Combined Effect of Doses of Fertilizer and Different Densities on Agronomic Parameters of Rice (Oryza sativa (L.)) Adapted in Humid Area in The Valley of Benoué, Cameroon

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue IV, April 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Combined Effect of Doses of Fertilizer and Different Densities on Agronomic Parameters of Rice (Oryza sativa (L.)) Adapted in Humid Area in The Valley of Benoué, Cameroon

Philémon Kaouvon1*; Dikko Haicha1; Bertrand Wang-Bara1; Cyrille Woulbo Biyack2; Yvonne Djeoufo3
1Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) Garoua, Cameroon.
2Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) Wakwa, Cameroon
3Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) Maroua, Cameroon
*Corresponding authors
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2023.8410
Received: 15 March 2023; Revised: 29 March 2023; Accepted: 03 April 2023; Published: 01 May 2023

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Abstract: The study was conducted on July 2021, at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD). The main objective of the study was to determine the dose of mineral fertilizers and densities which respond well to the rice culture, variety Nerica L36 in a humid area of the valley of Benoué. Fertilizers doses were: T1 (0 kg NPKSB+100 Kg Urea/ha); T2 (150 kg NPKSB+100 Kg Urea/ha); T3 (200 kg NPKSB+100 Kg Urea/ha; T4 (250 kg NPKSB+100 Kg Urea/ha). Three densities were considered: De1= 20 cm x 20 cm; De2= 25cm x 25cm; De3= 30 cm x 30 cm. The experimental design was a split-plot, with two factors in three replications: Factor 1 concerning fertilizers doses and Factor 2 relating to densities. Evaluation parameters were: the height of plant, the number of tillers, the number of panicle/plants, length of panicles, heading date at 80 % and maturity date. Harvest data collected were: the number of grains/panicles, weight of 1000 grains, potential yields. The results showed that the effect of different amounts especially doses 2, 3 and 4 were highly significant (P≤0.05) in influencing the height of plant, number of tillers, number of panicles/plants, length of panicles for all densities. These densities were considered suitable for growing aspect of rice. On the other hand, the densities 1 and 2 were suitable for the element of heading date at 80 % for the doses 1 and 2, maturity date with dose 1. However, yield aspects were most significant (P≤0.05) with the dose 2, 3 and 4 on a number of grains/panicles and potential yield especially, which permit us to deduce that densities 1, 2 and 3 were suitable for these yield parameters.

Keywords: Plant density, Rice, Doses, Mineral fertilizers, Yields.

I. Introduction

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture represents the first cereal for human food in the world and for around half of world’s population (Courtois, 2007). The asiatic country remains dominant in the economy of Rice, with 90 % in terms of surfaces and production (Mendez, 2008). Countries that are more included are China, India and Indonesia which represent more than half of the world’s production. Latin America and Africa represent 10 % of the output (Mendez, 2008).
In Africa, Rice culture is the third source of calories for the country (Adrao, 2009). The actual problem in that Africa is confronted is that local production does not never equal the demand (Harold and Tabo, 2015). However, the show estimated at 330.000 tons, is essentially lower than the market, whose requirement is calculated be more than 600.000 tons. To satisfy this deficiency, Cameroon should refer to the importations. Rice takes the first place in the order of five principal food products of high consummation concerned by importation in Cameroon. Importations varied from 552.472 tons in 2000 for the value to 156.6 thousand billion of FCFA to 819.841 tons, equivalent of 212.6 thousand billion of FCFA in 2013, after decreasing from 728.443 tons for the importance of 183.7 thousand billion milliards in 2017. Importation price has increased from 7.9 % (INS, 2017).