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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue II, February 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Effect of Black Soldier Fly Larva as a Meal on Proximate Composition and Carcass Quality of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Valentine Obinna Okpoko1,٭, Cordelia Ifeyinwa Ebenebe2, John Joseph Okeke3, Blessing Gambotei Utor1, Maduabuchi Inwele Amobi4, Chioma Helen Asolo3, Comfort Nneka Okoji1, Ebiye Adipere1
1*Department of Biology and Forensic Science, Admiralty University of Nigeria, Ibusa/Ogwashi-uku Express Way, Delta State, Nigeria.
2Department of Animal Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
3Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
4Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria
Received: 18 January 2023; Accepted: 09 February 2023; Published: 11 March 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract- The need to substitute the scarce and expensive fishmeal with a cheaper alternative has drawn attention to the use of insect protein in feeds due to their abundance and high nutritional value. In this regard the Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) stands out due to its dual ability of recycling organic waste materials into useful biomass for feed. This resulted in several studies that assessed the quality of carcass produced by livestock fed with the larva meal. However, very little studies have been carried out on the effect of this larva meal on the carcass quality of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Here, this study showed that the Black soldier fly larva meal can be used to replace fishmeal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus up to 75% to increase the quality of carcass. Four treatment diets of compounded fish feed were formulated to contain Black soldier fly larva meal replacing fishmeal at different inclusion rates of 0%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The values for condition factor recorded from each treatment were above 1, which imply that the fish were in good physiological state. The values of the hepatosomatic indices observed among the treatment diets indicate that feeding Black soldier fly larva meal to Clarias gariepinus had no negative impact on the liver functionality and no excessive hepatic accumulation of fat or carbohydrate as the values were within the normal range (1–2%). The fillet yield was significantly highest for fish fed 75% larva meal. Meanwhile, the productive potential carcass quality was also noticed to have increased with the increasing rate of larva meal inclusion up to 75%. Our results demonstrate that Black soldier fly larva meal can be used to replace fishmeal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus up to 75% to reduce cost of feeding without compromising the quality of carcass produced.
Keywords- black soldier fly larva meal, fishmeal, treatment diet, condition factor, hepatosomatic index, fillet yield, condition factor, productive potential carcass quality factor.

I. Introduction

The increasing gap between animal protein supply and growing world population has become a global concern [1]. Meanwhile, a major global shift in diets, characterized by increased consumption of animal products and increased demand for feed ingredients, is likely to continue in the near future, and the quest for alternative sustainable animal protein sources is expected to become a considerable issue in the feed market [2], [3], [4]. Insects have recently been identified as an important future source of sustainable raw materials for animal nutrition in many countries around the world. However, insect protein which is required to enhance animal production and supply [5] has for the most part been underutilized [6]. As part of the natural diet of some animal species, insect meets the animals’ nutritional needs and feed acceptance [7] which will help to mitigate the low acceptance of direct insect consumption [8] by improving animal production.

Several insects have been tested for animal feeds, with the most promising species being the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) [9], the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, TM) [10], and the common house fly (Musca domestica, MD) [11]. Previous researches have highlighted the possibility of including insect larva/prepupa meal in fish diets as partial or total replacement of conventional protein/fat sources (soybean and fish meals and oils), which are no longer considered sustainable [12], [4], [13].

Several studies have been conducted to determine the effect of insect meal on the carcass quality of fish. One of such studies carried out [14] found that inclusion of Black Soldier Fly Larvae Meal (BSFLM) did not adversely affect the carcass quality parameters of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). The study also found that the inclusion of BSFLM diets of Jian Carp at 100% BSF larvae meal to replace fishmeal led to a decrease in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in Jian carp carcasses thereby suggesting