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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VII, Issue IX, September 2022|ISSN 2454-6194

Susceptibility and Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Obtained from Aqua-based Samples in Selected Local Government Areas, Zamfara State, Nigeria

Christopher E. Ezeamagu1, Cajethan O. Ezeamagu2*, Mande Garuba1 and Toyosi F. Osisami2
1Chemistry Department, Federal College of Education, Technical Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Babcock University, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author

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Abstract: Vibrio cholerae is causative agent of cholera and its impact has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality in health care institution and community settings globally. Studies have shown that two serotypes are associated with cholera outbreak globally, but an atypical strains with reduced resistance to antibiotics have been implicated in Nigeria. Hence, this study was designed to identify and determine the antibiogram of Vibrio cholerae obtained from water samples in Zamfara State with a view to help in antibiotic surveillance system. Thirty-eight (38) water samples comprising of well water, streams and rivers were randomly selected from nine Local Government Areas in Zamfara State; (Tsafe (3), Zurmi (2), Maradun (1), Talata Mafara (2), Gusau (3), Bungudu (13), Birnin Magaji/Kiyaw (1) and Shinkafi (12). Vibrio cholerae were isolated using TCBS agar by standard microbiological method. The sensitivity of the isolates was determined by disc diffusion method while the isolated was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using cholera toxin gene (ctxA) specific primers. A total of 15 isolates; well (1), rivers (11), streams (3), were obtained from 38 samples collected. The resistance profile of isolates showed that all isolates (100%) were resistant to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and ceftazidime. Also, 8%, 46% and 81% of the isolates were resistance to gentamicin, nitrofurantoin and amoxicillin/clavulanate respectively, but all the isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin with 88% susceptible to both gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Likewise, 54% of isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin while 19% were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate. The results obtained revealed presence of Vibrio cholerae in an environmental reservoir especially in river sources with high profile antibiotic resistance which could pose serious health risk to the community. Hence, antibiotic surveillance system in this region is advised.

Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, Characterization, PCR-specific primers, Vibrio cholerae, Water samples,


According to historical records, cholera originated in the Ganges Delta in India and spread over the world through seven succeeding pandemics that killed millions of people on all seven continents. The seventh pandemic began in South Asia in 1961 and spread to Africa in 1971 before reaching the Americas in 1991, with Africa suffering a disproportionately large share of the disease burden worldwide. Within 40 years, 3,221,050 probable cholera cases from African nations were reported to the World Health Organization, accounting for