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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue I, January 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Detecting Malaria Susceptibility in Patients Using Fingerprint Pattern

Mairiga, J.P.1*, Habibu, Tanimu2, Okon, E.1, Chukwu-Eze U.S.1
1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Nasarawa State University, Keffi. P.M.B. 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, School of Sciences, Jain, (Deemed to be University), Bangalore – 560 011, India
*Corresponding author
Received: 28 December 2022; Revised: 07 January 2023; Accepted: 09 January 2023; Published: 29 January 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

ABSTRACT:- In most malarious regions of the world, detection of the malaria parasite caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a primary concern due to inadequate or non-existence of appropriate health facilities. This study aimed to detect malaria susceptibility in patients using fingerprint patterns. Giemsa’s staining and live scan techniques were used for sample collection. A total of 165 individuals confirmed with different degrees of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were enrolled. The most extensive fingerprint pattern was the loops (51.36%), followed by the whorls (32.12%) and arches (16.36%). The level of parasitaemia was 140 (84.85%) one plus “+”, 20 (12.12%) two pluses“++” and 5(3.03%) three pluses “+++”. The age groups were 27.88% (18-22 years), 30.91% (23-27 years), 14.51% (28-32 years), 14.51% (33-37 years), 7.27% (38-42 years) and 4.81% (43-47 years) respectively. Our findings revealed a high degree of parasitaemia in patients with loop fingerprint pattern, both in gender and across age groups. Though the distribution of the fingerprint pattern against malaria susceptibility (X2 = 0.850, p> 0.932), gender (X2= 5.695, p> 0.058) and age group (X2 = 13.53, p> 0.195) were not significant, individuals with loop fingerprint pattern were more prone to malaria susceptibility. A paired sample t-test analysis of fingerprint patterns revealed significant differences in the age group of patients (p<0.002), malaria parasitaemia (p<.001) and gender (p<.001). This study however lays a foundation for further studies on the use of fingerprints in detecting susceptibility to infectious clinical diseases.

Keywords: Malaria parasite, susceptibility, fingerprint, patients, pattern

I. INTRODUCTION

Worldwide, the number of cases of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous species of the parasites, is on the rise (Murray et al., 2012., Mace et al., 2021, WHO, 2021a). Malaria continues to cause unacceptably high levels of disease and death, as documented in successive editions of the World malaria report (WHO, 2021b). According to the latest report, there were an estimated 241 million cases and 627 000 deaths globally in 2020 (WHO, 2022b) Over the past four decades, efforts to detect and control malaria have met with less and less appreciable success. The situation in many African nations is particularly dismal, exacerbated by a crumbling health infrastructure that has made the implementation of any disease detection and control program difficult (Stanley et al., 1991). This situation calls for urgent attention.
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced some years ago for the treatment of malaria particularly P. falciparum. The treatment has been found effective overtime, as it reduces the disease burden, transmission and prevention of deaths (Luiz et al., 2018; WHO, 2021; WHO Guideline, 2022b). However, the world Health organization recommends that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed using Parasite Based Diagnostic Testing before administering treatment (WHO, 2022a). This testing approach enables health providers to swiftly distinguish between malarial and non-malarial fevers and select the most appropriate treatment (WHO, 2004, 2017, 2018). It is noted however, that malaria presents a diagnostic challenge to laboratories in most countries especially third world. The urgency and importance of obtaining quick results from the examination of blood samples from patients with suspected acute malaria render some of the more sensitive methods for malaria diagnosis impractical for routine laboratory use (Anthony, 2002). The parasite based diagnostic testing requires the use of blood sample whose method of obtaining is invasive, and in the midst of lean health care facilities and resources, the method could be time consuming and error prone. The need therefore to uncover an uninvasive approach to the use of blood testing mechanism in detecting individual susceptibility to P. falciparum, is necessary.

In the third world countries with a high load of population, the simplicity of dermatoglyphic technique and its inexpensiveness warrants its continued use for evaluation as a diagnostic tool. When combined with other clinical and investigative features, dermatoglyphic study can serve to strengthen a diagnostic impression and can be advocated as useful screening device (Sharma et al., 2018). Like the various physical evidences used for identification such as DNA profiling, Lip marks, foot prints, and bite marks, finger prints are constant and individualistic (Edgar, 2021). Their designs are exclusive in each human and the chance of two individuals having identical fingerprint is an exceptional case (Mittal and Lala, 2013).