Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: The Resolving Cruces in neonatology

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VII, Issue IV, April 2020 | ISSN 2321–2705

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: The Resolving Cruces in neonatology

Asha G1, Dr. Linu Mohan P2, Lubana K V3, Fathimath Shahban4
1,3,4Student, 2Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Kizhattur, Malappuram, Kerala, India

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic respiratory disease of the preterm neonate which is typically causing extensive physiologic changes and results in improper lower respiratory tract development. It is one of the most common adverse neonatal outcomes due to prematurity. It has been approximately 40 years of discovery of this chronic disease of the newborns that affects their overall quality of life even in adulthood. Yet, its remains an invincible challenge in the preterm neonatal care victimizing about 1/4th of the preterm extremely low birth weight babies. This review aims at providing knowledge on the currently known definition, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, complications and various clinical interventions used for Bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Keywords: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, prematurity, respiratory tract, respiratory development, preterm neonates, lung injury.

I. INTRODUCTION

Any baby born before 37 weeks of gestational age is considered preterm. Babies born at gestational age greater than 34 weeks are considered late preterms(LPTs), who are more stabilized in their cardiovascular-respiratory health status. Babies born between 28-32 weeks are categorized as very preterms (VPTs) and babies born less than 28 weeks gestational age are grouped as extremely preterms(EPTs). Preterm birth is associated with several acute and chronic clinical problems; the most commonly affected categories are the EPTs [1]-[5], [7]-[9]. One of the major clinical complications associated with prematurity is respiratory insufficiency due to underdeveloped or incomplete maturation of the respiratory system and the lungs. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is an abnormal lung developmental pattern culminating in permanent alveolar tissue damage and reduced pulmonary functions. It’s highly correlated with the prematurity where the development of lungs is still in progress. BPD is a devastating disease in neonates, especially the preterm neonates, as they tend to cause long term clinical and pathological effects in the patients causing a deliberate reduction in the quality of life of the affected. It is thus a major cause of concern clinically, socio-economically and globally [10].