Cannabis sativa: Botany, Cross Pollination and Plant Breeding Problems

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue IV, April 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Cannabis sativa: Botany, Cross Pollination and Plant Breeding Problems

1Ravindra B. Malabadi*, 2Kiran P. Kolkar, 1Raju K. Chalannavar, 3Lavanya L, 4Gholamreza Abdi
1Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India
2Department of Botany, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad-580003, Karnataka State, India
3Department of Biochemistry, REVA University, Bangalore -560064, Karnataka state, India
4Department of Biotechnology, Persian Gulf Research Institute, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516, Iran
*Corresponding author
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2023.8419

IJRISS Call for paper

Received: 26 March 2023; Accepted: 08 April 2023; Published: 05 May 2023

Abstract: This review paper highlights about the Cannabis botany, problems of cross pollination, lack of Germplasm collection and absence of Genebank facilities have been discussed. Cannabis is a dioecious species, meaning that male and female flowers are borne on separate plants. The risk of cross-pollination in Cannabis is one of the unique major challenge in Cannabis industry. More research can be conducted to assess the risk of cross-pollination in Cannabis and policy should be created to mitigate that risk. Cannabis research work remains years behind than other crops because of the long legacy of prohibition and stigmatization. However, lack of public germplasm repositories remains an unresolved problem in the Cannabis industry. Therefore, accessible germplasm resources are crucial for long-term economic viability, preserving genetic diversity, breeding, innovation, and long-term sustainability of the Cannabis crop. Germplasm accessions are the building blocks for breeding of new cultivars. However, there are no public seed or Clonal gene banks for Medical Cannabis sativa (marijuana or drug type). On the other hand there are some public hemp collections. Despite its economic, medicinal, and societal importance, Medical Cannabis sativa (marijuana or drug type) is missing from the list of available species in public Genebanks and only exist as private collections. Most of the Cannabis varieties in the market today are hybrids (700 hybrid strains) with both Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica genetics. Hence there should be a public Cannabis Genebanks to play a fuller and more effective role in conservation, sustainable use, and exchange of Cannabis genetic resources.

Key words: Ayurveda, AYUSH, Cannabis, Charas, Cross pollination, Desi Vijaya, Ganja, Genebanks, Himalayan Hemp, India, Iran, Industrial Cannabis sativa (Hemp) (Fiber or grain type), Medical Cannabis sativa (marijuana or drug type).

I. Introduction

Cannabis sativa belongs to Cannabiaceae as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran, Persians (1-20). Cannabis has been used for thousands of years for recreational, medicinal, or religious purposes (1-35). Cannabis has a long history in India, recorded in legends and religion (1-25). The earliest mention of Cannabis has been found in The Vedas