Combined Effect Of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts Of Carica Papaya And Newbouldia Laevis On Hematological Parameters And Sperm Qaulity Of Alloxan-Induced Rats.

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume IX, Issue III, March 2022 | ISSN 2321–2705

Combined Effect Of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts Of Carica Papaya And Newbouldia Laevis On Hematological Parameters And Sperm Qaulity Of Alloxan-Induced Rats.

Ifegwu Njoku Oji1, Agbai Johnson Ukwa2, Njoku-Oji Njideka Nancy3, Elem Chambelin Jamike4, Aligwekwe Athanasius Ugochukwu5, Ohaeri Esther Adaukwu6.
1,2,4 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.
3. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
5. Department of Anatomy, Madonna University, Elele Campus, Nigeria.
6. Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

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Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on hematological parameters and sperm quality of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Methodology: Forty male rats weighing 130-180g were procured, acclimatized for two weeks, after which, were divided into eight groups of five rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A – H. Group A served as the control group and received distilled water only. Groups B – H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. Group B did not receive any treatment, while the groups C – H received 400mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 600mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 400mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 600mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis, and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract respectively for 21 days orally with oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation and blood samples were collected through ocular puncture for hematological analyses, and epididymis were collected for sperm quality study. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Result: The levels of WBC, RBC, HGB, PCV, sperm motility and sperm count were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in group B (48.0 ± 2.25) (28.0 ± 2.25) (24.0 ± 1.87) and (50.86 ± 3.18), and D (44.0 ± 3.39) (30.0 ± 2.92) (26.0 ± 2.0) and (42.44 ± 2.17) (for sperm motility and count) when compared to group A (71.0 ± 2.25) (15.0 ± 1.58) (14.0 ± 1.87) and (68.74 ± 2.30), and significantly (P<0.05) increased in groups F (89.0 ± 1.0) (6.0 ± 1.0) (5.0 ± 0.01) and (82.74 ± 3.19), G (91.0 ± 3.30) (5.0 ± 2.81) (4.0 ± 1.8) and (88.78 ± 2.50), and H (88.0 ± 1.60) (7.0 ± 0.80) (5.0 ± 0.01) and (80.92 ± 0.26) ( for sperm motility and count), groups D, F, G and H (for WBC, HGB, PCV) and groups DEFGH (for RBC) when compared to the control group A. However, there was no significant difference on the levels of WBC, RBC, HGB, and PCV, sperm motility and sperm count for groups C and E when compared with the control group A. Conclusion: C. papaya and N. laevis leaf extracts have ameliorating effects on diabetes and increased serum levels of hematological parameters and sperm quality. The ameliorating effects of the combined doses to the diabetic rats were better at lower dosages than when the individual leaf extracts were administered.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Newbouldia laevis, hematological parameters, sperm quality


Diabetes can be defined as a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves [1]. According to WHO [1] about 422 million people worldwide have diabetes, with majority of them living in low-and middle-income countries; and with 1.5 million deaths are directly attributed to it each year. Both the number of cases and the prevalence of diabetes have been steadily increasing over the past few decades [1]. Its symptoms include excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue [2]. Hyperglycaemia or raised blood sugar is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels [2].

Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with multiple disorders including metabolic, cellular, and blood disturbances leading to vascular complications [3]. The underlying biochemical and hematological changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients may lead to the development of long-term complications and poor quality of life or death [4]. Hematological changes in diabetes may be caused by several factors including increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a result of the long-term hyperglycemia. Increased production of ROS resulting in oxidative stress, which is implicated in tissue damage and hematological changes such as (red blood cell) RBC dysfunction, platelets (PLT) hyperactivity, and endothelial dysfunction [5,6]. These hematological changes may lead to complications such as anemia, and a state of hypercoagulability, and contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetic patients [7]. Karaman et al, [8] disclosed that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a part of the metabolic syndrome that comprises dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and changes in hematological parameters. While Antwi-Baffour et al, [9] opined that hematological changes encountered in T2DM patients include changes in the function, structure, and metabolism of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), platelet (PLT) and the coagulation systems. Waggiallah and Alzohairy, [10] stated that these changes may manifest as immunological and coagulation problems, and anemia characterized by a decrease in the RBC count, hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) level as compared to non-diabetic individuals. Anemia which is a common hematological change in patients with T2DM is often unrecognized, and the estimates of its prevalence vary widely [11.12, 13].