Cannabis sativa: Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Plant Tissue Culture for Micropropagation

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Cannabis sativa: Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Plant Tissue Culture for Micropropagation

Ravindra B. Malabadi1*, Nethravathi TL2, Kiran P. Kolkar3, Raju K. Chalannavar1, Bhagyavana S. Mudigoudra4, Lavanya L5, Gholamreza Abdi6, Himansu Baijnath7
1Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India
2Department of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML), SJC Institute of Technology, Chikkaballapur-5621010, Karnataka state, India
3Department of Botany, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad-580003, Karnataka State, India
4Department of Computer Science, Maharani Cluster University, Bangalore- 560 001, Karnataka state, India
5Department of Biochemistry, REVA University, Bangalore -560064, Karnataka State, India
6Department of Biotechnology, Persian Gulf Research Institute, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 75169, Iran
7Ward Herbarium, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
*Corresponding author:
Received: 17 June 2023; Accepted: 24 June 2023; Published: 12 July 2023

Abstract: – This review paper highlights about the important applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in vitro micropropagation of Cannabis. Cannabis micropropagation has largely been an underground effort with few peer reviewed studies. This lack of insight concerning in vitro cannabis techniques has limited the biotechnological utility of Cannabis crop. This is mainly due to the fact that Cannabis found to be recalcitrant under in vitro conditions, restrictions, long legacy of prohibition and stigmatization surrounding this Indian origin medicinal plant. Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) are two of the most exciting technological areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Data is a power today, and artificial intelligence (AI) can help Cannabis businesses to gather and analyze data in a wide variety of ways. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has enhanced Cannabis crop production and improved real-time monitoring, harvesting, processing and marketing. These technologies saves the excess use of water, pesticides, herbicides, maintains the fertility of the soil, and also helps in the efficient use of man power and elevated the productivity and improved the quality of Cannabis products. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are widely used in science and technology, and have been successfully applied in Cannabis plant tissue cultures. Furthermore, Artificial neural networks (ANNs) can also simulate the growth of plants under different in vitro conditions. However, very few and limited in vitro regeneration protocols have been developed in Cannabis and existing protocols highlights only organogenesis. Therefore, there is a golden opportunity for the development of new in vitro regeneration protocols particularly induction of somatic embryogenesis, cryopreservation, protoplast isolation and culture, genetic transformation, production of synthetic seeds, and anther culture for the production of haploids in Cannabis.

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Key Words: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Cannabis, Plant Tissue Culture, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC), Machine Learning, Psychoactive molecule.

I. Introduction

Cannabis sativa L. is a wind-pollinated, dioecious medicinal plant (i.e., the male and female reproductive structures are on separate plants), although monoecious plants (male and female flowers on same plant) can occur in some population (1-15). Male plants die shortly after flowering. The female plants live 3 to 5 weeks until seed is fully riped (1-17). Therefore, the plants are obligatory out-crossers. In commercial production, medical Cannabis (drug or marijuana type) plants are all genetically female and male plants are destroyed as seed formation reduces flower quality (1-20). Additionally, the species Cannabis sativa L. and Cannabis indica are a potential source of fibre, food, oil, and protein. However, cannabis research work remains years behind than other crops because of the long legacy of prohibition and stigmatization. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide and the active constituents of the product were described several decades ago (1-20). The legal status of Cannabis is changing, fuelling an increasing diversity of Cannabis derived products (1-15). New laws leading to decriminalization and legalization have given rise to a global, multibillion dollar industry that is projected to continue to grow (1-20).