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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) |Volume VI, Issue XI, November 2022|ISSN 2454-6186

Sociological Analysis of Parental Variables and Students’ Academic Performance in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State

 Hilary Ejim EGAN1*, Bisong Kenneth BISONG2, Michael Obi ODEY (Ph.D) 2, Ruth James UMARU3
1Department of Social Science Education, University Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
2Institute of Public Policy and Administration, University Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
3Department of Social Science Education, University of Jos
*Corresponding Author

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Abstract: This study determines the sociological analysis of parental variables and students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State. An ex-post-facto research design otherwise known as cause-and-effect research design was adopted for the study and 14 students selected as respondents from 10 secondary schools were to form a sample of 240 respondents. Researchers constructed a questionnaire titled Parental Variables and Students’ Academic Performance Questionnaire” (PVSAPQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by two experts, one from Educational Sociology and Administration and Planning with reliability coefficient of 0.86. The data collected were analyzed with mean to answer all research questions while the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test hypotheses at 0.05 significant with the aid of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.5. It was found that there is a strong positive association between parents’ level of education and students’ academic performance. The study recommended that media and government should play active roles in informing illiterate parents about the importance of education in today’s world. They should enrich the horizons of knowledge of ignorant parents through media orientation such as radio and television programmes and make them realize that education is as necessary for them as for their children.

Key Words: Sociological, Parental Variables, Academic Performance and Calabar Municipal


Sociologically, education is considered one of the best legacies a nation can bequeath to its future generation. This is because the development of any nation depends on the educational attainment of its citizenry and the quality of education of such a nation. Education does not only provide knowledge and skills but also inculcates values in students. It prepares individuals to be responsible citizens through life-long learning. Cultural heritage and values are transmitted from one generation to another through education (Muhammed, 2012). In any sane society, the first responsibility of any parent is to train the child in the best way as set by such a society. This is congruent with the common assertion by sociologists that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home and transmitted from generation to generation.