Cannabis sativa: Release of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Affecting Air Quality

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Cannabis sativa: Release of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Affecting Air Quality

1, *Ravindra B. Malabadi, 2Kiran P. Kolkar, 1Raju K. Chalannavar, 3Moumita Mondal, 4Lavanya L, 5Gholamreza Abdi, 6Himansu Baijnath
1Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India
2Department of Botany, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad-580003, Karnataka State, India
3Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Major Arterial Road, AA II, Newtown, Kolkata- 700135, West Bengal, India
4Department of Biochemistry, REVA University, Bangalore -560064, Karnataka State, India
5Department of Biotechnology, Persian Gulf Research Institute, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 75169, Iran
6Ward Herbarium, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa.
*Corresponding author:
Received: 10 April 2023; Accepted: 26 April 2023; Published: 27 May 2023

Abstract: – This review paper highlights about the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Cannabis plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a large group of chemicals harmful to human health that are readily released into the atmosphere and participate in atmospheric photochemical reactions. Floral Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often involved in defence and pollinator attraction. Cannabis cultivation and consumption may lead to additional environmental impacts. Studies found out that Cannabis plants emit a significant amount of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) which could cause indoor air quality issues. Indoor Cannabis cultivation is energy-consuming, mainly due to heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and lighting. Energy consumption leads to greenhouse gas emissions. Common compounds to all the tested hemp cultivars include β-myrcene, ϒ-caryophyllene, α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene, reflecting species specificity in the emission of these compounds. β-Myrcene was the most abundant compound in most of the outside hemp cultivars. The terpenes had an earthy musky, and fruity smell may contribute to the odour in Cannabis samples at the vegetative stage, flowering stage, and drying/curing stage. All hemp cultivars are the prolific emitters of terpenoids. The oxidation of highly reactive Biogenic Volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from Cannabis plants can lead to the formation of ozone and secondary Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g., formaldehyde and acrolein). In hemp production, considerable odorous emissions occur during field retting. However, more research is needed to address how outdoor air quality is influenced by Cannabis cultivation facilities (CCFs) emissions.

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Key Words: Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs emission, Cannabis cultivation, Carbon footprint, Hemp, Terpens, VOCs emission.

I. Introduction

Cannabis sativa L., belongs to Cannabiaceae family is one of the oldest medicinal plant was found as wild noxious weed particularly in Indian Himalayan Region and other Asian countries, China, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Iran, the Persians (1-9, 89-90). Cannabis is known for the accumulation of secondary metabolites, the phytocannabinoids as a part of its own defensive mechanism (1-21). Cannabis spp. are native to the Indian sub-continent and required warm temperatures and high light intensity to achieve good yields (1-25). Humans have a long history with Cannabis sativa, with evidence of cultivation dating back as far as 10,000 years (12, 82). The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that Cannabis is the most widely cultivated, trafficked and abused illicit drug, and it constitutes over half of worldwide drug seizures (1-12). Medical research on Cannabis has primarily focused on isolated THC (Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol), and CBD (Cannabidiol) but there are hundreds of other chemical constituents in Cannabis, including Cannabinoids and terpenes (1-21). Phytocannabinoids are naturally occurring Cannabinoids found in the Cannabis plant (1-21, 89-94).