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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume VI, Issue VII, July 2022 | ISSN 2454–6186

Effects of Functional-Notional Approach on Male and Female Students’ Achievement in English Grammar in Enugu Education Zone

Casmir N. Chime (M. Ed)1*, and Dr. Mary N. Onyia2
1Department of Language Studies, School of Arts and Social Sciences
Enugu State College of Education (Technical) Enugu
2Department of Curriculum Studies, School of Education
Enugu State College of Education (Technical) Enugu

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of Functional-Notional Approach (FNA) on male and female students’ achievement in English grammar in Enugu Education Zone. The researchers adopted a quasi-experimental research design. This study was carried out in secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone. The population of the study was four thousand and ninety (4,090) senior secondary school II (SS II) students in the 31 public secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State 2019/2020 academic session. The sample for the study comprised one hundred and thirty three (133) SS11 students in four intact classes which were drawn from four co-educational secondary schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to sample the size of the study. The instrument used was English Grammar Achievement Test (EGAT), it is a 50-item dichotomously scored instrument and it was validated. To determine the reliability of the instrument, a trial test was conducted with 30 SS11 students outside the area of the study, using Kuder-Richardson’s Formula (K – R 20), for EGAT a reliability coefficient of 0.78 was got showing that the instrument was reliable. The research questions were answered using mean scores and standard deviation, while the hypothesis was tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated that FNA had significant effect on male and female students’ achievement in English grammar. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the study provided empirical evidence of the efficacy of FNA in enhancing students’ achievement in English grammar. By implication, if teachers of English language adopt FNA and practice it in their various schools, students’ achievement in English grammar may improve. It was, therefore, recommended among others that English language teachers should adopt Functional-Notional Approach (FNA) as an alternative to the Conventional Teaching Method (CTM) in teaching English grammar.


In Nigeria, much emphasis is placed on the teaching and learning of the English language at the secondary school level because of its importance in the country. One of the important goals of education as contained in the National Policy on Education is to provide all secondary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic background, (FGN, 2014). It also notes that English language shall be studied as a subject in the secondary schools and be used as the medium of instruction. The English language is