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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VII, Issue VII, July 2022 | ISSN 2454–6194

An Appraisal of Indices of Eutrophication of Surface Water of Some Parts of River Benue in Makurdi Metropolis, North-Central, Nigeria

 Peter Agorye Adie*, Margaret Onma Egwurube, Moses Terhile Iortile
Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P. M. B. 102119, Makurdi, 970101, Nigeria.
Corresponding author*

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: Physical, chemical and biological parameters of surface water (river Benue) Makurdi, were evaluated to determine the eutrophication potential and make logical inference on the fate of surface water system. Sampling was from five (5) strategic sites along river Benue and standard methods were used for the measurement of nitrate, phosphate, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, conductivity, total dissolved oxygen (TDS), potassium and algae count as indices of eutrophication. The results showed low levels of nutrients and microbial activities. The values of some eutrophication parameters in the sites were as follows: BOD mg/L (Coca-Cola 0.30±0.00, Kyabis hotel 0.43±0.03, Wadata 0.88±0.03, Abattoir 0.90±0.10, BSU 0.62±0.03). Nitrate mg/L (Coca-Cola 1.86±0.13, Kyabis hotel 0.73±0.03, Wadata 0.68±0.05, Abattoir 0.40±0.03, BSU 0.89±0.04). Phosphate mg/L (Coca-Cola 0.04±0.00, Kyabis hotel 0.05±0.00, Wadata 0.05±0.00, Abattoir 0.08±0.00, BSU 0.05±0.00). Findings revealed that many of the eutrophication parameters studied were within threshold levels, as they were within permissible limits of the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria, and therefore the river is not under immediate threat of accumulation of phytoplankton and nutrients. However, traditional practice of dumping of wastes into water bodies must be reversed to ensure the river does not become eutrophicated in the nearest future.

Keywords: Eutrophication, River Benue, algal bloom, nitrate, phosphate.


Accumulation of large amounts of plant nutrients leading to excess algal growth is a common sight in many lakes and estuaries across the globe. In an aquatic ecosystem, algal productivity is necessary to support the food chain, however, excess growth under eutrophic conditions may eventually lead to severe deterioration of the water body (Manahan, 2001). This phenomenon referred to as eutrophication of water is a condition whereby an excess of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and other inorganic nutrients enter a relatively closed and slow-flowing water body (such as lake, reservoir, river, embouchure, bay and freshwater wetland) stimulating the proliferation of algae and other plankton in the water, resulting in lower dissolved oxygen (DO), increased chlorophyll-a content and the deterioration of water quality (Fang et al., 2004; Liu et al., 2009; Yan et al., 2021). The cumulative effect of this is the excessive growth of