Cancer Radiotherapy Based on Attenuation Coefficient

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VI, Issue XII, December 2021 | ISSN 2454–6194

Cancer Radiotherapy Based on Attenuation Coefficient

Bibek Koirala1,3, Saddam Husain Dhobi1,2,3, Kishori Yadav1,3, Jeevan Joyti Nakarmi1,3, Khem Poudyal4,
1Department of Physics, Patan Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Lalitpur-44700, Nepal
2Robotics Academy of Nepal, Lalitpur-44700, Nepal
3Innovative Ghar Nepal, Lalitpur-44700
4Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuvan University, Lalitpur-44700, Nepal
Corresponding

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Abstract: The objective of this work is to select the best chemo-material based on the attenuation coefficient. WinXcom software is used to study the attenuation coefficient of tissue, bone, gold, copper oxygen, water, and mixture. The mixture contains 0.5 fractional weight of gold, 0.3 fractional weight of copper, and 0.2 fractional weight of oxygen. The attenuation coefficient determines the loss of radiation when entering into the medium and loss determines the penetration depth of radiation and damage of materials. The amount of radiation loss when the radiation passes through samples gives the information to select the best chemotherapy materials. Because loss of radiation may be due to absorption, scattering ad emission of electrons from the target. In this work, we consider loss due to the emission of the electron because emitted electrons are used to kill the tumor cell. In this work, the mixture of gold, copper, and oxygen sample has a medium attenuation coefficient that means the emitted electron has the best preformation to kill the cancer cell. This is because the emitted electron has not had enough energy to reach healthy tissue and bone. Therefore, both healthy tissue and bone become safer when the mixture sample is used as a chemo-material instead of a single element. If a single element (Au, Cu, and O) is used as chemo-material for cancer therapy, the energy of electron emitted by Au is greater and it may affect the tissue and bone while the energy emitted from Cu and O has less energy and can’t kill the larger amount of cancer cell. Therefore, if the mixture of chemo-material of gold, copper, and oxygen is better and safer than the individual element to load the tumor for radiotherapy.

Keywords: Attenuation coefficient, tissue, bone, gold, tumor cell, penetration, etc.

I. INTRODUCTION

A cell is the basic building block of all living things and normally grows and divides (multiply) to replace old cells. A cell becomes cancerous when it grows quickly and uncontrollably. Malignant tumors are cancer, can spread to other tissues and organs near the tumor. Literature shows all ages people get cancer but older than 55year is more common. The time from first cell change to time cancer is detected is the latency period. The chemical that causes cancer are benzene, beryllium, asbestos, vinyl chloride, and arsenic are known human carcinogens. Chloroform, DDT, formaldehyde, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are examples of possible human carcinogens [1].