviour. (12th ed.), New Jersey, Pearson Education Incorporated.
[22] Shahzadi, I., Javed, A., Pirzada, S. S., Nasreen, S., &Khanam, F. (2014). Impact of Employee Motivation on Employee Performance. European Journal of Business and Management, 6 (23), 159 – 166.
[23] Valas, H., &Sovik, N. (1994). Variables affecting students’ intrinsic motivation for school mathematics: Two empirical studies based on Deci and Ryan’s theory on motivation. Learning and Instruction, 3 (4), 281-298.

Alfred Alunga Anovunga, Foster Segnefar Maale “Effects of Intrinsic Motivation on Basic School Teachers’ Attitude towards Work in the Bolgatanga Municipality” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.325-331 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5321

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Political Philanthropy and its Development Implications

Prof. Paul Achola, N.T. Othello Gruduah – March 2021 – Page No.: 332-338

An electioneering season in Africa is a time politicians scramble to outdo each other in terms of buying votes and loyalty from the electorate. Kenya is no exception to the practice, where politicians have perfected the craft to astonishing proportions. This paper examines the extent to which political hand-outs influence voters’ choices and undermine development. It also seeks to establish the immediate and long-term impact of political gifts on both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Further, the researcher aims to investigate how manipulating local communities through political hand-outs stokes inter-ethnic and intra-ethnic hostilities. The study is based on descriptive survey design and uses interviews and textual analysis. Findings from field research reveal that the practice of vote buying is widespread in Kenya during canvassing for election to public office. In conclusion the paper recommends, among other things, an overhaul of the Kenyan political set-up so as to decentralize and devolve power to the grassroots. The leaders must be made to be accountable to their people through proper oversight structures.

Page(s): 332-338                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 April 2021

 

 Prof. Paul Achola
Maryknoll Institute of African Studies of Saint Mary University of Minnesota and Tanganza College, Nairobi, Kenya

 N.T. Othello Gruduah
Maryknoll Institute of African Studies of Saint Mary University of Minnesota and Tanganza College, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Berdal, Mats and Malone, David M. (2000).Greed and Grieving: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars p. 25. USA: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
[2] Hazlewood, Arthur (1979). The Economy of Kenya: The Kenyatta Era p. 7. New York: Oxford University Press.
[3] Leys, Colin (1996).The Rise & Fall of Development Theory p. 45-46. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.
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[5] Rodney, Walter (1989). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa pp. 21-22. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.
[6] The World Bank (1996) pp. 20. Washington, D.C.
[7] Troil, Margaretha von (1993).Changing Paradigms in Development – South, East and West p. 28. Uppsala: The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.
[8] Weaver, James H.; Rock, Michael T.; Kusterer, Kenneth C. (1996).Achieving Broad-Based Sustainable Development: Governance, Environment, and Growth With Equity pp. 85-86. USA: Kumarian Press, Inc.

Prof. Paul Achola, N.T. Othello Gruduah “Political Philanthropy and its Development Implications” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.332-338 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/332-338.pdf

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Gambia’s Civil Service Pay Reforms: A solution on workforce satisfaction and performance

Bernard Nkala, Alagi Sonko – March 2021 – Page No.: 339-350

Following the implementation of the civil service pay reforms 2008 to 2015 in the Gambia, there are no clear practical indications as to improved motivation, satisfaction and enhanced performance of the Gambian civil servants. In light of this skepticism, the study assessed the effects of pay reforms on pay satisfaction and performance of the employees in the civil service. The objective of this study was to assess the pay satisfaction and performance levels and discuss the determinants of pay satisfaction in the civil service of the Gambia.
The study applied descriptive research format in dealing with quantitative and qualitative data. The study used structured survey questionnaire customized from the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire method to collect primary data. Data was also collected using interview guide with key informants and conducted telephone interviews. Motivational theories by Abraham Maslowand Adams equity theory became the theoretical foundation of this research with the aid of a noperational framework developed by the researchers, to guide the direction of the research. The study sample consisted of randomly selected 60civil servants drawn from different ministries and line department from the Gambia in the capital city Banjul, based on purposeful sampling. Other regions and districts could not be included in this study due to resource constraints. Key informants interviewed were also exclusively limited to those cadres within urban centers given challenges associated with communication in the regions.
The study unearthed that satisfaction in the Gambian civil service has not improved following pay reforms. The poor reward system is the root cause of poor performance in the civil service as witnessed by cropping practices of attrition, indiscipline, corruption and absenteeism which still prevails in the civil service of the Gambia. The study recommends decompressing the pay structure and fostering on a participatory approach to decide issues to do with pay reforms. Lessons drawn from other African countries that experienced the same problem of pay reforms gives Gambia a chance to revisit its pay reform strategies with a view to deal with evident civil service poor performance. Study further recommends enhancement of monetary and non-monetary incentives to induce high motivation and satisfaction that shall translate to improved public sector performance. This study concludes that pay satisfaction is an important component of overall job satisfaction thus Gambia Personnel Management Office needs to embrace modern research approaches that will enhance satisfaction amongst civil service. Employee participation in pay issues is important as it helps to model effective pay reforms. The fit between incentive-specific reforms and the public reform process is therefore, a challenge that needs attention thus effort needs to be devoted to designing incentives aimed at changing the Gambia’ civil service attitude and perceptions.

Page(s): 339-350                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5322

 Bernard Nkala
Health Service Board, Department of Performance Improvement and Development, Zimbabwe

 Alagi Sonko
Department of Personnel management Office, Gambia

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Bernard Nkala, Alagi Sonko “Gambia’s Civil Service Pay Reforms: A solution on workforce satisfaction and performance” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.339-350 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5322

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Engaging in and Coping with Bribery by the Bodaboda Riders in Kisii town, Kenya

Joseph Ouma Oindo – March 2021 – Page No.: 351-357

This survey was done under the context of the researcher’s experience of an encounter with Kisii County askaris/traffic marshalls demanding a bribe from the researcher in order to be allowed to proceed to the Kisii town’s Central Business District (CBD) while on a motorcycle. This background, therefore, provides the researcher with the motivation to explore how bodaboda/motorcycle riders in Kisii town engage in and cope with bribery. The study utilized exploratory research design while taking Grounded Theory approach to extract data from 100 bodaboda riders in Kisii town. By means of thematic analysis the findings showed that bribery is common among bodaboda riders and bribery amount is moderated not by the respondents’ demographic characteristics – educational level, marital status, gender – but by social interaction or ethnicity which determines whether a rider belongs to the inner circle or outer circle.

Page(s): 351-357                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5323

 Joseph Ouma Oindo
Tangaza University College, Kenya

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Joseph Ouma Oindo “Engaging in and Coping with Bribery by the Bodaboda Riders in Kisii town, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.351-357 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5323

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Inclusive Education: A Literature Review on Definitions, Attitudes and Pedagogical Challenges

Tebatso Namanyane, Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan – March 2021 – Page No.: 358-365

This paper on inclusive education explores several diverse viewpoints from various scholars in different contexts on the concepts of inclusive education in an effort to reach the common understanding of the same this concept. The attitudes section is addressed from the perspectives of pupils, educators, and the society (parents), and it further explore the dilemmas that teachers and students with disabilities face in modern education systems. The instructional approaches focusing on how teachers plan and execute lessons with diverse students’ aptitudes from literature are also levelheadedly outlined. In conclusion, it included a broad overview focused on two models, social and medical models on which this paper is primarily based.

Page(s): 358-365                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5324

 

 Tebatso Namanyane
Faculty of Education Southwest University China

 Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan
Faculty of Education Southwest University China

[1] Al-Zyoudi, M. (2006). Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Inclusive Education in Jordanian Schools.International Journal of Special Education, 21(2).
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[3] Flem, A. & Killer, C. (2000). Inclusion in Norway: a study of ideology in practice. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 15(2), 188-205.
[4] Florian, L. (2014). “What Counts as Evidence of Inclusive Education?” European Journal of Special Needs Education 29(3), 286-294.
[5] Grove, K.A. & Fisher, D. (1999). Entrepreneurs of meaning: Parents and the process of inclusive education. Remedial and Special Education, 20, 208-15.
[6] Hansen, O., & Qvortrup,L. (2013). “Inclusions Danmark-hvilke konsekvenser har begrepsdefinitioner for den pædagogiske praksis?” Paideia 5: 8-19.
[7] Haug, P. (2010). “Approaches to Empirical Research on Inclusive Education.” Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 12(3), 199-209.
[8] Haug, P. (2017). Understanding inclusive education: ideals and reality.Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(3), 206-217.
[9] Hogg, M., & Vaughan, G. (2005). Social Psychology (4th ed). London: Prentice-Hall.
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[10] Idol, L. (2006). Toward inclusion of special education students in general education: A program evaluation of eight schools. Remedial and Special Education, 27, 77-94.
[11] Juvonen, J. Lessard, L. M., Rastogi, R., Schacter, H. L, & Smith, D. S. (2019). Promoting Social Inclusion in Educational Settings: Challenges and Opportunities. Educational Psychologist,54(4), 250-270.
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[13] Killoran, I., Woronko, D., & Zaretsky, H. (2014). Exploring Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(4), 427-442.
[14] Koster, M., Pijl, S. J., Nakken, H., & Van Houten, E. (2010). Social participation of students with special needs in regular primary education in the Netherlands. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 57(1), 59-75.
[15] Markova, M., Cate, I. P., Krolak-Schwerdt, S., & Glock, S. (2015). Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Inclusion and Toward Students with Special Educational Needs from Different Ethnic Backgrounds. The Journal of Experimental Education, 1-25.
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Tebatso Namanyane, Md Mirajur Rhaman Shaoan “Inclusive Education: A Literature Review on Definitions, Attitudes and Pedagogical Challenges” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.358-365 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5324

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Literature as an Instrument of National Security: Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart as a Case Study

Mary Effiong NYONG (Ph.D) & Kemi Nojim YEKINI – March 2021 – Page No.: 366-370

Insecurity has become a global concern. Governments of the World spend a large portion of their annual budgets on insecurity, Nigeria inclusive. This paper attempts to show how literature can be used to curb insecurity in Nigeria using Chinua Achebe’s things fall apart as a case study. The paper further examined the definition of insecurity, a brief history of insecurity in Nigeria, causes of Insecurity, effects of insecurity and efforts of Nigerian government in curbing insecurity. Conclusions were also made.

Page(s): 366-370                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2021

 Mary Effiong NYONG (Ph.D)
Department of Language Education, Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

 Kemi Nojim YEKINI
Michael Otedola College Of Primary Education, Noforija-Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria.

[1] Abolurin, A. (2015). Perspectives on National Security and Terrorism. Ibadan: Golden-Gems Unique Multiventures.
[2] Abrams, M. H. (2005). A Glossary of Literary Terms. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth.
[3] Achebe, C. (1958). Things Fall Apart. London: Heinemann.
[4] Bannon, Ian. & Collier, Paul. (2003). Natural resources and conflict: What we can do. Bannon I, & Collier, P. (Eds) Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Washington. The International Bank for Reconstruction & Development. The World Bank. Brinkerhoff,
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[6] Datondji, Coovi I. (1980). Literature & Development: How the study of African (English) Literature in Schools and Universities can help social development in African countries. Presence Africaine,
[7] Cultural Review of the Negro World. 11(3rd Quarterly) 1980, pp. 61- 96.
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[9] Echenim, Kester (2000). The Language of Modern African Literature. Oke, Olusola & Ade-Ojo, Sam(Eds): Introduction to Francophone African Literature. Ibadan, Spectrum Books, pp. 131-152.
[10] Irele, Abiola (1981). The African experience in Literature and Ideology: London: Heinemann. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 1978 Edition.
[11] Maduka, C. T. (2006). Chinua Achebe and Military Dictatorship in Nigeria: A study of Anthills of the Savanah. The Responsible critic: Essays on African literature in Honor of Professor Ben Obumselu. Isidore, Diala (Ed); Eritrea. African world press. Microsoft Encarta Premium.
[12] Popper, Karl (1902-1994). Microsoft Encarta Premium.
[13] Ugbegili, I. S. (2019). Politics, Corruption and Challenges and Prospects. Myom, T., Yange, C. T., & Adamgbe, K,(Eds): Politics, Corruption and Insecurity in Nigeria: Issues, Problems and Prospects. Nigeria: Eagle Prints.

Mary Effiong NYONG (Ph.D) & Kemi Nojim YEKINI “Literature as an Instrument of National Security: Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart as a Case Study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.366-370 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/366-370.pdf

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The Place of Women in Nigeria Change Agenda As Exemplified By Biblical Deborah and Esther

Olatunji Samuel AKINWUMI (Ph.D) – March 2021 – Page No.: 371-375

The development of any society is measured by good change manifested in increased capacity of the people to have control over material assets, intellectual resources and ideology, ability to procure the physical necessities of life (food, clothing and shelter) access to adequate education, gender equality, sustainable development and peace. Since the required development as itemized above is not so realistic in Nigeria, there is therefore serious need for change that will pave way for the needed development. The work examined the contributions of Deborah and Esther to national development with the aim of presenting Nigeria women as having the ability to bring the necessary change that Nigeria needs. The paper however suggests two conditions that would make the desired change to happen which include objectives and subjective conditions. Objective conditions exist when situations are evidently abnormal with huge contradictions which can only be resolved by change. The subjective conditions involve making available organizational preparations requires to bring about awareness and consciousness for change. The findings however revealed that conditions needed for change are made possible by utilizing some virtues and potential resident in Nigeria women such as commitment, self –control, sense of direction, courage and wisdom as exemplified by Deborah and Esther in the Bible. Being an historical essay the work employed historical frame work in its analysis. The paper however recommended that the change Agenda should take cognizance of the Social, Economic, Political and educational sectors.

Page(s): 371-375                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2021

 Olatunji Samuel AKINWUMI (Ph.D)
Bamidele Olumilua University of Education, Science and Technology Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria

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Olatunji Samuel AKINWUMI (Ph.D) “The Place of Women in Nigeria Change Agenda As Exemplified By Biblical Deborah and Esther” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.371-375 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/371-375.pdf

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Difficult Contents in the Nigerian Junior Secondary Mathematics Curriculum: Comparative Analysis between Perceptions of Students and Teachers

Zalmon Ibaan Gogo, Daso Peter Ojmba, Odoemenem Chidima – March 2021 – Page No.: 376-383

This study analyzed perceptions of students and teachers difficult contents in the Junior Secondary Mathematics Curriculum (JSMC) in Obio/Akpor local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The study adopted the analytical survey research design with a population of 7,534 students and 20 Mathematics teachers of junior secondary class three students from the 20 public junior secondary schools. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 380 students while census was used to select 20 Mathematics teachers for the study. The Mathematics Content Difficulty Assessment Questionnaire (MCDAQ) was the instrument used for data collection. The mean (x ̅) criterion cut-off point of 2.50 was used for decision making. The test-retest method and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) were used to obtain the reliability coefficient of 0.86 for MCDAQ. Data obtained were analysed using mean, standard deviation, simple percentage and independent sample t-test to answer the five research questions and test the two null hypotheses. Findings of the study revealed that students and teachers perceived the JSMC contents difficult to learn and teach respectively. Also, there was a significant difference between student and teacher perception of difficult contents in the JSMC but there was no significant difference on the gender perception of students. The study recommended among others that Mathematics teachers should demystify Mathematics learning through effective use of innovative instructional strategies and materials and encourage students to change their perception of Mathematics as difficult and develop positive attitudes and interest towards learning Mathematics to reduce their difficulty level.

Page(s): 376-383                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2021

 Zalmon Ibaan Gogo
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Daso Peter Ojmba
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Odoemenem Chidima
Green Gold International Group of Schools, Osun State, Nigeria

[1] Achuonye, K. A. &Ajoku, L. I. (2013). Foundations ofcurriculum development and implementation (2nd ed.). Pearl Publishers.
[2] Bem, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 6(1972),1-6.
[3] Charles-Ogan, G. (2014). Metacognitive strategy and senior secondary school Mathematics students’ misconceptions in Rivers State Nigeria. Abacus: The Journal of the Mathematical Association of Nigeria, 39(1) 234-246.
[4] Daso, P. O., Zalmon, I. G. &Obediah, A. E. (2020). Influence of social stratification on senior secondary students’ motivation and achievement in plane geometry. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies (IJPSAT), 23(2), 149-157.
[5] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014). National policy on education (6thed.). NERDC Press.
[6] George, N. R. &Zalmon, I. G. (2019). Innovative instructional strategies and senior secondary students’ achievement in algebra. European Journal of Education Studies, 6(9), 193-210.
[7] George, N. R., Zalmon, I. G. & Okafor, C. P. (2020). Factors affecting undergraduate students’ performance in Mathematics in Rivers State tertiary institutions Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 9(11), 74-87.
[8] Iji, C. O. &Omenka, J. E. (2015). Mathematics teachers’ perception of difficult concepts in secondary schoolMathematics curriculum in Benue State, Nigeria. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, 2(1), 32 – 45.
[9] Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (2012). 9-Year basic education curriculum: Mathematics JSS1-3. NERDC Press.
[10] Rivers State Universal Basic Education Board (2019). Students and Mathematics teachers statistics for 2018/2019.
[11] Wonu, N. &Zalmon, I. G. (2019). Constraints to instructional effectiveness and undergraduate student Mathematics learning achievement. International Journal of Advanced Education and Reasearch, 4(6), 54-64.
[12] Zalmon, I. G. & Charles-Ogan, G. I. (2020). Impact of student-teacher relationship on senior secondary students’ performance in introductory calculus. International Journal of Advanced Education and Research, 5(1), 01-08.
[13] Zalmon, I. G. & George, N. R. (2018). Student and teacher perception of content difficulty in the Nigerian senior secondary Mathematics curriculum. International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology (IJMTT), 63(3), 157-168.
[14] Zalmon, I. G. & George, N. R. (2020). Assessment of students’ perception of content difficulty in the Nigerian Further Mathematics curriculum. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 9(11), 38-48.
[15] Zalmon, I. G. &Wonu, N. (2017). Comparative analysis of student Mathematics achievement in West African senior secondary certificate examination in Nigeria. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 5(1), 24-31.
[16] Zalmon, I. G., Daso, P. O. &Uranta, G. A. (2020).Evaluation of the Nigerian senior secondary education Mathematics curriculum implementation. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI), VIII(XII), 138-147.
[17] Zalmon, I. G., Efet, D. E. &Ogunsola, A. O. (2017). Diagnosis of students’ content difficulty in the senior secondary Mathematics curriculum. The International Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Science Education, 2(1), 90-109.

Zalmon Ibaan Gogo, Daso Peter Ojmba, Odoemenem Chidima “Difficult Contents in the Nigerian Junior Secondary Mathematics Curriculum: Comparative Analysis between Perceptions of Students and Teachers” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.376-383 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/376-383.pdf

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Comparative Assessment of Student and Teacher Perception of the Curriculum Content Difficulty in Further Mathematics

Daso Peter Ojmba, Zalmon Ibaan Gogo, Sillaa Asikanebari Cletus – March 2021 – Page No.: 384-391

The study comparatively assessed the extent of student and teacher perception of content difficulty in the Further Mathematics Curriculum (FMC).The analytical survey research design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted in Gokana local government area of Rivers State with a population of sixty (60) senior secondary class three students offering Further Mathematics from the twelve (12) public senior secondary schools in the area. Census sampling technique was used to select the sample of 60 students used for the study. The instrument for data collection was the researchers’ made and validated Further Mathematics Curriculum Content Difficulty Assessment Questionnaire (FMCCDAQ). The test and retest method and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) were used to obtain 0.73 reliability coefficient of the FMCCDAQ. Six research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. Mean and standard deviation were used for data analysis. The study found out that students perceived all the FMC themes of pure mathematics, coordinate geometry, statistics, mechanics and operations research difficult to learn. Teachers perceived all the themes of the FMC easy to teach. There is significant difference between student and teacher perception of the FMC content difficulty. The study among others recommended that teachers should employ diagnostic and remedial instructional strategy and active learning strategies such as problem solving and problem-based learning strategies to remediate the learning difficulties among students in the FMC.

Page(s): 384-391                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2021

 Daso Peter Ojmba
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Zalmon Ibaan Gogo
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Sillaa Asikanebari Cletus
Virtues International Academy, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Bem, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 6(1972), 1-6.
[2] Chinn, S. (2004). The trouble with Maths: A practical guide to helping learners with numeracy difficulties. Routledge.
[3] Ifamuyiwa, A.S. (2014). Analysis of topics perceived difficult by Nigerian students and teachers in secondary school Further Mathematics. Abacus: Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria, 39(1), 255-268.
[4] Iji, C. O. & Omenka, J. E. (2015). Mathematics teachers’ perception of difficult concepts in secondary schoolMathematics curriculum in Benue State, Nigeria. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, 2(1), 32 – 45.
[5] Mills, D. (2011). Mathematics learning difficulties. http://www.mathlearningdifficulties.com
[6] Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (2012). Senior secondary school trade curriculum: Further Mathematics for SS 1-3. NERDC Press.
[7] Odili, G. A. (2019). The philosophy and history of Mathematics.Mago Press.
[8] Zalmon, I.G., Efet, D. E.& Ogunsola, A.O. (2017). Diagnosis and remediation of student content difficulty in the senior secondary education Mathematics curriculum. International Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Science Education 2(1),90-109.
[9] Zalmon, I. G. & George, N. R. (2020). Assessment of students’ perception of content difficulty in the Nigerian Further Mathematics curriculum. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 9(11), 38-48.
[10] Zalmon, I.G. & George, N.R. (2018). Student and teacher perception of content difficulty in the Nigerian seniorsecondary Mathematics curriculum, International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology (IJMTT), 63(3),157-168.

Daso Peter Ojmba, Zalmon Ibaan Gogo, Sillaa Asikanebari Cletus “Comparative Assessment of Student and Teacher Perception of the Curriculum Content Difficulty in Further Mathematics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.384-391 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/384-391.pdf

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Exploring Socio-economic Factors Contributing to the Emergence of large Age-gap Romantic Relationships Involving Older Women and Younger men in Chipata, Zambia

Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe – March 2021 – Page No.: 392-398

Older man-younger woman romantic relationship is a cultural normative relationship in all societies. A reversal characterized by an older woman-younger man intimancy is regarded as an offensive counterfeit of the genuine former. A woman found in this kind of a relationship, sleepy society wakes up, picks up verbal stones and breathes denunciations against the older woman and labels her a moral rebel for changing social norm-goal posts. The objective of this study was to investigate existence of large age-gap romantic relationships and to explore under what socio-economic climate did they emerge and thrive. The study was conducted between October to December, 2020. It was conducted in Chipata- Zambia. The study used a cross-sectional design with a qualitative approach. A total of 30 participants were individually interviewed through the single-per-interview method. The study found that large age-gap older woman relationships were common, rampant and universal in both rural and urban areas with the latter scoring first. The study found that society defined large age-gap intimate heterosexual relationship involving an older woman as one where the woman was older than her male partner by 5 or more years. The study also found that some older women especially in villages engaged in romantic relationships with younger males because traditionally it was believed that younger men’s semen had special properties that arrested the aging process and re-youthed the aging skin and the entire aged body. The study also found that absent husbands, drunkenness, women empowerment/ change of lifestyle, women/male youth vulnerability including the internet and social media created a perfect socioeconomic environment in which large age-gap taboo relationships emerged and flourished.

Page(s): 392-398                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5325

 Jordan Tembo
Kalindawalo General Hospital, P.O.Box 560008, Petauke, Zambia

 Patricia Mambwe
Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Rusangu University, Monze, Zambia

[1] Creswell, J.W.(1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage Publications
[2] Lee, Wang-Sheng, McKinnish, T. (2017). The Marital Satisfaction of Different –Aged couples, Discussion Paper Series IZA DP No. 10863
[3] Lehmiller, J., Agnew, C.(2011). ‘May- December Paradoxes: An Exploration of Age-Gap Relationships in Western Society’. Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications. Paper 27. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/psych pubs/27
[4] Milaine, A. (2019). Sleeping with Younger Men: Women’s accounts of Sexual Interplay in Age- Hypogamous intimate Relationships. The Journal of Sex Research, Doi: 10.1080/00224499.2019.1574704
[5] Maluleke, M.J.(2012). Culture, Tradition, Custom, Law and Gender Equality. PER/PELJ(2012)(15)1
[6] Nascimento, B.S. (2019). Age Differences in Marriage Partners. In: Shackelford T., Weekes-Shackelford V. (eds). Encyclopaedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science. Springer, Cham https://doi: org/10.1007/978-3319-16999-6_233-1
[7] Ni Bhrolchain, M.(2006). In Lehmiller, J., Agnew, C.(2011). ‘May- December Paradoxes: An Exploration of Age-Gap Relationships in Western Society’. Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications. Paper 27. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/psych pubs/27
[8] Proulx, N., Caron, S.L., Logue, M.E. (2006). ‘Older Women/Younger Men’. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 5: 4, 43-64 DOI: 10.1300/J398V05N04_03HTTP://DX.DOI.org/10.1300/J398v05n04_03
[9] United Nations High Commission for Refugees (2011). Driven by Desperation. Transactional Sex as a Strategy for Survival in Port-au-Prince IDP Camps
[10] Vera, H., Berardo, D.H., F.M.(1985). In Proulx, N., Caron, S.L., Logue, M.E. (2006). ‘Older Women/Younger Men’. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 5: 4, 43-64 DOI: 10.1300/J398V05N04_03HTTP://DX.DOI.org/10.1300/J398v05n04_03

Jordan Tembo, Patricia Mambwe “Exploring Socio-economic Factors Contributing to the Emergence of large Age-gap Romantic Relationships Involving Older Women and Younger men in Chipata, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.392-398 March 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5325

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Shaping Students ‘behaviour: Does Teacher Characteristics (Gender, Teaching Experience and Classroom) Matter?

Victoria Aba Mensah, Nana Asimah Adam Yawson, Grace Yeboah – March 2021 – Page No.: 399-403

Teacher characteristics play a significant role in interventions strategies to shape learners’ behaviours as they are the classroom’s direct players. This triggered the researcher to examine whether gender, teaching experience, and teaching influence their intervention. The study population were all the221teachers in the three Senior High Schools (S.H.S.) in Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem (K.E.E.A.) Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana. An observable sample of 150 teachers was selected for the study using a quota and random sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to elicit responses from the selected teachers. Inferential statistics (independent t-test and ANOVA) were used to analyse the hypotheses. The study results revealed that the teachers’ intervention strategies did not depend on their teaching experience. The results showed that the teachers’ intervention strategies did not depend on the students’ levels or the class they handle. The independent t-test result showed that gender (male and female teachers) did not differ in using intervention strategies. Therefore, it was recommended that to exhibit excellent and practical shaping skills, emphasis should not be placed on teacher characteristics.

Page(s): 399-403                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2021

 Victoria Aba Mensah
Department of Education, Komenda College of Education – Ghana

 Nana Asimah Adam Yawson
Department of Education, Komenda College of Education – Ghana

 Grace Yeboah
Department of Education, Komenda College of Education – Ghana

[1] Andreou, E., &Rapti, A. (2010). Teachers’ causal attributions for behaviour problems and perceived efficacy for class management in relation to selected interventions. Behaviour Change, 27, 53-67.
[2] Averdijk, M., Eisner, M., Luciano, E., Valdebenito, S., &Obsuth, I. (2014). Wirksamegewaltprävention. Eine übersichtzuminternationalenwissensstand. Retrieved from http://www.jugendundgewalt.ch/fileadmin/user_upload_jug/3_Good_Practice/Handbuch/Übersicht_wirksame_Gewaltprävention.pdf
[3] Buku, D. K., Noi-Okwei, C., and Wilson, k. N., (2012) Counselling Skills and Strategies, Sedico Publishing Ltd. Accra Ghana.
[4] Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D., (2018) Research Design, qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (5th ed) SAGE Publications, Inc. U.S
[5] Cornell, D. G., Gregory, A., & Fan, X. (2011). Reductions in long‐term suspensions following adoption of the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines. NASSP Bulletin, 95(3), 175–194. doi:10.1177/0192636511415255
[6] Dampson, D. G., (2019) Educational Leadership Theory and Practice Prince Appau Ent. Ghana-Kumasi
[7] Gottfredson, D. C., Cook, P. J., & Na, C. (2012). Schools and prevention. In B. C. Welsh & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of crime prevention (pp. 269–287). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
[8] Johnson, H. L. (2006). Disturbing behaviours in the secondary classroom: How do general educators perceive problem behaviours? Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33, 20–39.
[9] Kohn, A. (2006). Beyond discipline: From compliance to community. ASCD.
[10] Kulinna, P.H. (2008). Teachers’ attributions and strategies for student misbehaviour. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 42.2, 21-30.
[11] Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610.
[12] Le Maistre, C., & Pare, A. (2008). Whatever it takes: How beginning teachers learn to survive. Teaching and Teacher Education, 559-564. http://www.sciencedirect.com
[13] Maimon, D., Antonaccio, O., & French, M. T. (2012). Severe sanctions, easy choice? Investigating the role of school sanctions in preventing adolescent violent offending. Criminology, 50(2), 495–524. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745‐9125.2011.00268.x
[14] Mugabe, J. & Maphosa, D. (2013). Methods of Curbing Learner Misconduct in Zimbabwean Secondary Schools. Journal on New Trends in Education and their Implications. Vol. (1), Pp. 111-122. (Retrieved 18/11/2020)
[15] Myers, D. G., (2008), Exploring Psychology Worth Publishers New York.
[16] Onyango, P. A.,Aloka, P. J., &Raburu, P., (2018), Effectiveness of Guidance and Counselling in the Management of Student Behaviour in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya International Journal of Applied Psychology-ISSN: 2168-5010 e-ISSN: 2168-50292018; 8(1): 6-11 doi:10.5923/j.ijap.20180801.02 (retrieved 11/18/2020)
[17] Okonofua, J. A., Pauneskua, D., & Walton, G. M. (2016). Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents. PNAS, 113(19), 5221–5226. doi:10.1073/pnas.1523698113
[18] Pane, D. M., Rocco, T. S., Miller, L. D., & Salmon, A. K. (2013). How teachers use power in the classroom to avoid or support exclusionary school discipline practices. Urban Education, XX(X), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085913478620
[19] Shaughnessy, J., Zechmeister, E., & Jeanne, Z. (2011). Research methods in psychology (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill. pp. 161–175.
[20] Sprague, J. R., Biglan, A., Rusby, J., Gau, J. M., & Vincent, C. G. (2016). Implementing School‐Wide PBIS in middle schools: Results of a randomised trial (unpublished paper). The University of Oregon.
[21] Timperley, H. S. & Phillips, G. (2003). Changing and sustaining teachers’ expectations through professional development in literacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19(6), 627-641. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(03)00058-1
[22] Weiten, W., (2007) Psychology, themes & Variations, (7th) Thomson Wadsworth, U.S.A.
[23] Whitford, D. K., & Levine-Donnerstein, D. (2014). Office disciplinary referral patterns of American Indian students from elementary school through high school. Behavioral Disorders, 39(2), 78-88.

Victoria Aba Mensah, Nana Asimah Adam Yawson, Grace Yeboah “Shaping Students ‘behaviour: Does Teacher Characteristics (Gender, Teaching Experience and Classroom) Matter?” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.399-403 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/399-403.pdf

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Challenges of using reflective teaching approaches in Civic Education lessons in secondary schools in Lusaka, Zambia

Pamela Shimanza & Gistered Muleya – March 2021 – Page No.: 404-410

The teaching and learning of Civic Education helps learners recognize the profound role that the subject plays in society. This study sought to establish the challenges associated with the use of reflective teaching approaches in Civic Education lessons. The study was guided by a qualitative approach and the research strategy used was a descriptive design. Data was collected using a reflective questionnaire and lesson observation checklist. Purposive sampling was used to identify the participants in the study. The participants included 6 deputy head teachers, 6 Civic Education heads of section, 6 social sciences heads of department and 18 Civic Education teachers. Data collected was thematically analysed. The total number of the participants in the study amounted to 36. The findings of the study revealed that time allocation, large numbers in classes, lack of participation from learners were inhibiting the use reflective teaching in Civic Education lessons.This research study is insightful because it adds to the body of knowledge about the challenges of using reflective teaching approaches in civic education lessons. The study concludes that most teachers of Civic Education need to be trained in reflective teaching approaches to improve the teaching and learning of Civic Education.

Page(s): 404-410                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5326

 Pamela Shimanza
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of LSSE, P.O Box, 32379, Lusaka, ZAMBIA

 Gistered Muleya
The University of Zambia, School of Education, Department of LSSE, P.O Box, 32379, Lusaka, ZAMBIA

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[4] Creswell, J.W., (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. London: Sage publication.
[5] Disu, A., (2017). A Phenomenological Study on Reflective Teaching Practice. Ph. D Thesis. Concordia University – Portland.
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[9] Farrell, T., (2001). ‘Tailoring Reflection to Individual Needs: a TESOL Case Study’. Journal of Education for Teaching, 27 (1), pp. 23-38.
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[16] Orodho, J. A., (2009). Elements of Education & Social Sciences Research Methods. Maseno: Kenezja Publishers.
[17] Sifuniso, M., (2015). An analysis of the implementation of reflective teaching methods in selected primary schools in Livingstone District of Zambia. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Zambia.
[18] Yates, R. and Munchisky, D. (2003). On conceptualising teacher education. TesolQuaterly, 37 (1), pp. 135-147.

Pamela Shimanza & Gistered Muleya “Challenges of using reflective teaching approaches in Civic Education lessons in secondary schools in Lusaka, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.404-410 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5326

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Is Disease War? A Critical Analysis of the Covid-19 Discourse in Kenya

Albert Mogambi Moinani, Margaret Nasambu Barasa – March 2021 – Page No.: 411-417

This paper critically analyzes the Covid-19 public address discourse by government officials in Kenya with a view to establishing the implications on public attitude and behavior towards fighting the pandemic. The paper utilizes the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) framework to examine the lexical choices the officials made and their implications for public attitudes and behavior towards the COVID-19 19 pandemic. The argument is that during times of crisis and uncertainty, the public looks up to those in authority for guidance and protection. The authorities also expect the public to comply and obey the government guidelines so as to manage the Covid 19 crisis. Public attitude and behavior therefore become an important component in crisis management, especially during periods of uncertainty occasioned by war and disease outbreaks. Studying language use by those in power is important because language is a powerful force that shapes people’s mind and society’s attitude and behavior. The study analyzed 90 utterances from key government officials regarding the Covid 19 prevention measures. The texts were extracted from the live briefings from the Audio-visual media in Kenya namely KBC TV, CITIZEN, KTN and NTV. The press briefings were between 3-00pm to 4:00pm on week days. The findings of the study reveal that the government officials perceived the pandemic as war whereas the public viewed it as a falsehood, hence non-existent. The findings of this study would be useful in shedding light on the role language plays in managing risks during times of crisis and uncertainty occasioned by pandemics such as the Covid-19 disease.

Page(s): 411-417                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5327

 Albert Mogambi Moinani
Department of Languages and Lingusitics, Kisii University, Kenya

 Margaret Nasambu Barasa
Department of Languages and Lingusitics, Kisii University, Kenya

[1] Barasa, N.M. (2014) Discursive strategies in Kenya’s 2008 post -election consultation discourse. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Laikipia University.
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[14] Muehlhauser, P & Fill, A. (2001). The Eco linguistics reader: language, ecology and environment. New York: continuum.
[15] Poortinga, W & Nick, F.P (2003). Exploring the dimensionality of trust in risk Regulation Risk analysis23 (5): 961-972. DOI 10.11111 1539-6924.00373
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[17] Wong M. L .C & Jensen, O. (2020). The paradox of trust perceived risk and public compliance during the COVID -19 pandemic in Singapore. Journal of risk researchDOI:10.1050/13669877.2020.1756386.

Albert Mogambi Moinani, Margaret Nasambu Barasa “Is Disease War? A Critical Analysis of the Covid-19 Discourse in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.411-417 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5327

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Classroom Management and Students’ Learning in Mathematics

Jeanilyn E. Tacadena, Ph.D – March 2021 – Page No.: 418-423

This study aimed to determine the relationship of classroom management and students learning in mathematics among Grade VI students. Quantitative type of research was used employing a descriptive correlation method. The respondents were the selected grade VI students of 13 selected schools in Carmen District Davao del Norte. Two sets of questionnaire were used in a form of checklist on the extent of classroom management and teacher made test on the level of students learning in mathematics. Result showed that the extent of classroom management was practiced in most occasions and the level of students learning in mathematics was rarely manifested by students. This implies that there was a significant relationship between the extent of classroom management and the level of students’ learning in mathematics of grade VI students in Carmen District Davao del Norte

Page(s): 418-423                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5328

 Jeanilyn E. Tacadena, Ph.D
Program Head-BEED, UM Panabo College

The socio-economic and psychosocial impact of lockdown Measures of Covid-19 pandemic on International Students at St. Lawrence University- Kampala
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Jeanilyn E. Tacadena, Ph.D “Classroom Management and Students’ Learning in Mathematics” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.418-423 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5328

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The socio-economic and psychosocial impact of lockdown Measures of Covid-19 pandemic on International Students at St. Lawrence University- Kampala

Nakimuli Leticia, Kizza James – March 2021 – Page No.: 424-428

Corona virus disease pandemic has had far reaching socioeconomic and health impacts worldwide. Its effects on the higher education sector has presented with different manifestation especially among international students studying in Uganda. At St Lawrence University, the lockdown imposed by government had dire consequences on international students. The study on the socioeconomic and psychosocial impact on students was premised on the need to explore the socioeconomic challenges faced by international students of St Lawrence University as a result of the various lock down measures of COVID-19; and to examine the psychosocial impact of lock down measures on international students of St. Lawrence University. A total of 85 international students were included in this qualitative cross sectional study. The findings indicated that anxiety was the main psychological effect. The main stressors were financial hardships, improbability about their future especially regarding their survival, the likely effects on their studies and career. It is recommended that the university management sets up a contingency plan that includes international students during the unforeseen circumstances and considers the provision of online counseling to both national and international students. The government contingency plan should always be inclusive of international students.

Page(s): 424-428                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2021

 Nakimuli Leticia
St. Lawrence University, Faculty of Business

 Kizza James
University of Kisubi, Faculty of Business and ICT

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[12] Omata, N., & Kaplan, J. (2013a). Refugee livelihoods in Kampala , Nakivale and Kyangwali refugee settlements: Patterns of engagement with the private sector. Oxford.
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[14] Saladino,V., Algeri,D., &Auriemma,V.(2020). The psychological and social impact of Covid-19: New perspectives of wellbeing. Front. Psychol.11.577684.doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.577684
[15] Stansfeld, Stephen. 2005. “Social support and social cohesion”, in Michael Marmot and Richard Wilkinson, Social Determinants of Health (2nd edition). Oxford University Press. 308–354.
[16] The Observer Team (2020 Mar 30). Museveni imposes 14-day COVID-19 lock down (internet). The Observer. Available from: http://observer.ug/news/headlines/64074 museveni-announces-14 day-covid-19 -lockdown
[17] UNHCR (2019b). Urban refugees struggling to survive as economic impact of COVID-19 worsens in East, Horn and Great lakes of Africa (internet) (cited 2020 may 26). Available from: http://www.unhcr.org/news/briefing/2020/5/5ecbbfec4/urban-refugees-struggling-survive-economic-impact-covid-19-worsens-east.html.
[18] UNICEF. (2016). Education Cannot Wait: A Fund for Education in Emergencies, UNICEF
[19] United Nations. (2020a). Global humanitarian response plan for covid-19: United Nations coordinated appeal April-December 2020.
[20] United Nations. (2020b). Policy brief: The impact of Covid-19 on children. New York

Nakimuli Leticia, Kizza James “The socio-economic and psychosocial impact of lockdown Measures of Covid-19 pandemic on International Students at St. Lawrence University- Kampala” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.424-428 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-3/424-428.pdf

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The Biblical Mandate and Implications for the Ministry to the Deaf People

Lulama Tshuma – March 2021 – Page No.: 429-436

Despite attempts by governments and church organizations to formally educate and empower the deaf people, their lives still remain unsatisfactory. They also seem to suffer marginalization from the larger hearing society because of their communication barrier. In His Ministry of the deaf people Jesus appears to foster inclusivity and their empowerment to face life’s challenges. Little research has been undertaken on how deaf ministry can be improved as to capacitate the deaf in the communities they livein. This paper exegeted Mark 7:31-37, 9:14-27 and Luke 11:14-26 in light of some isolated texts that make reference to deafness in the Bible with the object of helping in forging out relevant interventions that can answer out the gaps in the deaf ministry. Although these Bible texts were not originally written to inform deaf ministry, there are principles in them that can shape, influence and direct it. In Mark 7:31-37 Jesus used more outward actions than usual in communication with the deaf-mute. The deaf people that Jesus met were healed even though not all people with disabilities were healed during Jesus’ time. Jesus’actions and gestures when healing the deaf seem to encourage integration of the deaf people and their empowerment for survival in the mainstream hearing community. Mark 7:31-37, 9:14-27 and Luke 11:14-26 were chosen texts for exegesis because they are the only lengthy narratives that describe the healing of the deaf in the Bible. The others are single text references to deafness scattered in several books of the Bible. The study made use of narratives, Bible commentaries and Ellen White wrings as the main source data for the study. The study recommends that the deaf ministry must integrate the deaf people to the mainstream hearing community through programs that domesticate Sign Language (SL) in the larger community. Furthermore, the community must ensure that they empower the deaf people spiritually and economically so that they cease to see themselves as objects of charity but independent beings who can single handedly face life’s challenges.

Page(s): 429-436                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 April 2021

DOI : 10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5329

 Lulama Tshuma
Adventist University of Africa, Zimbabwe

[1] Barclay, W. (1965).The Gospel of Mark. Edinburgh: The Saint Andrews Press.
[2] Barclay, W. (1975).The Gospel of Matthew. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.
[3] Barnes, C.; Mercer, G.; & Shakespeare, T. (1999). Exploring disability: A Sociological Introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.
[4] Berry G. R., (1870).The Interlinear Greek-English New Testament. Oregon: The Eye Opener Publishers.
[5] Bucklew, J.R (2014). “Breaking the silence” Mission Frontiers Issue36:1, January/February.
[6] Bruce, Koch A., and Winter, Ralph D.(2009). Finishing the Task: The Unreached Peoples Challenge. In Perspectives on the World Christian Movement: A Reader, 4th ed., edited by Steve C. Hawthorne and Ralph D. Winter, Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library
[7] Chimedza, R., Sithole, C.Z. and Rinashe, (2007) Zimbabwe National Sign Language Dictionary. Harare, SPS and SNE, UNICEF.
[8] Devlieger,P. (2002).”Handicap, kosmologieen revalidate,” paper presented for the Liliane Foundation and the Dutch Coalition on Disability and Development, Den Bosch, The Netherlands, November 29.
[9] Duriez, C. (2007).The Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. Edited by Douglas Penney and Daniel G. Reid . England :InterVarsity Press.
[10] Edwards R. J. (2002) The Gospel According to Mark. William B Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
[11] France, R. T. (2002). The Gospel of Mark: A Commentary on the Greek Text. William B. EerdmansPublishing Company Grand Rapids, Michigan.
[12] Fritzon A. (2014)“People With Disabilities in the Bible: Who are they and What Can weLearnFromThem?”Echos19(accessedMarch10,2014)http//www.wcc/whatipc/echos /echos-19-06.html
[13] Francis D. (1978). The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association.
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[17] Hlatywayo, L., Hlatywayo, S. &Mtezo, J.Z. (2014). The Employment of Deaf Persons: A Zimbabwean Employers Perspective, Disability Studies and Special Needs Education, Zimbabwe OpenUniversity,2014),37-43. Accessed 3September, 2019.
[18] Watts, J. D.W. (1987) Word Bible Commentary. Vol. 25 Word Books, Texas: Publisher WACO.
[19] J.R. Bucklew, (2014) “Breaking the silence” Mission Frontiers Issue36:1, January/February.
[20] Keller, T. (2016) Loving the City: Doing Balanced Gospel Centered Ministry in Your City: Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
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[25] Mutshwanga,and Sithole.(2014) “Perceptions of People Who are Deaf on Sign Language Teaching and Communication by Hearing People,” Greener Journal of Education and Training Studies vol 5No 2(2014): accessed 2017. Harare Urban, Zimbabwe.
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[28] Marmo, R. and Rantoa. L. (2018).“Models of Disability: A Brief Review,” Faculty of Theology, North-West University.
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[38] White, E.G. (1909) The Desire of Ages. (Mountain View, CA; Pacific Press, 1909.
[39] Wuest, K. S.(1950) Mark: In the Greek New Testament, Volume 10, London: Pickering &Ingis Limited.

Lulama Tshuma “The Biblical Mandate and Implications for the Ministry to the Deaf People” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-3, pp.429-436 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5329

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Curriculum modification as a critical approach to assist learners with special needs in institutions of higher learning in Zimbabwe

Mukomana Saziso, Prof Sylod Chimhenga – March 2021 – Page No.: 437-441

The current research was undertaken in order to explore how the curriculum of institutions of higher learning could be adapted to include learners with disabilities in inclusive education settings. Curriculum modification strategies, particularly curriculum adaptations and augmentations, have been identified as important to enable learners with disabilities to achieve access to and progress in the general curriculum.This paper adopted the qualitative approach and used a case study design that relied largely on interviews and document analysis. The semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from lecturers, learners and principals of higher learning institutions.The study concluded that adapting instructional strategies is a method that allows educators to meet the needs of all learners according to their strengths, ability levels, and needs, without separating learners homogeneously. The study recommended that educators need to know how to differentiate instructions in order to make the curriculum more accessible for learners with disabilities through adaptations and accommodations.

Page(s): 437-441                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2021

 Mukomana Saziso
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Teacher Education,

 Prof Sylod Chimhenga
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Disability studies and Special Needs Education

[1] Bashinski, S.M. 2002. Adapting the Curriculum to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners. Available online at http://www.pbs.org/educators/earlychildhood/articles/adapting.html (Accessed on 08 April 2020).
[2] Bornman, J. and Rose J. 2010. Believe that all can achieve. Increasing classroom participation in learners with special support needs. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
[3] Comfort, R. (1990). On the idea of curriculum modification by teachers. Academic Therapy, 25(4), 397-405.
[4] Gartin, B.C., Murdick, N.L., Imbeau, M. and Perner, D.E.(2002). How to use differentiated instruction with students with developmental disabilities in the general education classroom. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
[5] Habulezi, J and Phasha, TN (2012) Provision of learning support to learners with visual impairment in Botswana: a case study. Social and Behavioral Sciences 69 ( 2012 ) 1555 – 1561
[6] Laurillard, D., (2013), Rethinking university teaching: A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies, Routledg