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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VII, Issue X, October 2022|ISSN 2454-6194

Application of Geoelectric Survey for Delineating Groundwater Recharge Zones for Drilling Standard Water Wells in Owerri North Area, Nigeria

Leonard Ifeanyi Nwosu1*, Adanna Blessing Adigwe2, Bright Obinna Nwosu3
1,2,Department of Physics University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria,
3Department of Geology University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author

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Abstract: – Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) technique was adopted to map the groundwater flow pattern in Owerri North in order to delineate recharge zones. Twenty VES stations were sited in different communities. Field data was acquired using Omega-500 resistivity meter and processed with Advanced Geosciences Incorporation (AGI) 1D resistivity inversion software. At each VES station, the global positioning system (GPS) was used to measure the coordinates and elevation. Five of the stations were sited near existing boreholes to enhance interpretation. The modelled results revealed multi-geoelectric layers, with the aquifer layers composed mainly of sands and sandstone. Using the ground elevation and water table values, the hydraulic head for the aquifers were obtained. Aquifer resistivity varied from 0.1Ωm determined at Naze (VES 11) to 1208.5Ωm obtained at Azaraegbelu (VES 18). Depth to water table also varied across the study area with values ranging from 8.5m at ChukwumaNwoha (VES 3) to 67.07m determined at Orie Uratta. The aquifer hydraulic head varied from the value of 7.84m recorded at shoprite egbu (VES 19) to 81.50m observed at ChukwumaNwoha. The hydraulic head map shows the drainage pattern of the groundwater from which the recharge zones were delineated. The flow direction is from areas of high hydraulic head to areas of low hydraulic head. Two recharge zones corresponding to high groundwater potential areas for siting standard wells were identified. The results of this study have obvious implications in planning and construction of proper surface drainage to reduce flooding in Owerri urban and environs.

Keywords: Groundwater, Drainage, Recharge zone, Hydraulic head, Resistivity.

I. INTRODUCTION

Water is one of the indispensable resources on earth which is essential for the sustainability of life. In Owerri North, water is required for drinking, irrigation, livestock watering and other uses. Rural areas mostly depend on surface water like rivers, streams, and in some cases, unprotected shallow dug wells which are vulnerable to contamination. These sources of water could run dry. Sometimes, there is enormous water borne diseases resulting from consumption of water from these sources.
Groundwater is a more reliable source of water than surface water [1], [2]. Groundwater is that part of precipitation that sips into the ground and percolate downwards through unconsolidated materials and openings in bedrock until it