Bio-Sorption Properties Of Cedrus libani (Elizabeth leaf) On Methylene Blue Dye, Bismarck Brown Y Dye And Indigo Dye By The Batch Process.

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VII, Issue I, January 2022 | ISSN 2454–6194

Bio-Sorption Properties Of Cedrus libani (Elizabeth leaf) On Methylene Blue Dye, Bismarck Brown Y Dye And Indigo Dye By The Batch Process.

1Idika, D .I; 2Ndukwe N .A; 3 Ogukwe C .E
1Department of Basic Sciences, Chemistry Unit, Babcock University Ilesan, Remo. Ogun state, Nigeria.
2 Department of chemical sciences, Mountain Top University, Magoki, Ogun State, Nigeria.
3Department of Industrial chemistry, Federal University Of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri Imo state, Nigeria.

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ABSTRACT
The adsorption properties of methylene blue dye, Bismarck brown Y dye, and Indigo dye on Cedrus libani (Elizabeth leaf) was investigated as a function of contact time, initial dye concentration, biomass dose, pH, dissolved salts, biomass particle size and temperature.
This work is aimed at expanding the field of application of natural biomass for the treatment of dye waste effluents.
The biomass was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) before and after adsorption in order to determine the functional groups responsible for the adsorption.
In all the analyses, three experiments were conducted and mean values reported.
The amount of the dye adsorbed per unit mass of the biomass (qe) was calculated and found to be dependent on all the variables investigated. Optimal pH of 2 was determined for the adsorption of Bismarck brown Y dye and Indigo dye, while a pH of 4was determined as the optimal pH for the methylene blue dye. Indigo dye was found to be the least adsorbed while Methylene blue dye was the most adsorbed within the same experimental considerations.

Keywords: bio-sorption, Cedrus libani, sem, adsorbent, batch process.

I .INTRODUCTION

Bio sorption which involves the sequestering of organic, and inorganic species including dyes, metals, and other odor causing substances using live or dead adsorbents can be achieved through the batch process. In recent times, this has also been achieved through the fixed bed process.
Synthetic dyes which include a wide range of aromatic water soluble dispersible organic colorants are used extensively in textile, ink, and paint industries. Effluents containing synthetic dyes do not produce visual pollution only, but also are hazardous to ecological system and public health [ 1 ] .
Conventional treatment of dye containing effluents are either ineffective, costly, complicated or have sludge disposal problems [ 2 ] . Thus, there is a need for a continuous search for a cheaper and environmentally friendly methods for the treatment of such effluents. Thus, many low cost adsorbents including natural adsorbents, and waste materials from industries and agriculture have been proposed by several workers [ 3 .] As expected, these materials do not require any expensive additional pretreatment step, and so could be used as adsorbents for the removal of dyes from dye waste waters.
Some researchers reported the use of plant leaf biomass to adsorb heavy metals, dyes etc. from solutions [ 4 .] . In the spirit of the search for an environmentally friendly and cost effective biomass, this work investigated the adsorption of Methylene blue dye, Bismarck brown y dye and Indigo dye unto Cedrus libani, (Elizabeth leaf) by the batch process.

II . EXPERIMENTALS

Material Preparations
The Cedrus libani used in this work was obtained from Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria which lies within the following coordinates 6.6194°N and 3.5105°E. The sample was identified at the department of crop science at the Federal university of technology, Owerri, Nigeria with the voucher specimen number of FUT/CR/12/15 by Dr Ikenna Chukwu. The biomass was washed severally with distilled water to remove any dirt from it. The washed biomass was air dried for ten days until constant weight was obtained. The biomass was grinded with a new sonic domestic blender to avoid any form of contamination. It was screened using 600-850 micron size sieves and were stored in air tight containers ready for adsorption measurement.

REAGENTS USED IN THE INVESTIGATIONS

The reagents used include the following: Methylene blue dye, Bismarck brown Y dye, Indigo dye, analytical grade sodium hydroxide pellets, concentrated hydrochloric acid, distilled water, sodium chloride, calcium chloride etc. All these were obtained from qualikem laboratories, Owerri Nigeria.

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BIO SORBENT

The surface structure, and morphology of Cedrus libani was characterized at 1000 X magnification, 500 X magnification and 250 X magnification respectively for their surface morphologies using a scanning electron microscope (SU9000 Model) (FEI- Inspect/oxford instruments-X-max) which was equipped with an energy dispersive X ray (EDAX) spectrophotometer employed for the elemental composition analyses.
The biomass sample was further characterized for their fundamental functional groups before and after adsorption experiment using Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR- IRSpirit Shimadzu model) (Perkin Elmer, England) in the wave length range of 350-400 nm using KBr powder and Fluke library for data interpretation.