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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue II, February 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Relationship of Anxiety with Adherence to Medication in People with Diabetes Mellitus

 Sri Andala1*, Nanda Fitria1, Novia Rizana1, Abdul Gani1, Muaamar Fikly Hasibuan1
1STIKes Muhammadiyah Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author
Received: 11 February 2023; Accepted: 22 February 2023; Published: 18 March 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract – Diabetes mellitus is a disease that requires long-term therapy and causes complications in various organs of the body. To accelerate healing requires high adherence to taking medications by patients with education, which is an important factor to prevent patient anxiety in taking medications regularly. This study aimed to determine patients’ anxiety about adherence to taking patients’ diabetes mellitus medication. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 107 patients with accidental diabetes mellitus. The results of the study found that the anxiety of people with diabetes mellitus was in the mild category of 46 respondents (43.0%) and adherence to taking medicines for people with diabetes mellitus was in the low category of 46 respondents (43.0%). The results of statistical tests showed that the p-value was = 0.000<0.05, there was a relationship between anxiety and adherence to taking medications in people with diabetes mellitus. It is hoped that the public health center will be able to provide education about medication adherence to prevent anxiety about the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Anxiety, Compliance, Diabetes Mellitus

I. Introduction

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease showed by an increase in blood glucose levels (blood sugar), which can cause severe damage to the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and nerves (Sari et al., 2022). The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts an increase in the number of people with diabetes mellitus from 8.4 million in 2000 to around 21.3 million by 2030. The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world, both in developed and developing countries, has resulted in diabetes mellitus becoming a global health problem in a society that must receive special attention to reduce its incidence rate (Nazriati et al., 2018).

Adherence to treatment refers to a patient’s willingness to follow treatment recommendations and to take regular medication therapy under the service provider’s recommendations. Noncompliance with diabetes mellitus treatment is still a significant issue in diabetes management. Some studies report that the compliance rate of people with type 1 diabetes mellitus ranges from 70 to 83%, while type 2 diabetes mellitus is around 64–78% (Bulu et al., 2019). The success of diabetes mellitus treatment depends on the patient’s adherence to taking medications (Sugawara & Nikaido, 2014).
Based on a statement by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), it is suspected that the number of people with diabetes mellitus between the ages of 20–79 years in several countries around the world has been identified. There are 10 countries with the highest number of diabetics, such as China, the United States, and India, which rank third highest according to the number of existing sufferers at around 116.4 million, ranging from 31 million to 77 million (IDF, 2021).
One of the health problems experienced by diabetes mellitus patients is stress and self-anxiety when undergoing some treatment and changes in lifestyle, and they should not consume some foods that they like. Changes in lifestyle cause people with diabetes mellitus to experience psychological reactions and anxiety (Siregar & Hidajat, 2017). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Indonesia at the age of 15 years increased from 1.5% in 2013 to 2% in 2018. However, the prevalence of diabetes according to the results of blood sugar tests increased from 6.9% in 2013 to 8.5% in 2018. In Aceh province, there were 121,160 people with diabetes mellitus in 2020, and 75,518 (or 62%) received standard services (RISKESDAS, 2018)

Diabetes mellitus can cause a wide variety of complications. In most patients, morphological changes are most likely to be encountered in the arteries (microvascular disease), basal membranes of fine vessels (microangiopathy), kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), retina (retinopathy), nerves (neuropathy), and other tissues (Basu et al., 2013). Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus often results in a vascular disease with a 75% mortality rate. Heart attack, kidney failure, stroke, vascular disorders, blindness, and gangrene are the main complications (Sari et al., 2022).

Research by Natalia P, et al. (2013) explained that 54.4% of respondents had good knowledge about the treatment of diabetes mellitus patients, 43.5% of respondents had a moderate knowledge of the treatment of diabetes mellitus patients, 84.6% of studies used obedient respondents in carrying out treatment, and as many as 15.4% did not comply in treatment.